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Sample records for clavulanic acid

  1. Overproduction of clavulanic acid by extractive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Costa,Cecília Ladeira; Colli Badino,Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Clavulanic acid is an important beta-lactamase inhibitor produced as a secondary metabolite by the actinomycete Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is chemically unstable; therefore, it is degraded during bacterial cultivation. In this work, the adsorbents clinoptilolite, activated carbon, calcined hydrotalcite, and Amberlite IRA 400 anionic exchange resin were studied in terms of their ability to adsorb clavulanic acid during extractive fermentation, in order to prevent pro...

  2. Clavulanic acid biosynthesis and genetic manipulation for its overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju Yeon; Jensen, Susan E; Lee, Kye Joon

    2010-10-01

    Clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, is used together with β-lactam antibiotics to create drug mixtures possessing potent antimicrobial activity. In view of the clinical and industrial importance of clavulanic acid, identification of the clavulanic acid biosynthetic pathway and the associated gene cluster(s) in the main producer species, Streptomyces clavuligerus, has been an intriguing research question. Clavulanic acid biosynthesis was revealed to involve an interesting mechanism common to all of the clavam metabolites produced by the organism, but different from that of other β-lactam compounds. Gene clusters involved in clavulanic acid biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus occupy large regions of nucleotide sequence in three loci of its genome. In this review, clavulanic acid biosynthesis and the associated gene clusters are discussed, and clavulanic acid improvement through genetic manipulation is explained.

  3. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, P C; Jones, R N; Barry, A L; Thornsberry, C

    1984-01-01

    Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of ticarcillin plus the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid was performed on 489 clinical isolates, and the results were compared with reference broth microdilution susceptibilities. Four different disks containing 75 micrograms of ticarcillin plus 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 micrograms of clavulanic acid were evaluated. Based on test performance and clavulanic acid stability, the 75-10-micrograms disk is recommended. Interpretive criteria for ticarcillin as published by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards appear to be satisfactory for the combination drug, but because the number of ticarcillin-clavulanic acid-resistant isolates was small, this proposal must be considered only tentative. PMID:6715524

  4. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Roomi, L G; Sutton, A M; Cockburn, F; McAllister, T A

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid in the treatment of 32 children with urinary tract infection were studied. Twenty one (80%) of 26 children with proved urinary tract infection showed a favourable clinical and bacteriological response. Fifteen of these children had amoxycillin resistant organisms and were treated successfully. In 20 children the serum and urine concentrations of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid were measured after the first oral dose. PMID:6712275

  5. Kounis syndrome associated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kounis syndrome (KS is a life-threatening medical condition that causes severes allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We describe the case of 56-year-old woman who developed ACS following an anaphylactic reaction to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Immediately after the administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, she presented a chest pain, cutaneous allergic, hypotension, and ST depression on the electrocardiogram. After the necessary diagnostic test, the final diagnosis was variant I of KS.

  6. Overproduction of Clavulanic Acid by UV Mutagenesis of Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Darkhal, Parisa; Hojati, Zohreh; Abedi, Daryoush; Hamedi, Javad; Pourhosein, Meraj

    2010-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is produced industrially by fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus and researches have increased its production by strain improvement, recombinant DNA technology, and media composition and growth condition optimization. The main objective of this study was to increase the level of clavulanic acid production from Streptomyces clavuligerus (DSM 738), using UV irradiation. After incubation, the spores and aerial mycelia were scraped off the agar plate by a sterile loop. After passing through a cotton wool, the serially diluted spore suspension was spread on GYM- agar containing caffeine. The plates were irradiated with UV light, wrapped in aluminum foil and incubated. The colonies were sub-cultured again to express the mutations. An aliquot of the spore suspension prepared from the resulted culture was poured in GYM agar plates and incubated. The plates were overlaid with nutrient-agar containing penicillin G and Klebsiela pneumoniae, and incubated. The inhibition zone diameter was measured and compared with the wild type colony. Repeating this procedure, the overproducer mutants were selected. Concentration of clavulanic acid was determined by HPLC analysis. It was concluded that secondary metabolites, mainly antibiotics containing clavulanic acid, were produced about 6–7 days after the growth, and concentration of clavulanic acid was increased up to two-folds after UV mutagenesis. PMID:24363725

  7. Positive direct antiglobulin tests due to clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M E; Thomas, D; Harman, C P; Mintz, P D; Donowitz, G R

    1985-01-01

    Clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, was found to be associated with the development of a positive direct antiglobulin test. Of 23 antibiotic courses in patients treated with ticarcillin, clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, 10 (43.5%) developed positive direct antiglobulin tests versus 2 of 26 (7.7%) patients treated with piperacillin and tobramycin (P = 0.0044). In vitro immunohematological studies showed that clavulanic acid caused a nonimmunologic adsorption of plasma proteins onto the erythrocyte surface. Hemolysis was not associated with such nonimmunologic adsorption. However, the resulting positive antiglobulin test might delay cross matching of blood products for transfusions or interfere with the evaluation of true immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. PMID:3872623

  8. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP+-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells☆

    OpenAIRE

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which mimics Park...

  9. Biosynthetic studies on clavulanic acid: its biopathway and stereochemical course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    A degradative analysis allowed determination of the stereochemistry at C-9 of clavulanic acid produced by Streptomyces clavuigerus. An over-all inversion of configuration from the C/sub 5/-unit precursor ornithine was observed. The diastereomeric (1R,2R)- and (1S,2R)-(1-/sup 3/H)-glycerols were separately synthesized and administered. Complementary results demonstrated an overall retention of configuration paralleling cysteine incorporation in the biosynthesis of penicillin. 3-Hydroxyornithine, a potential precursor to clavulanic acid, was prepared by a 1,3-dipolar addition of a nitrone and vinylglycine. However, 3-hydroxyornithine was not taken up by the organism and this possible intermediate could not be shown to be a specific precursor to clavulanic acid. (2-/sup 3/H)-L-Ornithine displays a preferential incorporation relative to D-ornithine. An epimerization by a one-base mechanism is suggested by the retention of half the tritium activity. ..beta..-Alanine, a potential precursor of the ..beta..-lactam segment was examined and shown not to play a direct role in the biosynthesis. Further, 3-hydroxypropionyl-ornithine, a parallel amide to the tripeptide intermediate in penicillin biosynthesis, was not incorporated into clavulanic acid. The role of 3-hydroxypropionate and glycerol were examined in both starch and triglyceride fermentation media.

  10. Coordination of glycerol utilization and clavulanic acid biosynthesis to improve clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dekun; Zhao, Youbao; Yang, Keqian

    2013-07-01

    The glycerol utilization (gyl) operon is involved in clavulanic acid (CA) production by Streptomyces clavuligerus, and possibly supplies the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) precursor for CA biosynthesis. The gyl operon is regulated by GylR and is induced by glycerol. To enhance CA production in S. clavuligerus, an extra copy of ccaR expressed from Pgyl (the gyl promoter) was integrated into the chromosome of S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585. This construct coordinated the transcription of CA biosynthetic pathway genes with expression of the gyl operon. In the transformants carrying the Pgyl-controlled regulatory gene ccaR, CA production was enhanced 3.19-fold in glycerol-enriched batch cultures, relative to the control strain carrying an extra copy of ccaR controlled by its own promoter (PccaR). Consistent with enhanced CA production, the transcription levels of ccaR, ceas2 and claR were significantly up-regulated in the transformants containing Pgyl-controlled ccaR.

  11. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP+-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B.

    2013-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which mimics Parkinson’s disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival. PMID:22750587

  12. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP⁺-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2012-08-21

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) which mimics Parkinson's disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival.

  13. Utilization of ornithine and arginine as specific precursors of clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J; Liras, P; Martín, J F

    1986-01-01

    Ornithine and arginine (5 to 20 mM), but not glutamic acid or proline, exerted a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on the biosynthesis of clavulanic acid in both resting-cell cultures and long-term fermentations of Streptomyces clavuligerus. Ornithine strongly inhibited cephamycin biosynthesis in the same strain. [1-14C]-, [5-14C]-, or [U-14 C] ornithine was efficiently incorporated into clavulanic acid, whereas the incorporation of uniformly labeled glutamic acid was very poor. [U-14C] citrulline were not incorporated at all. Mutant nca-1, a strain that is blocked in clavulanic acid biosynthesis, did not incorporate arginine into clavulanic acid. S. clavuligerus showed arginase activity, converting arginine into ornithine, but not amidinotransferase activity. Both arginase activity and clavulanic acid formation were enhanced simultaneously by supplementing the production medium with 10 mM arginine. PMID:2877616

  14. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus vulgaris: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Adone; Russo, Teresa; Faccenda, Franco; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced pemphigus is a well-established variety of pemphigus, presenting with clinical and histopathologic features identical to idiopathic form. Medical history plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of drug-induced pemphigus. A large variety of drugs have been implicated in its pathogenesis and they may induce acantholysis via biochemical and/or immune mechanism. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman affected by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus and discuss its pathogenetic mechanism.

  15. Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2011-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detailed mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To further examine its potential as a CNS modulating agent as well as its mechanism of action, we investigated the effects of clavulanic acid in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells without affecting dopamine synthesis. Furthermore, using affinity chromatography we were able to identify two proteins, Munc18-1 and Rab4 that potentially bind to clavulanic acid and play a critical role in neurosecretion and the vesicle trafficking process. Consistent with this result, an increase in the translocation of Munc18-1 and Rab4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane was observed in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these data suggest that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in a mechanism involving Munc18-1 and Rab4 modulation and warrants further investigation of its therapeutic use in CNS disorders, such as depression. PMID:21964384

  16. Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2011-10-24

    Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detailed mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To further examine its potential as a CNS modulating agent as well as its mechanism of action, we investigated the effects of clavulanic acid in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells without affecting dopamine synthesis. Furthermore, using affinity chromatography we were able to identify two proteins, Munc18-1 and Rab4 that potentially bind to clavulanic acid and play a critical role in neurosecretion and the vesicle trafficking process. Consistent with this result, an increase in the translocation of Munc18-1 and Rab4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane was observed in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these data suggest that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in a mechanism involving Munc18-1 and Rab4 modulation and warrants further investigation of its therapeutic use in CNS disorders, such as depression.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces clavuligerus F613-1, an Industrial Producer of Clavulanic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxiang; Zhong, Chuanqing; Zong, Gongli; Fu, Jiafang; Liu, Zhong; Zhang, Guimin; Qin, Ronghuo

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus strain F613-1 is an industrial strain with high-yield clavulanic acid production. In this study, the complete genome sequence of S. clavuligerus strain F613-1 was determined, including one linear chromosome and one linear plasmid, carrying numerous sets of genes involving in the biosynthesis of clavulanic acid.

  18. Utilization of ornithine and arginine as specific precursors of clavulanic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, J; Liras, P; Martín, J F

    1986-01-01

    Ornithine and arginine (5 to 20 mM), but not glutamic acid or proline, exerted a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on the biosynthesis of clavulanic acid in both resting-cell cultures and long-term fermentations of Streptomyces clavuligerus. Ornithine strongly inhibited cephamycin biosynthesis in the same strain. [1-14C]-, [5-14C]-, or [U-14 C] ornithine was efficiently incorporated into clavulanic acid, whereas the incorporation of uniformly labeled glutamic acid was very poor. [U-1...

  19. In vitro activity of clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, and ticarcillin against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, W R

    1986-01-01

    In vitro, growth of Chlamydia trachomatis was not entirely eliminated by 960 micrograms of ticarcillin per ml, 64 micrograms of amoxicillin per ml, 32 micrograms of clavulanic acid per ml, a combination of ticarcillin (480 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (32 micrograms/ml), and a combination of amoxicillin (32 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (8 micrograms/ml). However, a greater than or equal to 99% decrease in the number of inclusions was obtained at concentrations readily attainable in serum. PMID:3707116

  20. Expansion of the Clavulanic Acid Gene Cluster: Identification and In Vivo Functional Analysis of Three New Genes Required for Biosynthesis of Clavulanic Acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Khaleeli, Nusrat; Townsend, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a potent inhibitor of β-lactamase enzymes and is of demonstrated value in the treatment of infections by β-lactam-resistant bacteria. Previously, it was thought that eight contiguous genes within the genome of the producing strain Streptomyces clavuligerus were sufficient for clavulanic acid biosynthesis, because they allowed production of the antibiotic in a heterologous host (K. A. Aidoo, A. S. Paradkar, D. C. Alexander, and S. E. Jensen, p. 219–236, In V. P. Gullo et al., ed., Development in industrial microbiology series, 1993). In contrast, we report the identification of three new genes, orf10 (cyp), orf11 (fd), and orf12, that are required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis as indicated by gene replacement and trans-complementation analysis in S. clavuligerus. These genes are contained within a 3.4-kb DNA fragment located directly downstream of orf9 (cad) in the clavulanic acid cluster. While the orf10 (cyp) and orf11 (fd) proteins show homologies to other known CYP-150 cytochrome P-450 and [3Fe-4S] ferredoxin enzymes and may be responsible for an oxidative reaction late in the pathway, the protein encoded by orf12 shows no significant similarity to any known protein. The results of this study extend the biosynthetic gene cluster for clavulanic acid and attest to the importance of analyzing biosynthetic genes in the context of their natural host. Potential functional roles for these proteins are proposed. PMID:10869089

  1. Fermentation conditions that affect clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Leng eSer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g. olive oil, corn oil could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.. Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus.

  2. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus.

  3. Augmentation of the in vitro activity of azlocillin against Bacteroides fragilis by clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, M B; Chuah, S K; Thadepalli, H

    1984-01-01

    Azlocillin was active against 90% of 154 strains of Bacteroides fragilis at a concentration of 64 micrograms/ml. Twenty-eight strains of B. fragilis with an azlocillin MIC of greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml were retested with a combination of azlocillin plus clavulanic acid. Of these strains, 71% showed a 4- to 32-fold decrease in the MIC of azlocillin plus clavulanic acid. PMID:6517552

  4. Increase of Clavulanic acid production by using recombinant Streptomyces clavuligerus strain including claR gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Clavulanic acid is a major β-lactam antibiotic which is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is used in combination of strong but sensitive to β-lactamase antibiotics. The claR gene has an important role in regulation of clavulanic acid production and is needed for the expression of the genes in final step of clavulanic acid biosynthesis.   Materials and methods: The recombinant construct pMTclaR which contains claR gene is obtained from Isfahan University and plasmid extraction was done from Streptomyces lividans for next steps. The Streptomyces clavuligerus protoplast was prepared and transformation was done by using polyethylene glycol. Transformation was confirmed by plasmid extraction and PCR. Finally, bioassay method was used to survey the effect of extra copy of claR on clavulanic acid production .   Results : The typical chalky white colony of Streptomyces clavuligerus was seen on GYME plates containing thiostrepton antibiotic. Plasmid extraction was initially carried out. Furthermore, PCR reaction was done by claR specific primers and the 1334 bp band which was belonging to claR was detected. Finally, the bioassay was done and the diameters of zone of inhibition in control and sample were compared. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the claR gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 2.5 fold increase in clavulanic acid production .   Discussion and conclusion : In this study the 3.3 fold increase in clavulanic acid production was obtained by using an expression vector containing claR. According to the clinical use of clavulanic acid, production of bacterial strains which are able to produce high level of antibiotic can help significantly in customization of antibiotic production.

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous administration to sheep and goats.

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    Carceles, C M; Escudero, E; Baggot, J D

    1995-04-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination was studied after intravenous administration of single doses (20 mg/kg per kg body weight) to five sheep and six goats. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between sheep and goats in the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs were best described by a biexponential equation (two-compartment open model) in sheep and goats. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin were 1.43 +/- 0.16 h in sheep and 1.13 +/- 0.19 h in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 1.16 +/- 0.01 h and 0.85 +/- 0.09 h in sheep and goats respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. Body clearances of amoxicillin were 0.09 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and 0.11 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 0.07 +/- 0.01 L/h kg and 0.12 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and goats respectively. The half-lives and body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid differed significantly between sheep and goats. It was concluded that the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid administered intravenously as an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination to sheep and goats differed between the two ruminant species. Even though the differences in disposition kinetics of both drugs were statistically significant, the same intravenous dosing rate of this antimicrobial combination can generally be used in sheep and goats.

  6. Diagnosis of clavulanic acid allergy using basophil activation and leukotriene release by basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, N; Gamboa, P M; Gastaminza, G; Audícana, M T; Antepara, I; Jaúregui, I; Sanz, M L

    2008-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a potent inhibitor of B-lactamase that is increasingly prescribed in association with amoxicillin. We report 2 cases of patients who experienced pruritus, wheals, and angioedema after oral intake of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Routine skin tests for B-lactam antibiotics and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E were negative in both patients. Analysis of CD63 expression by the basophil activation test (BAT) using flow cytometry and of sulphidoleukotriene (sLT) release by basophils using the cellular allergen stimulation test (CAST) revealed significant positive responses with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and with clavulanic acid, and negative responses with amoxicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics. In addition, cultured CD3+CD4+ cells showed a significant increase in the expression of CD69, CD25, and HLA-DR in the presence of clavulanic acid. Both patients tolerated therapeutic doses of amoxicillin. BAT and CAST are useful ex vivo procedures for the detection of specific IgE-mediated allergy to clavulanic acid, especially for patients with negative skin test results.

  7. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Marques, Daniela A; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Sobral; Lima, Gláucia Manoella de Souza; Araújo, Janete M; Lima-Filho, José L; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa-Júnior, Adalberto; Porto, Ana L F

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE). Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.

  8. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Viana Marques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE. Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.

  9. Optimization of the precipitation of clavulanic acid from fermented broth using t-octylamine as intermediate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Hirata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the use of clavulanic acid (CA precipitation as the final step in the process of purification of CA from fermentation broth as an alternative to conventional methods employed traditionally. The purpose of this study was to use a stable intermediate (t-octylamine between the conversion of CA to its salt form (potassium clavulanate, thereby enabling the resulting intermediate (amine salt of clavulanic acid to improve the purification process and maintain the stability of the resulting potassium clavulanate. To this end, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the precipitation step. For the first reaction, five temperatures (6.6 to 23.4 ºC, concentrations of clavulanic acid in organic solvent (6.6 to 23.4 mg/mL and t-octylamine inflow rates (0.33 to 1.17 drop/min were selected based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD. For the second reaction, five temperatures (11.6 to 28.4 ºC, concentrations of clavulanic acid amine salt in organic solvent (8.2 to 41.8 mg/mL and concentrations of potassium 2-ethylhexanoate (0.2 to 1.2 molar were also selected using CCRD. From these results, precipitation conditions were selected and applied to the purification of CA from the fermentation broth, obtaining a yield of 72.37%.

  10. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  11. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  12. Clavulanic acid induces penile erection and yawning in male rats: comparison with apomorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Angioni, Laura; Argiolas, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning in a dose dependent manner when given intraperitoneally (IP, 0.05-5mg/kg), perorally (OS, 0.1-5mg/kg) and intracereboventricularly (ICV, 0.01-5 μg/rat) to male rats. The effect resembles that of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine given subcutaneously (SC) (0.02-0.25mg/kg), although the responses of the latter followed a U inverted dose-response curve, disappearing at doses higher than 0.1mg/kg. Clavulanic acid responses were reduced by about 55% by haloperidol, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg IP), and by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist (2 μg/rat ICV), both given 15 min before clavulanic acid. A higher reduction of clavulanic acid responses (more than 80%) was also found with morphine, an opioid receptor agonist (5mg/kg IP), and with mianserin, a serotonin 5HT(2c) receptor antagonist (0.2mg/kg SC). In contrast, no reduction was found with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist (1mg/kg IP). The ability of haloperidol, d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin and morphine to reduce clavulanic acid induced penile erection and yawning suggests that clavulanic acid induces these responses, at least in part, by increasing central dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine in turn activates oxytocinergic neurotransmission and centrally released oxytocin induces penile erection and yawning. However, since both penile erection and yawning episodes were reduced not only by the blockade of central dopamine and oxytocin receptors and by the stimulation of opioid receptors, which inhibits oxytocinergic neurotransmission, but also by mianserin, an increase of central serotonin neurotransmission is also likely to participate in these clavulanic acid responses.

  13. Acquired resistance of Nocardia brasiliensis to clavulanic acid related to a change in beta-lactamase following therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrube, V A; Wallace, R J; Brown, B A; Pang, Y; Zeluff, B; Steele, L C; Zhang, Y

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Nocardia brasiliensis is susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and that its beta-lactamases are inhibited in vitro by clavulanic acid. A cardiac transplant patient with disseminated infection caused by N. brasiliensis was treated with this drug combination with good response, but relapsed while still on therapy. The relapse isolate was found to be identical to the initial isolate by using genomic DNA restriction fragment patterns obtained by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, but it was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. On isoelectric focusing, the beta-lactamase from the relapse isolate exhibited a shift in the isoelectric point (pI) of its major band from 5.10 to 5.04 compared with the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate. As determined by using values of the amount of beta-lactamase inhibitor necessary to give 50 +/- 5% inhibition of beta-lactamase-mediated hydrolysis of 50 microM nitrocefin, the beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate was also 200-fold more resistant than the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate to clavulanic acid and was more resistant to sulbactam, tazobactam, cloxacillin, and imipenem. The beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate exhibited a 10-fold decrease in hydrolytic activity for cephaloridine and other hydrolyzable cephalosporins compared with that for nitrocefin. Acquired resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in this isolate of N. brasiliensis appears to have resulted from a mutational change affecting the inhibitor and active site(s) in the beta-lactamase. Images PMID:2039203

  14. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to turkeys and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1995-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination was studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg/kg body weight) to 15 turkeys and 15 chickens. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between turkeys and chickens in the disposition kinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model in turkeys and chickens. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in turkeys were significantly slower than in chickens. The elimination half-life of amoxicillin was similar in turkeys (1.12 +/-0.09 h) and chickens (1.03 +/-0.11 h) after intravenous administration, but that of clavulanic acid differed significantly (P<0.05) between turkeys (1.12 +/-0.03 h) and chickens (0.98 +/- 0.05 h). After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P<0.05) in turkeys and chickens than that after the intravenous treatment. The bioavailability after the intramuscular injection was high and similar with both drugs, but higher values were obtained for chickens than turkeys.

  15. Flux balance analysis in the production of clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Claudia; Quintero, Juan Carlos; Ochoa, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    In this work, in silico flux balance analysis is used for predicting the metabolic behavior of Streptomyces clavuligerus during clavulanic acid production. To choose the best objective function for use in the analysis, three different optimization problems are evaluated inside the flux balance analysis formulation: (i) maximization of the specific growth rate, (ii) maximization of the ATP yield, and (iii) maximization of clavulanic acid production. Maximization of ATP yield showed the best predictions for the cellular behavior. Therefore, flux balance analysis using ATP as objective function was used for analyzing different scenarios of nutrient limitations toward establishing the effect of limiting the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and oxygen sources on the growth and clavulanic acid production rates. Obtained results showed that ammonia and phosphate limitations are the ones most strongly affecting clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, it was possible to identify the ornithine flux from the urea cycle and the α-ketoglutarate flux from the TCA cycle as the most determinant internal fluxes for promoting clavulanic acid production.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and oral administration in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, C M; Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Serrano, J M; Carli, S

    1995-12-01

    The intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of an amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination (20 mg/kg of sodium amoxicillin and 5 mg/kg of potassium clavulanate) were studied in six goats. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of both drugs could be described by an open two-compartment model. Amoxicillin had a greater distribution volume (0.19 +/- 0.01 l/kg) than clavulanic acid (0.15 +/- 0.01 l/kg), whereas the distribution and elimination constants were higher for the latter, which was eliminated more quickly than amoxicillin. After oral administration of both drugs their pharmacokinetic behaviour was best described by an open one-compartment model with first-order absorption. Elimination half-lives were twice as long after oral (2.15 +/- 0.20 h and 1.94 +/- 0.16 h for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid respectively) than after intravenous administration (1.20 +/- 0.16 h and 0.86 +/- 0.09, respectively). An apparent 'flip-flop' situation was evident in this study. Bioavailability was 27% for amoxicillin and 50% for clavulanic acid.

  17. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, L.C.; Assink, M.D.M.; Kuijvenhoven, J.C.; Saegher, de M.E.A.; Valk, van der P.D.L.P.M.; Palen, van der J.; Brusse-Keizer, M.G.J.; Movig, K.L.L.

    2016-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a

  18. Structural and mechanistic studies of the orf12 gene product from the clavulanic acid biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valegård, Karin; Iqbal, Aman; Kershaw, Nadia J; Ivison, David; Généreux, Catherine; Dubus, Alain; Blikstad, Cecilia; Demetriades, Marina; Hopkinson, Richard J; Lloyd, Adrian J; Roper, David I; Schofield, Christopher J; Andersson, Inger; McDonough, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Structural and biochemical studies of the orf12 gene product (ORF12) from the clavulanic acid (CA) biosynthesis gene cluster are described. Sequence and crystallographic analyses reveal two domains: a C-terminal penicillin-binding protein (PBP)/β-lactamase-type fold with highest structural similarity to the class A β-lactamases fused to an N-terminal domain with a fold similar to steroid isomerases and polyketide cyclases. The C-terminal domain of ORF12 did not show β-lactamase or PBP activity for the substrates tested, but did show low-level esterase activity towards 3'-O-acetyl cephalosporins and a thioester substrate. Mutagenesis studies imply that Ser173, which is present in a conserved SXXK motif, acts as a nucleophile in catalysis, consistent with studies of related esterases, β-lactamases and D-Ala carboxypeptidases. Structures of wild-type ORF12 and of catalytic residue variants were obtained in complex with and in the absence of clavulanic acid. The role of ORF12 in clavulanic acid biosynthesis is unknown, but it may be involved in the epimerization of (3S,5S)-clavaminic acid to (3R,5R)-clavulanic acid.

  19. Prophylactic antibiotics for hysterectomy and cesarean section: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefazolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Malik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Broad spectrum amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was not superior to cefazolin in prevention of post-operative infection when given as prophylaxis in hysterectomy and elective cesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 980-983

  20. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination were studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg kg(-1) bodyweight) to 50 pigeons. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 1.77 litres kg(-1) and 1.30 litres kg(-1) respectively. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 1.22 (0.09) hour and 1.52 (0.09) hour respectively, and those of clavulanic acid were 1.15 (0.08) hour and 1.49 (0.08) hour. After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P or =0.5 mg litre(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentration of most susceptible pathogens).

  1. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Alam, M.T.; Heijne, W.H.M.; Berg, M.A. van den; Müller, U.; Trefzer, A.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Breitling, R.; Takano, E.

    2011-01-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expressi

  2. Improvement of clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus by genetic manipulation of structural biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Yoo, Jin Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2011-06-01

    To enhance clavulanic acid production, four structural clavulanic acid biosynthesis genes, carboxyethylarginine synthase (ceas2), β-lactam synthetase (bls2), clavaminate synthase (cas2) and proclavaminate amidinohydrolase (pah2), were amplified from Streptomyces clavuligerus genomic DNA. They were cloned in the pSET152 integration and pIBR25 expression vectors containing the strong ermE* promoter to generate pHN18 and pHN19, respectively, and both plasmids were introduced into S. clavuligerus by protoplast transformation. Clavulanic acid production was increased by 8.7-fold (to ~310 mg/l) in integrative pHN18 transformants and by 5.1-fold in pHN19 transformants compared to controls. Transcriptional analyses showed that the expression levels of ceas2, bls2, cas2 and pah2 were markedly increased in both transformants as compared with wild-type. The elevation of the ceas2, bls2, cas2 and pah2 transcripts was consistent with the enhanced production of clavulanic acid.

  3. Role of σ-factor (orf21) in clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL3585.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2011-07-20

    A putative sigma factor gene, orf21, was disrupted or overexpressed in the wild-type clavulanic acid (CA) producer Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL3585 and characterized. An orf21 mutant (Streptomyces clavuligerus HN14) of S. clavuligerus was obtained by insertional inactivation via double-crossover. Although there was little reduction of sporulation in the mutant, the growth pattern was similar between mutant and wild-type. The production was reduced by 10-15% in S. clavuligerus HN14 compared to that in wild-type. Overexpression of orf21 in wild-type cells caused hyperproduction of spores on solid medium and increased clavulanic acid production by 1.43-fold. The overexpression of orf21 in wild-type S. clavuligerus stimulated the expression of the early clavulanic acid genes, ceas2 and cas2, and the regulatory gene, ccaR, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. The elevation of the ceas2, cas2 and ccaR transcripts was consistent with the enhanced production of clavulanic acid.

  4. Moxifloxacin versus amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in outpatient acute exacerbations of COPD: MAESTRAL results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert; Anzueto, Antonio; Miravitlles, Marc; Arvis, Pierre; Alder, Jeff; Haverstock, Daniel; Trajanovic, Mila; Sethi, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial infections causing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) frequently require antibacterial treatment. More evidence is needed to guide antibiotic choice. The Moxifloxacin in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis TriaL (MAESTRAL) was a multiregional, randomised, double-blind non-inferiority outpatient study. Patients were aged ≥ 60 yrs, with an Anthonisen type I exacerbation, a forced expiratory volume in 1 s clavulanic acid 875/125 mg p.o. b.i.d. (7 days). The primary end-point was clinical failure 8 weeks post-therapy in the per protocol population. Moxifloxacin was noninferior to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the primary end-point (111 (20.6%) out of 538, versus 114 (22.0%) out of 518, respectively; 95% CI -5.89-3.83%). In patients with confirmed bacterial AECOPD, moxifloxacin led to significantly lower clinical failure rates than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (in the intent-to-treat with pathogens, 62 (19.0%) out of 327 versus 85 (25.4%) out of 335, respectively; p=0.016). Confirmed bacterial eradication at end of therapy was associated with higher clinical cure rates at 8 weeks post-therapy overall (p=0.0014) and for moxifloxacin (p=0.003). Patients treated with oral corticosteroids had more severe disease and higher failure rates. The MAESTRAL study showed that moxifloxacin was as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of outpatients with AECOPD. Both therapies were well tolerated.

  5. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Alam, M.T.; Heijne, W.H.; Berg, M.A.M.C. van den; Muller, U.; Trefzer, A.; Bovenberg, R.A.; Breitling, R.; Takano, E.

    2011-01-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expressi

  6. Bone Penetration of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid Evaluated by Population Pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo Simulation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Hennig, Friedrich F.; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sörgel, Fritz; Gusinde, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Amoxicillin (amoxicilline)-clavulanic acid has promising activity against pathogens that cause bone infections. We present the first evaluation of the bone penetration of a beta-lactam by population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic profiling via Monte Carlo simulations. Twenty uninfected patients undergoing total hip replacement received a single intravenous infusion of 2,000 mg/200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid before surgery. Blood and bone specimens were collected. Bone samples were pulverized under liquid nitrogen with a cryogenic mill, including an internal standard. The drug concentrations in serum and total bone were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We used NONMEM and S-ADAPT for population pharmacokinetic analysis and a target time of the non-protein-bound drug concentration above the MIC for ≥50% of the dosing interval for near-maximal bactericidal activity in serum. The median of the ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) for bone/AUC for serum was 20% (10th to 90th percentile for between-subject variability [variability], 16 to 25%) in cortical bone and 18% (variability, 11 to 29%) in cancellous bone for amoxicillin and 15% (variability, 11 to 21%) in cortical bone and 10% (variability, 5.1 to 21%) in cancellous bone for clavulanic acid. Analysis in S-ADAPT yielded similar results. The equilibration half-lives between serum and bone were 12 min for amoxicillin and 14 min for clavulanic acid. For a 30-min infusion of 2,000 mg/200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid every 4 h, amoxicillin achieved robust (≥90%) probabilities of target attainment (PTAs) for MICs of ≤12 mg/liter in serum and 2 to 3 mg/liter in bone and population PTAs above 95% against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in bone and serum. The AUC of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 5 to 10 times lower in bone than in serum, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid achieved a rapid equilibrium and favorable population PTAs against pathogens commonly

  7. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar Manchukonda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS is an immune complex mediated hypersensitivity complex that typically involves the skin and the mucous membranes. Various etiologic factors (e.g., infection, drugs and malignancies have been implicated as causes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. However, as many as half of the cases are idiopathic. Bastuji and Roujeau proposed that the denomination of Stevens-Johnson syndrome should be used for a syndrome characterized by mucous membrane erosions and widespread small blisters that arise on erythematous or purpuric maculae that are different from classic targets. In this case report, a 6 year old girl who was administered a cough syrup (containing bromhexine, guaiphenesin, diphenhydramine and phenylephrine and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid dispersible tablet for the treatment of cough developed pruritic skin eruptions all over the body along with painful erosions on the tongue, buccal mucosa, genital and anal mucosa. A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome was made. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was identified as the culprit based on the temporal relationship between the drug administration and the appearance of the rashes and based on a number of SJS reports implicating amoxycillin and clavulanic acid having been published before. The cough syrup and amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination tablets were immediately stopped. Symptomatic treatment was administered. The child improved and was later discharged. Causality assessment using Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale revealed that amoxycillin and clavulanic acid combination was a possible cause for the harmful cutaneous adverse reaction with a score of 4. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1140-1144

  8. Antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, V; Dehdashti, Kh

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate has a key role in pain perception and also development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. It has been reported that clavulanic acid affects glutamatergic transmission via activation of glutamate transporter. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) were used in this study. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test and hot plate method were used to assess the antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid. Morphine (30 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to the mice two times a day (8 AM and 4 PM) for 3 days in order to produce tolerance. To develop morphine dependence, morphine sulfate (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) was injected at 8 and 12 AM and 16 PM respectively and for 3 consecutive days. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p) was used to induce morphine withdrawal syndrome and the number of jumps and presence of ptosis, piloerection, tremor, sniffing and diarrhea were recorded and compared with control group. Clavulanic acid at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibited abdominal constriction and licking behavior of acetic acid and formalin-induced pain respectively. Clavulanic acid was not able to show any antinociception in hot plate model and could not prevent development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. Clavulanic acid has considerable antinociceptive activity and further studies are needed to clarify its exact mechanism.

  9. Cefepime combined with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid: a new choice for the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Ji

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: In contrast to the currently recommended tigecycline-based therapy, cefepime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination was an effective and economical option to KPC-KP infection in China.

  10. Stability of clavulanic acid in PEG/citrate and liquid–liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase system

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. N.; Souza, K. P. S.; Mota, A; J.A. Teixeira; Porto, C S; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Porto, Ana L. F.

    2014-01-01

    β-Lactamases are enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics, being produced by several pathogenic bacteria. Clavulanic acid is a commercially and clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor, its extraction being possible by the application of aqueous two-phase system. In this study, clavulanic acid stability was investigated at different molar mass PEG (400, 1 000 and 20 000 g mol−1) and at different citrate concentrations (5 and 20%) PEG/citrate aqueous-two phase systems (...

  11. [Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid versus amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzasconi, R; Rodoni, P; Monotti, R; Marone, C; Mombelli, G

    1995-08-19

    We compared the fixed combination amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid with that of amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of severe urinary tract infections. The study included 87 hospitalized patients (51 women and 36 men, mean age 58 +/- 22 years) with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (n = 48) or with complicated urinary tract infections (n = 39). 80 patients (92%) had fever and 31 patients (36%) positive blood cultures. 45 patients were randomly assigned to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and 42 to amoxicillin plus gentamicin. Overall, 18 patients (21%) were infected with organisms resistant in vitro to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, whereas no pathogen was isolated with resistance to amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin group. Although the in-vitro resistance did not result in a lower clinical efficacy of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid compared to amoxicillin plus gentamicin in our relatively small sample of patients, the data indicate that the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid is inadequate to cover the spectrum of causative agents in hospitalized patients with pyelonephritis or complicated urinary tract infections. Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid should therefore not be used in the initial empirical treatment of these infections.

  12. Simultaneous RP-HPLC estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil and clavulanic acid in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil and clavulanic acid from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB 5 µ C 18 (150x4.6 mm column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, 70:30 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 228 nm. Aspirin was used as an internal standard. The retention time of clavulanic acid, cefpodoxime proxetil and aspirin was 4.43, 6.44 and 5.6 min, respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage forms.

  13. Genome‐wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Alam, Mohammad T.; Heijne, Wilbert H. M.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Müller, Ulrike; Trefzer, Axel; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Summary To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a β‐lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome‐wide gene expression of an industrial S. clavuligerus strain, obtained through iterative mutagenesis, with that of the wild‐type strain. Intriguingly, we found that the majority of the changes contributed not to a complex rewiring of primary metabolism but consisted of a simple upregulation of various antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters. A few additional transcriptional changes in primary metabolism at key points seem to divert metabolic fluxes to the biosynthetic precursors for clavulanic acid. In general, the observed changes largely coincide with genes that have been targeted by rational engineering in recent years, yet the presence of a number of previously unexplored genes clearly demonstrates that functional genomic analysis can provide new leads for strain improvement in biotechnology. PMID:21342474

  14. Simultaneous RP-HPLC Estimation of Cefpodoxime Proxetil and Clavulanic Acid in Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, S.; Dubey, R. N.; Venkatnarayanan, R.

    2009-01-01

    A new, simple, precise, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil and clavulanic acid from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB 5 μ C 18 (150×4.6 mm) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, 70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 228 nm. Aspirin was used as an internal standard. The retention time of clavulanic acid, cefpodoxime proxetil and aspirin was 4.43, 6.44 and 5.6 min, respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage forms. PMID:20177474

  15. Theoretical study of the alkaline hydrolysis of an aza-β-lactam derivative of clavulanic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcías, Rafael C.; Coll, Miguel; Donoso, Josefa; Muñoz, Francisco

    2003-04-01

    DFT calculations based on the hybrid functional B3LYP/6-31+G * were used to study the alkaline hydrolysis of an aza-clavulanic acid, which results from the substitution of the carbon atom at position 6 in clavulanic acid by a nitrogen atom. The presence of the nitrogen atom endows the compound with special properties; in fact, once formed, the tetrahedral intermediate can evolve with cleavage of the N 4-C 7 or N 6-C 7 bond, which obviously leads to different reaction products. These differential bond cleavages may play a central role in the inactivation of β-lactamases, so the compound may be a powerful inactivator of these enzymes.

  16. Efficacy of cefpodoxime with clavulanic Acid in the treatment of recurrent pyoderma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B; Nalini Kumari, K; Vaikunta Rao, V; Rayulu, V C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study on recurrent pyoderma, dogs with a history of more than three episodes of skin infections in a period of one year were selected. The associated conditions and (or) underlying factors revealed upon thorough investigation were demodicosis, Malassezia dermatitis, flea infestation, hypothyroidism, keratinization disorder (seborrhea), combination of Malassezia dermatitis and tick infestation, and a combination of scabies and tick infestation. Therapy was given with cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid along with appropriate simultaneous medication for the underlying associated conditions. In all the cases response to therapy was excellent. Improvement was noticed by 9 to 19 days and 17 to 21 days in recurrent superficial and deep pyoderma, respectively. In one dog, relapse occurred by 45 days due to the associated condition of hypothyroidism which was confirmed through laboratory findings. Cefpodoxime with clavulanic acid proved to be an effective, safe, and convenient antibiotic for the treatment of recurrent pyoderma in dogs without any side effects.

  17. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medema, Marnix H; Alam, Mohammad T; Heijne, Wilbert H M; van den Berg, Marco A; Müller, Ulrike; Trefzer, Axel; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-03-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expression of an industrial S. clavuligerus strain, obtained through iterative mutagenesis, with that of the wild-type strain. Intriguingly, we found that the majority of the changes contributed not to a complex rewiring of primary metabolism but consisted of a simple upregulation of various antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters. A few additional transcriptional changes in primary metabolism at key points seem to divert metabolic fluxes to the biosynthetic precursors for clavulanic acid. In general, the observed changes largely coincide with genes that have been targeted by rational engineering in recent years, yet the presence of a number of previously unexplored genes clearly demonstrates that functional genomic analysis can provide new leads for strain improvement in biotechnology.

  18. Meropenem-clavulanic acid shows activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Kathleen; Boshoff, Helena I M; Arora, Kriti; Weiner, Danielle; Dayao, Emmanuel; Schimel, Daniel; Via, Laura E; Barry, Clifton E

    2012-06-01

    The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem in combination with clavulanic acid reduced the bacterial burden in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages by 2 logs over 6 days. Despite poor stability in solution and a short half-life in rodents, treatment of chronically infected mice revealed significant reductions of bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens. Our results show that meropenem has activity in two in vivo systems, but stability and pharmacokinetics of long-term administration will offer significant challenges to clinical evaluation.

  19. A combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pyoderma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 50 children in each group (total 200 with mild to severe pyodermas. Majority (47% had impetigo. Fifty (25% children had mild pyoderma, 56 (28% had moderate and 94 (47% children had severe pyoderma. Pure growth of S aureus was isolated in 130 (65% children, S pyogenes in 42 (21% and both organisms in 28 (14% children. In mild to moderate pyoderma either of the drug tried was equally effective. In severe pyoderma, 24 of twenty five (96% children receiving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 18 of twenty (90% children in amoxicillin group, 20 of twenty four (83.3% children in erythromycin group and 13 of twenty five (52% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure of therapy. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid was well tolerated in children and there was no significant side effect except mild diarrhoea in two cases (4% which was well controlled by taking the drug with meals.

  20. Optimization of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces daufpe 3060 by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Daniela A. Viana; Cunha, Márcia N. Carneiro; Araújo, Janete M.; Lima-Filho, José L.; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Porto, Ana L. Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a ß-lactam antibiotic which has a potent ß-lactamase inhibiting activity. In order to optimize its production by the new isolate Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, the influence of two independent variables, temperature and soybean flour concentration, on clavulanic acid and biomass concentrations was investigated in 250 mL-Erlenmeyers according to a 22 central composite design. To this purpose, temperature and soybean flour (SF) concentration were varied in the ranges 26–34°C and 10–50 g/L, respectively, and the results evaluated utilizing the Response Surface Methodology. The experimental maximum production of clavulanic acid (629 mg/L) was obtained at 32°C and 40 g/L SF after 48 h, while the maximum biomass concentration (3.9 g/L) at 30°C and 50 g/L soybean flour, respectively. These values are satisfactorily close to those (640 mg/L and 3.75 g/L, respectively) predicted by the model, thereby demonstrating the validity of the mathematical approach adopted in this study. PMID:24031677

  1. Optimization of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces daufpe 3060 by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Viana Marques

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic which has a potent β-lactamase inhibiting activity. In order to optimize its production by the new isolate Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, the influence of two independent variables, temperature and soybean flour concentration, on clavulanic acid and biomass concentrations was investigated in 250 mL-Erlenmeyers according to a 2² central composite design. To this purpose, temperature and soybean flour (SF concentration were varied in the ranges 26-34°C and 10-50 g/L, respectively, and the results evaluated utilizing the Response Surface Methodology. The experimental maximum production of clavulanic acid (629 mg/L was obtained at 32°C and 40 g/L SF after 48 h, while the maximum biomass concentration (3.9 g/L at 30°C and 50 g/L soybean flour, respectively. These values are satisfactorily close to those (640 mg/L and 3.75 g/L, respectively predicted by the model, thereby demonstrating the validity of the mathematical approach adopted in this study.

  2. Clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of ticarcillin and clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, G A; Bode, R; Hamilton, B; Bibler, M; Sullivan, R; Douce, R; Staneck, J L; Bullock, W E

    1985-01-01

    Forty-three hospitalized patients were treated with a new antibiotic combination containing ticarcillin plus the beta-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid, in a fixed combination for intravenous use. A variety of infections were treated, including pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and osteomyelitis. Of 50 episodes of infection in 43 patients, 44 clinical cures were obtained, with 5 patients improving and 1 patient failing to respond to treatment. In vitro susceptibility testing of 101 clinical isolates was notable for the rarity of resistance to the combination antibiotic. Of specific interest, all 14 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid, whereas only 2 of the 14 isolates were susceptible to ticarcillin alone. Adverse reactions to the study drug were minimal; eosinophilia, unaccompanied by other allergic phenomena, and oral candidiasis were most frequent. Overall, the combination of ticarcillin with the beta-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid, appears to be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms. PMID:3888101

  3. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination and of both drugs alone after intravenous administration to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, E; Carceles, C M; Vicente, S

    1996-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination (25 mg kg-1), and both drugs alone (amoxicillin 20 mg kg-1), clavulanic acid 5 mg kg-1), was studied after intravenous (i.v.) administration of single doses of 10 goats. The objective was to determine whether there were differences in the plasma kinetics of these drugs when administered in combination or alone. The plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs alone and in combination were best described by a biexponential equation (two-compartment open model). The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin were 1.05 +/- 0.09 h alone and 1.13 +/- 0.19 h in combination, and those of clavulanic acid were 0.87 +/- 0.07 h and 0.85 +/- 0.09 h, respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two treatments. Body clearances of amoxicillin were 0.12 +/- 0.01 l h-1.kg alone and 0.11 +/- 0.01 l h-1.kg in combination, and of clavulanic acid were 0.12 +/- 0.02 l h-1.kg alone and 0.12 +/- 0.01 l h-1.kg in combination with amoxicillin. The half-lives and body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid did not differ significantly when administered alone and in combination. It was concluded that the i.v. administration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid as a combination product did not alter the disposition kinetics of either drug.

  4. Augmented renal clearance implies a need for increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Pieter A J G; Standing, Joseph F; Barker, Charlotte I S; de Jaeger, Annick; Dhont, Evelyn; Carlier, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain G; Delanghe, Joris R; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter

    2015-11-01

    There is little data available to guide amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in this pediatric subpopulation. Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) in whom intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was indicated (25 to 35 mg/kg of body weight every 6 h) were enrolled. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, and the clinical outcome was documented. A total of 325 and 151 blood samples were collected from 50 patients (median age, 2.58 years; age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. A three-compartment model for amoxicillin and a two-compartment model for clavulanic acid best described the data, in which allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age. In addition, plasma cystatin C and concomitant treatment with vasopressors were identified to have a significant influence on amoxicillin clearance. The typical population values of clearance for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 17.97 liters/h/70 kg and 12.20 liters/h/70 kg, respectively. In 32% of the treated patients, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy was stopped prematurely due to clinical failure, and the patient was switched to broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that four-hourly dosing of 25 mg/kg was required to achieve the therapeutic target for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. For patients with augmented renal function, a 1-h infusion was preferable to bolus dosing. Current published dosing regimens result in subtherapeutic concentrations in the early period of sepsis due to augmented renal clearance, which risks clinical failure in critically ill children, and therefore need to be updated. (This study has been registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as an observational study [NCT02456974].).

  5. An improved HPLC-DAD method for clavulanic acid quantification in fermentation broths of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; López, Carlos; Zapata, Julian; Sáez, Alex; Neubauer, Peter; Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2016-02-20

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is an important secondary metabolite commercially produced by cultivation of Streptomyces clavuligerus (Sc). It is a potent inhibitor of bacterial β-lactamases. In this work, a specific and improved high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, using a C-18 reversed phase column, diode array detector and gradient elution for CA quantification in fermentation broths of Sc, was developed and successfully validated. Samples were imidazole-derivatized for the purpose of creating a stable chromophore (clavulanate-imidazole). The calibration curve was linear over a typical range of CA concentration between 0.2 and 400mg/L. The detection and quantification limits were 0.01 and 0.02mg/L, respectively. The precision of the method was evaluated for CA spiked into production media and a recovery of 103.8%, on average, was obtained. The clavulanate-imidazole complex was not stable when the samples were not cooled during the analysis. The recovery rate was 39.3% on average. This assay was successfully tested for CA quantification in samples from Sc fermentation, using both, a chemically defined and a complex medium.

  6. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, L C; Assink, M D M; Kuijvenhoven, J C; de Saegher, M E A; van der Valk, P D L P M; van der Palen, J; Brusse-Keizer, M G J; Movig, K L L

    2016-08-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a COPD exacerbation received fixed doses 200/40 mg twice daily. Safety was evaluated by spirometry before and after inhalation. Tolerability was evaluated by questionnaire. Plasma and expectorated sputum samples were assayed for amoxicillin content. Seventeen patients underwent in total 100 nebulizations with amoxicillin clavulanic acid. In this safety and tolerability study no clinically relevant deteriorations in FEV1 were observed. Nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid produces sputum concentrations well above the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration of 90% for potential pathogenic micro-organisms, with low concentrations in the central compartment (low systemic exposure). Based on spirometry and reported side effects, inhalation of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid seems to be safe and well tolerated, both in stable patients with COPD as in those experiencing a severe exacerbation. Levels of amoxicillin were adequate.

  7. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A S Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  8. The influence of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid on the aerobic flora of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaspolder, F; de Zeeuw, G; Rozenberg-Arska, M; Egyedi, P; Verhoef, J

    1987-01-01

    In a randomized study, 42 patients undergoing extensive maxillo-facial surgery (correction of the position of the mandible or maxilla by using autologous bone transplants) received prophylactically ten-day courses of either flucloxacillin or amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Patients were comparable with regard to age and type of surgery. During the prophylactic treatment the effect of antibiotics used on the microbial flora of the alimentary tract was studied. Patients receiving flucloxacillin showed increased numbers of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the faeces (59% of the patients versus 19% of the patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid). Patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid showed higher colonization rates of oropharynx with Enterobacteriaceae than patients receiving flucloxacillin (ten patients versus five patients). 60% of those strains isolated from patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were resistant to this combination, as compared to 20% of gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients receiving flucloxacillin. In 50% of patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, colonization of the gut with yeast occurred, as compared to 18% of patients receiving flucloxacillin. Only one infection leading to a partial loss of the graft was seen in the group of patients receiving flucloxacillin.

  9. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archiel Launch Tancawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n=235 or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n=237 for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7% was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7% in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  10. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Huh, Wooseong; Jung, Jin Ah; Yoo, Hye Min; Ko, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jung-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; C max, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L). There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI]) of AUClast and C max (95.7 [85.9-106.5] and 98.3 [91.6-105.6], respectively). Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary.

  11. Meropenem-clavulanic acid has high in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies Forsman, L; Giske, C G; Bruchfeld, J; Schön, T; Juréen, P; Ängeby, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the activity of meropenem-clavulanic acid (MEM-CLA) against 68 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. We included predominantly multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) isolates, since the activity of MEM-CLA for resistant isolates has previously not been studied extensively. Using Middlebrook 7H10 medium, all but four isolates showed an MIC distribution of 0.125 to 2 mg/liter for MEM-CLA, below the non-species-related breakpoint for MEM of 2 mg/liter defined by EUCAST. MEM-CLA is a potential treatment option for MDR/XDR-TB.

  12. Importance of position 170 in the inhibition of GES-type β-lactamases by clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Hilary; Toth, Marta; Champion, Matthew M; Antunes, Nuno T; Vakulenko, Sergei B

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, etc.) is commonly the result of the production of β-lactamases. The emergence of β-lactamases capable of turning over carbapenem antibiotics is of great concern, since these are often considered the last resort antibiotics in the treatment of life-threatening infections. β-Lactamases of the GES family are extended-spectrum enzymes that include members that have acquired carbapenemase activity through a single amino acid substitution at position 170. We investigated inhibition of the GES-1, -2, and -5 β-lactamases by the clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. While GES-1 and -5 are susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid, GES-2 shows the greatest susceptibility. This is the only variant to possess the canonical asparagine at position 170. The enzyme with asparagine, as opposed to glycine (GES-1) or serine (GES-5), then leads to a higher affinity for clavulanic acid (K(i) = 5 μM), a higher rate constant for inhibition, and a lower partition ratio (r ≈ 20). Asparagine at position 170 also results in the formation of stable complexes, such as a cross-linked species and a hydrated aldehyde. In contrast, serine at position 170 leads to formation of a long-lived trans-enamine species. These studies provide new insight into the importance of the residue at position 170 in determining the susceptibility of GES enzymes to clavulanic acid.

  13. Characterization of DNA-binding sequences for CcaR in the cephamycin-clavulanic acid supercluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarta, I; López-García, M T; Kurt, A; Nárdiz, N; Alvarez-Álvarez, R; Pérez-Redondo, R; Martín, J F; Liras, P

    2011-08-01

    RT-PCR analysis of the genes in the clavulanic acid cluster revealed three transcriptional polycistronic units that comprised the ceaS2-bls2-pah2-cas2, cyp-fd-orf12-orf13 and oppA2-orf16 genes, whereas oat2, car, oppA1, claR, orf14, gcaS and pbpA were expressed as monocistronic transcripts. Quantitative RT-PCR of Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 and the mutant S. clavuligerus ccaR::aph showed that, in the mutant, there was a 1000- to 10,000-fold lower transcript level for the ceaS2 to cas2 polycistronic transcript that encoded CeaS2, the first enzyme of the clavulanic acid pathway that commits arginine to clavulanic acid biosynthesis. Smaller decreases in expression were observed in the ccaR mutant for other genes in the cluster. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis confirmed the absence in the mutant strain of proteins CeaS2, Bls2, Pah2 and Car that are required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis, and CefF and IPNS that are required for cephamycin biosynthesis. Gel shift electrophoresis using recombinant r-CcaR protein showed that it bound to the ceaS2 and claR promoter regions in the clavulanic acid cluster, and to the lat, cefF, cefD-cmcI and ccaR promoter regions in the cephamycin C gene cluster. Footprinting experiments indicated that triple heptameric conserved sequences were protected by r-CcaR, and allowed identification of heptameric sequences as CcaR binding sites.

  14. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Yun Lee,1 Wooseong Huh,2 Jin Ah Jung,3 Hye Min Yoo,2 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Jung-Ryul Kim2,4 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 4Department of Clinical Research and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L. There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI] of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively. Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. Keywords: drug–drug interaction, pharmacokinetics

  15. Phenomenological model of the clavulanic acid production process utilizing Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baptista-Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of clavulanic acid production process by Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 was studied. Experiments were carried out in a 4 liters bioreactor, utilizing 2 complex media containing glycerol as the carbon and energy source, and peptone or Samprosoy 90NB (soybean protein as nitrogen source. Temperature was kept at 28°C and the dissolved oxygen was controlled automatically at 40 % saturation value. Samples were withdrawn for determination of cell mass (only peptone medium, glycerol and product concentrations. Gas analyzers allowed on line determination of CO2 and O2 contents in the exit gas. With Samprosoy, cell mass was evaluated by determining glycerol consumption and considering the cell yield, Y X/S, as being the same for both cases. Oxygen uptake and CO2 production rates were strongly related to growth and substrate consumption, allowing determination of stoichiometric constants in relation to growth, substrate, oxygen, product and carbon dioxide.

  16. Studies on the rheology and oxygen mass transfer in the clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Gouveia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work rheological characteristics and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa were investigated during batch cultivations of Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 for production of clavulanic acid. The experimental rheological data could be adequately described in terms of the power law model and logistic equation. Significant changes in the rheological parameters consistency index (K and flow behavior index (n were observed with the fermentation evolution. Interesting correlations between the consistency index (K/biomass concentration (C X and the flow behavior index (n/biomass concentration were proposed. Volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa was determined by the gas balance method. Classical correlation relating the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient to the operating conditions, physical and to transport properties, including apparent viscosity (muap, could be applied to the experimental results.

  17. Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, J; Klietmann, W; Nösner, K; Rolinson, G N; Johnsen, J

    1988-01-01

    17,244 pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of 24 hospitals in the Moers area (North-Rhine Westphalia, FRG) were tested in regard to their susceptibility to Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). For this purpose, minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by use of microbroth dilution technique. 80% of Gram-negative, 98% of Gram-positive and 97% of anaerobic isolates were susceptible to Augmentin (breakpoint 4 mg/l amoxicillin in the presence of 2.5 mg/l clavulanic acid). In a second part of the study the susceptibility to Augmentin of 4.137 Gram-negative and 10.958 Gram-positive pathogens was compared to their sensitivity against benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor and doxycyclin.

  18. Alanylclavam Biosynthetic Genes Are Clustered Together with One Group of Clavulanic Acid Biosynthetic Genes in Streptomyces clavuligerus▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelyas, Nathan J.; Cai, Hui; Kwong, Thomas; Jensen, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus produces at least five different clavam metabolites, including clavulanic acid and the methionine antimetabolite, alanylclavam. In vitro transposon mutagenesis was used to analyze a 13-kb region upstream of the known paralogue gene cluster. The paralogue cluster includes one group of clavulanic acid biosynthetic genes in S. clavuligerus. Twelve open reading frames (ORFs) were found in this area, and mutants were generated in each using either in vitro transposon or PCR-targeted mutagenesis. Mutants with defects in any of the genes orfA, orfB, orfC, or orfD were unable to produce alanylclavam but could produce all of the other clavams, including clavulanic acid. orfA encodes a predicted hydroxymethyltransferase, orfB encodes a YjgF/YER057c/UK114-family regulatory protein, orfC encodes an aminotransferase, and orfD encodes a dehydratase. All of these types of proteins are normally involved in amino acid metabolism. Mutants in orfC or orfD also accumulated a novel clavam metabolite instead of alanylclavam, and a complemented orfC mutant was able to produce trace amounts of alanylclavam while still producing the novel clavam. Mass spectrometric analyses, together with consideration of the enzymes involved in its production, led to tentative identification of the novel clavam as 8-OH-alanylclavam, an intermediate in the proposed alanylclavam biosynthetic pathway. PMID:18931110

  19. The Lys234Arg Substitution in the Enzyme SHV-72 Is a Determinant for Resistance to Clavulanic Acid Inhibition▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Nuno; Manageiro, Vera; Robin, Frédéric; Salgado, M. José; Ferreira, Eugénia; Caniça, Manuela; Bonnet, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The new β-lactamase SHV-72 was isolated from clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae INSRA1229, which exhibited the unusual association of resistance to the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination (MIC, 64 μg/ml) and susceptibility to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and imipenem. SHV-72 (pI 7.6) harbored the three amino acid substitutions Ile8Phe, Ala146Val, and Lys234Arg. SHV-72 had high catalytic efficiency against penicillins (kcat/Km, 35 to 287 μM−1·s−1) and no activity against oxyimino β-lactams. The concentration of clavulanic acid necessary to inhibit the enzyme activity by 50% was 10-fold higher for SHV-72 than for SHV-1. Molecular-dynamics simulation suggested that the Lys234Arg substitution in SHV-72 stabilized an atypical conformation of the Ser130 side chain, which moved the Oγ atom of Ser130 around 3.5 Å away from the key Oγ atom of the reactive serine (Ser70). This movement may therefore decrease the susceptibility to clavulanic acid by preventing cross-linking between Ser130 and Ser70. PMID:18316518

  20. Influence of clavulanic acid on the activity of amoxicillin against an experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae-Staphylococcus aureus mixed respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G M; Boon, R J; Beale, A S

    1990-01-01

    An experimental respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae was established in weanling rats by intrabronchial instillation. Treatment of this infection with amoxicillin rapidly eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue. A beta-lactamase-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in a similar manner, did not persist adequately in the lungs long enough to permit a reasonable assessment of the therapy, but staphylococcal survival was extended in the lungs of rats infected 24 h previously with S. pneumoniae. Amoxicillin therapy was relatively ineffective against the pneumococci in this polymicrobial infection and had no effect on the growth of S. aureus. In contrast, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue and brought about a reduction in the numbers of staphylococci. The data illustrate the utility of this model for the study of polymicrobial lung infections and demonstrate the role of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the treatment of polymicrobial infections involving beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. PMID:2327767

  1. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid vs ceftazidime in the surgical extraction of impacted third molar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisalli, U; Lalli, C; Cerone, L; Maida, S; Manzoli, L; Serra, E; Dolci, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness and the side effects of two different drugs, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid vs ceftazidime, used as antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical extraction of third molars and to demonstrate that the use of second choice antibiotic has no significant advantages in comparison with a first choice antibiotic. One hundred and seven patients with impacted third molar were selected and divided into two groups: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were administered to group 1 and ceftazidime to group 2 for five days after surgery and we observed the postoperative period. The statistical analysis showed no differences between the two groups which lead to the conclusion that there is no indication to routinely administrate intramuscular second-choice antibiotic prophylatic therapy (ceftazidime) in case of surgical extraction of the third molar.

  2. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  3. [Determination of clavulanic acid residue in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Fang, Qiuhua; He, Limin

    2012-06-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of clavulanic acid (CLAV) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A 2 g milk sample was deproteinized by ethanol. The supernatant was transferred into a pear-shaped bottle to be evaporated to about 0.5 mL, and the residue was dissolved with ammonium acetate solution. The sample was determined by HPLC-MS/MS after the purification. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna 5u C8 column using 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phases with gradient elution. The identification of CLAV was carried out by MS/MS equipped with electrospray ionization in negative scanning and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. Matrix-matched calibration standard was used for the quantification. The calibration curve showed perfect linear in the range of 10 - 400 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N > or = 3) was 10 microg/kg in milk, and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) was 20 microg/kg. The mean recoveries varied from 80.00% to 91.25% at the four spiked levels of LOQ, 1/2MRL (the maximum residue limit), MRL, and 2MRL with the relative standard deviations of 5.60% -8.77%. In conclusion, the established method can be applied for the determination of CLAV residues in milk.

  4. Proteomics analysis of global regulatory cascades involved in clavulanic acid production and morphological development in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Nicole L; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes; Moore, Marcus A; Bignell, Dawn R D; Tahlan, Kapil

    2016-04-01

    The genus Streptomyces comprises bacteria that undergo a complex developmental life cycle and produce many metabolites of importance to industry and medicine. Streptomyces clavuligerus produces the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid, which is used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat certain β-lactam resistant bacterial infections. Many aspects of how clavulanic acid production is globally regulated in S. clavuligerus still remains unknown. We conducted comparative proteomics analysis using the wild type strain of S. clavuligerus and two mutants (ΔbldA and ΔbldG), which are defective in global regulators and vary in their ability to produce clavulanic acid. Approximately 33.5 % of the predicted S. clavuligerus proteome was detected and 192 known or putative regulatory proteins showed statistically differential expression levels in pairwise comparisons. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins whose corresponding genes contain TTA codons (predicted to require the bldA tRNA for translation) was unaffected in the bldA mutant.

  5. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  6. A Combination Of Amoxicillian And Clavulanic Acid In The Treatment Of Impetigo In Children

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    P K Kar Col

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (ACA a combination of potentially effective antibiotic against beta-lactamase producing bacteria was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythomycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 100 children with mild to severe impetigo. 22% children had mild, 25% had moderate and 53% children had severe impetigo. Pure growth of S. aureus was isolated in 68% children, S.pyogenes in 26% and both staphyto and streptococci in 6% children. In mild to moderate infection 100% children receiving ACA were cured clinically after first week, whereas 7 out of 15(46.6% children in amoxicillin group, 7 out of 13(53.1% children in erythromycin group and 4 out 12 (33.3% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure after first week. In severe impetigo 46.1% children receiving ACA, 20% children in amoxicillin group, 16.6% children inerythromycin group and 7.6% in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure on therapy after one week. ACA was well tolerated in children.

  7. Production of clavulanic acid and cephamycin C by Streptomyces clavuligerus under different fed-batch conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bellão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carbon source and feeding conditions on the production of clavulanic acid (CA and cephamycin C (CephC by Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated. In fed-batch experiments performed with glycerol feeding, production of CA exceeded that of CephC, and reached 1022 mg.L-1. Highest CephC production (566.5 mg.L-1 was obtained in fed-batch cultivation with glycerol feeding. In fed-batch experiments performed with starch feeding, the production of CephC was in general higher than that of CA. A dissociation index (DI was used to identify feeding conditions that favored production of CephC relative to CA. In all cultures with glycerol, DI values were less than unity, indicating higher production of CA compared to CephC. Conversely, in cultures fed with starch, the DI values obtained were greater than unity. However, no carbon source or feeding condition was able to completely dissociate the production of CA from that of CephC.

  8. Simultaneous diffuse reflectance infrared determination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin using multivariate calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Ferrão, Marco Flores; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of clavulanic acid (CA) and amoxicillin (AMO) in commercial tablets was developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and multivariate calibration. Twenty-five samples (10 commercial and 15 synthetic) were used as a calibration set and 15 samples (10 commercial and 5 synthetic) were used for a prediction set. Calibration models were developed using partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS), and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms. The best algorithm for CA determination was siPLS model with spectra divided in 30 intervals and combinations of 2 intervals. This model showed a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 5.1 mg g(-1). For AMO determination, the best siPLS model was obtained with spectra divided in 10 intervals and combinations of 4 intervals. This model showed a RMSEP of 22.3 mg g(-1). The proposed method was considered as a suitable for the simultaneous determination of CA and AMO in commercial pharmaceuticals products.

  9. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activity of ticarcillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausk, F; Stratton, C W

    1986-01-01

    We studied the ability of clavulanic acid (CA) to induce beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and what effect this might have on the susceptibilities to beta-lactam agents. We first used a disk approximation method to test 4 laboratory and 16 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates against antipseudomonal beta-lactam agents for truncation by CA and found this to be very common. All antimicrobial compounds except imipenem demonstrated truncation in the vicinity of CA. We also evaluated the extent to which chromosomal beta-lactamase is induced by CA and found this to occur to some degree in most isolates and to be dependent on the concentration of CA. Finally, we performed time kill curves on these isolates to compare bacterial growth in ticarcillin alone with growth in ticarcillin-CA (the CA at 2 or 4 micrograms/ml). We found that CA at this concentration has neither an antagonistic nor a synergistic antibacterial effect in combination with ticarcillin. PMID:3098162

  10. Dissociation of cephamycin C and clavulanic acid biosynthesis by 1,3-diaminopropane in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carla A; Cavallieri, André P; Baptista, Amanda S; Araujo, Maria L G C

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus produces simultaneously cephamycin C (CephC) and clavulanic acid (CA). Adding 1,3-diaminopropane to culture medium stimulates production of beta-lactam antibiotics. However, there are no studies on the influence of this diamine on coordinated production of CephC and CA. This study indicates that 1,3-diaminopropane can dissociate CephC and CA productions. Results indicated that low diamine concentrations (below 1.25 g l(-1)) in culture medium increased CA production by 200%, but not that of CephC. Conversely, CephC production increased by 300% when 10 g l(-1) 1,3-diaminopropane was added to culture medium. Addition of just L-lysine (18.3 g l(-1)) to culture medium increased both biocompounds. On the other hand, while L-lysine plus 7.5 g l(-1) 1,3-diaminopropane increased volumetric production of CephC by 1100%, its impact on CA production was insignificant. The combined results suggest that extracellular concentration of 1,3-diaminopropane may trigger the dissociation of CephC and CA biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus.

  11. Development of a colorimetric assay for rapid quantitative measurement of clavulanic acid in microbial samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xida; Xiang, Sihai; Li, Jia; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Keqian

    2012-02-01

    We developed a colorimetric assay to quantify clavulanic acid (CA) in culture broth of Streptomyces clavuligerus, to facilitate screening of a large number of S. clavuligerus mutants. The assay is based on a β-lactamase-catalyzed reaction, in which the yellow substrate nitrocefin (λ (max)=390 nm) is converted to a red product (λ (max)=486 nm). Since CA can irreversibly inhibit β-lactamase activity, the level of CA in a sample can be measured as a function of the A (390)/A (486) ratio in the assay mixture. The sensitivity and detection window of the assay were determined to be 50 μg L(-1) and 50 μg L(-1) to 10 mg L(-1), respectively. The reliability of the assay was confirmed by comparing assay results with those obtained by HPLC. The assay was used to screen a pool of 65 S. clavuligerus mutants and was reliable for identifying CA over-producing mutants. Therefore, the assay saves time and labor in large-scale mutant screening and evaluation tasks. The detection window and the reliability of this assay are markedly better than those of previously reported CA assays. This assay method is suitable for high throughput screening of microbial samples and allows direct visual observation of CA levels on agar plates.

  12. Breeding of clavulanic acid mutant%克拉维酸高产菌的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝玲

    2011-01-01

    以带小棒链霉菌bs1574为出发菌株,经γ射线照射,并结合甘油耐受性菌株的理性筛选,选育得到较佳诱变菌株bs2325,效价达2 569μg/mL.采用摇瓶发酵初筛和复筛,选育出甘油耐受性正向突变菌株,是出发菌株(效价为968 μg/mL)的2.65倍,该突变菌株在琼脂斜面培养基上连续转接传代4代,克拉维酸的产量保持稳定.%The method of screening and selecting better mutants of bs2325 by γ-ray irradiation onto streptomyces bs1574 is put forward, and the titer is 2 569 μg/mL. By fermentation screening and secondary screening, strains of mutant glycerol positive tolerance is selected, whose titer is 2. 65 times that of the original strain(968 μg/mL). The mutant strain grows well during four generations on the agar slant medium, and the yield of clavulanic acid remains stable.

  13. Simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification of cefixime and clavulanic acid in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubala, Anil; Nagarajan, Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan; Vimal, Chandran Sathish; George, Renjith

    2015-01-01

    A simple and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the simultaneous quantification of cefixime (CX) and clavulanic acid (CA) in human plasma. Analytes and internal standard were extracted from human plasma by a solid phase extraction technique using a Sam prep (3 mL, 100 mg) extraction cartridge. The extracted samples were chromatographed on a reverse phase C18 column using a mixture of methanol : acetonitrile : 2 mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) (25 : 25 : 50, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quantification of the analytes were carried out using single quadrupole LC-APCI-MS through selected ion monitoring at m/z 452 and 198, respectively, for CX and CA. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-10.0 and 0.1-10.0 μg/mL, respectively, for CX and CA. The mean plasma extraction recoveries of the CX and CA were found to be 95.20-96.27% and 94.67-95.58%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetics of CX and CA after oral administration of single dosage CX/CA (200/125 mg) pill to the humans (n = 12).

  14. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  15. Influence of glycerol and ornithine feeding on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Teodoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of glycerol and ornithine feeding on clavulanic acid (CA production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated. In batch experiments, CA maximum concentration (Cp max ranged randomly from 430 to 560 mg.L-1, with a maximum increase of 10% in relation to the control run, without ornithine. However, the maximum volumetric productivity of CA (Pp max of 13.7 mg.L-1.h-1 was obtained with 0.66 g.L-1 of ornithine, 44.2% higher than the Pp max in the control run. In fed-batch experiments, Cp max varied within the narrow range from 1.254 to 1.405 g.L-1, 2.5 times higher than that obtained in the control run. The presence of ornithine increased the Pp max, although it influenced only slightly the Cp max. Concerning glycerol, the highest CA production of 1.6 g.L-1 was obtained in the fed-batch with glycerol and ornithine (180 and 3.7 g.L−1 in a 10-L bioreactor, showing a positive effect of ornithine and glycerol, in the proper proportion (48.6:1, on CA biosynthesis.

  16. Clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus: biogenesis, regulation and strain improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradkar, Ashish

    2013-07-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a potent β-lactamase inhibitor produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus and has been successfully used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics (for example, Augmentin) to treat infections caused by β-lactamase-producing pathogens. Since the discovery of CA in the late 1970s, significant information has accumulated on its biosynthesis, and regarding molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of its production. Notably, the genes directing CA biosynthesis are clustered along with the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the β-lactam antibiotic, cephamycin C, and co-regulated, which makes this organism unique in that the production of an antibiotic and production of a small molecule to protect the antibiotic from its enzymatic degradation are controlled by shared mechanisms. Traditionally, the industrial strain improvement programs have relied significantly on random mutagenesis and selection approach. However, the recent availability of the genome sequence of S. clavuligerus along with the capability to build metabolic models, and ability to engineer the organism by directed approaches, has created exciting opportunities to improve strain productivity more efficiently. This review will include focus mainly on the gene organization of the CA biosynthetic genes, regulatory mechanisms that affect its production, and will include perspectives on improving strain productivity.

  17. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  18. Ex vivo pharmacodynamic study of piperacillin alone and in combination with tazobactam, compared with ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, P; Duchateau, V; Lambert, C; Husson, M; Kinzig, M; Sörgel, F

    1993-01-01

    Ten volunteers received piperacillin (4 g), piperacillin (4 g) plus tazobactam (0.5 g) (Tazocin), and ticarcillin (3 g) plus clavulanic acid (0.2 g) (Timentin) intravenously over 30 min in a cross-over blinded scheme. Blood samples were obtained 0.5 and 3 h after the end of infusion to measure by (high-pressure liquid chromatography) the concentration and bactericidal titers against 70 gram-negative bacilli. Serum time-kill curves were done against 35 strains to measure killing rates and area under the time-kill curve. Using the measure of serum bactericidal activity, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid and piperacillin-tazobactam were equally effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Bacteroides fragilis. Piperacillin-tazobactam was superior to ticarcillin-clavulanic acid against piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (4 to 16 times) and S. marcescens (2 to 4 times). By using the area under the time-kill curve, piperacillin-tazobactam was equivalent to ticarcillin-clavulanic acid against piperacillin-susceptible strains; piperacillin-tazobactam was significantly more active than piperacillin against piperacillin-resistant strains and was more active than ticarcillin-clavulanic acid when the sample obtained 3 h after the end of infusion to volunteers was considered. Serum piperacillin concentrations (mean +/- standard error of the mean; in mg/liter) were 115 +/- 13 at 0.5 h and 7.4 +/- 1.4 at 3 h after the administration of piperacillin alone and 105.5 +/- 12.6 (0.5 h) and 7.7 +/- 1.6 after the administration of piperacillin-tazobactam. Serum tazobactam concentrations (in milligram per liter) were 13.1 +/- 1.4 at 0.5 h and 1.2 +/- 0.2 at 3 h. The piperacillin-tazobactam ratio was 8 +/- 0.3 at 0.5 h and 6.2 +/- 0.5 at 3 h. Piperacillin-tazobactam appears promising against beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacilli. PMID:8239597

  19. Pharmacokinetics study of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (8:1)--a new combination in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers using the LC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanhong; Wang, Yinfu; Xie, Hua; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping; Men, Xiandong; Xu, Liting; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    New oral granules of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio have recently been developed and approved to conduct clinical trial in China. To date, there has been no report studying the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 with different dosage in healthy volunteers and provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determining the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma was developed and applied to this open-label, single- and multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 1, 2, and 4 pouches of the test granulation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio (amoxicillin is 250 mg and clavulanic acid is 31.25 mg per pouch). In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 to determine the Cmin of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. In the 4th day, samples were collected from 0.25 to 24 h after drug administration. Profiles of the concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were best fitted to two-compartment model. In this group of healthy Chinese subjects, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin fitted the linear dynamic feature at doses of 250,500 and 1,000 mg, and not obviously about clavulanic acid at doses of 31.25, 62.5, and 125 mg. The t 1/2 of single dose and multidoses were (1.45 ± 0.12) and (1.44 ± 0.26) h of amoxicillin and (1.24 ± 0.23) and (1.24 ± 0.17) of clavulanic acid, respectively; The AUC0-24 of single dose

  20. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  1. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography: Mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in biological matrices requires sensitive and specific methods which allow determination of therapeutic concentration in μg/mL range. Analytical methods for determination of their concentrations in body fluids described in literature include high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS method which could be used for the spectral identification and quantification of the low concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma. Method. A sensitive and specific UPLC/MS method for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid determination was developed in this study. The samples were taken from the adult healthy volunteers receiving per os one tablet of amoxicillin (875 mg in combination with clavulanic acid (125 mg. Results. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct deproteinization with perchloric acid. Quantification limit of 0.01 μg/ml for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was achieved. The method was reproducible day by day (RSD < 7 %. Analytical recoveries for amoxicillin ranged from 98.82% to 100.9% (for concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 μg/mL, and recoveries for clavulanic acid were 99,89% to 100.1% (for concentrations of 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL. This assay was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers after a single-oral administration of amoxicillin/ clavulanic combination. The determined plasma concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were in the range of the expected values upon the literature data for HPLC-UV and LC-MS methods. Conclusion. The described method provided a few advantages comparing with LC/MS-MS method. The method is faster using running time of 5 minute, has lower limit of quantification (LOQ and it

  2. Observation of an Acryloyl–Thiamin Diphosphate Adduct in the First Step of Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merski, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The first committed biosynthetic step toward clavulanic acid, the clinically-important β-lactamase inhibitor, is catalyzed by the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine synthase (CEAS). This protein carries out a unique reaction among ThDP-dependent processes in which a C–N bond is formed, and an electrophilic acryloyl–thiazolium intermediate of ThDP is proposed to be involved, unlike the nucleophilic enamine species typically generated by this class of enzymes. Here we present evidence for the existence of the putative acryloyl adduct, and report the unexpected observation of a long-wavelength chromophore (λ = 433 nm), which we attribute to this enzyme bound species. Chemical models were synthesized that both confirm its expected absorption (λ = 310–320 nm), and exclude self-condensation and intramolecular imine formation with the cofactor as its cause. Circular dichroism experiments and others discount charge transfer as a likely explanation for the ~120 nm red shift of the chromophore (~25 kcal). Examples are well-known of charged molecules that exhibit significantly red-shifted UV-visible spectra compared to their neutral forms as, for example, polyene cations and dyes such as indigo and the cyanines. Rhodopsin is the classic biochemical example where the protein (opsin)-bound protonated Schiff base of retinal displays a remarkable range of red-shifted absorptions modulated by the protein environment. Similar tuning of the chromophoric behavior of the enzyme-bound CEAS acryloyl•ThDP species may be occurring. PMID:18052280

  3. In Vitro Activity and In Vivo Efficacy of Clavulanic Acid against Acinetobacter baumannii▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beceiro, Alejandro; López-Rojas, Rafael; Domínguez-Herrera, Juan; Docobo-Pérez, Fernando; Bou, Germán; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2009-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLA) exhibits low MICs against some Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The present study evaluates the efficacy of CLA in a murine model of A. baumannii pneumonia. For this purpose, two clinical strains, Ab11 and Ab51, were used; CLA MICs for these strains were 2 and 4 mg/liter, respectively, and the imipenem (IPM) MIC was 0.5 mg/liter for both. A pneumonia model in C57BL/6 mice was used. The CLA dosage (13 mg/kg of body weight given intraperitoneally) was chosen to reach a maximum concentration of the drug in serum similar to that in humans and a time during which the serum CLA concentration remained above the MIC equivalent to 40% of the interval between doses. Six groups (n = 15) were inoculated with Ab11 or Ab51 and were allocated to IPM or CLA therapy or to the untreated control group. In time-kill experiments, CLA was bactericidal only against Ab11 whereas IPM was bactericidal against both strains. CLA and IPM both decreased bacterial concentrations in lungs, 1.78 and 2.47 log10 CFU/g (P ≤ 0.001), respectively, in the experiments with Ab11 and 2.42 and 2.28 log10 CFU/g (P ≤ 0.001), respectively, with Ab51. IPM significantly increased the sterility of blood cultures over that for the controls with both strains (P ≤ 0.005); CLA had the same effect with Ab51 (P < 0.005) but not with Ab11 (P = 0.07). For the first time, we suggest that CLA may be used for the treatment of experimental severe A. baumannii infections. PMID:19635957

  4. Shear conditions in clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in stirred tank and airlift bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, M O; Badino, A C

    2012-08-01

    In biochemical processes involving filamentous microorganisms, the high shear rate may damage suspended cells leading to viability loss and cell disruption. In this work, the influence of the shear conditions in clavulanic acid (CA) production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was evaluated in a 4-dm(3) conventional stirred tank (STB) and in 6-dm(3) concentric-tube airlift (ALB) bioreactors. Batch cultivations were performed in a STB at 600 and 800 rpm and 0.5 vvm (cultivations B1 and B2) and in ALB at 3.0 and 4.1 vvm (cultivations A1 and A2) to define two initial oxygen transfer conditions in both bioreactors. The average shear rate ([Formula: see text]) of the cultivations was estimated using correlations of recent literature based on experimental data of rheological properties of the broth (consistency index, K, and flow index, n) and operating conditions, impeller speed (N) for STB and superficial gas velocity in the riser (UGR) for ALB. In the same oxygen transfer condition, the [Formula: see text] values for ALB were higher than those obtained in STB. The maximum [Formula: see text] presented a strong correlation with a maximum consistency index (K (max)) of the broth. Close values of maximum CA production were obtained in cultivations A1 and A2 (454 and 442 mg L(-1)) with similar maximum [Formula: see text] values of 4,247 and 4,225 s(-1). In cultivations B1 and B2, the maximum CA production of 269 and 402 mg L(-1) were reached with a maximum [Formula: see text] of 904 and 1,786 s(-1). The results show that high values of average shear rate increase the CA production regardless of the oxygen transfer condition and bioreactor model.

  5. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV.

  6. Separation of clavulanic acid from fermented broth of amino acids by an aqueous two-phase system and ion-exchange adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Clovis Sacardo; Cuel, Maressa Fabiano; Barreto, Verônica Orlandin; Kwong, Wu Hong; Hokka, Carlos O; Barboza, M

    2012-02-15

    The clavulanic acid is a substance which inhibits the β-lactamases used with penicillins for therapeutic treatment. After the fermentation, by-products of low molecular weight such as amino acids lysine, histidine, proline and tyrosine are present in the fermented broth. To remove these impurities the techniques of extraction by an aqueous two-phase system of 17% polyethylene glycol molecular weight 600 and 15% potassium phosphate were used for a partial purification. A subsequent ion-exchange adsorption was used for the recuperation of the clavulanic acid of the top phase and purification getting a concentration factor of 2 and purification of 100% in relation to the amino acids lysine, histidine, proline and tyrosine.

  7. Expression of the endogenous and heterologous clavulanic acid cluster in Streptomyces flavogriseus: why a silent cluster is sleeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Álvarez, R; Martínez-Burgo, Y; Pérez-Redondo, R; Braña, A F; Martín, J F; Liras, P

    2013-11-01

    Clusters for clavulanic acid (CA) biosynthesis are present in the actinomycetes Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331 and Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017. These clusters, which are silent, contain blocks of conserved genes in the same order as those of the Streptomyces clavuligerus CA cluster but assembled in a different organization. S. flavogriseus was grown in nine different media, but clavulanic acid production was undetectable using bioassays or by high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of S. flavogriseus CA biosynthesis genes showed that the regulatory genes ccaR and claR and some biosynthetic genes were expressed whereas expression of cyp, orf12, orf13, and oppA2 was undetectable. The ccaR gene of S. clavuligerus was unable to switch on CA production in S. flavogriseus::[Pfur-ccaR C], but insertion of a cosmid carrying the S. clavuligerus CA cluster (not including the ccaR gene) conferred clavulanic acid production on S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CA] particularly in TBO and YEME media; these results suggests that some of the S. flavogriseus CA genes are inactive. The known heptameric sequences recognized by CcaR in S. clavuligerus are poorly or not conserved in S. flavogriseus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the CA gene clusters of S. clavuligerus and S. flavogriseus showed that the average expression value of the expressed genes in the former strain was in the order of 1.68-fold higher than in the later. The absence of CA production by S. flavogriseus can be traced to the lack of expression of the essential genes cyp, orf12, orf13, orf14, and oppA2. Heterologous expression of S. clavuligerus CA gene cluster in S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CA] was 11- to 14-fold lower than in the parental strain, suggesting that the genetic background of the host strain is important for optimal production of CA in Streptomyces.

  8. Stability of clavulanic acid under variable pH, ionic strength and temperature conditions : a new kinetic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Valéria Carvalho; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Haga, Raquel Brandão; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota de Oliveira; J.A. Teixeira; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa Júnior, Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a β-lactam antibiotic that alone exhibits only weak antibacterial activity, but is a potent inhibitor of β-lactamases enzymes. For this reason it is used as a therapeutic in conjunction with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, it is a well-known fact that it is unstable not only during its production phase, but also during downstream processing. Therefore, the main objective of this study was the evaluation of CA long-term stability under different conditions of p...

  9. Randomized comparative study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachalios, G N

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were compared with those of co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections. A total of 104 patients (mean age, 52 years) with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. Characteristics and infecting organisms were equivalent in both groups of patients. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria pathogen in both groups. Both drugs resulted in clinical improvement in 100% of the patients; bacteriological cure after the termination of therapy was 95% with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 83% with co-trimoxazole (P less than 0.001). Side effects were not severe enough to necessitate discontinuation of the antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is effective and safe therapy for acute urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria. PMID:3911880

  10. Variable Absorption of Clavulanic Acid After an Oral Dose of 25 mg/kg of Clavubactin® and Synulox® in Healthy Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Vree

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this investigation were to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and to identify parameters, based on individual plasma concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in cats, that may govern the observed differences in absorption of both drugs. The evaluation was based on the data from plasma concentration-time curves obtained following a single-dose, open, randomised, two-way crossover phase-I study, each involving 24 female cats treated with two Amoxi-Clav formulations (formulation A was Clavubactin® and formulation was B Synulox® ; 80/20 mg, 24 animals, 48 drug administrations. Plasma amoxicillin and clavulanic acid concentrations were determined using validated bioassay methods. The half-life of elimination of amoxicillin is 1.2 h (t1/2 = 1.24 ± 0.28 h, Cmax = 12.8 ± 2.12 μg/ml, and that of clavulanic acid 0.6 h (t1/2 = 0.63 ± 0.16 h, Cmax = 4.60 ± 1.68 μg/ml. There is a ninefold variation in the AUCt of clavulanic acid for both formulations, while the AUCt of amoxicillin varies by a factor of two. The highest clavulanic acid AUCt values indicate the best absorption; all other data indicate less absorption. Taking into account that the amoxicillin–to–clavulanic acid dose ratio in the two products tested was 4:1, the blood concentration ratios may actually vary much more, apparently without compromising the products’ high efficacy against susceptible microorganisms.

  11. OXA-18, a class D clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, L N; Naas, T; Bouthors, A T; Barakett, V; Nordmann, P

    1997-01-01

    Clinical isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mus showed resistance both to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and to aztreonam. We detected a typical double-disk synergy image when ceftazidime or aztreonam was placed next to a clavulanic acid disk on an agar plate. This resistance phenotype suggested the presence of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Isoelectric focusing revealed that this strain produced three beta-lactamases, of pI 5.5, 7.4, and 8.2. A 2.6-kb Sau3A fragment encoding the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of pI 5.5 was cloned from P. aeruginosa Mus genomic DNA. This enzyme, named OXA-18, had a relative molecular mass of 30.6 kDa. OXA-18 has a broad substrate profile, hydrolyzing amoxicillin, ticarcillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam, but not imipenem or cephamycins. Its activity was totally inhibited by clavulanic acid at 2 microg/ml. Hydrolysis constants of OXA-18 (Vmax, Km) confirmed the MIC results. Cloxacillin and oxacillin hydrolysis was noticeable with the partially purified OXA-18. The blaOXA-18 gene encodes a 275-amino-acid protein which has weak identity with all class D beta-lactamases except OXA-9 and OXA-12 (45 and 42% amino acid identity, respectively). OXA-18 is likely to be chromosomally encoded since no plasmid was found in the strain and because attempts to transfer the resistance marker failed. OXA-18 is peculiar since it is a class D beta-lactamase which confers high resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and seems to have unique hydrolytic properties among non-class A enzymes. PMID:9333046

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of Streptomyces clavuligerus ΔccaR::tsr: effects of the cephamycin C-clavulanic acid cluster regulator CcaR on global regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Álvarez, R; Rodríguez-García, A; Santamarta, I; Pérez-Redondo, R; Prieto-Domínguez, A; Martínez-Burgo, Y; Liras, P

    2014-05-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 and S. clavuligerus ΔccaR::tsr cultures were grown in asparagine-starch medium, and samples were taken in the exponential and stationary growth phases. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the expression of 186 genes was altered in the ccaR-deleted mutant. These genes belong to the cephamycin C gene cluster, clavulanic acid gene cluster, clavams, holomycin, differentiation, carbon, nitrogen, amino acids or phosphate metabolism and energy production. All the clavulanic acid biosynthesis genes showed Mc values in the order of -4.23. The blip gene-encoding a β-lactamase inhibitory protein was also controlled by the cephamycin C-clavulanic acid cluster regulator (Mc -2.54). The expression of the cephamycin C biosynthesis genes was greatly reduced in the mutant (Mc values up to -7.1), while the genes involved in putative β-lactam resistance were less affected (Mc average -0.88). Genes for holomycin biosynthesis were upregulated. In addition, the lack of clavulanic acid and cephamycin production negatively affected the expression of genes for the clavulanic acid precursor arginine and of miscellaneous genes involved in nitrogen metabolism (amtB, glnB, glnA3, glnA2, glnA1). The transcriptomic results were validated by quantative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and luciferase assay of luxAB-coupled promoters. Transcriptomic analysis of the homologous genes of S. coelicolor validated the results obtained for S. clavuligerus primary metabolism genes.

  13. Molecular Analysis of the Clavulanic Acid Regulatory Gene Isolated from an Iranian Strain of Streptomyces Clavuligerus , PTCC 1709

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojati, Zohreh; Salehi, Zahra; Motovali-Bashi, Majid; Korbekandi, Hasan; Jami, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The clavulanic acid regulatory gene (claR) is in the clavulanic acid biosynthetic gene cluster that encodes ClaR. This protein is a putative regulator of the late steps of clavulanic acid biosynthesis. The aim of this research is the molecular cloning of claR, isolated from the Iranian strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two different strains of S. clavuligerus were used (PTCC 1705 and DSM 738), of which there is no claR sequence record for strain PTCC 1705 in all three main gene banks. The specific designed primers were subjected to a few base modifications for introduction of the recognition sites of BamHI and ClaI. The claR gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA isolated from S. clavuligerus PTCC 1705. Nested-PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and sequencing were used for molecular analysis of the claR gene. The confirmed claR was subjected to double digestion with BamHI and ClaI. The cut claR was ligated into a pBluescript (pBs) vector and transformed into E. coli. Results: The entire sequence of the isolated claR (Iranian strain) was identified. The presence of the recombinant vector in the transformed colonies was confirmed by the colony-PCR procedure. The correct structure of the recombinant vector, isolated from the transformed E. coli, was confirmed using gel electrophoresis, PCR, and double digestion with restriction enzymes. Conclusion: The constructed recombinant cassette, named pZSclaR, can be regarded as an appropriate tool for site directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning. At this time, claR has been cloned accompanied with its precisely selected promoter so it could be used in expression vectors. Hence the ClaR is known as a putative regulatory protein. The overproduced protein could also be used for other related investigations, such as a mobility shift assay. PMID:23508694

  14. Design and exploration of novel boronic acid inhibitors reveals important interactions with a clavulanic acid-resistant sulfhydryl-variable (SHV) β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Marisa L; Rodkey, Elizabeth A; Taracila, Magdalena A; Drawz, Sarah M; Bethel, Christopher R; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Smith, Kerri M; Xu, Yan; Dwulit-Smith, Jeffrey R; Romagnoli, Chiara; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; van den Akker, Focco; Bonomo, Robert A

    2013-02-14

    Inhibitor resistant (IR) class A β-lactamases pose a significant threat to many current antibiotic combinations. The K234R substitution in the SHV β-lactamase, from Klebsiella pneumoniae , results in resistance to ampicillin/clavulanate. After site-saturation mutagenesis of Lys-234 in SHV, microbiological and biochemical characterization of the resulting β-lactamases revealed that only -Arg conferred resistance to ampicillin/clavulanate. X-ray crystallography revealed two conformations of Arg-234 and Ser-130 in SHV K234R. The movement of Ser-130 is the principal cause of the observed clavulanate resistance. A panel of boronic acid inhibitors was designed and tested against SHV-1 and SHV K234R. A chiral ampicillin analogue was discovered to have a 2.4 ± 0.2 nM K(i) for SHV K234R; the chiral ampicillin analogue formed a more complex hydrogen-bonding network in SHV K234R vs SHV-1. Consideration of the spatial position of Ser-130 and Lys-234 and this hydrogen-bonding network will be important in the design of novel antibiotics targeting IR β-lactamases.

  15. Molecular Analysis of the Clavulanic Acid Regulatory Gene Isolated from an Iranian Strain of Streptomyces Clavuligerus, PTCC 1709

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Korbekandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The clavulanic acid regulatory gene (claR is in the clavulanic acid biosyntheticgene cluster that encodes ClaR. This protein is a putative regulator of the late steps ofclavulanic acid biosynthesis. The aim of this research is the molecular cloning of claR,isolated from the Iranian strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two different strains of S. clavuligeruswere used (PTCC 1705 and DSM 738, of which there is no claR sequence record forstrain PTCC 1705 in all three main gene banks. The specific designed primers were subjectedto a few base modifications for introduction of the recognition sites of BamHI andClaI. The claR gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using DNA isolatedfrom S. clavuligerus PTCC 1705. Nested-PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP, and sequencing were used for molecular analysis of the claR gene.The confirmed claR was subjected to double digestion with BamHI and ClaI. The cut claRwas ligated into a pBluescript (pBs vector and transformed into E. coli.Results: The entire sequence of the isolated claR (Iranian strain was identified. Thepresence of the recombinant vector in the transformed colonies was confirmed by thecolony-PCR procedure. The correct structure of the recombinant vector, isolated from thetransformed E. coli, was confirmed using gel electrophoresis, PCR, and double digestionwith restriction enzymes.Conclusion: The constructed recombinant cassette, named pZSclaR, can be regardedas an appropriate tool for site directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning. At this time, claRhas been cloned accompanied with its precisely selected promoter so it could be used inexpression vectors. Hence the ClaR is known as a putative regulatory protein. The overproducedprotein could also be used for other related investigations, such as a mobilityshift assay.

  16. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Induced by Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid: Report of a Case Presenting With Generalized Lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrigou, Ekaterini; Grapsa, Dimitra; Charpidou, Andriani; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare pustular skin reaction, most commonly triggered by antibiotics. Although its diagnosis is based primarily on the presence of specific clinical and histopathologic features, additional in vivo (patch testing) or in vitro testing may be required, especially in atypical cases, to more accurately determine the causative agent. The authors report a histologically confirmed case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis that was induced by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as documented by subsequent patch testing, and presented with generalized painful lymphadenopathy, mimicking an acute infectious process. This is a very rare and diagnostically challenging clinical presentation of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which has been reported, to the best of our knowledge, only once previously.

  17. Abnormal physiological properties and altered cell wall composition in Streptococcus pneumoniae grown in the presence of clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, A; Severina, E; Tomasz, A

    1997-01-01

    Subinhibitory concentrations of clavulanate caused premature induction of stationary-phase autolysis, sensitization to lysozyme, and reductions in the MICs of deoxycholate and penicillin for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the range of clavulanate concentrations producing these effects, this beta-lactam compound was selectively bound to PBP 3. Cell walls isolated from pneumococci grown in the presence of clavulanate showed increased sensitivity to the hydrolytic action of purified pneumococcal autolysin in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the peptidoglycan isolated from the clavulanate-grown cells showed major qualitative and quantitative changes in stem peptide composition, the most striking feature of which was the accumulation of peptide species carrying intact D-alanyl-D-alanine residues at the carboxy termini. The altered biological and biochemical properties of the clavulanate-grown pneumococci appear to be the consequences of suppressed D,D-carboxypeptidase activity. PMID:9055983

  18. Efficacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the prevention of infection and dry socket after third molar extraction. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteagoitia, María-Iciar; Barbier, Luis; Santamaría, Gorka; Ramos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background Prophylactic use of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, although controversial, is common in routine clinical practice in third molar surgery. Material and Methods Our objective was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid in reducing the incidence of dry socket and/or infection after third molar extraction. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis consulting electronic databases and references in retrieved articles. We included double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials published up to June 2015 investigating the efficacy of amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid on the incidence of the aforementioned conditions after third molar extraction. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated with a generic inverse-variance approach and a random effect model using Stata/IC 13 and Review Manager Version 5.2. Stratified analysis was performed by antibiotic type. Results We included 10 papers in the qualitative review and in the quantitative synthesis (1997 extractions: 1072 in experimental groups and 925 in controls, with 27 and 74 events of dry socket and/or infection, respectively). The overall RR was 0.350 (p< 0.001; 95% CI 0.214 to 0.574). We found no evidence of heterogeneity (I2=0%, p=0.470). The number needed to treat was 18 (95% CI 13 to 29). Five studies reported adverse reactions (RR=1.188, 95% CI 0.658 to 2.146, p =0.567). The RRs were 0.563 for amoxicillin (95% CI 0.295 to 1.08, p=0.082) and 0.215 for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (95% CI 0.117 to 0.395, p<0.001). Conclusions Prophylactic use of amoxicillin does not significantly reduce the risk of infection and/or dry socket after third molar extraction. With amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, the risk decreases significantly. Nevertheless, considering the number needed to treat, low prevalence of infection, potential adverse reactions to antibiotics and lack of serious complications in placebo groups, the routine prescription of

  19. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin in the reduction of postsurgical sequelae after third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in a Nigerian university teaching hospital

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    Kizito Chioma Ndukwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common sequelae after surgical removal of mandibular third molar are pain, trismus, swelling, and dysphagia. However, these symptoms can also signal the onset of surgical site infection and alveoli osteitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin and preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the reduction of postinflammatory complications, surgical site infection, and alveolar osteitis following the third molar surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 135 patients were randomized into three equal groups: Group A (preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with preoperative dose of 875/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid followed by 500/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12 hourly for 5 days, Group B (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875/125 mg tablets, and Group C (levofloxacin prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of levofloxacin 1000 mg tablets. All patients had ostectomy using surgical handpiece and burs and received same analgesics (tabs ibuprofen 400 mg 8 hourly for 3 days. Results: No case of surgical site infection or alveoli osteitis was recorded in the study groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to pain, mouth opening, postoperative facial dimension, and body temperature. Conclusion: Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a single preoperative bolus should be adequate for the prevention of postoperative wound infection and alveoli osteitis following the third molar extraction as there is no need for an extension of the antibiotic. Moreover, levofloxacin can be utilized as prophylaxis in patients undergoing mandibular third molar extraction if such patients are allergic to penicillins.

  20. BEL-1, a Novel Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase, and the Class 1 Integron In120 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Brinas, Laura; Verlinde, Annemie; Ide, Louis; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Screening by a double-disk synergy test identified a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that produced a clavulanic acid-inhibited expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Cloning and sequencing identified a novel ESBL, BEL-1, weakly related to other Ambler class A ESBLs. β-Lactamase BEL-1 hydrolyzed significantly most expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, and its activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid, tazobactam, cefoxitin, moxalactam, and imipenem. This chromosome-encoded ESBL gene was embedded in a class 1 integron containing three other gene cassettes. In addition, this integron was bracketed by Tn1404 transposon sequences at its right end and by P. aeruginosa-specific sequences at its left end. PMID:16127048

  1. The combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole in the treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

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    Najwa A Mhmoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the therapeutic efficiency of these agents is reduced by the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus co-infection developing in these sinuses. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the safety, efficacy and clinical outcome of combined antibiotic and antifungal therapy in eumycetoma patients with superimposed Staphylococcus aureus infection. The study enrolled 337 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma and S. aureus co-infection. Patients were allocated into three groups; 142 patients received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole, 93 patients received ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole and 102 patients received ketoconazole only. The study showed that, patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment had an overall better clinical outcome compared to those who had combined ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole or to those who received ketoconazole only. In this study, 60.6% of the combined amoxicillin-clavulanic acid/ketoconazole group showed complete or partial clinical response to treatment compared to 30.1% in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 36.3% in the ketoconazole only group. The study also showed that 64.5% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 59.8% in the ketoconazole only group had progressive disease and poor outcome. This study showed that the combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment is safe and offers good clinical outcome and it is therefore recommended to treat eumycetoma patients with Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

  2. Advances in β-1actamase inhibitor clavulanic acid%β-内酰胺酶抑制剂克拉维酸研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟勇; 张国华; 王忠彦; 官家发

    2003-01-01

    综述了临床使用的β-内酰胺酶抑制剂克拉维酸(clavulanic acid,CA)产生菌的种类、作用机理、生物合成、代谢调控、以及提高克拉维酸产量的策略等方面的最新研究进展.

  3. The combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole in the treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhmoud, Najwa A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2014-06-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the therapeutic efficiency of these agents is reduced by the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus co-infection developing in these sinuses. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the safety, efficacy and clinical outcome of combined antibiotic and antifungal therapy in eumycetoma patients with superimposed Staphylococcus aureus infection. The study enrolled 337 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma and S. aureus co-infection. Patients were allocated into three groups; 142 patients received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole, 93 patients received ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole and 102 patients received ketoconazole only. The study showed that, patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment had an overall better clinical outcome compared to those who had combined ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole or to those who received ketoconazole only. In this study, 60.6% of the combined amoxicillin-clavulanic acid/ketoconazole group showed complete or partial clinical response to treatment compared to 30.1% in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 36.3% in the ketoconazole only group. The study also showed that 64.5% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 59.8% in the ketoconazole only group had progressive disease and poor outcome. This study showed that the combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment is safe and offers good clinical outcome and it is therefore recommended to treat eumycetoma patients with Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

  4. Randomized comparative study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Karachalios, G N

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were compared with those of co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections. A total of 104 patients (mean age, 52 years) with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. Characteristics and infecting organisms were equivalent in both groups of patients. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria pathogen in both groups. Both drugs resulted in clinical improvement in 1...

  5. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin-treated SPF mice as gnotobiotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Miroslav; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Maďar, Marián; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Hrčková, Gabriela; Nemcová, Radomíra

    2016-11-01

    The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18.87 mg/kg body weight (0.1 ml of dilution per mouse) were performed every 12 h during first 5 days of experiment. Five-day treatment with ATB led to a reduced survivability of microorganisms in faeces (28.33 ± 0.43 % on day 2) and caecum content (28.10 ± 1.56 %), where no cultivable microorganisms in faeces were present. Ten-day convalescence of decontaminated animals under gnotobiotic conditions prevented recovery of species diversity in mice gut microflora. This was reduced to two detectable cultivable species, namely Escherichia coli (GenBank KX086704) and Enterococcus sp. (GenBank KX086705) which were capable to restore its metabolic (CRL 2012) and morphological potential (Baratta et al. Histochem Cell Biol 131:713-726, 2009) within physiological range. Animals obtained under this procedure can be used in further studies. As a result, we created a mouse gnoto model with reduced and controlled microflora without alteration of the overall health status of the respective animals.

  6. Effect of clavulanic acid on activity of beta-lactam antibiotics in Serratia marcescens isolates producing both a TEM beta-lactamase and a chromosomal cephalosporinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, K; Flamm, R K; Ohringer, S; Singer, S B; Summerill, R; Bonner, D P

    1991-01-01

    An isolate of Serratia marcescens that produced both an inducible chromosomal and a plasmid-mediated TEM-1 beta-lactamase was resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin and also demonstrated decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics (ESBAs). Clavulanic acid did not lower the MICs of the ESBAs, but it decreased the MICs of the penicillins. The TEM-1-producing plasmid was transferred to a more susceptible S. marcescens strain that produced a well-characterized inducible chromosomal beta-lactamase. The MICs of the ESBAs remained at a low level for the transconjugant. Ampicillin and amoxicillin which were good substrates for the plasmid-mediated enzyme, were not well hydrolyzed by the chromosomal enzymes; the ESBAs were hydrolyzed slowly by all the enzymes. When each of the S. marcescens strains was grown with these beta-lactam antibiotics, at least modest increases in chromosomal beta-lactamase activity were observed. When organisms were grown in the presence of clavulanic acid and an ESBA, no enhanced induction was observed. The increases in the MICs of the ESBAs observed for the initial clinical isolate may have been due to a combination of low inducibility, slow hydrolysis, and differences in permeability between the S. marcescens isolates. When clavulanic acid and a penicillin were added to strains that produced both a plasmid-mediated TEM and a chromosomal beta-lactamase, much higher levels of chromosomal beta-lactamase activity were present than were observed in cultures induced by the penicillin alone. This was due to the higher levels of penicillin that were available for induction as a result of inhibition of the TEM enzyme by clavulanate. Images PMID:1803992

  7. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX.

  8. Simultaneous detection and comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone in cows' milk by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Kui; Wang, Jianfen; Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guanlin; Li, Congying; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), clavulanic acid (CLAV) and prednisolone (PSL) are widely used in combination for the treatment of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. However, no method has been reported to detect these three chemicals in milk in a single assay. In the present work, a reliable and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in cow's milk. The analytes were determined by a positive and negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The linear ranges of AMOX, CLAV and PSL were from 2 to 1000ng/mL, 20-1000ng/mL and 1-1000ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2ng/mL (AMOX), 20ng/mL (CLAV) and 1ng/mL (PSL). Recoveries of the analytes of interest in milk samples were in the ranges of 84.2-101.4%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.8% to 11.9%. This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in milk from healthy and mastitic cows. The elimination times of AMOX and PSL in mastitic cows were longer than that in healthy cows, but the elimination times of CLAV did not show significant difference.

  9. The Role of Chronic Exposure to Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid on the Developmental Enamel Defects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalaş, Eugeniu; Matricala, Lavinia; Chelmuş, Alina; Gheţu, Nicolae; Petcu, Ana; Paşca, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin used in early childhood may be associated with enamel hypomineralization. Our aim was to assess disturbances of amelogenesis in mice lower incisors induced by chronic administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC). Twenty-eight C57BL/6 male mice, of similar age, randomly divided into a control and 3 treatment groups (n = 7) received subcutaneous injection, once per day, for 60 days: 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW of AMC. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis in AMC treatment groups showed higher content in F and a decrease in P and Ca. Morphology changes ranged from scratched patterns, and small isolated pits-like enamel loss, to generalized demineralized enamel surface, giving a rough, foamy, scaly, or even cracked eggshell appearance to the affected areas. Histological analysis showed disturbances of maturation ameloblasts, which were less organized, with increased amounts of clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm and slightly more elongated and less condensed nucleus. Additionally, they were often detached from the enamel matrix. Transitional ameloblasts formed underlying the cysts of varied sizes. In conclusion, AMC dose-dependently affect ameloblast functions especially in the maturation phase, causing hypomineralized enamel formation with quantitative and/or qualitative defects.

  10. Influence of feeding conditions on clavulanic acid production in fed-batch cultivation with medium containing glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Juliana C; Baptista-Neto, Alvaro; Cruz-Hernández, Isara L; Hokka, Carlos O; Badino, Alberto C

    2006-09-01

    First, the effect of different levels of nitrogen source on clavulanic acid (CA) production was evaluated in batch cultivations utilizing complex culture medium containing glycerol and three different levels of soy protein isolate (SPI). Cellular growth, evaluated in terms of the rheological parameter K, was highest with a SPI concentration of 30 g.L(-1) (4.42 g.L(-1) N total). However, the highest production of CA (380 mg.L(-1)) was obtained when an intermediate concentration of 20 g.L(-1) of SPI (2.95 g.L(-1) total N) was used. To address this, the influences of volumetric flow rate (F) and glycerol concentration in the complex feed medium (Cs(F)) in fed-batch cultivations were investigated. The best experimental condition for CA production was F=0.01 L.h(-1) and Cs(F)=120 g.L(-1), and under these conditions maximum CA production was practically twice that obtained in the batch cultivation. A single empirical equation was proposed to relate maximum CA production with F and Cs(F) in fed-batch experiments.

  11. Genetic Structure Associated with blaOXA-18, Encoding a Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum Oxacillinase▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Thierry; Namdari, Fatemeh; Bogaerts, Pierre; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The genetic environment of the blaOXA-18 gene encoding a peculiar clavulanic acid-inhibitable Ambler class D extended-spectrum β-lactamase was determined from the prototype OXA-18-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa MUS clinical isolate. An 8.2-kb genomic DNA fragment containing blaOXA-18 was cloned from P. aeruginosa MUS. Although most oxacillinases are located in integrons, blaOXA-18 lacked gene cassette-specific features. It was bracketed by two duplicated sequences containing ISCR19, a novel insertion sequence of the ISCR family of mobile elements; ΔintI1, a truncated integrase gene; and a truncated Δaac6′-Ib gene cassette. It is likely that ISCR19 was at the origin of the blaOXA-18 gene mobilization by a rolling-circle transposition event followed by homologous recombination. Furthermore, analysis of the cloned genomic DNA fragment revealed the presence of the integron-containing blaOXA-20 gene. Concomitantly, three P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, displaying a synergy image as determined by double-disk diffusion tests on cloxacillin-containing plates, were isolated from three patients hospitalized in different wards over a 9-month period at the Saint-Luc University hospital (Brussels, Belgium). These isolates were positive by PCR for blaOXA-18 and blaOXA-20 genes, genetically related to P. aeruginosa MUS as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and carried the same blaOXA-18/blaOXA-20-associated genetic structures. This report characterized the genetic elements likely at the origin of blaOXA-18 gene mobilization in P. aeruginosa and suggests the spread of oxacillin-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases in P. aeruginosa at the Saint-Luc University hospital of Brussels, Belgium. PMID:18663027

  12. Biological efficacy and stability of diluted ticarcillin-clavulanic acid in the topical treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Fiona L; Moss, Susan M; Trott, Darren J; Shipstone, Michael A

    2012-04-01

    Topical compounded Timentin(®) diluted with an inactive vehicle has been reported to be effective in the treatment of otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aims of this study were to determine the biological efficacy of Timentin(®) (ticarcillin and clavulanic acid) when diluted in the carrier vehicle Methopt(®) against P. aeruginosa and to determine the efficacy and stability of Timentin(®) aqueous stock concentrate solution. Timentin(®) stock concentrate was tested against four P. aeruginosa isolates on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28; then after 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage at 4 or -20°C. The diluted Timentin(®)-Methopt(®) solutions were tested against all isolates after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28 days of storage at 24 or 4°C. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels for all strains were determined using the broth microdilution method. The MIC of the stock solution remained relatively constant and acceptable throughout the study when stored at -20°C and was also acceptable for shorter time periods (6-9 months) when stored at 4°C. The MIC for the diluted Timentin(®)-Methopt(®) solution remained relatively constant and acceptable throughout the study for all four bacterial strains, with no difference between the solutions stored at 4 or 24°C. The results of this study indicate that storage of the Timentin(®) stock solution at -20°C does not compromise efficacy for at least 12 months and that Timentin(®) diluted in Methopt(®) was stable for 28 days when stored at either 4 or 24°C.

  13. Bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 250/125 mg combination tablets in healthy human volunteers: use of replicate design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir M; Al-Ghazawi, Ahmad; Najib, Naji M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a replicate design approach to a bioequivalence study of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination following a 250/125 mg oral dose to 23 subjects, and to compare the analysis of individual bioequivalence with average bioequivalence. This was conducted as a 2-treatment 2-sequence 4-period crossover study. Average bioequivalence was shown, while the results from the individual bioequivalence approach had no success in showing bioequivalence. In conclusion, the individual bioequivalence approach is a strong statistical tool to test for intra-subject variances and also subject-by-formulation interaction variance compared with the average bioequivalence approach.

  14. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Irène; Lévêque, Christophe; Magne, Fabien; Suau, Antonia; Pochart, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old) were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10) (p = 0.003) and 8.1±0.5 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10) (p = 0.003), respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01). Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  15. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irène Mangin

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE. At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10 (p = 0.003 and 8.1±0.5 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10 (p = 0.003, respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01. Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  16. [Efficacy and safety of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) dry syrup in the treatment of children with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Rinya; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Motoyama, Hidekatsu; Yarita, Masao

    2015-06-01

    To demonstrate clinical value of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (CVA/AMPC) 1:14 combination dry syrup for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), the efficacy and safety were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study in 27 children with ABRS. The proportion of subjects who were 'cured' at the test of cure as the primary endpoint was 88.5%. In subjects with a major pathogenic bacteria at baseline (i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) bacterial eradication was achieved in ≥ 80% of the subjects with the exception of β-lactamase non-producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLNAR and β-lactamase producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLPAR (β-lactamase producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant H. influenzae: BLPACR). The MIC of CVA/AMPC (1:14) was not higher than 4 μg/mL for all pathogens except one strain each of BLNAR and BLPAR (BLPACR). Drug-related adverse events were reported in 19% of patients (5/27 patients). All of the reported drug-related adverse events were classified as gastrointestinal disorders that have been commonly reported with antibacterial drugs. These results indicate that CVA/AMPC (1:14) was clinically useful for the treatment of ABRS and is also suggested that was effective especially for the treatment of ABRS in children caused by beta-lactamase-producing bacteria including M. catarrhalis.

  17. Clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in patients with adult periodontitis : A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, EG; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Barendregt, DS; van der Weijden, GA; Timmerman, MF; van der Velden, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with systemic amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in adult periodontitis patients using a double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled protocol. 21 patients wit

  18. Evaluation of ticarcillin/clavulanic acid versus ceftriaxone plus amikacin for fever and neutropenia in pediatric patients with leukemia and lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrilli Antonio Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The empirical use of antibiotic treatments is widely accepted as a means to treat cancer patients in chemotherapy who have fever and neutropenia. Intravenous monotherapy, with broad spectrum antibiotics, of patients with a high risk of complications is a possible alternative. METHODS: We conducted a prospective open-label, randomized study of patients with lymphoma or leukemia who had fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy. Patients received either monotherapy with ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (T or ceftriaxone plus amikacin (C+A. RESULTS: Seventy patients who presented 136 episodes were evaluated, 68 in each arm of the study. The mean neutrophil counts at admission were 217cells/mm³ (T and 201cells/mm³ (C+A. The mean duration of neutropenia was 8.7 days (T and 7.6 days (C+A. Treatment was successful without the need for modifications in 71% of the episodes in the T group and 81% in the C+A group (p=0.23. Treatment was considered to have failed because of death in two episodes (3% in the T group and three episodes (4% in the C+A group, and because of a change in the drug applied in one episode in the T group and two episodes in the C+A group. Overall success was 96% (T and 93% (C+A. Adverse events that occurred in group T were not related to the drugs used in this study. CONCLUSION: In pediatric and adolescent patients with leukemia or lymphoma, who presented with fever and neutropenia, during chemotherapy, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid was as successful as the combination of ceftriaxone plus amikacin. It should be considered an appropriate option for this group of patients at high risk for infections.

  19. Impact of restricted amoxicillin/clavulanic acid use on Escherichia coli resistance--antibiotic DU90% profiles with bacterial resistance rates: a visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica Matanovic, Suzana; Bergman, Ulf; Vukovic, Dubravka; Wettermark, Björn; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera

    2010-10-01

    High use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) at the University Hospital Osijek (Croatia) contributed to high rates of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, in particular Escherichia coli (50%). Thus, in order to decrease bacterial resistance, AMC use was restricted. We present results of the restriction on resistance amongst antibiotics accounting for 90% of antibiotic use [drug utilisation 90% (DU90%)]. Data were analysed on antibiotic use and microbiological susceptibility of E. coli during two 9-month periods, before and after the restriction of AMC use. Drug use was presented as numbers of defined daily doses (DDDs) and DDDs/100 bed-days. Resistance of E. coli to antibiotics was presented as percentages of isolated strains in the DU90% segment. Use of AMC was 16 DDDs/100 bed-days or 30% of all antibiotics before the intervention. Use of AMC fell to 2 DDDs/100 bed-days or 4% after the intervention, and resistance of E. coli fell from 37% to 11%. In conclusion, restricted use of AMC resulted in a significant decrease of E. coli resistance. DU90% resistance profiles are simple and useful tools in highlighting problems in antibiotic use and resistance but may also be useful in long-term follow-up of antibiotic policy.

  20. Diversity of Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Aeromonas spp. from the Seine River, Paris, France▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Aeromonas sp. isolates resistant to ceftazidime were recovered during an environmental survey performed with water samples from the Seine River, in Paris, France, in November 2009. Selected isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. PCR and cloning experiments were used to identify broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-encoding genes and their genetic context. Clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were identified in 71% of the Aeromonas sp. isolates. A variety of ESBL genes were detected, including blaVEB-1a, blaSHV-12, blaPER-1, blaPER-6, blaTLA-2, and blaGES-7, suggesting an aquatic reservoir of those ESBL genes. Moreover, the repeated elements and different insertion sequences were identified in association with the blaPER-6 and the blaVEB-1a genes, respectively, indicating a wide diversity of mobilization events, making Aeromonas spp. a vehicle for ESBL dissemination. PMID:21149627

  1. Incidence of gonorrhoea due to penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Japan 1981-3 and treatment using a new antibiotic combination, BRL25000 (amoxycillin and clavulanic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, K; Tsugami, H; Harada, K; Maruyama, J

    1986-01-01

    During the three years 1981-3, 134 (9.1%) of 1473 patients presenting at our clinics were found to be infected with penicillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin against these PPNG strains were 8 mg/l or more, whereas against non-PPNG strains they were consistently 4 mg/l or less. In contrast, the MIC of BRL25000 (two parts amoxycillin and one part clavulanic acid, the beta lactamase inhibitor) was 4 mg/l or less even against PPNG strains. MICs of a number of other drugs commonly used to treat gonorrhoea, such as cephaloridine, cefoxitin, tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, kanamycin, and spectinomycin, showed no appreciable differences between non-PPNG and PPNG strains and the MIC of cephaloridine in particular was relatively high. BRL25000 proved to be very effective in the treatment of PPNG infection and cured all of 121 patients treated. A daily dose of 2.25g, cured 105 patients in two days, 11 patients in three days, four patients in four days, and one patient in five days. A new rapid diagnostic method for detecting PPNG strains, capable of application at an outpatient clinic and providing a result on the following day, is described. Images PMID:3089905

  2. 发酵中克拉维酸降解因素的探讨%The Study of Degradation of Clavulanic Acid in Ferment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰; 王永华; 杨博; 余若黔

    2004-01-01

    探讨了克拉维酸(clavulanic acid,CA)在发酵液中的降解因素,首先研究了培养基组分影响CA降解速率的大小,并计算出不同组分对其降解的速率常数.然后,研究了发酵过程中在对数生长期和稳定期的克拉维酸降解速率常数.研究发现外界环境因素对CA降解速率的影响大小不同,通过对带棒链霉菌对数生长期和稳定期CA降解情况的研究,可以判断,在pH、温度等发酵条件一定的情况下,导致发酵后期CA严重降解的原因可能与菌体生长过程中产生的热敏性物质或者稳定期产生的次级代谢产物有关.

  3. Old Drugs To Treat Resistant Bugs: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with mecC Are Susceptible to a Combination of Penicillin and Clavulanic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Harrison, Ewan M; Lovering, Andrew L; Gleadall, Nicholas; Zadoks, Ruth; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J; Holden, Matthew T G; Paterson, Gavin K; Holmes, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    β-Lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mediated by the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA, known as mecC, was identified in MRSA isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate that mecC-encoded PBP2c does not mediate resistance to penicillin. Rather, broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in MRSA strains carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA strains) is mediated by a combination of both PBP2c and the distinct β-lactamase encoded by the blaZ gene of strain LGA251 (blaZLGA251), which is part of mecC-encoding staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. We further demonstrate that mecC-MRSA strains are susceptible to the combination of penicillin and the β-lactam inhibitor clavulanic acid in vitro and that the same combination is effective in vivo for the treatment of experimental mecC-MRSA infection in wax moth larvae. Thus, we demonstrate how the distinct biological differences between mecA- and mecC-encoded PBP2a and PBP2c have the potential to be exploited as a novel approach for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections.

  4. Clavulanic acid production estimation based on color and structural features of Streptomyces clavuligerus bacteria using self-organizing map and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohamadi, Maryam; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2014-05-01

    The utilization of antibiotics produced by Clavulanic acid (CA) is an increasing need in medicine and industry. Usually, the CA is created from the fermentation of Streptomycen Clavuligerus (SC) bacteria. Analysis of visual and morphological features of SC bacteria is an appropriate measure to estimate the growth of CA. In this paper, an automatic and fast CA production level estimation algorithm based on visual and structural features of SC bacteria instead of statistical methods and experimental evaluation by microbiologist is proposed. In this algorithm, structural features such as the number of newborn branches, thickness of hyphal and bacterial density and also color features such as acceptance color levels are extracted from the SC bacteria. Moreover, PH and biomass of the medium provided by microbiologists are considered as specified features. The level of CA production is estimated by using a new application of Self-Organizing Map (SOM), and a hybrid model of genetic algorithm with back propagation network (GA-BPN). The proposed algorithm is evaluated on four carbonic resources including malt, starch, wheat flour and glycerol that had used as different mediums of bacterial growth. Then, the obtained results are compared and evaluated with observation of specialist. Finally, the Relative Error (RE) for the SOM and GA-BPN are achieved 14.97% and 16.63%, respectively.

  5. Molecular identification of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid isolated in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marta; Miró, Elisenda; Ortega, Adriana; Bou, Germán; González-López, Juan José; Oliver, Antonio; Pascual, Alvaro; Cercenado, Emilia; Oteo, Jesús; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navarro, Ferran

    2015-08-01

    The activity of eight aminoglycosides (amikacin, apramycin, arbekacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin) against a collection of 257 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates was determined by microdilution. Aminoglycoside resistance rates, the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, the relationship between AME gene detection and resistance phenotype to aminoglycosides, and the association of AME genes with mechanisms of AMC resistance in E. coli isolates in Spain were investigated. Aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were screened for the presence of genes encoding common AMEs [aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, aac(3)-IVa, aac(6')-Ib, ant(2″)-Ia, ant(4')-IIa and aph(3')-Ia] or 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtB, rmtC and npmA). In total, 105 isolates (40.9%) were resistant to at least one of the aminoglycosides tested. Amikacin, apramycin and arbekacin showed better activity, with MIC90 values of 2mg/L (arbekacin) and 8mg/L (amikacin and apramycin). Kanamycin presented the highest MIC90 (128mg/L). The most common AME gene was aac(6')-Ib (36 strains; 34.3%), followed by aph(3')-Ia (31 strains; 29.5%), ant(2″)-Ia (29 strains; 27.6%) and aac(3)-IIa (23 strains; 21.9%). aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IVa, ant(4')-IIa and the four methylases were not detected. The ant(2″)-Ia gene was usually associated with OXA-1 [21/30; 70%], whilst 23/25 (92%) strains producing CTX-M-15 had the aac(6')-Ib gene. The most prevalent AME gene was aac(6')-Ib (18/41; 44%) in nosocomial isolates, whilst ant(2″)-Ia and aph(3')-Ia genes (20/64; 31%) were more frequent in strains of community origin. In 64.6% isolates the phenotypic profile correlated with the presence of commonly encountered AMEs.

  6. Simultaneous quantification of cefpodoxime proxetil and clavulanic acid in human plasma by LC-MS using solid phase extraction with application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubala, Anil; Nagarajan, Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan; Vimal, Chandran Sathish; George, Renjith

    2013-03-15

    A simple, rapid and selective high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil (CDPX) and clavulanic acid (CA) in human plasma. Extraction of samples was done by solid phase extraction technique (SPE) and chloramphenicol used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reverse phase Princeton SPHER C18 (150mm×4mm i.d., 5μm) column using mixture of methanol: acetonitrile: 2mM ammonium acetate (25:25:50, v/v, pH 3.5) at 0.8mL/min flow rate. Detection was performed on a single quadrupole MS by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode via APCI source. The calibration curve was linear within the concentration range, 0.04-4.4μg/mL and 0.1-10.0μg/mL for CDPX and CA respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters of tablet (CDPX 200mg, CA 125mg) were evaluated. Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, elimination rate constant (Kel), AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ of tablet were 2.13±0.06μg/mL, 2h, 3.05±0.15h, 0.24±0.37h(-1), 6.81±0.14μg h/mL and 7.72±0.23μg h/mL respectively for cefpodoxime (CP), 5.34±0.28μg/mL, 2h, 2.73±0.25h, 0.26±0.31h(-1), 15.37±0.16μg h/mL and 16.59±0.53μg h/mL respectively for CA.

  7. Study on Effect of claR Application on Clavulanic Acid Production of Streptomyces clavuligerus%claR基因的扩增对棒状链霉菌棒酸合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志晗; 赵海龙

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid positive regulation gene claR of Streptomyces clavuligerus was cloned.claR expression plasmid pSET152-claR was constructed and transformed into S.clavuligerus by conjugation.The attP site in pSET152-claR could inserted into attB site of S.clavuligerus.Thus an extra copy of claR was inserted into the chromosome of S.clavuligerus.The obtained mutant S.clavuligerus: claR was cultured in the shaken flask,and the production of clavulanic acid was analyzed by HPLC,the yield of clavulanic acid was 1.86 times compared with S.clavuligerus.%从棒状链霉菌中克隆对克拉维酸具有正调控作用的基因claR。构建了claR的重组质粒pSET152-claR,通过接合转移将重组质粒pSET152-claR转入了野生型S.clavuligerus中,通过pSET152-claR中的attP位点整个质粒插入到S.clavuligerus基因组中的attB位点,实现了S.clavuligerus基因组DNA中增加一个拷贝claR基因的目的,所得突变株S.clavuligerus∷claR通过发酵培养,HPLC检测克拉维酸产量为原产量的1.86倍。

  8. In Vitro Activity of ACH-702, a New Isothiazoloquinolone, against Nocardia brasiliensis Compared with Econazole and the Carbapenems Imipenem and Meropenem Alone or in Combination with Clavulanic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Pucci, Michael J.; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro activities of ACH-702 and other antimicrobials against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates were tested. The MIC50 (MIC for 50% of the strains tested) and MIC90 values of ACH-702 were 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml. The same values for econazole were 2 and 4 μg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of imipenem and meropenem were 64 and >64 μg/ml and 2 and 8 μg/ml, respectively; the addition of clavulanic acid to the carbapenems had no effect. PMID:20308390

  9. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%InjectedwithSodiumAmoxicillinClavulanicAcidPotassiumandSodiumChlorideInjectionCompatibilityStability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability was analyzed to explore, to provide a reference basis for the rational use of drugs in the future. Methods Select A batch of injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection for compatibility, and 3 hours after compatibility respectively under different temperature to observation of the appearance of the liquid, pH value, at the same time the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amoxicillin clavulanic acid and sodium potassium content determination, determine the stability of compatibility of liquid. Results In the study found that sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability is affected by the factors such as temperature and sunlight. Conclusion Poor compatibility stability of liquid, should avoid direct sunlight or at high temperatures is not easy to for a long time.%  目的对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性进行分析探讨,为今后的合理用药提供参考依据。方法选取一批注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和氯化钠注射液进行配伍,并在配伍后的3h内分别在不同温度下对药液的外观、pH值进行观察,同时采取高效液相色谱法对阿莫西林钠与克拉维酸钾含量进行测定,判断配伍液的稳定性。结果研究中发现阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性受到温度、日光等因素的影响。结论配伍液稳定性不佳,应避免阳光直射或者是在高温条件下不易久置。

  10. Inversion of the stereochemical configuration (3S, 5S)-clavaminic acid into (3R, 5R)-clavulanic acid: A computationally-assisted approach based on experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Restrepo, Albeiro; Cardona, Wilson; Junne, Stefan; Neubauer, Peter; Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2016-04-21

    Clavulanic acid (CA), a potent inhibitor of β-lactamase enzymes, is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (Sc) cultivation processes, for which low yields are commonly obtained. Improved knowledge of the clavam biosynthetic pathway, especially the steps involved in the inversion of 3S-5S into 3R-5R stereochemical configuration, would help to eventually identify bottlenecks in the pathway. In this work, we studied the role of acetate in CA biosynthesis by a combined continuous culture and computational simulation approach. From this we derived a new model for the synthesis of N-acetyl-glycyl-clavaminic acid (NAG-clavam) by Sc. Acetylated compounds, such as NAG-clavam and N-acetyl-clavaminic acid, have been reported in the clavam pathway. Although the acetyl group is present in the β-lactam intermediate NAG-clavam, it is unknown how this group is incorporated. Hence, under the consideration of the experimentally proven accumulation of acetate during CA biosynthesis, and the fact that an acetyl group is present in the NAG-clavam structure, a computational evaluation of the tentative formation of NAG-clavam was performed for the purpose of providing further understanding. The proposed reaction mechanism consists of two steps: first, acetate reacts with ATP to produce a reactive acylphosphate intermediate; second, a direct nucleophilic attack of the terminal amino group of N-glycyl-clavaminic on the carbonyl carbon of the acylphosphate intermediate leads to a tetrahydral intermediate, which collapses and produces ADP and N-acetyl-glycyl-clavaminic acid. The calculations suggest that for the proposed reaction mechanism, the reaction proceeds until completion of the first step, without the direct action of an enzyme, where acetate and ATP are involved. For this step, the computed activation energy was ≅2.82kcal/mol while the reaction energy was ≅2.38kcal/mol. As this is an endothermic chemical process with a relatively small activation energy, the reaction rate

  11. Ácido clavulânico e cefamicina c: uma perspectiva da biossíntese, processos de isolamento e mecanismo de ação Clavulanic acid and cephamicin c: a perspective of the biosynthesis, isolation and action mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaine H. H. Luiz de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews different aspects of the chemistry of two widely used β-lactam antibiotics Clavulanic Acid and Cephamycin C. The article discusses important details of the biosynthesis of these compounds, their action mechanism and, principally, the methods employed in their isolation and purification, in accordance with the available literature. Despite the large quantity of available articles and patents concerning β-lactam antibiotics, those which describe the isolation and purification of Clavulanic Acid and Cephamycin C are rare. Overall, the intention of this article is to discuss the up-to-date scientific research related to the compounds under review.

  12. [Antibacterial activity for clinical isolates from pediatric patients of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) -outcomes of special drug use investigation on antibacterial activity (annual changes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Naomi; Okano, Hideyuki; Hara, Terufumi; Yoshida, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    As a special drug use investigation, we monitored and assessed trends in antibacterial activity of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1:14) (hereafter, "CVA/AMPC (1:14)") and other antimicrobial agents for clinical isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media or respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis isolated and identified from otorrhea, epipharynx and rhinorrhea of pediatric patients with otitis media, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in five years between 2006-2010 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae and 8 microg/mL for H. influenzae and 0.25-0.5microg/mL for M catarrhalis. The changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae were two times, and no decrease in drug susceptibility was found in the period of the present investigation. In addition, the MIC changes of other antimicrobial agents for these three organisms were approximately two to four times as well. Against organisms isolated and identified from pus, sputum, pharynx, skin and urine of pediatric patients with respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in four years between 2008-2011 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae, AMPC (1:14) were 2-8 microg/mL for S. aureus with a fourfold change, 2 microg/mL for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus without any change, 4-8 microg/mL for H. influenzae with a twofold change. Against beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae, MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 1 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin susceptible (BLNAS), 8 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), showing no change. Neither Streptococcus pyogenes or Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated any change and M. catarrhalis and Escherichia coli showed twofold changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1: 14). In the present investigation conducted to monitor annual changes in antibacterial

  13. Effect of urea on clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus%脲对棒状链霉菌棒酸合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴西达; 向四海; 赵友宝; 高强; 杨克迁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]棒酸(Clavulanic acid)是棒状链霉菌(Streptomyces clavuligerus)产生的β-内酰胺酶抑制剂,其合成过程中产生副产物脲,旨在探讨脲对棒酸合成的影响.[方法]通过发酵过程中脲和铵盐添加实验、阻断脲酶活性以及pH梯度实验研究脲对棒酸合成影响.[结果]脲添加实验结果表明:低浓度脲降低棒酸产量,当添加脲浓度达到20 mmol/L时,完全抑制棒酸合成.由于脲酶可以把脲水解为铵离子,导致铵离子浓度及pH提高,因此,通过阻断棒状链霉菌脲酶活性,可以更准确地反映脲对棒酸合成的影响.结果发现,脲酶敲除株发酵液中脲大量积累,浓度高达10 mmol/L,但棒酸产量没有明显降低,说明在该浓度下脲自身并不能抑制棒酸合成.添加脲降低野生菌棒酸产量,可能是脲被水解为铵离子或其引起的pH变化所致.而棒酸发酵液添加铵盐的结果显示铵离子对棒酸产量没有抑制作用;另外,pH梯度实验证实不同pH对棒酸产量影响较大.[结论]排除了脲和铵离子对棒酸合成的抑制作用,证实了脲酶水解脲导致pH提高是脲添加导致野生菌棒酸产量降低的真正原因,为进一步阐明棒酸合成调控机制提供了根据.%[Objective] Clavulanic acid (CA) is a β-lactamase inhibitor produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus.Since urea is a byproduct of CA biosynthesis, we investigated the potential inhibitory effect of urea on CA biosynthesis.[Methods] We designed urea addition, ammonium addition, urease inactivation and pH gradient experiments to research effect of urea on CA production.[Results] Addition of urea inhibited CA production in the wild type, and the production was completely abolished when the concentration of urea reached 20 mmol/L.To prevent urea hydrolysis, the genes encoding urease were disrupted and the corresponding mutant was analyzed: which accumulated higher concentration of urea, reaching 10mmol/L, but this did not inhibit CA

  14. 针对阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应分析%Analysis on the adverse effect of amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于博

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨并比较阿莫西林和阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应,为临床用药提供参考。方法检索中国期刊数据库,对2005~2013年阿莫西林和阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应的发生率、类型以及性别、年龄差异进行分析。结果阿莫西林所致不良反应共计455例,阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾所致不良反应共计16例;阿莫西林所致不良反应男女比例为1∶1.5,阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾所致不良反应男女比例无差异,两者不良反应均可发生于任何年龄段;阿莫西林所致皮肤过敏反应明显高于阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾(P<0.05);阿莫西林中有2例患者因过敏性休克死亡,而阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾中无死亡病例。结论阿莫西林所致不良反应的发生率和种类均明显高于阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾,因而后者更具安全性。%Objective We aimed to study and compare the adverse of reactions amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and provide reference for clinical medication.Methods We retrieve the Chinese periodical database, analyzed the incidence and type of adverse reactions induced by amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and gender and age from the year 2005 to 2013.Results Adverse reactions caused by amoxicillin occurred in 455 cases and totally 16 cases of adverse reactions induced by amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium.The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 in the amoxicillin induced adverse reactions.Both types of adverse reactions can occur in any age.Incidence of allergic reactions caused by amoxicillin was significantly higher than amoxicillin clavulanic (P<0.05).2 patients died from anaphylactic shock caused by Amoxicillin.Conclusions The incidence of adverse reactions caused by amoxicillin and species were significantly higher than that caused by amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium.

  15. Broth Microdilution Method To Detect Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases and AmpC β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates by Use of Clavulanic Acid and Boronic Acid as Inhibitors ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Han-Sung; Lee, Kyu Man

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the broth microdilution (BMD) method to detect production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae by using clavulanic acid (CA) and boronic acid (BA) as ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase inhibitors, respectively. A total of 100 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were analyzed. Mueller-Hinton broth containing serial twofold dilutions of cefotaxime (CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), aztreonam (ATM), or cefepime (FEP) with or without either or both CA and BA was prepared. An eightfold or greater decrease in the MIC of CTX, CAZ, ATM, or FEP in the presence of CA and BA was considered a positive result for ESBL and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), respectively. In tests with CA, expanded-spectrum β-lactams containing BA (CTX-BA, CAZ-BA, ATM-BA, and FEP-BA) showed higher positive rates in detecting ESBL producers than those without BA. The combination of CTX- and CAZ-based BMD tests with CA and BA showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% for the detection of ESBLs and PABLs. The BMD testing could be applicable for routine use in commercially available semiautomated systems for the detection of ESBLs and PABLs in Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:19710269

  16. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎疗效分析%Efifcacy Analysis of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid in Treatment of Children With Purulent Tonsillitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君; 李雅琪

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法将化脓性扁桃体炎患儿62例随机分为两组各31例,治疗组给予阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗,对照组应用阿奇霉素治疗,对比其疗效。结果两组退热、脓点消失及白细胞恢复正常时间比较无明显差异(P>0.05),但治疗组的总有效率(96.77%)高于对照组(80.65%),比较有统计学差异(P<0.05)。两组均无明显不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效确切,且安全可靠。%Objective To analyze the efficacy of amoxicillin / clavulanic acid therapy in children with purulent tonsillitis.Methods62 cases of suppurative tonsillitis in children were randomly divided into two groups of 31 cases, the treatment group received amoxicillin / clavulanic acid therapy, application of the reference group treated with azithromycin, compared to its efifcacy.Results There were fever, pus spots disappear and leukocyte recovery time was no significant difference (P>0.05), but the treatment group total effective rate (96.77%) was signiifcantly higher than the reference group (80.65%). There were signiifcant differences (P<0.05). There were no significant adverse events.Conclusion The efficacy of amoxicillin / clavulanate potassium treatment of children with purulent tonsillitis exact, and secure.

  17. Optimization of Fermentation Medium of Clavulanic Acid by Analyzing Relational Grades%关联度分析法优化克拉维酸发酵培养基

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向东; 肖灿鹏; 汪辉; 余冬

    2001-01-01

    The four main factors in fermentation medium of Clavulanic acid(CA) were studied using the method of relational grade analysis in this paper. The result showed that the potency of CA increased while properly increasing the content of soybean powder and glycerol and decreasing the content of malt juice and peptone.%文章应用关联度分析方法,对克拉维酸发酵培养基中4种主要成分进行研究,结果显示克拉维酸发酵时适当增加黄豆粉和甘油的量,减少麦芽汁和蛋白胨的用量可提高效价,降低成本。

  18. CcaR is an autoregulatory protein that binds to the ccaR and cefD-cmcI promoters of the cephamycin C-clavulanic acid cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarta, Irene; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Pérez-Redondo, Rosario; Martín, Juan F; Liras, Paloma

    2002-06-01

    The putative regulatory CcaR protein, which is encoded in the beta-lactam supercluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus, has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and heparin affinity chromatography. In addition, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a His-tagged recombinant protein (rCcaR), and used to raise anti-rCcaR antibodies. The partially purified CcaR protein from S. clavuligerus was able to bind DNA fragments containing the promoter regions of the ccaR gene itself and the bidirectional cefD-cmcI promoter region. In contrast, CcaR did not bind to DNA fragments with the promoter regions of other genes of the cephamycin-clavulanic acid supercluster including lat, blp, claR, car-cyp, and the unlinked argR gene. The DNA shifts obtained with CcaR were prevented by anti-rCcaR immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies but not by anti-rabbit IgG antibodies. ccaR and the bidirectional cefD-cmcI promoter region were fused to the xylE reporter gene and expressed in Streptomyces lividans and S. clavuligerus. These constructs produced low catechol dioxygenase activity in the absence of CcaR; activity was increased 1.7- to 4.6-fold in cultures expressing CcaR. Amplification of the ccaR promoter region lacking its coding sequence in a high-copy-number plasmid in S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 resulted in a reduced production of cephamycin C and clavulanic acid, by 12 to 20% and 40 to 60%, respectively, due to titration of the CcaR regulator. These findings confirm that CcaR is a positively acting autoregulatory protein able to bind to its own promoter as well as to the cefD-cmcI bidirectional promoter region.

  19. Bioequivalence of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tabletsin healthy volunteers%国产阿莫西林/克拉维酸片人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵军; 李可欣; 刘蕾; 史爱欣; 李扬; 孙春华

    2001-01-01

    目的:以进口阿莫西林/克拉维酸片为对照,考察国 产制 剂的人体生物等效性。方法:10名健康受试者随机交叉单剂量口服2 种制剂(阿莫西林250 mg,克拉维酸钾125 mg)后,采用微生物法测定血浆中药物浓度。[ HT5”H 结果:血药浓度数据经3P97拟合,两者的体内过程皆符合血管外口服给 药一室模型,采用梯形法计算的阿莫西林AUC0~t分别为(12.89±1.03)和(13.54± 0.59)(mg*h)/L, 实测Cmax分别为(5.17±0.45)和(5.25±0.46)mg/L;T max分别为(1.05±0.16)和(1.08±0.23)h, t1/2分别为(1.16±0.17)和(1.37 ±0.23)h。克拉维酸钾的AUC0~t分别为(8.25±0.92)和(8.18±0.51)(mg *h)/L ,实测Cmax分别为(3.94±0.52)和(4.10±0.35)mg/L;Tmax分别 为(1.10±0.21)和(1.03±0.10)h,t1/2分别为(0.98±0.11)和(1.01±0. 14)h。阿莫西林的相对生物利用度为(95.3±7.3)%;克拉维酸钾的相对生物利 用度为(100.6±6 .0)%。结论:经统计学分析,被试制剂和参比制剂具有生物等效性 。%Objective:To study the relative bioequivalence of domest ic and imported amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tablets.Methods:The ra ndomized and crossover study was conducted in 10 healthy male volunteers.After a single dose of the drugs their plasma drug concentration was determined by micr obiological assay.Results:Both the domestic and imported tablets of am oxicillin and clavulanic acid fitted to one compartment model.The pharmacokineti cs parameters obtained were:Cmax=(5.17±0.45)mg/L,Tmax=(1.05±0. 16)h,t1/2=(1.16±0.17)h,AUC0~t=(12.89±1.03)(mg*h)/L for domestic amoxicillin;Cmax=(5.25±0.46)mg/L,Tmax=(1.08±0.23)h,t1/2=(1.3 7±0.23)h,AUC0~t=(13.54±0.59)(mg*h)/L for imported amoxicillin;Cmax =(3.94±0.52)mg/L,Tmax=(1.10±0.21)h,t1/2=(0.98±0.11)h,AUC 0~t=(8.25±0.92)(mg*h)/L for domestic clavulanic acid;Cmax=(4.10±0. 35)mg/L,Tmax=(1.03±0.10)h,t1/2=(1.01±0.14)h,AUC0

  20. Comparison of the boronic acid disk potentiation test and cefepime-clavulanic acid method for the detection of ESBL among AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shoorashetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase are important mechanisms of betalactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae . The ESBL confirmation test described by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI is in routine use. This method fails to detect ESBL in the presence of AmpC. Therefore, we compared two different ESBL detection methods against the CLSI confirmatory test. Materials and Methods: A total 200 consecutive clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from various clinical samples were tested for ESBL production using (i CLSI described phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT, (ii boronic acid disk potentiation test and (iii cefepime-CA disk potentiation method. AmpC confirmation was done by a modified three-dimensional test. Results: Among total 200 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 82 were only ESBL producers, 12 were only AmpC producers, 55 were combined ESBL and AmpC producers, 14 were inducible AmpC producers and 37 isolates did not harboured any enzymes. The CLSI described PCT detected ESBL-producing organisms correctly but failed to detect 36.3% of ESBLs among combined enzyme producers. The boronic acid disk potentiation test reliably detected all ESBL, AmpC, and combined enzyme producers correctly. The cefepime-CA method detected all ESBLs correctly but another method of AmpC detection has to be adopted. Conclusion: The use of boronic acid in disk diffusion testing along with the CLSI described PCT enhances ESBL detection in the presence of AmpC betalactamases.

  1. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  2. lat基因的失活在提高棒状链霉菌棒酸产量中的应用%Disruption of lat Gene to Increase the Clavulanic Acid Production of Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志晗; 张阳; 郭金体; 王艳萍

    2007-01-01

    利用lat基因突变的重组质粒pKCLHS对紫外诱变的克拉维酸(Clavulanic acid)高产菌株Streptomyces clavuligerusB71-14的lat基因进行了插入失活,对获得的基因突变子进行了PCR验证、菌体生长测定、发酵特征测定,并对发酵液中的克拉维酸进行了初步提取和含量测定.结果表明,突变菌株的lat基因中插入了含有阿泊拉抗性的基因片段,突变菌株的生长速度与原始菌株无明显变化,lat突变菌株的克拉维酸产量最高能达到其原始菌株的1.11~1.29倍,产头霉素C的能力显著降低.

  3. The NOTA study: non-operative treatment for acute appendicitis: prospective study on the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) in patients with right sided lower abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Eleonora; Biscardi, Andrea; Villani, Silvia; Clemente, Nicola; Senatore, Gianluca; Filicori, Filippo; Antonacci, Nicola; Baldoni, Franco; De Werra, Carlo; Di Saverio, Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Background Case control studies that randomly assign patients with diagnosis of acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment yield a relapse rate of approximately 14% at one year. It would be useful to know the relapse rate of patients who have, instead, been selected for a given treatment based on a thorough clinical evaluation, including physical examination and laboratory results (Alvarado Score) as well as radiological exams if needed or deemed helpful. If this clinical evaluation is useful, the investigators would expect patient selection to be better than chance, and relapse rate to be lower than 14%. Once the investigators have established the utility of this evaluation, the investigators can begin to identify those components that have predictive value (such as blood analysis, or US/CT findings). This is the first step toward developing an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will avoid risks and costs of needless surgery. Methods/design This will be a single-cohort prospective observational study. It will not interfere with the usual pathway, consisting of clinical examination in the Emergency Department (ED) and execution of the following exams at the physician's discretion: full blood count with differential, C reactive protein, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT. Patients admitted to an ED with lower abdominal pain and suspicion of acute appendicitis and not needing immediate surgery, are requested by informed consent to undergo observation and non operative treatment with antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid). The patients by protocol should not have received any previous antibiotic treatment during the same clinical episode. Patients not undergoing surgery will be physically examined 5 days later. Further follow-up will be conducted at 7, 15 days, 6 months and 12 months. The study will conform to clinical practice guidelines and will follow the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol

  4. 哌拉西林他唑巴坦和阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎中的治疗效果比较%Treatment effects comparison of piperacillin tazobactam and amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the treatment effect of piperacillin tazobactam and amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia.Methods:80 children patients with bronchial pneumonia were selected.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.The two groups were given amoxicillin clavulanic acid and piperacillin tazobactam treatment.The treatment effects of the two groups were observed.Results:The difference of total effective rates of two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05).The treatment cost of the observation group was lower than that of the control group.Conclusion:The curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia is remarkable,and the treatment cost is low.%目的:探讨哌拉西林他唑巴坦和阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎中的治疗效果。方法:收治支气管肺炎患儿80例,随机分为观察组和对照组,两组分别给予阿莫西林克拉维酸和哌拉西林他唑巴坦治疗。观察两组的治疗效果。结果:两组总有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。观察组的治疗成本低于对照组。结论:阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎治疗中疗效显著,且治疗成本低。

  5. Studies on the formation and forming mechanism of the related substance E in potassium clavulanate production by HPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqing Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the formation and forming mechanism of the related substance E in potassium clavulanate production. The impurity with retention time of 11.1 min in potassium clavulanate final product was confirmed as the related substance E by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS/MS.The related substance E analysis during the production of clavulanic acid showed that this impurity could be formed during both the fermentation and purification processes, especially in the later fermentation stage, filtration concentration and back-extraction procedure. Clavulanic acid was the precursor of the related substance E. Studies on its forming mechanism showed that the related substance E was formed by the combination of the imino group of one molecule of clavulanic acid with the carboxyl group of another molecule of clavulanic acid with the opening of β-lactam ring. Results of a multi-factor orthogonal test confirmed that the concentration of clavulanic acid was the dominant factor to accelerate the reaction, while the temperature was another contributing factor. The pH 5.0-6.5 had little impact on the generation of the related substance E.

  6. Effect observation of hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis and gastric ulcer in 60 cases%铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡60例效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱桂扣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer.Methods:60 patients with chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer were selected. They were randomly divided into the study group and the control group with 30 cases in each.The control group were given hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid treatment.The study group were given hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine treatment.We compared the treatment efficiency,helicobacter pylori clearance rate, recurrence rate and the rate of adverse reactions of the two groups.Results:In the study group,the effective rate was 86.67% ;helicobacter pylori eradication rate was 73.33%;the recurrence rate was 10.00%.They were all significantly better than the control group(P0.05).Conclusion:Hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer can significantly improve the clinical efficacy,and reduce the recurrence rate.%目的:探讨铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡的疗效。方法:收治慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡患者60例,随机平均分成研究组和对照组,对照组给予铝碳酸镁联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗,研究组应用铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗,比较两组患者治疗有效率、幽门螺杆菌清除率、复发率及不良反应率。结果:研究组治疗有效率86.67%,幽门螺杆菌清除率73.33%,复发率10.00%,均显著优于对照组(P<0.05),不良反应率组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡能显著提高临床疗效、降低复发率。

  7. Importance of Position 170 in the Inhibition of GES-Type β-Lactamases by Clavulanic Acid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Hilary; Toth, Marta; Champion, Matthew M.; Antunes, Nuno T.; Vakulenko, Sergei B.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, etc.) is commonly the result of the production of β-lactamases. The emergence of β-lactamases capable of turning over carbapenem antibiotics is of great concern, since these are often considered the last resort antibiotics in the treatment of life-threatening infections. β-Lactamases of the GES family are extended-spectrum enzymes that include members that have acquired carbapenemase activity through a single amino acid substitution at position 170. We investigated inhibition of the GES-1, -2, and -5 β-lactamases by the clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. While GES-1 and -5 are susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid, GES-2 shows the greatest susceptibility. This is the only variant to possess the canonical asparagine at position 170. The enzyme with asparagine, as opposed to glycine (GES-1) or serine (GES-5), then leads to a higher affinity for clavulanic acid (Ki = 5 μM), a higher rate constant for inhibition, and a lower partition ratio (r ≈ 20). Asparagine at position 170 also results in the formation of stable complexes, such as a cross-linked species and a hydrated aldehyde. In contrast, serine at position 170 leads to formation of a long-lived trans-enamine species. These studies provide new insight into the importance of the residue at position 170 in determining the susceptibility of GES enzymes to clavulanic acid. PMID:21220532

  8. Development and validation of stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of meropenem and potassium clavulanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Paczkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    A stability-indicating LC assay method was developed and validated for a simultaneous determination of meropenem and potassium clavulanate in the presence of degradation products formed during acid-base hydrolysis, oxidation and thermolysis. The isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed with a LiChrospher RP-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column and gradient elution of 12 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength 220 nm and the temperature 303 K. The method was validated with regard to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and robustness, and was applied successfully for the determination of meropenem and potassium clavulanate separately as well as jointly in pharmaceutical formulations.

  9. 疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾混悬液治疗小儿急性细菌性支气管炎的临床疗效观察%Clinical Effect of Shufeng-jiedu Capsule Combined with Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid Potassium Mixed Suspension on Acute Bacterial Bronchitis in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of shufeng-jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension on acute bacterial bronchitis in children. Methods From September 2013 to November 2014, a total of 87 children with acute bacterial bronchitis were selected in the Department of Outpatient,Traditional Chinses Medicine Hospital of Xingyang,and they were divided into control group(n=44)and treatment group(n=43)according to admission date. Children of control group were given amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension,while children of treatment group was given extra shufeng-jiedu capsule on the basis of control group,both groups treated for 5 days. Clinical effect,cure time and recovery time of fever and cough,and incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. Results All of the 87 children were enrolled into full analysis set( FAS) and safety analysis set( SS),and 40 cases of each group were enrolled into per protocol set( PPS) at last. The clinical effect of treatment group were statistically significantly better than that of control group(P<0. 05),and no difference was found between FAS result and PPS result. The cure time and recovery time of fever and cough of treatment group were statistically significantly shorter than those of control group,the antipyretic using times of treatment group was statistically significantly less than that of control group(P<0. 05),and no difference was found between FAS result and PPS result. No one of the two groups occurred obvious nausea,emesis,hepatic or renal function abnormity. Conclusion Shufeng -jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension can improve the clinical effect of acute bacterial bronchitis in children,shorten the course of disease,promote the recovery,has better antifebrile effect and higher safety.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾混悬液治疗小儿急性细菌性支气

  10. Stability, compatibility and microbiological activity studies of meropenem-clavulanate potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Łysakowski, Piotr; Zalewski, Przemysław; Garbacki, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Meropenem (MEM) and clavulanate potassium have been reported to demonstrate highly effective activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There have been no reports on research into the complex of these chemotherapeutics concerning their mutually dependent stability or microbiological action on other microorganisms. Stability and compatibility studies of MEM/clavulanate potassium were conducted by using an HPLC-DAD method. The antibacterial activity of MEM/clavulanate potassium was tested in vitro against a selection of indicator bacteria strains by determining the MIC as well as analyzing the kinetics of changes in the concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes caused by the action of MEM/clavulanate potassium. The stability and compatibility of MEM/clavulanate potassium were examined in aqua pro iniectione, 0.9% NaCl and 5% glucose at room temperature and at 5 °C. The degradation rates of MEM/clavulanate potassium depended on the type of infusion solvent used. Although in aqueous solutions of MEM/clavulanate potassium neither compound showed any mutual impact on the rate of degradation, clavulanate potassium was more labile than MEM. The synergy between these two resulted in a significantly lower value of MIC as compared to the values observed for the individual activity of either compound. The infusion solvent in which compatibility is observed between the components of the mixture MEM/clavulanate potassium is aqua pro iniectione. The complex MEM/clavulanate potassium demonstrates synergic antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes.

  11. Comparison of effectiveness and safety of imipenem/clavulanate- versus meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberi, Simon; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Centis, Rosella; Abdo Arbex, Marcos; Alarcon Arrascue, Edith; Alffenaar, Jan Willem; Caminero, Jose A; Gaga, Mina; Gualano, Gina; Skrahina, Alena; Solovic, Ivan; Sulis, Giorgia; Tadolini, Marina; Alarcon Guizado, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Roby Arias, Aurora Jazmín; Scardigli, Anna; Akkerman, Onno W; Aleksa, Alena; Artsukevich, Janina; Auchynka, Vera; Bonini, Eduardo Henrique; Chong Marín, Félix Antonio; Collahuazo López, Lorena; de Vries, Gerard; Dore, Simone; Kunst, Heinke; Matteelli, Alberto; Moschos, Charalampos; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Payen, Marie-Christine; Piana, Andrea; Spanevello, Antonio; Vargas Vasquez, Dante; Viggiani, Pietro; White, Veronica; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2016-06-01

    No large study to date has ever evaluated the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of imipenem/clavulanate versus meropenem/clavulanate to treat multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB). The aim of this observational study was to compare the therapeutic contribution of imipenem/clavulanate versus meropenem/clavulanate added to background regimens to treat MDR- and XDR-TB cases.84 patients treated with imipenem/clavulanate-containing regimens showed a similar median number of antibiotic resistances (8 versus 8) but more fluoroquinolone resistance (79.0% versus 48.9%, pTB prevalence (67.9% versus 49.0%, p=0.01) in comparison with 96 patients exposed to meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens. Patients were treated with imipenem/clavulanate- and meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens for a median (interquartile range) of 187 (60-428) versus 85 (49-156) days, respectively.Statistically significant differences were observed on sputum smear and culture conversion rates (79.7% versus 94.8%, p=0.02 and 71.9% versus 94.8%, pMDR/XDR-TB patients.

  12. Protoplast formation and regeneration from Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and clavulanic acid production Formação e regeneração de protoplastos de Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 e produção de ácido clavulânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Carneiro-da-Cunha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts of the wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 (ATCC 27064 were formed from spores cultures obtained in the lag, exponential and stationary growth phases by using 0.5% glycine in the culture medium. The protoplasts were obtained by treatment of the cells with lysozyme (EC-3.2.1.17 40,000 U (1mg/mL, in an osmotic solution for 90 min at 28ºC. The frequency of regenerated protoplasts in the lag phase was 1.7x10³ CFU/mL (28.97%, in the beginning of the exponential phase 0.4x10² CFU/mL (31.67%, in the exponential growth phase 2.5x10³ CFU/mL (46.30% and 1.0x10(5 CFU/mL in stationary phase (48.45%. Antibiotic production and activity of regenerated protoplasts were observed in all phases, except in the lag phase. The protoplast formation and regeneration techniques resulted in a new isolate strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus that produced approximately 2.5 fold more clavulanic acid.Protoplastos foram formados a partir de esporos da amostra selvagem de Streptomyces clavuligerus durante a fase lag, exponencial e estacionária de crescimento, utilizando glicina a 0.5% como meio de cultura. Os protoplastos foram obtidos pelo tratamento das células com lisozima (EC-3.2.1.17 40.000 U (1mg/mL em solução osmótica de sorbitol e TES, por 90 min a 28ºC. A freqüência de protoplastos regenerados na fase lag foi de 1,7x10³ UFC/mL (28,97%, no início da fase exponencial correspondeu a 0,4x10² UFC/mL (31,67%, no final da fase exponencial observou-se 2,5x10³ UFC/mL (46,30% e para a fase estacionária de crescimento apresentou 1,0x10(5 UFC/mL (48,45%. A produção do antibiótico e a atividade antibiótica dos protoplastos regenerados foram observadas em todas as fases de crescimento, exceto na fase lag. As técnicas de formação de protoplastos e regeneração resultaram em uma nova linhagem de Streptomyces clavuligerus produzindo 2,5 vezes mais ácido clavulânico.

  13. Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, André Loyola

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

  14. Meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations for acute respiratory infections in children%小儿急性呼吸道感染阿莫西林-克拉维酸制剂临床疗效Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆权; 罗剑锋; 车大钿; 董晓艳; 张嵬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid(Amo/Clav)preparations for treatment of children with acute respiratory tract infections. Methods We performed computer-based retrieval of Medline (on OvidSP) , EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Bio-medicine Database(CBM) , Wan-fang Database System and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI).Data of randomized controlled studies of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparations for treatment of respiratory tract infections from January 1985 to December 2011 was collected. RevMan5.1.4 Meta-analysis of count data and odds ratio(OR)with 95% confidence interval(95% Cl)were applied. Funnel plot was used to assess published deviation. Results We retrieved 219 literatures, of which 164 were in English and 55 in Chinese . Twenty-seven articles that met the inclusion criteria were chosen by final screening, including azithromycin contrast 20 and cefaclor 7 for control. The total cases were 2971 and in control group there were 3057 cases. Comparing Amo/Clav with azithromycin in upper respiratory tract infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95% CI)= 1.34(1.02 ~ 1.76), Z = 2.08(P=0.04), while in lower respiratory infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95 % CI)= 1.31(0.56 ~ 3.09) ,Z = 0.62(P = 0.53). Comparing Amo/Clav preparation with cefaclor,OR(95% CI) = 0.88(0.32 ~ 2.45) ,Z = 0.24(P = 0.81). Conclusion Literatures Meta-analysis indicates Amo/Clav treatment for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory infections is superior to azithromycin clinically, but in the treatment of chil- dren with acute bacterial lower respiratory tract infections , the clinical efficacy of both is similar. The Amo/ Clav and cefaclor have similar clinical efficacy in the treatment of. children with acute bacterial respiratory infections.%目的 评估阿莫西林-克拉维酸(Amo/Clav)制剂治疗小儿急性呼吸道感染的临床有效性.方法 计算机检索Medline (Ovid

  15. 克拉维酸降低幽门螺杆菌对甲硝唑耐药性的体外观察和机制探讨%The effect of clavulanic acid in suporessing the antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴强; 董文杰; 张燕捷; 朱黎明; 吴云林; 江佛湖

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨克拉维酸(CLA)降低幽门螺杆菌(Hp)对甲硝唑(MZ)耐药性的体外作用及机制.方法 由胃镜活检标本分离培养11株Hp菌株,通过随机扩增的DNA多态性分析确定菌株为不同来源.应用琼脂稀释法及E-TEST检测CLA与MZ对Hp的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).应用透射电镜法及青霉素结合蛋白(PBP)竞争性结合抑制实验探讨CLA对Hp的作用机制.结果 在11株不同来源的Hp菌株,1×MIC浓度的CLA可明显改善MZ耐药菌株的MIC值(1.442±0.459比0.376±0.288,P=0.0077),使MZ耐药菌株转变为敏感菌株.CLA可与Hp 30.5×103~33.5×103的PBP结合,使Hp发生球形变、空泡样变,细胞壁破裂及溶菌.结论 CLA在体外可降低Hp对MZ的耐药性,其机制可能与CIA结合PBP进而破坏Hp细胞壁有关.%Objective To elucidate the effect of clavulanic acid (CLA) in suppressing the antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) to metronidazole (MZ) and its mechanism. Methods All Hp strains were isolated from biopsy specimens taken endoscopically and random amplified polymorphic DNA assay (RAPD) was used to certificate the distinct origin of these strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CLA and MZ aganst Hp were determined by using agar dilution procedure and Epailometer test (E-test). The effect of CLA on the morphology of Hp was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Fluorescein-C6-aminopenicillanic acid (FLU-C6-APA) competition assay was used to detect the binding between CLA and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Results Eleven strains were isolated. In vitro CLA could decrease the MIC of MZ resistant(1.442±0.459 vs 0.376±0.288, P=0.0077), but not affect the MIC for MZ sensitive strains significantly (P>0.05). Exposure to CLA resulted in morphological changes of Hp, including cell wall disintegration and cell lysis. Furthermore, CLA inhibited the binding of FLU-C6-APA to PBPs(30.5-33.5×103). Conclusions CLA suppresses the antibiotic resistance of Hp

  16. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  17. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Kumar, M; Virdi, J S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs) were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs) of β-lactamase gene (bla A) or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  18. Comparison of effectiveness and safety of imipenem/clavulanate- versus meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiberi, Simon; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Centis, Rosella; Abdo Arbex, Marcos; Alarcon Arrascue, Edith; Alffenaar, Jan Willem; Caminero, Jose A; Gaga, Mina; Gualano, Gina; Skrahina, Alena; Solovic, Ivan; Sulis, Giorgia; Tadolini, Marina; Alarcon Guizado, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Roby Arias, Aurora Jazmín; Scardigli, Anna; Akkerman, Onno W; Aleksa, Alena; Artsukevich, Janina; Auchynka, Vera; Bonini, Eduardo Henrique; Chong Marín, Félix Antonio; Collahuazo López, Lorena; de Vries, Gerard; Dore, Simone; Kunst, Heinke; Matteelli, Alberto; Moschos, Charalampos; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Payen, Marie-Christine; Piana, Andrea; Spanevello, Antonio; Vargas Vasquez, Dante; Viggiani, Pietro; White, Veronica; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    No large study to date has ever evaluated the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of imipenem/clavulanateversusmeropenem/clavulanate to treat multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB). The aim of this observational study was to compare the therapeutic contribution o

  19. Effectiveness and safety of meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberi, Simon; Payen, Marie-Christine; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Alarcon Guizado, Valentina; Alffenaar, Jan Willem; Abdo Arbex, Marcos; Caminero, Jose A; Centis, Rosella; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Gaga, Mina; Gualano, Gina; Roby Arias, Aurora Jazmín; Scardigli, Anna; Skrahina, Alena; Solovic, Ivan; Sulis, Giorgia; Tadolini, Marina; Akkerman, Onno W; Alarcon Arrascue, Edith; Aleska, Alena; Avchinko, Vera; Bonini, Eduardo Henrique; Chong Marín, Félix Antonio; Collahuazo López, Lorena; de Vries, Gerard; Dore, Simone; Kunst, Heinke; Matteelli, Alberto; Moschos, Charalampos; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Spanevello, Antonio; Vargas Vasquez, Dante; Viggiani, Pietro; White, Veronica; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2016-04-01

    No large study has ever evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of meropenem/clavulanate to treat multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB). The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the therapeutic contribution, effectiveness, safety and tolerability profile of meropenem/clavulanate added to a background regimen when treating MDR- and XDR-TB cases.Patients treated with a meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimen (n=96) showed a greater drug resistance profile than those exposed to a meropenem/clavulanate-sparing regimen (n=168): in the former group XDR-TB was more frequent (49% versus 6.0%, pMDR-TB cohort and in the subgroups with and without the XDR-TB patients; in particular, sputum smear and culture conversion rates were similar in XDR-TB patients exposed to meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens (88.0% versus 100.0%, p=1.00 and 88.0% versus 100.0%, p=1.00, respectively). Only six cases reported adverse events attributable to meropenem/clavulanate (four of them then restarting treatment).The nondifferent outcomes and bacteriological conversion rate observed in cases who were more severe than controls might imply that meropenem/clavulanate could be active in treating MDR- and XDR-TB cases.

  20. Evaluation of Cefixime-Clavulanate Combination by Comparative Disk Diffusion Method in Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates-An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajul S.V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance to cephalosporins due to β-lactamases is a major concern worldwide. However recent trend is to use β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Potential combination is cefiximeclavulanate. Objective: Present study aims at the comparative evaluation of Fixed-Dose Combination (FDC of cefixime‑clavulanate and cefixime-alone in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Material and Methods: Study included 200 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. The Comparative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test (AST of cefixime‑clavulanate (5µg/10µg combination and cefixime-alone(5µg was done by measurement and comparison of zone of lysis produced by both. All values were expressed in mean ± SD. Paired‘t’ test was used to determine statistical difference between different groups under study. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Isolates were tested for ExtendedSpectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC and metallo β-lactamase (MBL production by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute - Phenotypic Disk Confirmatory Test (CLSI-PDCT, AmpC β-lactamase sterile disk test and Imipenem-Ethylene Di-amine Tetracetic Acid – Double disk synergy test (Imipenem-EDTA DDST respectively. Results: Comparative AST resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.001 increased zones in cefixime‑clavulanate combination than cefixime-alone in all isolates studied. When zones were evaluated separately only in three β-lactamase producing isolates; cefiximeclavulanate combination showed much higher zones in ESBL-producers (n=30 (P < 0.001, but not in AmpC-producers (n=32 (P = 0.5559 and MBLproducers (n=06 (P = 0.7815. Conclusion: Present study demonstrates the best bactericidal killing effect of cefixime-clavulanate compared to cefixime-alone. It is also of therapeutic significance in the treatment of infections caused by K. pneumoniae producing ESBLs. We recommend comparative AST method when commercially available newer

  1. Eficácia e segurança de Sultamicilina (Ampicilina/Sulbactam e Amoxacilina/Clavulanato no tratamento das infecções de via aéreas superiores em adultos: um estudo multicêntrico, aberto e randomizado Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults: an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-02-01

    pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. AIM: evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. METHODS: 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2 or at the end of the study (visit 3. Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3 in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940. The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6% than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4% (p=0.0164. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  2. Hydrolysis of Clavulanate by Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-Lactamase BlaC Harboring a Canonical SDN Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Daria; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Compain, Fabrice; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of β-lactams with clavulanate are currently being investigated for tuberculosis treatment. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a broad spectrum β-lactamase, BlaC, the success of this approach could be compromised by the emergence of clavulanate-resistant variants, as observed for inhibitor-resistant TEM variants in enterobacteria. Previous analyses based on site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC have led to the conclusion that this risk was limited. Here, we used a different approach based on determination of the crystal structure of β-lactamase BlaMAb of Mycobacterium abscessus, which efficiently hydrolyzes clavulanate. Comparison of BlaMAb and BlaC allowed for structure-assisted site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC and identification of the G132N substitution that was sufficient to switch the interaction of BlaC with clavulanate from irreversible inactivation to efficient hydrolysis. The substitution, which restored the canonical SDN motif (SDG→SDN), allowed for efficient hydrolysis of clavulanate, with a more than 104-fold increase in kcat (0.41 s−1), without affecting the hydrolysis of other β-lactams. Mass spectrometry revealed that acylation of BlaC and of its G132N variant by clavulanate follows similar paths, involving sequential formation of two acylenzymes. Decarboxylation of the first acylenzyme results in a stable secondary acylenzyme in BlaC, whereas hydrolysis occurs in the G132N variant. The SDN/SDG polymorphism defines two mycobacterial lineages comprising rapidly and slowly growing species, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the efficacy of β-lactam–clavulanate combinations may be limited by the emergence of resistance. β-Lactams active without clavulanate, such as faropenem, should be prioritized for the development of new therapies. PMID:26149997

  3. Recurrent drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luís; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Vergara, Mercedes; Casas, Meritxell; Miquel, Mireia; Dalmau, Blai

    2015-12-01

    Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic are two widely used antibiotics due to their high efficacy and few side effects. While the percentage of hepatotoxicity of these antibiotics is low, their frequent use has led to a progressive increase in the number of cases. Both antibiotics have been associated with a wide variety of hepatotoxic reactions, from a slight rise of transaminases to fulminant hepatitis. Once hepatotoxicity secondary to a drug appears, the first step is to discontinue the drug. Physicians may opt to administer an alternative treatment with a different chemical structure. It should be borne in mind, however, that different chemical structures may also cause recurrent drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We present the case of a patient who consecutively developed DILI due to ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic.

  4. Removal of potassium chloride by nanofiltration from ion-exchanged solution containing potassium clavulanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Han; Kim, Jae Hyung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, nanofiltration with NF200 membrane was employed to remove KCl from ion-exchanged solutions containing potassium clavulanate. The pore radius of NF200 membrane was estimated to be around 0.39 nm. The effects of operating pressure on separation performance were investigated in a range of 100-400 psig. The influences of cross-flow velocity (0.14-0.70 cm/s), temperature (4-25 degrees C), and feed composition were also investigated. In all experiments, clavulanate rejection showed high levels from 0.91 to 0.99, while chloride rejection ranged from 0.06 to 0.54. In a case at an operating pressure of 50 psig and 25 degrees C, as much as 94% of clavulanate was retained while 94% of chloride was removed, indicating that NF200 membrane was a suitable choice for selectively removing KCl. NF200 membrane also showed a stable performance in the operational stability test with an ion-exchanged solution obtained by treating actual fermentation broth.

  5. Bioequiwalence of clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin(1:7) dispersible tablets in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国新; 代宗顺; 龙利红; 韩颖; 侯淑贤; 吴立

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the bioequivalence of Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1: 7) dispersible tablets, a randomized cross - over study was conducted in 18 healthy volunteers. A single oral dose of 1000 mg Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1:7) dispersible tablets (Tested formulation, T) or Augmentin syrup (Reference formulation, R). Concentrations in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The main paramaters of T were: for Clavu lanate Potassium and Amoxicillin, Cmax: 2. 46±1.11 μg/ml and 18. 81±7. 26 μg/ml, Tmax 1. 12±0. 23h and 1. 30±0. 34h, AUC(0- 6h): 5. 18±2.24 μg * h/ml and 45. 09±14. 53 μg * h/ml, t1/2:1.43±0. 44 h and 1. 09±0.22 h. , respectively. The relative bioavailability of T to R were 96. 5±19. 2 % and 98. 4±26. 1 % , respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the two formulations were bioequivalent.

  6. Effectiveness and safety of meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiberi, Simon; Payen, Marie-Christine; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Alarcon Guizado, Valentina; Alffenaar, Jan Willem; Abdo Arbex, Marcos; Caminero, Jose A; Centis, Rosella; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Gaga, Mina; Gualano, Gina; Roby Arias, Aurora Jazmín; Scardigli, Anna; Skrahina, Alena; Solovic, Ivan; Sulis, Giorgia; Tadolini, Marina; Akkerman, Onno W; Alarcon Arrascue, Edith; Aleska, Alena; Avchinko, Vera; Bonini, Eduardo Henrique; Chong Marín, Félix Antonio; Collahuazo López, Lorena; de Vries, Gerard; Dore, Simone; Kunst, Heinke; Matteelli, Alberto; Moschos, Charalampos; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Spanevello, Antonio; Vargas Vasquez, Dante; Viggiani, Pietro; White, Veronica; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    No large study has ever evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of meropenem/clavulanate to treat multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB). The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the therapeutic contribution, effectiveness, safety and tolerability

  7. Efficacy of amoxycillin versus amoxycillin/clavulanate in acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease in primary care

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    Carl Llor

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Carl Llor1, Silvia Hernández1, Anna Ribas2, Carmen Álvarez3, Josep Maria Cots4, Carolina Bayona5, Isabel González6, Marc Miravitlles7, BRAMOX Study Group 1Primary Care Centre Jaume I, Tarragona, Spain; 2Primary Care Centre Santa Eugènia de Berga, Spain; 3Primary Care Centre Manlleu, Spain; 4Primary Care Centre La Marina, Barcelona, Spain; 5Primary Care Centre Valls, Spain; 6Primary Care Centre Maragall, Barcelona, Spain; 7Pneumology Department. Institut Clínic del Tòrax (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, SpainBackground: Amoxycillin/clavulanate is considered first-line treatment for ambulatory exacerbations of COPD. However, narrow-spectrum antibiotics may be as useful for mild to moderate patients.Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of amoxycillin versus amoxicyllin/clavulanate in exacerbations of COPD in primary care.Methods: A randomized, double-blind, noninferiority clinical trial was carried out in eight primary care centers in Catalonia, Spain. Spirometrically-diagnosed patients older than 40 years with COPD, without criteria of hospitalization and Anthonisen’s types I or II exacerbations were included. The main outcome was clinical cure at the end of treatment (EOT visit on day 10.Results: A total of 137 patients were enrolled in the study (68 assigned to amoxycillin and 69 to amoxycillin/clavulanate. The mean forced expiratory flow in one second was 61.6% and the mean age was 71.4 years. At EOT, 92.8% of patients in the amoxycillin/clavulanate and 90.9% in the amoxycillin group were considered clinically cured, a statistically non-significant difference. Adverse effects were observed in 11 subjects, 3 in the amoxycillin group and 8 in the amoxycillin/clavulanate group, 2 of whom required a change in treatment.Conclusions: Amoxycillin was at least as effective clinically and as safe as amoxycilin/clavulanate in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD in mild to

  8. Multivariate curve resolution applied to sequential injection data. Analysis of amoxicillin anda clavulanic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Pasamontes Fúnez, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis ha sido estudiar y desarrollar metodologias analíticasusando un sistema de inyección secuencial (SIA) con un espectrofotómetro de diodos enfila para obtener datos de segundo orden. Para tratar estos datos, las herramientasquimiométricas usadas han sido; resolución de curvas multivariante mediante mínimoscuadrados alternados (MCR-ALS) y otras técnicas relacionadas a ésta como el análisisde componentes principales (PCA) y SIMPLISMA. Además se han aplicado estrategiasde...

  9. Comparisons between continuous and batch processing to produce clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus

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    Álvaro Baptista-Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare CA production in continuous culture with and without cell recycling and in batch process by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Continuous cultivations with high cell concentration using cell recycling were performed utilizing a hollow fiber ultrafiltration module to separate cells from the filtrate broth. The continuous cultures without cell recycling and the batch cultivations were performed conventionally. The highest productivity was attained in the continuous cultivation with cell recycling (22.2 mg.L-1.h-1. The highest CA concentration was obtained in the batch process (470 mg.L-1.h-1.O ácido clavulânico (AC é um importante inibidor de beta-lactamases, enzimas que degradampartir do metabolismo secundário do Streptomyces clavuligerus, bactéria filamentosa e estritamente aeróbia. Considerando que a velocidade de produção de metabólitos secundários está ligada à concentração celular, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a produção de AC nos processos contínuos com e sem reciclo celular e em batelada, realizando cultivos dessa bactéria com alta densidade celular. Para cumprir com o objetivo proposto, foram realizados experimentos em biorreator operando na forma contínua com reciclo utilizando-se um módulo de filtração tangencial de fibra oca para a separação celular. Os processos contínuos sem reciclo e em batelada foram realizados de forma convencional. A produtividade em AC no cultivo contínuo com reciclo celular (22,2 mg.L-1h-1 foi superior aos processos convencionais, apesar de obter-se maior concentração do produto (470 mg.L-1 em batelada.

  10. Necessity of amoxicillin clavulanic acid in addition to prednisolone in mild-to-moderate COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Valk, van der Paul; Hendrix, Ron; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Palen, van der Job

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of antibiotics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is still a matter of debate, especially in outpatients with an intermediate probability of bacterial infection. Methods: In this study, 35 COPD outpatients diagnosed by their chest physician w

  11. Potassium clavulanate

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    Kotaro Fujii

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C8H8NO5− [systematic name: potassium (2R,5R,Z-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate], a widely used β-lactam antibiotic, is usually chemically unstable even in the solid state owing to its tendency to be hydrolysed. In the crystal structure, the potassium cations are arranged along the a axis, forming interactions to the carboxylate and hydroxy groups, resulting in one-dimensional ionic columns. These columns are arranged along the b axis, connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer in the ab plane.

  12. Efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in an experimental model of murine pneumonia caused by AmpC-non-hyperproducing clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to cefoxitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docobo-Pérez, F; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Pachón-Ibáñez, M E; Pascual, A; Pichardo, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Pachón, J

    2008-06-01

    The algorithms included in most automated systems used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (e.g., Vitek 2) consider that Escherichia coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin are AmpC-hyperproducers and, consequently, resistant also to amoxycillin-clavulanate. However, a recent study revealed that 30% of E. coli clinical isolates resistant to cefoxitin remained susceptible in vitro to amoxycillin-clavulanate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in the treatment of an experimental model of pneumonia, using two clonally related isolates (with identical repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence (REP)-PCR patterns) of AmpC-non-hyperproducing and OmpF-lacking E. coli (Ec985 and Ec571) that were resistant to cefoxitin and susceptible to cefotaxime and amoxycillin-clavulanate. MICs were determined using a microdilution technique, and in-vitro bactericidal activity was tested using time-kill assays. The in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against both isolates was tested in a murine pneumonia model using immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Ec571 (a TEM-1/2 producer) was resistant to amoxycillin, whereas Ec985 (a TEM-1/2 non-producer) was susceptible. Amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec985, and amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec571 at different concentrations and time-points, as determined using time-kill assays. Treatment with amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime reduced the bacterial lung concentration of Ec985 compared with non-treated controls (p AmpC-non-hyperproducing strains of E. coli resistant to cefoxitin.

  13. The influence of potassium clavulanate on the rate of amoxicillin sodium degradation in phosphate and acetate buffers in the liquid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, Laleh; Sunderland, Bruce

    2009-04-01

    The stability of aqueous admixtures of amoxicillin sodium and potassium clavulanate was studied in the liquid state at selected pH values. Potassium clavulanate was found to catalyze the rate of degradation of amoxicillin sodium under the conditions of this study. In phosphate buffer (at pH 7.0) both amoxicillin sodium and potassium clavulanate showed first-order degradation when stored separately. However, when combined the rate of amoxicillin degradation increased and t(90) values for amoxicillin decreased from 69.6 min for amoxicillin alone to 10.8 min for amoxicillin in the combination at 55 degrees C. A kinetic model was developed that explained the catalytic behavior of potassium clavulanate and phosphate buffer. In acetate buffer the rate of degradation of amoxicillin sodium followed first-order kinetics, but the catalytic effect of clavulanate caused curvature in the rate plots at higher temperatures and clavulanate concentrations. This catalytic effect was less than that occurred in phosphate buffer (where the t(90) value of amoxicillin decreased from 137.3 min for amoxicillin alone to 52.5 min for amoxicillin in combination at 55 degrees C). First-order bi-exponential decay occurred with amoxicillin degradation, which explained this change in rate.

  14. Modification of Karmali agar by supplementation with potassium clavulanate for the isolation of Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Choi, In-Soo; Oh, Deog-Hwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2014-07-01

    The detection ability and selectivity of Karmali agar was improved by supplementation of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor, potassium clavulanate. The optimum concentration of potassium clavulanate (0.5 μg/ml) in Karmali agar was determined by inoculation of 50 Campylobacter and 30 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli strains onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing various concentrations of the agent. Eighty retail carcasses were rinsed with 400 ml of buffered peptone water. The rinse samples were enriched in 2 × blood-free Bolton enrichment broth at 42°C for 48 h and then were streaked onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing 0.5 μg/ml potassium clavulanate. The suspicious colonies were subcultured on Columbia blood agar and confirmed by colony PCR. In chicken carcass samples, the modified Karmali agar showed a significantly greater isolation rate than normal Karmali agar (42.5 versus 21.3%; P agar was also significantly higher (P agar, as seen by comparison of the number of contaminated agar plates (83.8 versus 97.5%) and the growth index (1.67 versus 2.91) of the non-Campylobacter colonies.

  15. High-Dose Amoxicillin with Clavulanate for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children

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    Chia-Huei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study uses the acute otitis media clinical practice guideline proposed in 2004 as a reference to evaluate whether antibiotics doses that are in line with the recommendations lead to better prognosis. The study also attempts to clarify possible factors that influence the outcome. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods. A total of 400 children with acute otitis media were enrolled. The dosage of amoxicillin was considered to be appropriate when in accord with clinical practice guidelines, that is, 80–90 mg/kg/day. The outcome was defined according to the description of tympanic membrane on medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between antibiotic dosage and prognosis after adjusting for baseline factors. Results. The majority of prescriptions were under dosage (89.1% but it was not noticeably associated with outcome (P= 0.41. The correlation between under dosage and poor prognosis was significant in children below 20 kg with bilateral acute otitis media (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.02–2.59, P=0.04. Conclusion. Treating acute otitis media in children, high-dose amoxicillin with clavulanate as recommended in the clinical practice guideline was superior to conventional doses only in children under 20 kg with bilateral diseases.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in different commercial drugs using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejjani, A., E-mail: abejjani@cnrs.edu.lb [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Roumié, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Akkad, S. [Facutly of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Yazbi, F. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, P.O. Box: 21521, Elmesalla, Alexandria (Egypt); Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-03-15

    We have demonstrated, in previous studies that Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most rapid and accurate choices for quantification of an active ingredient, in a solid drug, from the reactions induced on its specific heteroatom using pellets made from original tablets. In this work, PIXE is used, for the first time, for simultaneous quantification of two active ingredients, amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, in six different commercial antibiotic type of drugs. Since the quality control process of a drug covers a large number of samples, the scope of this study was also to found the most rapid and low cost sample preparation needed to analyze these drugs with a good precision. The chosen drugs were analyzed in their tablets’ “as received” form, in pellets made from the powder of the tablets and also in pellets made from the powder of the tablets after being heated up to 70 °C to avoid any molecular destruction until constant weight and removal of humidity. The quantification validity related to the aspects of each sample preparation (homogeneity of the drug components and humidity) are presented and discussed.

  17. 2种不同规格的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片溶出度比较%Dissolution profiles of 2 specifications of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚玲; 刘艳; 杨传怀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the dissolution of 2 specifications of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets (0.228 5 g and 0.457 g) . Methods High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and 12 tablets from each batch were collected randomly from 3 batches. Samples were measured at 0, 5, 15 and 30 min after the dissolution, when the dissolution is beyond 90% or the dissolution platform was reached. All data were analyzed at each time point. The dissolution curve was calculated. Results At 15 min, samples of 2 specifications of the 3 batches reached the dissolution platform. Conclusion Dissolution between 0.457 g and 0.228 5 g specification of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets is highly similar with consistent quality.%目的 研究比较2种不同规格(0.457 g和0.2285 g)的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片的溶出度.方法 3个批次的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片用于实验,每批随即抽取12片,以水为溶剂,采用高效液相色谱法测定溶出度.除0时外,另选择5、15、30 min共3个时间点进行取样测定,直到药物溶出>90%或达到溶出平台,分别计算各时间点药物溶出百分比,绘制每批样品的药物溶出曲线.结果 2种规格各3批样品在15 min时溶出度均>90%,即已达到溶出平台.结论 0.457 g的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片与0.2285 g阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片的溶出度具有高度相似性,其质量具有一致性,可以开发.

  18. Cefotaxime and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Synergism against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, B; Soubirou, J F; Chau, F; Massias, L; Dion, S; Lepeule, R; Fantin, B; Lefort, A

    2015-11-02

    We investigated the efficacies of cefotaxime (CTX) and amoxicillin (AMX)-clavulanate (CLA) (AMC) against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in vitro and in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI). MICs, the checkerboard dilution method, and time-kill curves were used to explore the in vitro synergism between cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate against two isogenic E. coli strains-CFT073-RR and its transconjugant, CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15)-harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) plasmid and a bla(OXA-1) plasmid. For in vivo experiments, mice were separately infected with each strain and treated with cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and clavulanate, alone or in combination, or imipenem, using therapeutic regimens reproducing time of free-drug concentrations above the MIC (fT≥MIC) values close to that obtained in humans. MICs of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem were 4/>1,024, 0.125/1,024, and 0.5/0.5 mg/liter, for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15), respectively. The addition of 2 mg/liter of clavulanate (CLA) restored the susceptibility of CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15) to CTX (MICs of the CTX-CLA combination, 0.125 mg/liter). The checkerboard dilution method and time-kill curves confirmed an in vitro synergy between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15). In vivo, this antibiotic combination was similarly active against both strains and as effective as imipenem. In conclusion, the cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination appear to be an effective, easy, and already available alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTI due to CTX-M-producing E. coli strains.

  19. HLA alleles influence the clinical signature of amoxicillin-clavulanate hepatotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Stephens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The genotype-phenotype interaction in drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a subject of growing interest. Previous studies have linked amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC hepatotoxicity susceptibility to specific HLA alleles. In this study we aimed to examine potential associations between HLA class I and II alleles and AC DILI with regards to phenotypic characteristics, severity and time to onset in Spanish AC hepatotoxicity cases. METHODS: High resolution genotyping of HLA loci A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 was performed in 75 AC DILI cases and 885 controls. RESULTS: The distributions of class I alleles A*3002 (P/Pc = 2.6E-6/5E-5, OR 6.7 and B*1801 (P/Pc = 0.008/0.22, OR 2.9 were more frequently found in hepatocellular injury cases compared to controls. In addition, the presence of the class II allele combination DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 (P/Pc = 5.1E-4/0.014, OR 3.0 was significantly increased in cholestatic/mixed cases. The A*3002 and/or B*1801 carriers were found to be younger (54 vs 65 years, P = 0.019 and were more frequently hospitalized than the DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 carriers. No additional alleles outside those associated with liver injury patterns were found to affect potential severity as measured by Hy's Law criteria. The phenotype frequencies of B*1801 (P/Pc = 0.015/0.42, OR 5.2 and DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 (P/Pc = 0.0026/0.07, OR 15 were increased in AC DILI cases with delayed onset compared to those corresponding to patients without delayed onset, while the opposite applied to DRB1*1302-DQB1*0604 (P/Pc = 0.005/0.13, OR 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: HLA class I and II alleles influence the AC DILI signature with regards to phenotypic expression, latency presentation and severity in Spanish patients.

  20. Isolation of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae and comparison among clavulanate-tazobactam and sulbactam-synergy by using a double-disk synergy test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Savini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available False negative results of double-disk synergy test with Enterobacter cloacae are common, as AmpC-enzymes may mask ESBLs elaboration. We increased the sensitivity of the method by using both clavulanate- and tazobactam/sulbactam; hence, we suggest to use all the three inhibitors to screen ESBLs in AmpC ß-lactamases producing organisms.

  1. 中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎90例临床观察%The clinical observation of 90 children with tonsillitis treated by traditional Chinese medi-cine enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析和探讨中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床效果.方法:选取我院2012-01/2014-01收治的150例小儿化脓性扁桃体炎患者,通过随机数字表法分为对照组( n=60)和观察组( n=90).观察组患儿给予中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对照组患儿给予阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对两组患儿临床治疗效果进行分析.结果:观察组患儿临床治疗有效率较对照组更高( P<0.05).结论:在小儿化脓性扁桃体炎治疗中,中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗能改善临床症状,提高治疗效果,不良反应少,疗效安全可靠,可推广应用.%AIM: To analyze and explore the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium tablets in the treatment of pediatric septic tonsillitis. METHODS: A total of 150 children with purulent tonsillitis patients in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as research object, and were divided into control group ( n= 60 ) and observation group ( n = 90 ) according to a random number table method. The observation group were treated with TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets, and the control group received amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. The clinical therapeutic effect of two groups of children were analyzed. RESULTS: The clinical effective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLU⁃SION:In the treatment of children with purulent tonsillitis, the TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets could relieve the clinical symptoms, and improve the therapeutic effect, with less adverse reaction and safe and reliable curative effect. It is worthy of promoting and applying.

  2. Inhibition by Avibactam and Clavulanate of the β-Lactamases KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 Harboring the Substitution N(132)G in the Conserved SDN Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourghanlian, Clément; Soroka, Daria; Arthur, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The substitution N(132)G in the SDN motif of class A β-lactamases from rapidly growing mycobacteria was previously shown to impair their inhibition by avibactam but to improve the stability of acyl-enzymes formed with clavulanate. The same substitution was introduced in KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 to assess its impact on β-lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae and evaluate whether it may lead to resistance to the ceftazidime-avibactam combination. Kinetic parameters for the inhibition of the β-lactamases by avibactam and clavulanate were determined by spectrophotometry using nitrocefin as the substrate. The substitution N(132)G impaired (>1,000-fold) the efficacy of carbamylation of KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 by avibactam. The substitution improved the inhibition of KPC-2 by clavulanate due to reduced deacylation, whereas the presence or absence of N(132)G resulted in the inhibition of CTX-M-15 by clavulanate. The hydrolysis of amoxicillin and nitrocefin by KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 was moderately affected by the substitution N(132)G, but that of ceftazidime, ceftaroline, and aztreonam was drastically reduced. Isogenic strains producing KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 were constructed to assess the impact of the substitution N(132)G on the antibacterial activities of β-lactam-inhibitor combinations. For amoxicillin, the substitution resulted in resistance and susceptibility for avibactam and clavulanate, respectively. For ceftazidime, ceftaroline, and aztreonam, the negative impact of the substitution on β-lactamase activity prevented resistance to the β-lactam-avibactam combinations. In conclusion, the N(132)G substitution has profound effects on the substrate and inhibition profiles of class A β-lactamases, which are largely conserved in distantly related enzymes. Fortunately, the substitution does not lead to resistance to the ceftazidime-avibactam combination.

  3. 阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童部分急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性的系统评价%Clinical efficacy and safety of azithromycin versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the treatment of some acute respiratory infections in children:systematic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培香; 印亚双; 陈月; 李文静; 张啸; 冯婉玉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of azithromycin(Az)versus amoxicillin-cla⁃vulanic acid(A-Cva)in the treatment of some acute respiratory infections in children. Methods Pubmed,EMBase,Medline,Co⁃chrane Library and CJFD were retrieved to collect the randomized controlled trial(RCT)of their clinical efficacy and safety in the treat⁃ment of acute respiratory infections in children. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated.The RevMan 5.2 software was chosen for data analysis. Results Twenty RCTs involving 4980 pediatric patients were included for assessment of the clinical effi⁃cacy. Meta-analysis showed that Az had more significant effect on the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children〔OR=0.78,95%CI(0.65,0.93),P=0.007〕than A-Cva. In the treatment of upper respiratory infections,acute otitis media and so on,Az had more significant effect〔OR=0.75,95%CI(0.62,0.91),P=0.003〕;in the treatment of lower respiratory infections,such as community acquired pneumonia and so on,Az and A-Cva acid had the similar effect〔OR=1.20,95%CI(0.62,2.33),P=0.58〕. Thirteen RCT in⁃volving 3474 pediatric patients were included for assessment of the clinical safety. Meta-analysis shows that the difference between Az and A-Cva is statistic significant in the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children〔OR=0.49,95%CI(0.40,0.60),P<0.000 01〕. Conclusion Overall,Meta-analysis shows that Az is more effective and safer in the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children than A-Cva.%目的:系统评价阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童部分急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性。方法计算机检索PubMed、EMBase、Medline、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库,检索起止时间均从建库至2016年2月,收集阿奇霉素与阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性的随机对照

  4. Breeding of Clavulanic Acid-producing Strain%克拉维酸产生菌的菌种选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞岩青; 田敏; 林明; 蒋用; 王昆蓉

    2014-01-01

    采用紫外线对克拉维酸产生菌SIIA 0487原生质体进行诱变,并以苏氨酸耐受为筛选模型,从含8%苏氨酸的再生培养基上筛选到一株高产菌株SIIA 0220,在摇瓶试验中,该菌株对苏氨酸的耐受浓度由6%提高到10%,克拉维酸产量较出发菌株提高约36%,且遗传稳定性良好.

  5. Optimization of clavulanic acid fermentation%克拉维酸发酵工艺的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋顺进; 杨亚勇; 王惠青

    2004-01-01

    以棒状链霉菌CA-03-F2为出发菌,进行克拉维酸发酵工艺的优化研究,结果表明在控制培养温度28℃,搅拌转速400r/min,罐压0.05Mpa,空气流量0.5vvm,保证溶氧浓度40%以上以及适当控制培养基中各成分含量的情况下,发酵效价可从2140μg/ml提高到3132μg/ml.

  6. 克拉维酸产生菌的改良%IMPROVEMENT OF CLAVULANIC ACID-PRODUCING STREPTOMYCES CLAVULIGERUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟勇; 王忠; 官家发

    2005-01-01

    以棒状链霉菌Streptomyces clavuligerus CCRC11518(ATCC27064)为出发菌,采用经典物理和化学诱变剂处理的微生物诱变技术和现代理性化筛选方法,通过筛选抗终产物结构类似物舒巴坦钠突变株、底物甘油耐受型突变株、营养缺陷型突变株,最后获得一株克拉维酸高产突变株Ⅲ50,其克拉维酸摇瓶产量为834.8μg/mL,是出发菌株产量(282.4μg/mL)的2.96倍.该突变株在琼脂斜面培养基上连续转接传代8代,克拉维酸的产量保持稳定.表12参8

  7. Breeding of Clavulanic Acid High-Producing Strains%克拉维酸高产菌的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟勇; 王忠彦; 苗艳芳; 胡承; 张国华; 官家发

    2003-01-01

    在克拉维酸高产菌的选育过程中,应用解除终产物结构类似物作为选择压力,能有效地除去低效价菌株,提高高产菌株的检出率,较传统筛选法优越.试验表明,以带棒链霉菌 Streptomyces clavuligerus CCRC11518(效价为382.4×10-6g/mL)为出发菌,经紫外线诱变,筛选到一株抗20×10-3g/mL的舒巴坦钠突变株my51,my51菌株产克拉维酸的效价达到834.7×10-6g/mL ,比出发菌提高了1.18倍.该菌株连续传代7代,克拉维酸的效价保持稳定.

  8. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾复方制剂杂质谱的变化%Impurity Profiling Changes of Amoxicillin/Potassium Clavulanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓溪; 顾立素; 胡昌勤

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop the impurity control strategy of amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate. METHODS The impurity profiling changes of amoxicillin plus potassium clavulanate were compared with both amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate alone by HPLC. RESULTS Not only some new impurities were found. Both the impurities produced by amoxicillin or by potassium clavulanate in the complex medicine increased more quickly than in the antibiotics alone with acceleration test.CONCLUSION The results indicated that the impurity profiling of a complex medicine composed by β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactam inhibitor was not a simple mixture of both the components alone. The research should be focused on the interaction among the components influencing upon the impurity profiling of the complex medicine.%目的 探讨阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾复方药物的杂质控制策略.方法 采用HPLC,比较阿莫西林和克拉维酸钾单独存在及复方后杂质谱的变化.结果 加速实验中,复方样品产生新的未知杂质,且无论是源于阿莫西林的杂质还是源于克拉维酸钾的杂质均较其单独存在时变化快.结论 由β-内酰胺抗生素与β-内酰胺酶抑制剂组成的复方制剂的杂质谱,并不是其单独存在时的简单加和,新药研发中应重点探讨二者的相互作用对复方中杂质谱的影响.

  9. Response of feline eosinophilic plaques and lip ulcers to amoxicillin trihydrate-clavulanate potassium therapy: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildermuth, Brett E; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the treatment of feline eosinophilic plaques and lip ulcers with amoxicillin trihydrate-potassium clavulanate (Clavamox(®); Pfizer Animal Health). Nineteen cats with clinical and cytological findings consistent with eosinophilic plaques and/or lip ulcers were enrolled. Lesions were photographed and their areas measured in square centimetres before and after 21 days of therapy with either flavoured amoxicillin-clavulanate suspension or flavoured placebo suspension. Sixteen cats completed the study, with nine plaque lesions (four treatment and five placebo) and eight lip ulcer lesions (four treatment and four placebo) included in the analysis. All lesions were shown to have infection, with bacterial phagocytosis present on cytological examination. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were the most commonly isolated bacteria. The amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated eosinophilic plaque group had a statistically significant 96.2% reduction in mean lesion size (-7.60 cm(2), P = 0.0078) and an 80% reduction in mean percentage of microscopic fields demonstrating evidence of bacterial infection (P feline eosinophilic plaques.

  10. Quality evaluation of domestic amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets%国产阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏文; 袁耀佐; 张玫; 钱文; 侯玉荣; 赵恂; 范青峰; 胡昌勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the suitability of statutory standard and the quality condition of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. Methods: Using statutory methods to test the samples. Establish or improve some methods for the exploratory research: (1) Using the gradient elution method in ChP 2010 to determine the related substances for amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. (2)LC - MS method (Agilent 1100 IX! /MSD Trap) was carried on a shim -pack CLC -ODS C18column (4.6 mm x 150 mm,5 um Shimazu)to study the impurities profile of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. According to the result of this research,we established the new impurities calculation method(calculate in different division). (3)The stability of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in solution was detected in different time and temperature. (4) Use the crossed - validation method of NIR to validate and improve the qualitative and quantitative models using in the mobile Lab vehicle,and established the quantitativemodel of water - detection. (5)The automated sampling dissolution analyzer(SOTAX AT7 Smart) and the new established UPLC method (Agilent Technologies 1920 Infinity UPLC) were used to research the difference of dissolution behavior of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets between domestic and foreign tablets. Rseults: The quality of domestic amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets met the requirement of current statutory standards. 19 impurities were detected from the tablet. The result showed the impurities from different sources had obvious division, and the impurities of amoxicillin were eluted mainly after the peak of clavulanate in the chromatogram, whereas the impurities of clavulanate mainly before this peak. The off - standard rate of samples by using the new calculation method instead of the previous was increased significantly. The stability of the solution is not very good,especially clavulanate. Validate and improve the qualitative and

  11. Levofloxacin-amoxicillin/clavulanate-rabeprazole versus a standard seven-day triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Cheh; Lei, Wei-Yi; Lin, Jen-Shung; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hu, Chi-Tan

    2014-01-01

    The resistance rates of Helicobacter pylori to amoxicillin and metronidazole therapy are higher in eastern Taiwan as compared to national and worldwide rates. The high resistance rate in this territory justified a search for a better eradication regimen. We conducted an open-labeled, prospective, randomized, and controlled study in a tertiary referral hospital in eastern Taiwan. Between December 2007 and December 2009, a total of 153 Helicobacter pylori-positive, therapy-naïve patients with a positive rapid urease test were recruited for random assignment to two seven-day treatment groups: levofloxacin (500 mg), amoxicillin/clavulanate (875 mg/125 mg), and rabeprazole (20 mg) twice per day (LAcR) or clarithyromicin (500 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg), and rabeprazole (20 mg) twice per day (CAR). Helicobacter pylori eradication was assessed using the (13)C-urea breath test or rapid urease test performed at least 4 weeks after the end of treatment. After exclusion, 146 patients were enrolled and allocated in the study. The Helicobacter pylori eradication rates analyzed by both intention to treat (78.1% versus 57.5%, P = 0.008) and perprotocol (80.9% versus 61.8%, P = 0.014) were significantly higher for the LAcR group. In conclusion, the seven-day LAcR regimen provided improved Helicobacter pylori eradication efficacy when compared with the standard CAR triple therapy in eastern Taiwan.

  12. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服干混悬剂含量测定方法研究%Determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate acid in amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云林; 杨嘉宗

    1998-01-01

    目的:对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服干混悬剂含量测定方法研究.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,在3×3CRC18柱(4 mm× 3.5 cm)上,以pH 4.4磷酸二氢钠溶液-甲醇(95:5)为流动相,流速 1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长为220 nm.结果:阿莫西林和克拉维酸浓度分别在25~500 μg·ml-1及10~200 μg·ml-1范围内有良好的线性关系,平均方法回收率分别为 99.4%± 1.9%和 99.5%± 2.0%,日内精密度分别在 1.1%~2.3%和1.7%~2.6%之间,日间精密度分别<3.1%和<2.5%.结论:本法实用简便,结果可靠.

  13. Determination of Amoxicillin Potassium Clavulanate Effervescent Tablets by HPLC%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾泡腾片的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月联; 王健祥; 夏岭

    2001-01-01

    采用HPLC测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾泡腾片含量。用Spherisorb C18(250×4.6 mm, 10 μm)色谱柱,甲醇-磷酸盐缓冲液(10∶90)为流动相,流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为220 nm。阿莫西林及克拉维酸钾的回收率分别为99.60%(RSD=0.83%)和99.64%(RSD=0.99%)。%Amoxicillin potassium clavulanate effervescent tablets were determined by HPLC, using Spherisorb C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-phosphate buffer (10∶90) at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and the detection wavelength of 220 nm. The average recoveries of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate were 99.60% (RSD=0.83%) and 99.64% (RSD=0.99%), respectively.

  14. Effect of amino acids on clavulanic acid biosynthesis%影响克拉维酸生物合成的氨基酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱薇玲

    2002-01-01

    发酵液的氨基酸分析显示,谷氨酸、精氨酸、天门冬氨酸、丙氨酸易被棒状链霉菌利用,发酵培养基中添加上述氨基酸后,谷氨酸、精氨酸有利于克拉维酸的生物合成,适时添加谷氨酸、精氨酸可分别提高克拉维酸的产量约25%和12%;而蛋氨酸、半胱氨酸含S氨基酸对克拉维酸生物合成不利.不同来源的黄豆粉作发酵培养基氮源,因其组成中某些氨基酸含量的差异,可使克拉维酸的产量相差百分之十几.

  15. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy versus intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated skin and skin structure infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyssens, I.C.J.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Schaper, N.; Hampel, B.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Arvis, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the RELIEF study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two sequential intravenous (iv)/oral regimens: moxifloxacin iv/oral versus piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) iv followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study had a prospective, ra

  16. Ticarcillin and Clavulanate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of your treatment using laboratory tests and physical examinations. It is important to keep all appointments ... health care provider as soon as possible: tenderness warmth irritation drainage redness swelling pain

  17. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗耐多药肺结核临床疗效分析%Clinical Efficacy Analysis of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Potassium Combined Levofloxacin in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 刘幸; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the clinical effect of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined lev- ofloxacin in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB). Methods 101 cases of retreatment smear-positive MDR-TB patients were randomly divided into treatment group (52 patients) and control group (49 patients); chemotherapy: the treatment group based on amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium and levofloxacin, associated with pyrazinamide, ethambutol, aminosalicylic acid isoniazid and rifampicin spray bite; The control group based on levofloxacin, combination therapy is same with the treatment group; The treatment course of all cases is 12 months. Results 5 patients were terminated because of adverse drug reactions In the course of treatment, the treatment group actually completed 50 patients, the control group actually completed 46 patients. To the end of treatment, sputum conversion rate of treatment group and control group Separately was 78.0% and 56.5%, sputum conversion rate in the treated group was significantly higher than the control group(P <0.05); foci effective rate of treatment group was 78.0%, cavity closure rate was 82.0%, foci effective rate and cavity closure rate in treatment group were significantly higher than the control group(P <0.05). Conclusion amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined levofloxacin in the treatment of MDR-TB was contribute to sputum conversion and Absorption of the lesion, adverse drug reactions was low, worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察并评价阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星在耐多药肺结核(MDR-TB)治疗中的效果.方法 将101例复治涂阳耐多药肺结核患者随机分为治疗组52例和对照组49例;化疗方案:治疗组以阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、左氧氟沙星为主,联合吡嗪酰胺、盐酸乙胺丁醇、对氨基水杨酸异烟肼、利福喷叮;对照组以左氧氟沙星为主,联合用药同治疗组;所有病例疗程均为12个月.结果 治疗中途因

  18. 克拉维酸钾生产废水处理工程实例%Project example of potassium clavulanate production wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远帅

    2015-01-01

    针对克拉维酸钾生产废水成分复杂、污染物浓度高的特点,采用水解酸化-多级内循环厌氧反应罐(IC)-循环式活性污泥系统(CASS)-一级曝气生物滤池(BAF)-Fenton氧化-二级BAF的工艺路线。工程运行结果表明,在综合进水CODCr的质量浓度为8000 mg/L、 NH3-N的质量浓度为500 mg/L的情况下,出水CODCr的质量浓度为30~50 mg/L、 NH3-N的质量浓度为1.2~5.0 mg/L,达到GB 18918-2002《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》一级A标准。采用该工艺可满足大规模克拉维酸钾生产废水的处理要求。%In view of the complex composition and high pollutants concentration characteristics of potas-siuim clavulanate production wastewater, a combined process of hydrolytic acidification-multi-internal circlula-tion(IC) anaerobic reactor-cyclic activated sludge system(CASS)-one stage biological aerated filter(BAF)-Fen-ton oxidation-two stage BAF was used for its treatment. The results of the engineering operation showed that, un-der the condition that the mass concentrations of CODCr and NH3-N in the integrated influent water were 8 000 and 500 mg/L respectively, the corresponding indexes of the effluent water reached 30-50 and 1.2-5.0 mg/L re-spectively, which met the specification for standard A grade 1 in GB 18918-2002 Discharge Standard of Pollu-tants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. It could draw a conclusion that using the said process could sat-isfy the requirement of large-scale potassium clavulanate production wastewater treatment.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria from industrially produced dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the susceptibility to clindamycin, tetracycline, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin and trimethoprim was tested in coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=78 and lactic acid bacteria (n=30 by means of disk diffusion test and E-test. The isolates were collected from soft and hard cheeses, butter and brine. All isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were susceptible to clindamycin, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin according to CLSI breakpoints. A total of 30 staphylococci isolates (38.46 % were resistant to erythromycin, 18 to penicillin (23.07 %, 4 to tetracycline (5.12 %, and one isolate to trimethoprim, tobramicin and trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (1.28 %. Among 78 tested staphylococci, 35 of them were resistant to at least one antimicrobial substance (44.87 %. The rate of resistant isolates of different soft cheese types ranged from 22 to 70 %, while resistant staphylococci were absent in hard cheese and brine. The growth of lactic acid bacteria was not influenced by trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (n=29, vancomycin (n=29, trimethoprim (n=28, amikacin (n=10 and tobramycin (n=10. The results show that significant part of apathogenic microbiota in different dairy products is phenotypically resistant to antimicrobial agents.

  20. Determination of glycerol content in clavulanic acid fermentation broth by titration%滴定法测定棒酸发酵液中甘油含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康辉; 刘桂军; 孙凤卿; 赵霞

    2010-01-01

    为了消除发酵液中还原糖的影响,建立了高碘酸钠滴定法测定棒酸发酵液中甘油含量的方法,该方法的回收率为98.5%,RSD值为1.69%.本法操作简便,成本低廉,适用于发酵液中甘油含量的测定.

  1. Effect of lat disruption on clavulanic acid production%棒状链霉菌lat基因的中断对棒酸产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永华; 荆琛峰; 陶美凤; 杨博; 徐安龙

    2005-01-01

    从棒状链霉菌中克隆1.8kb的lat基因片段,构建了基因置换质粒pXAL1和pXAL2.运用接合转移方法把中断载体导入棒状链霉菌中进行lat的中断,得到1株接合转移子AmrThios,命名为XAL 863.通过Southern杂交分析及赖氨酸转氨酶活性测定,证明此菌株的lat基因被中断.通过发酵培养,HPLC方法检测棒酸含量,发现棒酸产量明显提高,约为原产量的1.8倍.

  2. 克拉维酸发酵液中甘油含量的测定%Quantitative Analysis of Gycerol in Fermentation Supernatant of Clavulanic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱薇玲; 赵举锋; 田新宝

    2004-01-01

    为寻求一种简便易行的克拉维酸发酵液中甘油含量的测定方法,以化学测定方法--高碘酸氧化法对克拉维酸发酵液进行测定.从精密度和回收率实验结果看,该方法可以较精确地测定出发酵液中甘油的含量,平均相对偏差小于5%,适合用来检测克拉维酸发酵过程中甘油的代谢情况.

  3. The Optimizing of Extracting Condition of Clavulanic Acid in Fermention Broth%发酵液中克拉维酸萃取条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舰平; 许锋; 朱庆玲; 李脉

    2016-01-01

    目的优化发酵液中克拉维酸萃取条件.方法通过改变温度、pH、有机溶剂和油水比等因素,采用中心组合设计对对克拉维酸萃取条件进行优化.结果优化得到了丁醇和乙酸乙酯为萃取剂(1∶4)、油水比3.76、pH=2.0、8℃下分离纯化克拉维酸,萃取率为90.49%,溶胀率4.13%的结果.结论优化后的方法可以得到较高的萃取率和较低的溶胀率.

  4. The Combination of Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Mhmoud (Najwa A.); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); E.S. Mahgoub (El Sheikh); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the the

  5. 克拉维酸产生菌的优化培养%Optimize the production of clavulanic acid by Sclavuligerus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱薇玲

    2003-01-01

    为提高克拉维酸产量,通过摇瓶实验考查了多种氮、碳源及无机盐对克拉维酸产量的影响,并对产生菌的部分性能进行了考查.试验表明实验中所用棒状链霉菌(Streptomyces clavuligerus)合成克拉维酸的最佳氮、碳源及无机盐是黄豆粉、甘油、KH2PO4、MgSO4,其最佳培养基配比(%)分别为2.8、1.8、0.04、0.05.为保证克拉维酸高产、稳产,产生菌斜面冷藏时间不宜超过1个月,斜面传代次数不宜超过4代,沙土、20%甘油溶液、冷冻干燥管均可用于产生菌的孢子保藏.

  6. Prospective randomized controlled study on the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 and amoxicillin-clavulanate or the combination on the gut microbiota of healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Toufic A.; Pallav, Kumar; Dowd, Scot E.; Villafuerte-Galvez, Javier; Vanga, Rohini R.; Castillo, Natalia E.; Hansen, Joshua; Dennis, Melinda; Leffler, Daniel A.; Kelly, Ciarán P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Probiotics are believed to be beneficial in maintaining a healthy gut microbiota whereas antibiotics are known to induce dysbiosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (SB), the antibiotic Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (AC) and the combination on the microbiota and symptoms of healthy humans. Healthy subjects were randomized to one of 4 study groups: SB for 14 days, AC for 7 days, SB plus AC, Control (no treatment). Participants gave stool samples and completed gastro-intestinal symptom questionnaires. Microbiota changes in stool specimens were analyzed using 16s rRNA gene pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Only one subject withdrew prematurely due to adverse events. Subjects treated by S boulardii + AC had fewer adverse events and tolerated the study regimen better than those receiving the AC alone. Control subjects had a stable microbiota throughout the study period. Significant microbiota changes were noted in the AC alone group during antibiotic treatment. AC associated changes included reduced prevalence of the genus Roseburia and increases in Escherichia, Parabacteroides, and Enterobacter. Microbiota alterations reverted toward baseline, but were not yet completely restored 2 weeks after antibiotherapy. No significant shifts in bacterial genera were noted in the SB alone group. Adding SB to AC led to less pronounced microbiota shifts including less overgrowth of Escherichia and to a reduction in antibiotic-associated diarrhea scores. Antibiotic treatment is associated with marked microbiota changes with both reductions and increases in different genera. S. boulardii treatment can mitigate some antibiotic-induced microbiota changes (dysbiosis) and can also reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea. PMID:27973989

  7. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾脉冲胶囊的制备%Preparation of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Pulsatile Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 张涛; 黄华

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium pellets were prepared by extrude-spheronization method.The pH-dependent pulsatile capsules were prepared by the above pellets uncoated, Eudragit(R) L30D-55 coated pellets and Eudragit S100 coated pellets with the ratio of 1 ∶ 1∶ 1. The in vitro release of pH dependent pulsatile capsules was discussed. The effects of coating level and HPMC insulation layer on in vitro released were performed. The pulsatile capsules exhibited an excellent pH dependent release profile in pH 2.0, pH 6.0 and pH 7.8 phosphate buffer solution.%采用挤出滚圆法制备阿莫西林克拉维酸钾微丸,再分别以Eudragit(R)L30D-55和Eudragit(R)S100包衣.将上述3种在不同pH条件下释放的微丸按等比例混匀后装入囊壳,得脉冲胶囊.并进行了体外释放度研究.考察了包衣增重以及pH敏感型材料包衣后添加HPMC隔离层对体外释放度的影响.结果显示,制备的脉冲胶囊在pH 2.0、6.0和7.8的磷酸盐缓冲液中,呈pH依赖型的脉冲释药.

  8. 羟氨苄青霉素克拉维酸盐用药分析%Marketing Analysis of Amoxicllin/clavulanate K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾珍; 徐传合

    2001-01-01

    目的:分析羟氨苄青霉素克拉维酸盐在13城市所占β-内酰胺类的比例和医院普及率,比较不同剂型所占的比例。方法:统计了全国13城市入网医院中抗感染药、β-内酰胺类(青霉素类)及羟氨苄青霉素克拉维酸盐总的用药金额。结果:羟氨苄青霉素克拉维酸盐占β-内酰胺类18.3%,典型医院普及率为74.4%,其中口服制剂占41.7%,粉针剂占58.3%。结论:本文结果对医院合理用药有一定的参考价值。%OBJECTIVE:To analyse the distributing proportion of amoxicillin/clavulanate K(CA) in β-lactmas and the popularzing rate of CA in hospitals.The proportions of different drug dosage forms of CA were compared.METHODS:The sums of money of the antiinfectives,β-lactams(penicillins) and CA consumed in 13 cities of China in 1999 were analysed.RESULTS:The distributing proportion of CA in β-lactams(penicillins)accounted for 18.3% ,the popularzing rate of CA in 13 cities was 74.4% ,of which,oral dosage form amounted to 41.7% and powdered form for injection 58.3% .CONCLUSION:The results can provide reference for rational use of drugs in hospital.

  9. 气相色谱法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中的乙醇残留量%Determination of Ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔霁虹; 臧恒昌; 王彦厚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of residual ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets. Methods GC with FID detector was adopted, and nitrogen was selected as the carrier gas. Results There is an excellent linearity between the peak area and the content of ethanol in the range of 0.316-2.37 g/mL. Conclusion The method was simple, accurate and of good reproducibility, and can be used for the determination of residual ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets.%目的:建立一种测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中乙醇残留量的方法。方法采用气相色谱法测定乙醇残留量,载气为氮气。结果0.316~2.37μg/mL范围内,峰面积与乙醇浓度间呈良好的线性关系。结论该方法操作简单、准确、重复性好、灵敏度高,可用于阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中乙醇残留量的测定。

  10. Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanate Potassium Comparative Study of Adverse Reactions%阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium cause adverse reactions to compare and research.Methods Select our hospital, 164 patients were divided into observation group and control group, 82 cases in the observation group patients receiving amoxicillin treatment and control group patients received amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment. Treatment of two groups of patients to track and observation. Results All patients experienced varying degrees of adverse reactions, adverse reactions were compared with gender and age, no significant difference (P>0.05). Two groups of patients with various number of cases of adverse reactions, there were significant differences (P0.05)。两组患者出现的各项不良反应例数均存在显著差异(P<0.05)。经治疗,观察组中3例(3.7%)、对照组中1例(1.2%)患者的不良反应对患者疾病产生了显著影响,两组差异显著(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾比阿莫西林不良反应小,较为安全,值得在临床推广应用。

  11. 液-质联用测定克拉维酸钾及其制剂的含量%HPLC-MS determination of the contents of clavulanate potassium preparations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩; 张兰桐; 王永利; 刘桂军; 康辉

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish an HPLC-MS method for the determination of the contents of clavulanate potassium preparations.METHODS The Restek C18 column was used, and the mobile phase was 5 mmol· L-1 amine acetate buffer-acetonitrile (90∶ 10) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL·min-1.Column temperature was 25 ℃.The analysis was detected by a negative electrospray ionization(ESI) method under multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode.RESULTS The linear range of clavulanate potassium was 1 0.33-1033 μg· L-1 (r = 0.9989), the average recovery of amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium(7∶1 ) dispersible tablet was 98.4% with RSD of 0.97%(n = 9), that of amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium(4∶1 ) suspension was 98.9% with RSD of 1.1% (n = 9) , the LOD was 1.033 μg· L 1.CONCLUSION The method is rapid and accurate, it may provide a new reliable means for the quality control of clavulanate potassium preparations.%目的:建立液-质联用法测定克拉维酸钾及其制剂的含量.方法:采用Restek C18色谱柱,流动相为5 mmol·L-1醋酸铵溶液-乙腈(90:10),流速0.7 mL·min1,柱温25℃;采用ESI离子源,多反应监测(MRM)扫描方式,负离子模式.结果:克拉维酸钾在10.33~1033μg·L1范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.9989.阿莫西林克拉维酸钾(7:1)分散片的平均回收率(n=9)为98.4%,RSD为0.97%;阿莫西林克拉维酸钾(4:1)干混悬剂的平均回收率(n=9)为98.9%.RSD为1.1%;最低检测限为1.033/μg·L-1.结论:本方法准确、快速,为克拉维酸钾及其制剂生产中的质量控制提供新的分析手段.

  12. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profiles are not Associated with risk of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury in Spanish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Stephens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are an integral part of the immune system and represent a large proportion of the lymphocyte population in the liver. The activity of these cells is regulated by various cell surface receptors, such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I ligands on the target cell. The composition of KIR receptors has been suggested to influence the development of specific diseases, in particularly autoimmune diseases, cancer and reproductive diseases. The role played in idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI is currently unknown. In this study we examined KIR gene profiles and HLA class I polymorphisms in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC DILI patients in search for potential risk associations. 102 AC DILI patients and 226 controls were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR loci, including the two pseudogenes 2DP1 and 3DP1. No significant differences were found in the distribution of individual KIRs between patients and controls, which were comparable to previously reported KIR data from ethnically similar cohorts. 21.6% and 21.2% of the patients and controls, respectively, were homozygous haplotype A carriers, while 78.4% and 78.8%, respectively, contained at least one B haplotype (Bx. The genotypes translated into 27 (AC DILI and 46 (controls different gene profiles, with 19 being present in both groups. The most frequent Bx gene profile containing 2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DP1, 2DL1, 3DL1, 2DS4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DL4 and 3PD1 was present in 16% of the DILI patients and 14% of the controls. The distribution of HLA class I epitopes did not differ significantly between AC DILI patients and controls. The most frequent receptor-ligand combinations in the DILI patients were 2DL3 + epitope C1 (67% and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (67%, while 2DL1 + epitope C2 (69% and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (69% predominated in the controls. This is to our knowledge the first analysis of KIR receptor-HLA ligand associations in DILI

  13. Incompatibility with ambroxol in amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection%注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与沐舒坦的配伍禁忌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓竹; 邹利文; 蒋安定; 简祖丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾是否与沐舒坦(盐酸氨溴索注射液)存在配伍禁忌。方法观察和分析配伍试液。结果配伍试液存在沉淀物。结论注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和沐舒坦(盐酸氨溴索)之间确实存在配伍禁忌,应当引起高度重视。为预防类似现象的发生,建议在输入阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾时禁止将盐酸氨溴索入壶或接续静点。使用时应以葡萄糖溶液或生理盐水溶液冲尽输液管内余液后再接续输入其他药物,以防药物在输液管滴壶内发生沉淀或混浊反应。%ABSTRACT:Objective To analyze the use of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium and whether Mucosolvan injection (ambroxol hydrochloride injection) are incompatibility. Methods to observe and analysis the compatibility solution. the compatibility test solution for sediment. Amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection andambroxol conclusion (ambroxol hydrochloride) exists between the incompatibility, should cause height to take seriously.For the prevention of similar phenomenon,suggest that in the input of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium banned the use ofambroxol hydrochloride into the pot or static point Connection.should be used in glucose Solution or saline solution infusion tube punching asresidual liquid after connecting the input of other drugs,to prevent the drugs in the infusion tube in the dropping pot precipitation or turbidityreaction.

  14. RP-HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸的含量%Determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium suspension(14∶ 1) by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚洲; 樊兰兰; 屈啸声; 冯洁; 魏涌标

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of the content of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Suspension( 14:1 ). Methods YILITE C18 column( 4. 6 mm × 150 mm,5μm ) and Shimadzu LC-10A high performance liquid chromatography were adopted using octadecylsilane bonded silica as a filler;phosphate buffe( NaH2PO4 7. 8 g added with water 900 mL, pH value adjusted to 4. 4 ±0.1 with phosphate or 10 mol · L-1 NaOH solution before diluted with water to 1 000 mL ) -methano(95: 5 ) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL · min~' and detection wavelength was 220 nm. Results Amoxicillin was lineat in the range of 0. 332 1 ~ 1.162 3 g · L-1 with a correlation coefficient 0. 999 6 , average recoveries( n = 9 )99. 45% and RSD 0. 34% . Clavulanic acid was liaear in the range of 0. 028 1-0. 098 4 g · L ~' with a the correlation coefficient 0. 999 8 , average recoveries(n = 9 ) 100. 47% , and RSD 0. 99% . There was a good linear relationship between concentration and peak area. Conclusion The method is simple, accurate, reliable, and highly sensible, which can be used as a quality control method for Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium(14 : 1) suspension.%目的 建立高效液相色谱法同时测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林和克拉维酸钾的含量.方法 采用依利特C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),岛津L-10A 高效液相色谱仪,用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钠7.8 g,加水900 mL溶解,用磷酸或10 mol?L-1氢氧化钠溶液调节pH值至4.4±0.1,加水稀释至1 000 mL)-甲醇(95:5)为流动相;流速:1.0 mL?min-1;检测波长为220 nm.结果 阿莫西林在0.332 1~1.162 3 g?L-1的浓度范围内,相关系数为0.999 6,平均回收率(n=9) 为99.45%,RSD 为0.34%.克拉维酸在0.028 1~0.098 4 g?L-1的浓度范围内,相关系数为0.999 8,平均回收率(n=9) 为100.47%,RSD 为0.99%.两者的浓度和峰面积之间线

  15. 头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的Meta分析%Meta analysis of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on children with bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宝霞; 陈富超; 于琳; 林洁; 姚园林

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to evaluate the curative effect and safety of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on children with bacterial infections. Methods Randomized controlled trails ( RCTs ) of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for bacterial infections in children were collected from VIP ( 1989 to 2010 ) and CBMdisc ( 1978 to 2010). The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated, and data analyses were performed with the Cochrane collaboration's software RevMan 5.0. Results A total of 672 patients involved in 7 papers were searched. As for the cure rates and effective rates in the treatment of children with bacterial infections, significant differences were noted between cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Cure rates: RRs and 95% CI were 1.66 ( 1.22 to 2.26 ), Z = 3.24, P =0.001, the difference was significant. Effective rates: RRs and 95% CIs were 3.07( 1.94 to 4.86 ), Z = 4.80 , P <0.01 , the difference was significant. Conclusion According to the domestic evidence, cefixime is effective in the treatment of bacterial infections in children versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. However, more high quality clinical trials are expected for further study.%目的 评价头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的疗效和安全性.方法 计算机检索中文科技期刊全文数据库(1989-2010)与中国生物医学文献数据库(1978-2010),纳入头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的随机对照试验(RCT)文献,对纳入研究进行方法学质量评价,并采用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析.结果 7篇随机对照试验,共672例患者符合纳入标准,Meta分析结果显示:头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾比较,痊愈率OR合并值1.66(95%CI为1.22~2.26),Z=3.24(P=0.001),有显著性差异;有效率OR合并值3.07(95%CI为1.94~4.86),Z=4.80(P<0.01),有显著性差异.结论 目前国内证据表明,头孢克肟治

  16. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液的稳定性研究%Stability Explore Injection Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium Sodium Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩兰; 张涛; 郭杨庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the injection of sodium amoxicilin and clavulanate potassium solution stability compatibility when using different solvents.Methods Determination of the dosing by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)amoxicilin clavulanate potassium sodium content changes in different time periods,and observe the color changes after dosing.Results For injection amoxicilin sodium clavulanate potassium is preferably stable in 0.9%sodium chloride solvent,in a pharmaceuticaly effective 3h decreased less than 10%;in glucose-containing solvent stability than difference,in a pharmaceuticaly effective drug 3 h decreased about 10%~30%.Conclusion Amoxicilin sodium injection stability of potassium clavulanate in 0.9%sodium chloride solution is preferably,but in the glucose-containing solution is relatively poor stability,and the rate of decline in an amount proportional to the glucose content,immediately after dilution with 0.9%sodium chloride injection solution,and should be complete within 3 h infusion process (25℃ below).%目的 探讨注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液在不同溶剂配伍使用时的稳定性.方法 用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定配液后阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在不同时段的含量变化情况,并观察配液后颜色变化情况.结果 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,在3 h内药物有效含量下降小于10%;但在葡萄糖注射液中的稳定性较差,在用药3 h内药物有效含量下降在10%~30%.结论注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,但在含葡萄糖溶液中的稳定性相对较差,且其含量下降速度与葡萄糖含量呈正比,用0.9%氯化钠注射液溶解后应立即稀释,并应在3 h内(25℃以下)完成整个输液过程.

  17. 大肠埃希菌对阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药机制的研究%Mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate in Escherichia coil isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娟娟; 吕晓菊; 陈筱纯; 吴疆; 高燕渝; 马晓波

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study amoxiciUin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from West China Hospital of Sichuan University, and analyze the resistant mechanisms of these isolates, so as to provide evidence for clinical therapy in infections caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli. Methods Among 276 isolates showing resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, 52 tested strains were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate by disk diffusion method (inhibition zone diameter ≤ 13mm). The genes of TEM-type enzymes in isolates of which phenotype was consistant with inhibitor-resistant TEM β-lactamase (IRT) was cloned and expressed and blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA genes were detected by multiple PCR. Results Multiplex PCR detected blaTEM and blaOXA genes in 46 and 6 strains, respectively, and only one isolate had blaSHV gene. The occurrent presence of blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected in 5 strains, and only one strain harboured blaTEM and blaSHV genes concomitantly. Conclusion In West China Hospital, overproduction of TEM-1 β-lactamases were the main mechanism in amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli isolates, while SHV-1 and OXA-1 β- lactamases were important mechanisms of resistance.%目的 探讨大肠埃希菌对阿莫西林/克拉维酸的耐药特点和机制,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 收集四川大学华西医院2005年5月至12月临床分离的544株大肠埃希菌经微量肉汤稀释法确认对氨苄西林/舒巴坦耐药的大肠埃希菌,从中随机选取276株用药敏纸片检测,仅52株对阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药.对符合耐酶抑制剂β-内酰胺酶耐药表型的2株大肠埃希菌进行TEM型β-内酰胺酶基因的克隆表达.采用多重PCR技术检测耐阿莫西林/克拉维酸大肠埃希菌的TEM、SHV、OXA型3种β-内酰胺酶.结果 52株大肠埃希菌含TEM型46株,SHV型1株,OXA型6株.其中同时含TEM型和SHV型1株以及含TEM型和OXA型5株.结论 TEM-1型广谱酶的高产是

  18. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acids . Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. "Nonessential" means that our ... this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps ...

  19. Pharmacokinetics Study of Amoxicillin Sodium Clavulanate Potassium (10 : 1) Injection in Healthy Volunteers%注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10:1)临床药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗佳; 南峰; 沈奇; 秦永平; 王颖; 余勤; 郑莉; 梁茂植

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究健康受试者接受单次和多次给予注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)后的药代动力学特征,以指导制定合理的临床给药方案.方法 采用输液泵恒速静滴30 min给药,分别于给药前和开始给药后10、20、30、45 min和1、1.25、1.5、2、2.5、3、4、6、8、10 h采集静脉血4 mL.采用液相色谱-质谱/质谱法测定人血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸浓度,经DAS 2.0.1软件药代动力学程序处理,得主要药代动力学参数.结果 阿莫西林和克拉维酸的体内过程均符合权重系数为1/cc的三室模型或二室模型.为避免房室模型拟合所致偏倚,本研究采用非房室模型统计矩参数,单次静滴注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)0.55、1.1、2.2g后,峰浓度、药时曲线下面积、消除半衰期和清除率等药代参数提示阿莫西林和克拉维酸均具有线性动力学特征.受试者接受单次和多次给药后,阿莫西林和克拉维酸的药代动力学参数接近,且第7~13次给药前的谷浓度均低于最低检测限,表明每次给药前,前一次给药已基本清除,多次给药后无蓄积.结论 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)具有线性动力学特征,1.1g,Q8 h给药能满足临床治疗需要.%Objective To study the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin sodium clavulanate potassium (10 : 1) injection with different single doses intravenous infusion and one dose repeated intravenous injection in healthy volunteers for guiding the rational clinical regimen. Methods Using infusion pump constantly intravenous dripping in 30 min, 4 mL blood samples were collected before and after the administration at 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 1, 1. 25, 1. 5, 2, 2. 5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 h. The plasma concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS2. 0. 1

  20. 氨基苯酚硼酸和克拉维酸增强试验检测阴沟肠杆菌ESBLs%Detection of ESBLs in Enterobacter cloacae by potentiation test with aminophenylboronic acid and clavulanic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯长海; 沈定霞; 罗燕萍

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究氨基苯酚硼酸(APB)和克拉维酸(CA)检测阴沟肠杆菌ESBLs的效果.方法 将单酶抑制剂CA加入到底物头孢他啶(CAZ)、头孢噻肟(CTX)和双酶抑制剂CA/APB加入到底物CAZ、CTX,检测61株阴沟肠杆菌ESBLs,利用PCR检测此61株菌的ESBLs基因,比较酶抑制剂增强试验检测和基因检测阴沟肠杆菌ESBLs的结果.结果 用CAZ和CTX为底物,单酶抑制剂CA分别检测到产ESBLs菌28株、14株;双酶抑制剂CA/APB分别检测到产ESBLs菌28株、44株;PCR检测到ESBLs基因阳性47株.结论 用双酶抑制剂增强试验可检测阴沟肠杆菌ESBLs.

  1. 超高效液相色谱-串联四极杆质谱法同时检测乳制品中β-内酰胺酶抑制剂克拉维酸钾、他唑巴坦和舒巴坦的残留量%Simultaneous determination of β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate potassium, tazobactam and salbactam residues in dairy products by UPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小严; 林钦; 游飞明; 黄红霞; 戴明

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode to determine the clavulanate potassium,tazobactam,salbactam in dairy products.Separations were performed on a Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm,1.7 μm).The mobile phase was:0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile.The new method offers effective sample preparation procedures including dissolution with water,protein isolation with acetone,then clean-up and enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with PWAX 60 mg/3 mL cartridges under weak acidic condition,further elution with 0.05% ammonia/methanol solvent.The analytical method was well validated and good results were obtained with respect to precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.3% ~ 4.8% and recoveries (81.2% ~103.2%).And the detection limits of clavulanate potassium,tazobactam and salbactam were 0.01 μg/mL,0.003 μg/mL and 0.009 μg/mL respectively.All of the target compounds exhibited good linearity(r > 0.999) over a concentration range of 0.05 ~5 μg/mL.The method was suitable for the detection of β-lactamase inhibitor in dairy products.%建立了乳制品中克拉维酸钾、他唑巴坦和舒巴坦的提取和固相萃取净化法.样品采用水溶后用丙酮沉淀蛋白,在弱酸性条件下用PWAX,60 mg/3 mL固相萃取小柱富集、净化,0.05%氨水/甲醇溶液洗脱后采用超高效液相色谱-串联四极杆质谱(UPLC-MS/MS)检测,分析柱为Waters BEH C18,1.7 μm,2.1×100 mm;流动相为0.1%甲酸-乙腈.该方法对克拉维酸钾、他唑巴坦和舒巴坦的最低检测质量浓度为0.01,0.003和0.009 μg/mL;对纯牛奶、酸奶和奶粉的回收率在81.2%~103.2%之间,相对标准偏差RSD在1.3%~4.8%之间(n=6);在0.05~5μg/mL浓度范围内均呈良好的线性关系,线性回归系数r>0.999.方法适用于乳制品中β-内酰胺酶抑制剂的测定.

  2. Efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate in combination with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of drug resistant Helicobacter pylor infection%四联疗法治疗耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁祥; 杨英君; 卢惠伦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of Helicobactor pylori infection failed after treatment with conventional triple therapy for the treatment of failure of drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori infection,and a control group with quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication rate difference.Methods The 85 patients with Helicobacter pylori infections and treated with conventional triple therapy for a course of over 2 weeks and confirmed treatment failure by the C14 breath test were randomly divided into therapeutic group and control group.The patients in the therapeutic group were treated with amoxicillin potassium clavulanate 914mg Bid+ moxifloxacin tablet 400mg Qd+ esomeprazole 20mg Bid.Those in the control group were treated with esomeprazole 20mg Bid+ colloidal bismuth tartrate 165mg Qid+ amoxicillin capsule 1000mg Bid + clarithromycin 500mg Bid,for a course of 1 week.Results About 83.3% of Helicobacter pylori in the patients of therapeutic group was eradicated and eradication rate in the control group was 70% showing significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusions Combined use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,moxifloxacin and esomeprazole is superior to the quadruple therapy containing bismuth in treatment of Helicobactor pylori-infected patients failed with conventional triple therapy.The regimen could be used as the second-line therapy with mild side effects.%目的 观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾和莫西沙星与埃索美拉唑联用,治疗传统的三联疗法治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的根除率,并与对照组四联疗法比较是否存在差异. 方法 将85例传统的三联疗法治疗2周以上,经C14呼气试验检查证实治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染病例,随机分为试验组及对照组,试验组治疗方案为阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片914mgBid+莫西沙星片400mgQd+埃索美拉唑片20mgBid,对

  3. Rp-HPLC法测定阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量%Determination of contents of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium by Rp-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁姗

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish content determination method of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Methods The parameters of detection was as followed: HPLC column: Hypersil BDS C18 (4.6× 200 mum, 5μm); mobile phase: sodium dodecylsulfate solution - acetonitrile (92:8); flow: 1.0ml/min;chromatographic temperature: 25C; detection wavelength: 220 nm; injection volume: 10 μ 1. ResultsThe linear range of clavulanate potassium was good at 4.05 - 40.48 μ g ( r = 0.9999 ) and the average recovery was 99.7% (RSD = 2.1%); The linear range of amoxicillin was good at 1.15 - 11.53 μ g( r = 0.9999 )and the average recovery was 99.6% (RSD = 0.7%). Conclusions This method is accurate and easy to use, with better recovery and higher separation. It can be used for quality control of the related preparations.%目的 建立阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾中两种主要成分的含量测定.方法 采用液相色谱法,大连依利特Hypersil BDS C18柱(4.6×200 mm,5 μ m)为色谱柱;十二烷基硫酸钠溶液-乙腈(92∶8)为流动相;流速:1.0ml/min;柱温:25℃;检测波长:220nm;进样体积:10 μl.结果 克拉维酸在4.05~40.48μg范围内线性良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.7%(RSD=2.1%);阿莫西林在1.15~11.53μg范围内线性良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.6%(RSD=0.7%).结论 该方法准确度高,回收率良好,分离度较高,操作简单,可作为该制剂质量控制方法.

  4. Study on preparation of the film-coated tablets of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾薄膜衣片的制备工艺研究※

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰琦; 李瑞明; 李世良; 陈孝; 梁耀荣

    2013-01-01

      目的本研究主要对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的薄膜衣片进行了制备工艺的研究。方法通过对制剂处方的筛选和考察生产工艺的条件,确定最佳阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的薄膜衣片制备工艺。结果与结论本制剂工艺的实验可行,工艺稳定可靠,所制备的薄膜衣片符合相关要求。%Objective To study the preparation process of the film-coated tablets of amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium, and screen the conditions of the preparation process. Methods By screening pharmaceutical formulations and investigating the conditions of the preparation process,the best technology of pharmaceutical preparations was determined. Results and Conclusion The results of the experiment is feasible and reliable process,and the preparation of the film-coated tablets comply with the relevant requirements.

  5. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾亚最低杀菌浓度体外诱导细菌耐药研究%A Study on Bacteria Antibiotic Resistance Induced by sub-MBC of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣剑; 祝仲珍; 王占科; 袁小兰; 胡新华; 宁丽萍; 兰小鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of inducing by sub-MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium on the antibiotic resistance of standard strains of staphylococcus aureus. Methods The standard strain of staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium were respectively used as observational strain and antibacterials, and MBC values of different induced days were quantitatively detected u-sing microdilution method. Induction test of staphylococcus aureus in vitro was performed using 1 / 2 concentration of MBC for 35 d, and MBC changes were observed and recorded. The final antibiotic resistance to Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium of staphylococcus aureus was identified using automatic microorganisms drug sensitivity analyzer. Results The MBC value of the standard strain of staphylococcus aureus was significantly increased which was induced by Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in vitro for 10 d, and the value induced for 35 d was increased to 32 times of original strain value. The induced drug-resistant strain of staphylococcus aureus had 100% resistance rate to Amoxicillin and Clavu-lanate Potassium. Conclusion The sub-MBC of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium can induce antibiotic resistance of the standard strains of staphylococcus aureus in vitro, and the degree of the antibiotic resistance increases with the in-creasing induction time by sub-MBC. A rational dosage of antimicrobial is important to prevent antibiotic resistance.%目的:观察亚最低杀菌浓度(minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC)阿莫西林克拉维酸钾诱导对金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株的耐药性影响。方法以金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株 ATCC 29213为研究对象,阿莫西林克拉维酸钾为抗菌药物,以微量稀释法定量检测不同诱导天数 MBC 值,采用1/2 MBC 浓度对金黄色葡萄球菌进行35 d 多步体外诱导试验,观察金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株 MBC 变化并

  6. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾不同给药方案治疗细菌性呼吸道感染的效果分析%Effect analysis of different dosage regimen amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for the treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱健

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of different dosage regimen amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections. Methods 936 patients with bacterial respiratory tract infection treated in our hospital from June 2011 to June 2013 were randomly divided into group A and group B,group A were given with injections of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 100 mg/kg,dissolved in 100 ml of sodium chloride injec-tion,intravenous injection,1 time/d.Group B were taken with the same batch of injectable amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,50 mg/kg,dissolved in 50 ml of sodium chloride injection,intravenous injection,2 times/d.According to the disease,administration time were 1 to 2 weeks.The clinical efficacy of the two groups and the administration time were compared. Results In patients with mild and moderate infection,the administration time of group A and group B had no significant difference (P>0.05);in patients with severe infection,the administration time of group A was longer than that of group B,the difference was significant (P0.05);in patients with severe infection, the effective rate of group B was higher than that of group A,the difference was significant (P0.05);重度感染患者中,A组给药时间明显长于B组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);重度感染患者中,B组的有效率显著高于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论A给药方案在轻度和中度感染治疗效果较好,同时减少给药次数,B方案可对重度感染进行有效治疗。

  7. 阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应比较%Comparative Study on Adverse Reaction of Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家满; 韩琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应。方法对收集的235例阿莫西林与146例阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应报告进行回顾性分析,前者纳入单用组,后者纳入复方组,比较两组患者一般资料、不良反应发生类型以及不良反应发生时间。结果两组患者性别、年龄分布、应用、体质量等临床资料比较,差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);单用组患者皮肤及附件、全身系统、呼吸系统、肝胆系统以及其他不良反应发生率明显高于复方组,单用组患者的胃肠反应、循环系统、中枢神经系统不良反应发生率明显低于复方组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);单用组患者3 d后不良反应发生率为13.6%,明显高于复方组的1.4%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾相较于阿莫西林,不良反应发生时间较早、症状轻,不良反应集中在皮肤及附件、胃肠道、全身,但可增加循环系统、中枢神经系统不良反应发生风险,针对伴有以上系统合并症的患者,需谨慎应用。%Objective To adverse reaction of amoxicilin and amoxicilin clavulanate potassium.Methods 235 cases with poor to colect 146 cases of amoxicilin and amoxicilin clavulanate potassium reaction reports were retrospectively analyzed,the former into the single group,the latter into compound group,compared two groups of patients with general information,adverse reaction and the type of adverse reaction time.Results Comparison of the clinical data of two groups in sex,age distribution,application direction,body quality,no significant difference(P>0.05); single group of patients with skin and accessories,general system,respiratory system,hepatobiliary system and other adverse reaction rate was significantly higher than that of compound group,with the single group of patients with gastrointestinal reaction,circulation system

  8. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗呼吸系统细菌感染多中心随机对照研究%A multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8∶1) in the treatment of acute infection of respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 贾正平; 朱运奎

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗急性呼吸道感染的有效性和安全性.方法:采用多中心、随机、双盲、平行对照试验设计,共入选病例136例,其中试验组[阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶ 1)] 69例;对照组[阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片(7∶1)]69例;一般疗程均为7~14d,最短疗程不少于5d.结果:试验组治疗有效病例69例,治愈59例,临床痊愈率为89.39%;对照组治疗有效病例69例,治愈61例,临床治愈率为92.42%.细菌清除率:试验组为95.45%,对照组为92.91%,药物不良反应发生率均为4.35%.结论:阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗各种敏感菌所引起的呼吸道感染,安全、有效,使用方便,耐受性好.%Objective :. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8: 1 )in the treatment of acute infection of respiratory system. Methods; A multicenter, randomized, double -blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in the treatment of 138 patients with acute infection of respiratory system. There were 69 cases in the trial group; amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8:1) , while 65 cases were in the control group; amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium gispersible tablets {7:1). The treatment duration for both groups was from 7 to 14 days ( at least 5 days). Results; The effective rate for the trial and control group was 89. 39% and 92. 42% respectively. The bacterial eradication rate was 95.45% and 92.91% respectively. The incidence of adverse reactions was 4. 35% in both groups. Conclusion; Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8: 1) is effective and safe in the treatment of acute infectin of respiratory system.

  9. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的含量均匀度测定和有关物质检查%The study of the content uniformity and related substances of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14∶1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静玲; 李瑞明; 冯鹏; 胡建楣; 林小凤; 范佩冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the content uniformity and related substances of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1), and the experiment were used to evaluate and determine the intrinsic quality. Methods Though the content uniformity and related substances investigated in order to determine the controllability of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium suspensions quality. Results This method was used in the paper which was good to detect Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) content uniformity and related substances requirements. Conclusion Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) content uniformity and related substances requirements meet the conditions of the quality of the preparations.%目的 对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)的含量均匀度和有关物质进行了研究,用来评价和确定制剂使用中的安全性及药物本身的内在质量.方法 通过对制备得到的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂含量均匀度的测定和有关物质考察,从而确定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂质量的可控性.结果 通过本文中所用方法对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量均匀度和有关物质测定结果说明制剂质量合格,所以在制剂使用中阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂能确保其安全性.结论 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量均匀度和有关物质的测定均能符合制剂要求.

  10. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking folic acid by itself, or with L-carnitine a compound similar to an amino acid from ... levels. It is not clear if folic acid supplementation reduces hearing loss in people with normal folate ...

  11. 克拉维酸高产菌株的选育及发酵工艺研究%Breeding of clavulanic acid producing strain and optimization of fermentative conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史毓芳; 韩俊茹; 王普

    2005-01-01

    以克拉维酸产生菌--棒状链霉菌(Streptomyces clavuligerus)CA0726为出发菌株,采用紫外线照射60 s,NTG诱变处理40 min,并结合甘油耐受性突变株的理性化筛选,选育得到较佳诱变株CA0726-19,效价达1645μg/mL,且传代性能稳定.以此突变株为试验菌株,通过碳源、氮源及无机盐的组成优化试验,得到了较佳的种子培养基和发酵培养基组成,并对发酵条件进行了优化.在较适的发酵条件下,经摇瓶发酵96 h后,克拉维酸效价可达2 397μg/mL,较出发菌株提高10.3倍.采用15.L发酵罐试验表明,28℃培养72 h左右,克拉维酸效价达2 152μg/mL.

  12. An HPLC method for the quantitative determination of clavulanic acid in fermentation broth%高效液相色谱法测定棒状链霉菌发酵液中克拉维酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明林; 林陟昕; 田威; 何建勇

    2003-01-01

    利用克拉维酸与咪唑试剂的衍生化反应,建立了用高效液相色谱仪测定发酵液中克拉维酸含量的方法.色谱条件为:采用Hypersil ODS2柱(5μm,4.6mm×200mm),流动相为0.1mo1/LKH2PO4:甲醇(94:6),流速1.0ml/min,检测波长311nm.结果表明,克拉维酸量在1~10.0μg范围内,该方法的线性关系及测定结果的精密度、回收率均良好,是一种简便、快速、有效的方法.

  13. Domestic vs imported amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in treating pneumonia of children%国产和进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗小儿肺炎的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 王晓红; 俞蕙; 陆婷婷

    2002-01-01

    目的:比较国产和进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗小儿细菌性肺炎的临床疗效.方法:随机选择住院的肺炎病儿40例,分为治疗组(男性11例,女性9例,年龄27 mo± s 12 mo)和对照组(男性12例,女性8例,年龄29 mo±16 mo).分别选用国产及进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸,剂量均为30 mgkg-1,iv,gtt, bid,疗程10~14 d.结果:治疗组总有效率为80%,对照组总有效率为90%,2组的疗效比较经Ridit分析差异无显著意义(P>0.05),2组均未见不良反应.结论:国产阿莫西林-克拉维酸与进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸临床疗效相似.

  14. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸与头孢唑林在子宫切除中抗生素预防作用%Antibiotic prophylaxis for hysterectomy and cesarean section: Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefazolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较子宫切除中阿莫西林/克拉维酸与头孢唑林短期抗生素预防作用.方法 120 例行子宫切除患者随机分为静脉注射阿莫西林/克拉维酸组(AMX/CL组)与头孢唑林组(CE组).每天评估患者有无手术部位感染或尿道感染.结果 各组感染发生率在AMX/CL组和CE组分别是11%和12.5%.结论 广谱抗生素阿莫西林/克拉维酸较头孢唑林在子宫切除和剖腹产中无优势.

  15. Breeding of Clavulanic Acid High-producing Strains by Multiple Mutagens Induction%多因素复合诱变选育克拉维酸高产菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田敏; 黄运昌; 朱春燕; 朱辉; 余蓉

    2010-01-01

    采用多因素连续复合诱变的方法,对克拉维酸产生菌带小棒链霉菌(Streptomyces clavuligerus)进行系列诱变,以抗生素抗性作为理性筛选标记,从含青霉素35 μg/ml的琼脂平板上筛选到青霉素抗性突变株YT-201-57#,在摇瓶实验中,对青霉素的抗性由8μg/ml提高到45 μg/ml,克拉维酸产景较出发菌株提高10.3%,且高产遗传特性经5次传代仍稳定.

  16. 阿莫西林-克拉维酸注射用混悬剂的药效学研究%Pharmacodynamics of amoxyxicillin-clavulanic acid suspension in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤树生; 肖希龙

    2004-01-01

    阿莫西林(Amoxycillin,AMO)为兽医临床上普遍应用的半合成广谱青霉素,为β-内酰胺类抗生素。β-内酰胺类抗生素因为具有高效、广谱、低毒的特点,是当前临床上应用最多的一类抗菌药物之一。但AMO不耐酶,细菌对其易产生耐药性,细菌对AMO的耐药机理最主要的是产生β-内酰胺酶,

  17. Breeding of Clavulanic Acid High-Production Strain by Using Protoplast Fusion Technique%应用原生质体融合技术选育克拉维酸高产菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳; 张恺; 郭金体; 王艳萍

    2008-01-01

    采用棒状链霉菌种内原生质体融合技术,选育克拉维酸高产菌株.该实验选用舒巴坦钠耐受性高产菌株Streptomyces clavuligerus B71-3-10和甘油耐受性高产菌株Streptomyces clavuligerus B71-14为亲株,优化了原生质体制备条件和融合条件,最终得到遗传稳定性良好的融合子F14.该融合子的克拉维酸产量提高到650.35 mg/L,分别比亲株S.clavuligerus B71-3-10和S.clavuligerus B17-14的克拉维酸产量高36.77%和20.84%.将原生质体融合技术应用到棒状链霉菌克拉维酸高产菌株的选育中,证明了其可行性、高效性及成效显著性.

  18. 扩增ccaR基因提高棒状链霉菌克拉维酸产量的研究%Study on application of ccaR Streptomyces clavuligerus to increase clavulanic acid production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志晗; 郑津辉

    2011-01-01

    在棒状链霉菌B71-14中扩增对克拉维酸具有正调控作用的基因ccaR,构建了ccaR的重组质粒pSET152-ccaR,通过接合转移将重组质粒pSET152-ccaR转入了S.clavuligerus B71-14中,通过pSET15 2-ccaR中的attP位点整个质粒插入到S.clavuligerus B71-14基因组中的attB位点,实现了S.clavuligerus B71-14基因组DNA中增加一个拷贝ccaR基因的目的,所得突变株S.clavuligerus::ccaR产酸量可达820.91 mg/L,较出发菌株提高了54%.

  19. 高效液相色谱法测定人血清中克拉维酸浓度%Determination of Clavulanic Acid in human serum by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉旺; 孙培红; 周颖; 赵侠; 孙忠民

    2001-01-01

    目的:建立柱前衍生化高效液相色谱法测定人血清中克拉维酸浓度的新方法.方法:应用Agilent 1100色谱系统,色谱柱为DiscoveryTMC18°流动相为甲醇:0.05mo1·L-1磷酸二氢钾水溶液(5:95,v/v),pH为3.70,流速为1m1·in-1.柱温为40℃.UV检测波长为311nm.血清经两步液液提取一咪唑衍生后进样测定.结果:测定克拉维酸的线性范围为0.0625~8mg·L-1,最低检测浓度为0.029mg·L-1.日内精密度<8.07%,日间精密度<7.88%.方法回收率范围为99.8%~105.6%.结论:本方法精密、准确,适用于克拉维酸的药代动力学研究.

  20. 人血浆中阿莫西林-克拉维酸浓度的测定%Determination of concentration of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid in human plasma by HPLC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国英; 张菁; 郁继诚; 施耀国

    2004-01-01

    目的:建立阿莫西林-克拉维酸血药浓度的HPLC法.方法:固定相为C18对称反相色谱柱;流动相为磷酸-四丁基氢氧化铵缓冲液:甲醇(18:52,V/V);流速0.8mL·min-1;荧光检测波长:Ex 386 nm,Em460 nm;血浆标本以高氯酸去蛋白,再以苯甲醛荧光衍生后上柱分析,进样量50 μL.结果:阿莫西林和克拉维酸的色谱峰分离良好,最低检测质量浓度分别为0.009和0.01 mg·L-1;线性范围分别为0.125~25和0.062 5~8 mg·L-1;平均日内、日间RSD均<9%,提取回收率近100%.结论:本方法适用于阿莫西林-克拉维酸血药浓度测定.

  1. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片小鼠体内抗菌作用研究%The antibiotic effect in vivo research of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dispersible tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林霄; 刘元; 李星宇; 刘布鸣

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾的新剂型-分散片对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠的保护效果.方法 以Bliss法计算各感染小鼠的药物半数有效量(ED50)值和95%可信限.结果 分散片对金黄色葡萄球菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为3.748 6(3.396 7~4.205)mg/kg;对大肠杆菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为4.662 9(4.037 3~5.385 5)mg/kg.结论 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片口服给药对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠具有明显疗效.

  2. 克拉维酸发酵液中碳源--甘油含量的比色法测定%Determination of Glycerol Content in Clavulanic Acid Broth by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永生; 高辉; 王艳萍

    2006-01-01

    研究了克拉维酸发酵液中甘油含量的测定方法,在412 nm得到了甘油测定的线性回归方程:y=0.0236x-0.0036,R2=0.9997,在0~40mg·L-1范围内,线性关系良好.通过回收率实验,证明发酵液中其他成分对测定结果干扰较小.该方法重现性好,方法简单,比较适合发酵液中甘油含量的测定.

  3. FERMENTATION CONDITIONS OF CLAVULANIC ACID-PRODUCING STREPTOMYCES CLAVULIGERUS MUTANT CCRC11518-Ⅲ50%棒状链霉菌突变株CCRC11518-Ⅲ50克拉维酸发酵条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏振强; 孟勇; 张国华; 官家发

    2004-01-01

    通过单因子和多因子摇瓶正交优化试验,确定了克拉维酸产生菌棒状链霉菌突变株Streptomyces clavuligerusCCRC11518-Ⅲ50的三角瓶发酵条件.发酵培养基组成(ρ/g L-1):甘油30,大豆蛋白胨60,麦芽浸膏7.5,K2HPO4·3H2O 1.0,MgSO4·7H2O 2.0,FeSO4·7H2O 1.0;培养基初始pH 6.5;接种量15%;培养基装量20 mL/250 mL三角瓶;培养温度25℃;发酵时间72 h.克拉维酸效价由优化前的834.8μgmL-1提高到1 082.615μg mL-1,提高了29.7%.还在1 600 mL发酵罐中进行了初步放大试验.当接种量15%,通气量1:0.5,转速450 r min-1,25℃发酵60h克拉维酸效价达到高峰1 025μgmL-1.图12 表1 参12

  4. Efficacy and safety of IV/PO moxifloxacin and IV piperacillin/tazobactam followed by PO amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of diabetic foot infections: results of the RELIEF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, N.C.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Arvis, P.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of two antibiotic regimens in patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs). METHODS: Data of a subset of patients enrolled in the RELIEF trial with DFIs requiring surgery and antibiotics were evaluated retrospectively. DFI was diagnosed on t

  5. The study of quality standards on Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension(14:1)%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的质量标准研究※

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳亦华; 李瑞明

    2013-01-01

      目的对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的质量标准内容进行了研究。方法通过对质量标准的研究,对质量控制的各个方面进行完整的考察,从而确定制剂的保存方法和质量控制指标。结果与结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾湿度较高时较不稳定,影响其质量问题,保存时应当注意,其它要求均能合格制剂条件。%Objective To study the quality standards of amoxicil in and clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1). Methods Quality standards, quality control of al aspects of a complete investigation to determine the save method of preparation and quality control indicators. Results and Conclusion Amoxicil in and clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) when with a high relative humidity wil be less stability, affecting its quality problems, should be saved in proper material.

  6. Cefaclor in Children with Acute Otitis Media and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Contrast Analysis%头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾用于儿童急性中耳炎治疗的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寒冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective Comparison of acute otitis media in children with application of cefaclor and amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium two kinds of the clinical ef icacy of drug treatment. Methods From March 2011 to February 2013 treated 120 cases of children with acute otitis media in this study, random grouping. Children with the control group given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium therapy, cefaclor treatment group. compared with two groups of children always show the dif erences of ef iciency and adverse reactions. Results After treatment, we found that the experimental group after treatment with total total ef iciency was 93.33%, control group the total ef iciency of 88.33%, dif erences between groups have no statistical significance ( >0.05). Experimental group the incidence of adverse reactions was 0%, the control group, the incidence of adverse reactions was 10.0%between groups was statistical y significant dif erence ( 0.05)。实验组不良反应发生率为0%,对照组不良反应发生率为10.0%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾两种药物治疗儿童急性中耳炎,可将其在临床进行推广应用。

  7. HPLC determination of high molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium(15:1)%HPLC法测定替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中的高分子杂质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟雅妮; 刘俊华; 林小洁; 李小婵

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立测定替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中高分子杂质的HPLC分析方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,以TSKG2500 PW(XL)(7.8mmx300mm,7μm)为色谱柱,以pH8.0磷酸盐缓冲液[0.15mol·L-1磷酸氢二钠溶液-0.15mol·L-1磷酸二氢钠溶液(95:5)]为流动相,流速0.8mL·min-1,检测波长230nm,柱温30℃.结果:高分子杂质与替卡西林及克拉维酸能较好分离;替卡西林的检测限为4.0ng,克拉维酸的检测限为3.7ng;替卡西林线性范围为0.052-0.32μg(r=0.9999),高分子杂质在进样量以替卡西林计为11.2-30.3μg范围内时,与峰面积线性关系良好(r=0.9992);重复性较好(RSD=0.52%,n=5).结论:该方法简单、快速、准确,重复性好,可用于替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中的高分子杂质检测.%Objective :To establish an HPLC method for the determination of high molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium ( 15 : 1 ) . Methods: The separation was performed on a TSK G2500 PWXL(7. 8 mm × 300 mm,7 μm) column;The mobile phase was composed of phosphate buffer[0. 15 mol · L-1 disodium hydrogen phosphate solution -0. 15 mol · L-1 sodium dihydrogen phosph ate solution(95: 5) , pH 8.0] at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL · min -1 ; The detection wavelength was 230 nm, and the column temperature was 30 ℃ . Results : High molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium( 15: 1) was separated completely between ticarcillin and clavulanate; The detection limit of ticarcillin was 4. 0 ng;The detection limit of clavulanate was 3. 7 ng; The linearity of ticarcillin was 0. 052 - 0. 32 μg( r =0. 9999 ) ; The peak area of high molecular mass impurities showed good linearity in the range of ticarcillin between 11. 2 - 30. 3 μg( r = 0. 9992). RSD was 0. 52% ( n = 5) . Conclusion : The method is simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible , and it can be used for quality control of ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium( 15: 1) .

  8. Antibiotic Resistance of Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Marketed Foods and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LIU; ZHUO-YANG ZHANG; KE DONG; JIAN-PING YUAN; XIAO-KUI GUO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the antimicrobial resistance of commercial lactic acid bacteria present in microbial foods and drug additives by analyzing their isolated strains used for fermentation and probioties. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of 41 screened isolates was tested with disc diffusion and E-test methods after species-level identification. Resistant strains were selected and examined for the presence of resistance genes by PCR. Results Distribution of resistance was found in different species. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, and imipenem. In addition, isolates resistant to vancomycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, bacitracin, and erythromycin were detected, although the incidence of resistance to these antibiotics was relatively low. In contrast, most strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and gentamycin. The genes msrC, vanX, and dfrA were detected in strains of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. Conclusion Antibiotic resistance is present in different species of probiotic strains, which poses a threat to food safety. Evaluation of the safety of lactic acid bacteria for human consumption should be guided by established criteria, guidelines and regulations.

  9. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  10. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

  11. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  12. Simultaneous determination of serum concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in human blood using high-performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定人血阿莫西林钠/克拉维酸钾血药浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祖文; 李源; 宋玮娟; 胡海燕; 曾颖; 许百虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a chromatography-based method for simultaneous analysis of the concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in human blood. Methods With paracetamol as the internal control, human plasma samples, after treatment with methanol for protein sedimentation and centrifugation, were loaded for analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis was carried out using a C18 column (5 urn, 4.6 mm × 150 mm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-PBS (0.05 mol/L) of 10:90 (pH 2.3), UV detection wavelength of 220 ran, flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and column temperature of 25 t. Results The retention time of acetaminophen for potassium clavulanate, amoxicillin sodium and the internal control was 5.3, 7.2, and 8.5 min, respectively, and no interference by the endogenous impurities in the plasma samples was found. Amoxicillin sodium showed a good linearity within the concentration range of 0.52-4.16 μg/ml (r2=0.9996), and potassium clavulanate had a good linearity within the range of 0.266-2.14 μg/ml (r2=0.9998). The minimum detectable concentrations of amoxicillin sodium and potassium clavulanate were 0.065 μg/ml and 0.066 μg/ml, respectively. The relative recoveries of amoxicillin sodium were 95.9%-96.5% (n=5), and those of clavulanate potassium were 92.5%-98.8% (n=5); the intra- and inter-day RSD of amoxicillin sodium was 1.84%-6.4% and 2.1%-7.8%, as compared to that of potassium clavulanate of 3.57%-8.6% and 1.8%-9.1%, respectively. Conclusion This method is simple, accurate, sensitive, specific and reproducible for analyzing the concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium simultaneously in human plasma.%目的 建立阿莫西林钠/克拉维酸钾人血药浓度的色谱分析方法.方法 采用对乙酰氨基酚为内标,人血浆样品用甲醇沉淀蛋白后高速离心进样;色谱柱:C18色谱柱(依利特Hypersil BDS,5μm,4.6 mm×150 mm);流动相:乙腈-0.05mmol/L磷酸盐缓冲液=10∶90(V

  13. Efficacy of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Potassium Combined With Chymotrypsin for Pediatric Acute Suppurative Tonsillitis%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚选云

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research aims to explore the clinical effect of amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on pediatric acute suppurative tonsilitis.Methods The research chose 100 cases of children patients with suppurative tonsilitis from the hospital,and distributed them into the observation group and the control group randomly of which each had 50 cases. The control group received the treatment of amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium alone,while the observation group received the additional treatment of chymotrypsin on the basis. After the treatment,the research compared the two groups in terms of the improvement time of main symptoms and signs,total effective rate and untoward effect. Results The symptoms improve time of in the observation group were significantly better than that in the control group,the total efficiency in the observation group were significantly higher than that in the coTntrol group(P<0.05).Conclusion Treating pediatric acute suppurative tonsilitis with amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin can reduce the duration of symptoms and improve the effective rate of treatment,thus should be spread and applied clinicaly.%目的:探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法选取我院100例化脓性扁桃体炎患儿,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组患者均为50例,对照组单用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,观察组在此基础上加用糜蛋白酶治疗,比较两组治疗后主要症状体征改善时间、总有效率和不良反应。结果观察组症状改善时间优于对照组,总有效率高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎,能缩短症状持续时间,提高治疗有效率。

  14. 高效液相色谱法同时检测血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸的血药浓度%Simultaneous Determination of Plasma Concentration of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate by HPLC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晶

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸质量浓度的高效液相色谱法.方法 分析柱为 Phenomenexluna C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),柱温为室温,流动相为磷酸盐缓冲溶液(pH=3.0)-乙腈(95∶5),流速为1.2mL/min,紫外检测波长为230 nm.结果 克拉维酸和阿莫西林的保留时间分别为5 min和9 min左右,质量浓度线性范围分别为0.13~8.60 μg/mL(r=0.999 4)和0.21~13.20 μg/mL(r=0.999 8),日内和日间精密度的RSD均小于15.0%(n=5).结论 所建立的方法简便、准确,适用于阿莫西林和克拉维酸血药浓度测定.%Objective To establish a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate in human plasma. Methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on Phenomenex Luna Cm column(250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 |xm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile NatbPCK buffer(pH =3. 0) (95 :5),the flow rate was 1. 2 mL/min. The detecting wavelength was at 230 nm. Results Clavulanate and amoxicillin were eluted for about 5 min and 9 min. Cavulanate and amoxicillin showed the good linear correlation in the range of 0. 13 - 8. 60 |xg/mL (r=0.999 4) and 0. 21 - 13. 20 g/mL( r =0. 999 8) respectively. The intra-day RSD and inter -day RSD were both less than 15. 0% (n = 5). Conclusion The method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of plasma drug concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanate.

  15. Clinical Effect Verification of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium combined Ceftazidime for Treatment of Acute Stage of COPD%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾并头孢他啶联合治疗急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病疗效验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹行闻

    2014-01-01

    目的验证阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注治疗急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病疗效。方法将460例急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者依照入我院治疗前后次序加入研究组或对照组,均230例。分别予阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注及单独使用头孢他啶静滴,疗程结束后比较两组有效率及不良反应出现情况。结果实验性结束治疗后,研究组及对照组总有效率分别为94.8%、81.3%,经比较<0.05,有差异。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注治疗AECOPD效果较佳,适于普遍推广使用。%Objective To verify the clinical ef ect of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgtt.for treatment of acute stage of COPD.Methods 460 patients with acute stage of COPD were divided into study group and control group both with 230 cases according to precedence order.And they were given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgt .And single ceftazidime ivgt .respectively.Effective rate and adverse ef ect rate of the 2 groups were compared after treatment course.Results After treatment,total ef ective rate of study group and control group were respectively 94.8% and 81.3%, <0.05.Conclusion Amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgt .for treatment of acute stage of COPD has good clinical ef ect and is worth of being popularized.

  16. Clinical efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined with levofloxacin in the treatment of multi -drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis%阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗耐多药肺结核的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童维佳; 王永庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the clinical effect of amoxicillin/ clavulanate potassium com-bined with levofloxacin in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods 80 re-treated smear positive patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group, 40 cases in each group. The control group was treated with levofloxacin combined with pasiniazid, ethambutol hydrochloride, rifapentine and pyrazinamide, and the treatment group was treated with amoxi-cillin/ clavulanate potassium and levofloxacin, combined with pasiniazid, ethambutol hydrochloride, rifapentine and pyrazinamide. All patients were treated for 12 months. Results At the end of the treatment, the sputum negative conversion rate was 52. 50% in the control group, and 75% in the treatment group (P 0. 05). Conclusion Amoxicillin/ clavulanate potassium combined with levofloxacin regimen can improve the sputum negative conversion and lesions absorption,with low adverse drug reaction in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.%目的::观察并评价阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星在治疗耐多药肺结核(MDR-TB)的疗效。方法将80例复治涂阳耐多药肺结核患者随机分为对照组40例和治疗组40例;治疗方案:对照组以左氧氟沙星为主,联合对氨基水杨酸异烟肼、盐酸乙胺丁醇、利福喷丁、吡嗪酰胺,治疗组以阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、左氧氟沙星为主,联合用药同对照组,所有病例疗程均为12个月。结果至疗程结束,对照组痰菌阴转率为52.50%,治疗组痰菌阴转率为75.00%,治疗组痰菌阴转率明显高于对照组(P 0.05)。结论对于耐多药肺结核,用阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗利于痰菌阴转和病变吸收好转,药品不良反应低,具有推广价值。

  17. The clinical effect observation of levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB%左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春; 李俊; 周晓俊; 刘云妹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB.Methods 212 cases patients with MDR-TB were randomly divided into observation group and control group ,each of 106 cases.Observation group was treated by levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium .Control group was treated by levofloxacin .After treatment ,compared the clinical effect ,lesion extent of absorption ,cavity closure case of 2 groups .Results The total efficacy of observation group (95.28%)was higher than that of control group (83.02%),the difference was statisti-cally significant(P<0.05).The focus absorption rate and cavity closure rate of observation group was higher than that of con -trol group,the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05).Conclusion Levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB has an good effect ,worthy of clinical application .%目的:探讨左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核的临床疗效。方法将212例耐多药肺结核患者随机分为观察组和对照组各106例。所有患者均严格给予抗结核化疗,支持治疗和密切护理,观察组给予左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗,对照组仅给予左氧氟沙星治疗。治疗后观察2组临床疗效、病灶吸收程度、空洞闭合情况。结果观察组总有效率为95.28%高于对照组的83.02%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组病灶吸收率、空洞闭合率均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核具有良好的治疗效果,且不增加不良反应事件发生率,值得临床推广应用。

  18. 胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾在耐多药肺结核中的疗效观察%Effect of thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚超; 李孳; 林文红; 刘盛盛; 杨娟; 梅琳; 李霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the curative effect of thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium ( AMC) in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis ( MDR-PTB) . Methods 69 cases of MDR-PTB patients were randomly divided into the treatment group ( n=35 ) and the control group ( n=34 ) . The control group received the standard treatment, and the treatment group was given thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potas-sium on the basis of the control group. All patients were treated for 24 months. Results The curative rate was 82. 9% and 58. 8% respectively in the treatment group and the control group (P<0. 05). There was no obvious difference in adverse reaction between the two groups. Conclusion Thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium have better curative effect than the standard therapy does in the treatment of MDR-PTB patients, which have good safety and tolerance.%目的:观察胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾在耐多药肺结核患者治疗中的疗效。方法将我院收集到的69例耐多药的肺结核病人,随机的分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组35例,对照组34例。对照组采取耐多药肺结核标准治疗方案,治疗组在对照组基础上加用胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾。所有患者疗程为24个月。结果治疗组和对照组治愈率分别为82.9%及58.8%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组不良反应无明显统计学差异。结论胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合标准抗结核药治疗耐多药肺结核临床疗效明显。

  19. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  20. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  1. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾近红外定量分析通用性模型的建立%Establishment of Universal Quantitative Models for Determination of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium for Injection Using Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗英; 莫卫民; 陈悦; 洪利娅

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用近红外漫反射光谱分析技术和化学计量学的方法对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾进行无损、快速定量分析.方法 采集26批实验室自制样品和40批不同企业市售样品的近红外漫反射光谱,通过聚类分析确定校正集和验证集,采用偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立定量分析模型.结果 3个定量模型中阿莫西林浓度范围为21.28%~75.57%,克拉维酸浓度范围为2.67%~15.85%,水分范围为0.46 %~15.7%.阿莫西林定量模型的交叉验证均方根误差(RMSECV)和预测均方根误差(RMSEP)分别为1.42%和1.54%;克拉维酸定量模型的RMSECV和RMSEP分别为0.56%和0.71%;水分定量模型的RMSECV和RMSEP分别为0.11%和0.14%.结论 建立的3个非破坏性快速定量分析模型用于不同厂家生产的注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾样品测定是可行的.%OBJECTIVE To develop a near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopic quantitative method for rapid and non-destructive determination of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection. METHODS Using cluster analysis method, diffuse reflectance spectra of 26 batches of simulated samples and 40 batches of commercial samples from different manufactures were divided into calibration and validation set. The calibration model was developed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. RESULTS Three quantitative methods were explored at the concentration ranges of 21.28%-75.57% for amoxicillin, 2.67%—15.85% for clavulanate potassium, 0.46%-15.7% for water. The root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.42% and 1.54% for amoxicillin, 0.56% and 0.71% for clavulanate, 0.11% and 0.14% for water, respectively. CONCLUSION Three nondestructive quantitative NIR methods used in this study are applicable for rapid analysis of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection from different manufactures.

  2. Effects of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on children with acute suppurative tonsillitis%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔勇; 余霞辉; 邓骥; 邱有波; 罗扬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on children with acute suppurative tonsillitis .Methods One hundred and twenty-two children with acute suppurative tonsillitis were randomly di-vided into treatment group ( n =62 ) and control group ( n =60 ) .The treatment group was administrated with amoxicillin and clavu-lanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin while the control group was administrated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on -ly.Two groups were treated for 7 to 10 days.The improvement time of main symptom and the clinical effect were compared between the two groups.Results The times of temperature returning to normal ,angina relieve,pharyngeal hyperaemia fading ,swollen tonsils relieve and discharge extinction in the treatment group were significantly shorter than that in the control group ( P<0.05 ) .The total efficiency in the treatment group(96.77%)was significantly higher than that in the control group (85.0%)(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups .Conclusion Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined chy-motrypsin can shorten the duration of symptoms and improve the treatment efficiency in the treatment of children with acute suppurative tonsillitis.%目的:探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法采用随机数字表法将122例化脓性扁桃体炎患儿分为治疗组(62例)和对照组(60例),对照组单用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,治疗组在此基础上加用糜蛋白酶治疗,疗程均为7~10 d。比较两组治疗后主要症状体征改善时间、总有效率和不良反应。结果治疗组体温恢复正常、咽痛缓解、咽部充血消退、扁桃体肿大减轻、分泌物消退等时间均明显优于对照组,总有效率(96.77%)高于对照组(85.0%),差异均有统计学意义( P<0

  3. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察%Clinical Curative Effect of Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium in the Treatment of Children with Suppura-tive Tonsillitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国珍; 寿淑平

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of chil-dren with suppurative tonsillitis. Methods:Totally 263 children with suppurative tonsillitis from March 2011 to September 2013 in pe-diatrics were randomly divided into two groups, the control group had 130 cases and the treatment group had 133 cases. All the patients were given conventional treatment, meanwhile, the control group was with intravenous infusion of azithromycin, and the treatment group was orally given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium dispersible tablets. The clinical efficacy, clinical symptom disappearance time and the incidence of adverse reactions of the two groups were observed. Results:After the treatment, the control group were cured with the total effective rate of 83. 8%, and the treatment group were healed with the total effective rate of 90. 2%. The difference wasn't sig-nificant (P>0. 05). Orally used amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium was more economic and convenient, which could reduce the drug-resistance as well. There was no significant difference in the effects on fever, purulent and the white blood cell between the two groups, and no significant adverse reactions showed in both groups. Conclusion:Orally used amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium ex-hibits obvious therapeutic effect on infantile suppurative tonsillitis, which can effectively improve the clinical symptoms without obvious adverse reactions, and it is worthy of clinical use.%目的:探讨阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床疗效及安全性。方法:化脓性扁桃体炎患儿263例随机分为对照组130例和观察组133例。对照组给予阿奇霉素10 mg·kg-1·d-1,ivd;观察组给予口服阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片。两组均连续治疗3~9d。观察并比较两组临床疗效、临床症状消失时间及不良反应发生情况。结果:治疗后,对照组总有效率为83.8%,

  4. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  5. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾序贯疗法和静脉滴注治疗老年慢性支气管炎急性发作的药物经济学评价%Pharmacoeconomic evaluation on the sequential therapy with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on chronic brochitis acute in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜杰; 邵志伟; 李小东

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the economic effects of amoxicillin clavulanic potassium of different dosing for the same disease. Methods 77 patients with acute chronic brochitis were randomly divided into 2 groups with gmoxicillin clavulanic potassium of different dosing and evaluated with the pharmacoeconomic cost effectiveness analysis. Results The effective rates of the two groups( A,B )were 87.2% and 89.5%, respectively( P > 0.05 ). Costs were 460.88 yuan and 719.18 yuan, respectively( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion From pharmacoeco nomics perspective,the group A scheme was better.%目的 探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的不同给药方案治疗相同疾病的经济效果.方法 选择77例老年慢性支气管炎急性发作患者,随机分为两组,分别用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的不同给药方案治疗,运用药物经济学的最小成本分析进行评价.结果 A、B组有效率分别为87.2%、89.5%(P>0.05),成本分别为460.88元、719.18元(P<0.05).结论 从药物经济学角度分析,A组方案较佳.

  6. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage. 10 Do I need folic acid after menopause? Yes. Women who have gone through menopause still need 400 micrograms of folic acid every ... United States: 2003–2006 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 91(1): 231–237. Hamner, H.C., Cogswell, ...

  7. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of the inactive ingredients in mefenamic acid capsules. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the inactive ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  8. Observation of clinical efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection in treatment of community acquired pneumonia%注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁殿明

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎的临床疗效。方法选取我院2013年1月~2014年5月期间收治的社区获得性肺炎患者80例,随机分成治疗组和对照组各40例,治疗组采用注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液静滴,对照组单独应用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾静滴,两组患者均连续静脉用药7d。于疗程结束后1周评价疗效,分别比较两组患者的临床表现,包括体温改变、咳嗽的变化及肺部体征的变化,并进行胸片及血常规检查,同时记录不良反应发生情况及症状消退的时间,对比分析两组的临床效果和用药安全性。结果治疗组总有效率92.50%,明显高于对照组的72.50%,两组患者退热时间方面无显著差异,但治疗组咳嗽消失时间、X线改变恢复正常平均时间及白细胞恢复正常时间均明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义。结论使用注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎较单独应用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾可以明显缩短疗程,提高疗效,有一定的临床借鉴意义。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection in treatment of community acquired pneumonia. Methods Eighty patients with community acquired pneumonia treated in our hospital from January 2013 to May 2014 were selected and randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group, with 40 patients in each group. The treatment group received amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection and the control group received the intra-venous infusion of single amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Both groups received intravenous medication for 7 continuous days. The efficacy was evaluated one week after the end of treatment. Clinical

  9. Acute kidney injury due to single time overdosage intravenous infusion of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium:report of 2 cases%单次超剂量静脉滴注阿莫西林克拉维酸钾致急性肾损伤2例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心蕾; 唐红波; 冯欣

    2016-01-01

    Two female patients who aged 42 and 33 years with adenomyosis and hysteromyoma, respectively were hospitalized for surgical treatment. They had not history of kidney disease. They developed the symptoms of nausea,vomit,hematuresis,hypourocrinia,and slight puffy swelling after the second and fourth times of IV infusion of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 2. 4 g,respectively. Laboratory examination showed the increase of serum creatinine( Scr)and urea nitrogen( BUN)( case 1:Scr 423μmol/ L,BUN 7. 2 mmol/ L;case 2:Scr 443 μmol/ L,BUN 6. 8 mmol/ L). Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium were stopped to use in both patients immediately and symptomatic treatments which included those for relieving vomiting,hemostasis,diuresis,and fluid infusion were given to them. The two patients were transferred to another hospital' s nephrology department for hemodialysis on day 5 and 3 of receiving amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,respectively. The two patients' urine volume,levels of Scr and BUN were returned to normal on day 18 and 20 after transferring,respectively(case 1:Scr 49 μmol/ L,BUN 4. 1 mmol/ L;case 2:Scr 55 μmol/ L,BUN 5. 1mmol/ L).%2例女性患者(年龄分别为42和33岁)分别因子宫腺肌症和子宫肌瘤入院手术治疗,均无肾病史,分别于第2和第4次静脉滴注阿莫西林克拉维酸钾2.4 g 后出现恶心、呕吐、血尿、尿量减少、轻度水肿等症状,实验室检查示 Scr 和 BUN 异常(例1:Scr 423μmol/ L,BUN 7.2 mmol/ L;例2:Scr 443μmol/ L,BUN 6.8 mmol/ L)。2例患者均立即停用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,接受止吐、止血、利尿和补液等对症治疗,并分别于用药后第5和第3天转外院肾内科进行血液透析。2例患者的尿量、Scr和 BUN 分别于转院后第18和第20天恢复正常(例1:Scr 49μmol/ L,BUN 4.1 mmol/ L;例2:Scr 55μmol/ L,BUN 5.1 mmol/ L)。

  10. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  11. 克拉维酸生产中废乙酸乙酯的紫外扫描评价方法及树脂处理%Ultraviolet scanning evaluation and treatment of waste ethyl acetate in clavulanate production by resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳孝庆; 祁伟力; 曹广祥; 张晓晓; 张贵民

    2011-01-01

    建立克拉维酸生产中废乙酸乙酯的快捷评价方法.采用紫外吸收扫描,以吸收面积作为评价指标,全面评价废乙酸乙酯中的杂质残留.选用不同的树脂吸附处理废乙酸乙酯.结果表明:废乙酸乙酯经FPA90Cl树脂吸附处理后,紫外吸收面积最小,仅有225.601±5.499,残留的杂质最少.经条件优化后,批处理量为60m3废乙酸乙酯的树脂用于克拉维酸生产,产品质量与新乙酸乙酯生产的产品质量相近.使用树脂处理废乙酸乙酯可减轻乙酸乙酯蒸馏回收和环保的压力,降低生产成本,具有良好的经济效益和环境效益.%An evaluation method was established for waste ethyl acetate in clavulanate production by ultraviolet scanning using absorption area as evaluation index. The method was convenient and efficient, and had high accuracy. Different resins were used for the treatment of waste ethyl acetate. The result showed that FPA90C1 was the best resin of minimum residual impurity, with absorption peak area of 225. 601 ± 5. 499. Waste ethyl acetate(60 m3) treated by FPA90C1 under the optimized conditions was used for clavulanate production, and the product quality was similar to that produced by fresh ethyl acetate. Treatment of waste ethyl acetate by resin could decrease distillation recovery of ethyl acetate and reduce production cost, thus it had economical benefit and environmental benefit.

  12. Role of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in Treatment of Community-acquired Pneumonia%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂在社区获得性肺炎治疗中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Community - acquired pneumonia ( CAP) is a common infectious disease. Its resistance has become increasingly prominent in long—term clinical course of medication. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium has been recognized gradually due to its significant effect on CAP. Different matching dosage regimen has different antimicrobial efficacy. This paper gives 2 best matching dosage regimens by clinical trials.%社区获得性肺炎(CAP)是临床常见的感染性疾病,在长期临床用药过程中,CAP的耐药性问题日益突出,阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂在CAP中的治疗地位由于其疗效显著而逐渐被肯定.阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂不同配比的给药方案抗菌疗效也不尽相同,本研究通过临床实验也给出了两者最佳配比.

  13. 热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎的临床观察%Clinical observation of Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范勇; 杨永莲; 宋雷

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析并探讨热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎的临床观察。方法:2011年5月-2014年5月收治小儿支气管肺炎患者100例,将其随机分为观察组与对照组,每组50例。观察组给予热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾进行治疗,对照组仅给予阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗,观察两组临床效果及症状消失时间。结果:观察组显效27例,有效21例,无效2例,有效率96.00%;对照组显效21例,有效22例,无效7例,有效率86.00%,观察组治疗有效率明显高于对照组,经统计学处理,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组体温恢复正常时间(2.32±0.45)d,咳嗽消失时间(3.21±1.32)d,啰音消失时间(3.58±1.66)d;对照组体温恢复正常时间(4.23±0.78) d,咳嗽消失时间(5.23±1.65)d,啰音消失时间(6.03±1.67)d,观察组临床症状消失时间明显短于对照组,经统计学处理,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎临床效果显著,值得推广。%Objective:To analyze and explore the clinical observation of Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia.Methods:100 cases with children bronchial pneumonia were selected from May 2011 to May 2014.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 50 cases in each.The observation group were given Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment.The control group were only given amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment.The clinical effect and the symptoms disappear time were observed.Results:In the observation group,27 cases were significantly effective;21 cases were effective;2 cases were invalid;the treatment effective rate was 96.00%.In the control group,21 cases were significantly

  14. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  15. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  16. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析%The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗组总有效率93.75%。显著高于对照组86.25%(P <0.05),两组患儿均无严重的不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染疗效显著。%Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that

  17. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合常规抗结核药治疗耐多药肺结核的疗效观察%Observation of Amoxycillin/Clavulanate Potassium Combined with Conventional Anti-TB Drugs in Treatment of Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕊; 焦雪峰; 陈爽; 罗琳

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To probe into the clinical efficacy and adverse drug reaction of amoxycillin /clavulanate potassium combined with conventional anti-TB drugs in treatment of multidrug resistance tuberculosis ( MDR-TB ) . METHODS:205 MDR-TB patients were divided into treatment group (103 patients) and control group (102 patients) by random number table .The control group was given amoxycillin , ethambutol , isoniazid aminosalicylate , rifapentine and levofloxacin , the observation group received amoxycillin/clavulanate potassiumthe based on the same treatment regimen of the control group .The treatment course of 2 groups was 12 months.The changes of sputum negative conversion, focal absorption, cavity, the improved clinical symptoms and negative ADR consequences were closely observed in two groups .RESULTS:After the treatment of 3 months, there was no statistically significant difference of the sputum negative conversion rate in 2 groups ( P>0.05 ) .In the treatment group , the sputum negative rate at the sixth, ninth and twelfth month were respectively 68.93%(71/103), 74.76%(77/103) and 81.55%(84/103), which was significantly higher than that in the control group 50.98%( 52/102 )、55.88%( 57/102 ) and 60.78%(62/102) respectively, with statistically significant difference ( P >0.05).At the end of the treatment, the focal absorption rate of treatment group and control group was respectively 88.35%(91/103) and 66.67%(68/102), the cavity closure rate of treatment group and control group were respectively 84.47%(87/103) and 64.71%(66/102);the above-mentioned indexes in the treatment group were all significantly better than that in the control group , with significant difference ( P<0.05 ) .CONCLUSIONS:It is safe and effective to use amoxycillin/clavulanate potassium in the treatment of MDR-TB, but still have few significant advantages in the short-term efficacy.%目的:探讨阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合常规抗结核药治疗耐多药肺结核( multidrug

  19. Effect observation of Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treamtent of mild pediatric pneumonia%疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗轻度小儿肺炎的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹美英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavu-lanate potassium in the treatment of mild pediatric pneumonia. Methods From February 2013 to December 2014,120 cases with mild pediatric pneumonia were randomly divided into control group and treatment group according to medi-cal order.Control group was orally given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,at the same time,treatment group was al-so orally given Shufeng Jiedu capsule,the course of treatment lasted for 7 days.According to patients’disease condition, symptomatic therapy such as abatement of fever,relieving a cough and so on were performed.Treatment effect,time of a-batement of fever and recovery time of cough was observed in two groups respectively. Results The total effective rate in treatment group was 96.7%,and the total effective rate in control group was 86.7%,and there was a statistical differ-ence compared between two groups (P<0.05);time of abatement of fever in treatment group was (2.7±1.2) d,and the time was (3.9±1.7) d in control group;diapperaing time of cough was (4.2±1.5) d,and the time was (5.9±1.3) d;diapperaing time of lung rale was (5.7±1.8)d in treatment group and (7.3±2.1) d in control group,and there was a statistical differ-ence of above-mentioned indexes between two groups (P<0.05).No significant adverse reaction was detected during treatment in both groups. Conclusion Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of mild pediatric pneumonia is able to shorten the course of disease,accelerate children patients’recovery and improve the treatment effect.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗轻度小儿肺炎的临床效果。方法2013年2月~2014年12月,将120例轻度小儿肺炎患儿按就诊时间随机分为对照组、治疗组,对照组予以阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服,治疗组同时予以疏风解毒胶囊口服,疗程为7d。

  20. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合化学药物治疗初治涂阳肺结核的临床观察%Clinical observation of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium combined with chemotherapy in treating new pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琳琳; 甄秀霞; 王宗华; 杜亚文; 钱波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy and adverse reaction of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium in treating new smear positive tuberculosis (TB).Methods One hundred and nine new smear positive pulmonary TB patients were randomly divided into treatment group,who received Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium + 2HRZE/4HR (58 cases ) and control group,who received 2HRZE/4HR(51 cases).Results The sputum negative conversion rate at the third week,the first and second month were 44.8%,62.0%,89.7% in the treatment group and 25.5%,41.2%,76% in the control group respectively,at the second month chest radiography showed the resolution of pulmonary lesions in the treatment group and control group were 37.9% and 19.6% respectively,with cavity closure rate of 65.5% in the treatment group and 38.7% in the control group,at third week,the clinical symptoms such as cough,fever,fatigue disappeared at the levels of 48.3%,71.4%,59.3% in the treatment group and 25.5%,50.0%,40.0% in the control group (P <0.05),there was no drug adverse reaction in the treatment group,there was no significant difference in the sputum positive conversion rate at the 6,12 month after treatment between the treatment group and the control group (P > 0.05 ).Conclusions Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium combined with chemotherapy shortens the time of sputum negative conversion,the resolution of pulmonary lesions and the improvement of clinical symptoms.The drug adverse reaction is little.It is a fairly good immune drug for TB treatment and is worth to be recommended.%目的 观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合抗结核药物治疗初治涂阳肺结核患者的临床疗效和不良反应.方法 将109例初治涂阳肺结核患者随机分为治疗组与对照组两组,治疗组58例采用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾+2HREZ/4HR,对照组51例采用2HREZ/4HR.结果 治疗3周、1个月、2个月痰菌阴转率治疗组分别为44.8%、62.0%、89.7

  1. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  2. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  3. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  4. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  5. Resistance to Cefepime and Cefpirome Due to a 4-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Chromosome-Encoded AmpC β-Lactamase of a Serratia marcescens Clinical Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The blaAmpC gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the blaAmpC gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the blaAmpC gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the β-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type β-lactamases. PMID:14982755

  6. Resistance to cefepime and cefpirome due to a 4-amino-acid deletion in the chromosome-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase of a Serratia marcescens clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-03-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The bla(AmpC) gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the bla(AmpC) gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the bla(AmpC) gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the beta-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type beta-lactamases.

  7. Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H; Velazquez, Hector A; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2007-02-14

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or ΔGacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  8. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  9. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  11. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  13. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  14. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  15. Folic Acid Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... folic acid 9. A woman should be taking folic acid if she: A is planning a pregnancy B is capable of becoming pregnant, even if ... Answer: D CORRECT: A woman should be taking folic acid if she is planning a pregnancy, is capable of becoming pregnant (even if she ...

  16. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  17. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  18. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  19. pH值对替卡西林钠-克拉维酸钾与药物配伍产生沉淀的影响%Effect of pH value to the precipitate in the compatibility of Ticarcillin/Clavulanate acid with other drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史承耀; 李忠

    2004-01-01

    目的研究配伍用药产生沉淀与药液pH的关系.方法对替卡西林钠-克拉维酸钾用氯化钠注射液稀释,与左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星混合,观察结果.并按药典规定测定溶液pH值,比较pH值与其发生沉淀的关系.结果替卡西林钠-克拉维酸钾与pH较低的左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星配伍产生沉淀,加碱性试液pH升高后,溶液变澄清.结论 pH值降低是替卡西林钠-克拉维酸钾与左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星配伍产生沉淀的原因,必须注意不同药物溶液pH的差异,以保证临床用药的安全性和有效性.

  20. 高效液相色谱法测定复方阿莫西林粉中阿莫西林和克拉维酸含量%Determination of Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid in Compound Amoxycillin Powder by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海燕

    2002-01-01

    建立了同时测定复方阿莫西林粉中阿莫西林和克拉维酸钾两组分含量的高效液相色谱分析方法.色谱条件:C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.0 mm,5 μm),甲醇-磷酸盐缓冲溶液(pH 6.0)-水(10:1:89)为流动相:检测波长215 nm.阿莫西林和克拉维酸标准曲线的线性范围分别为2~14μg/mL和0.5~3.5 μg/mL,相关系数均为0.999 9;平均回收率分别为100.1%和99.6%.本法简单快速、准确可靠,适用于该制剂中两种组分含量的同时测定.

  1. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Combined with Potassium Tablets in Treating Acute Cystitis: A Clinical Observation%阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文莉

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎的临床治疗效果.方法 选取2008年9月-2010年6月的急性膀胱炎住院患者84例,随机分为观察组和治疗组,各42例;观察组采用阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗,对照组单纯采用阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗,观察比较两组的临床治疗效果.结果 观察组的总有效率为95.24%,对照组的总有效率为78.57%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组尿频、尿急、尿痛改善时间均短于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗中两组均无严重不良反应.结论 阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎效果较好,且不良反应小,值得临床推广应用.

  2. INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECTS OF TREATING NEWBORN INFANTS WITH INFECTIOUS PNEUMONIA WITH AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID%阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗新生儿感染性肺炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗新生儿感染性肺炎的疗效.方法总结40例新生儿细菌性肺炎治疗前后的临床及实验室特点,观察其转归.结果有28例患儿2 w后痊愈(占70%)显效8例(占20%)总有效率95%.结论新生儿感染性肺炎病情变化快,病原多,以细菌为主,阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗有效.

  3. 克拉维酸强化的阿莫西林对致病性大肠埃希氏菌体外抑菌试验%In vitro trail on clavulanic acid-enhancing amoxicillin against pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜仕金; 蒋志伟; 郑月华

    2001-01-01

    克拉维酸是一种β-内酰胺酶抑制剂,与阿莫西林同时应用时使得通过产生β-内酰胺酶对阿莫西林耐药的大多数细菌重新成为敏感菌.对来源于鸡、猪的共31株致病性大肠埃希氏菌最小抑菌浓度(MIC)测定表明,70%以上菌株对阿莫西林耐药;克拉维酸与阿莫西林联合使用使MIC显著下降;与单一使用阿莫西林相比,头孢氨苄青霉素对大多数分离菌的MIC较低.

  4. Clinical analysis of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consecutive therapy in treating acute community-acquired low respiratory tract infections%阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志雄; 孙书明

    2005-01-01

    目的评价阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效和安全性.方法68例社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染患者被随机分成2组,各34例.A组予阿莫西林-克拉维酸注射液1.2 g,iv gtt,bid×10 d;B组先用阿莫西林-克拉维酸注射液1.2 g,iv gtt,bid×3 d后,改为阿莫西林-克拉维酸0.5 g,po,bid×7 d,总疗程10 d.结果A组与B组的治疗有效率分别为85%和82%,细菌清除率分别为84%和83%,P均>0.05,2组的不良反应率相似.结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效确切,安全.

  5. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  6. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  7. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Barnathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32 and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19. Finally, the D5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs. This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between D5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

  8. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  9. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-07

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  10. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  11. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  12. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  13. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  14. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  15. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  20. Carbolic acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to. If the person swallowed the carbolic acid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells ... well someone does depends on how much carbolic acid they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better ...

  1. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  2. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  4. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We determined the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in a cross-over study with 4 female and 3 male healthy ileo...

  5. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  6. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  7. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  8. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  9. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  10. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  11. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  12. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  13. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  14. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  15. Folic acid - test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who are ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider how ...

  16. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  17. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? The March of Dimes recommends that all babies ... in behavior Diarrhea, nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and throwing up Drowsiness Fever Fussiness Little appetite ...

  18. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  19. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  20. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  1. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  2. Performance Comparison of New Combinations of Acids with Mud Acid in Sandstone Acidizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Umer Shafiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find the best suitable acid to acidize undamaged low permeable sandstone formation Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50 to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid- Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF-12% HCl. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results analyzed are porosity, permeability, strength, color change and FESEM Analysis. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  3. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  4. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  5. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  6. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  7. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  8. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  9. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  10. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  11. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  12. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

  13. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  14. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  15. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  16. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  17. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  18. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  19. Phenylpyruvic acid in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemans, O.; Vergeer, E.G.

    1960-01-01

    The method of The, Fleury And Vink for the determination of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) in urine is modified by measuring the extinction after the green colour with ferric chloride has faded, and subtracting this extinction from that found initially. More accurate values are obtained and low PPA values

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  1. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  2. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  3. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  4. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  5. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  6. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  7. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI in Yasuj city during 1391-1392.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to treat urinary tract infections by using fewer antibiotics such as Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole, and administration of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be used with caution.

  9. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    -clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin...

  10. Crystal Structures of KPC-2 and SHV-1 β-Lactamases in Complex with the Boronic Acid Transition State Analog S02030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu Q; Krishnan, Nikhil P; Rojas, Laura J; Prati, Fabio; Caselli, Emilia; Romagnoli, Chiara; Bonomo, Robert A; van den Akker, Focco

    2016-01-04

    Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems has rendered certain strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae the most problematic pathogens infecting patients in the hospital and community. This broad-spectrum resistance to β-lactamases emerges in part via the expression of KPC-2 and SHV-1 β-lactamases and variants thereof. KPC-2 carbapenemase is particularly worrisome, as the genetic determinant encoding this β-lactamase is rapidly spread via plasmids. Moreover, KPC-2, a class A enzyme, is difficult to inhibit with mechanism-based inactivators (e.g., clavulanate). In order to develop new β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) to add to the limited available armamentarium that can inhibit KPC-2, we have structurally probed the boronic acid transition state analog S02030 for its inhibition of KPC-2 and SHV-1. S02030 contains a boronic acid, a thiophene, and a carboxyl triazole moiety. We present here the 1.54- and 1.87-Å resolution crystal structures of S02030 bound to SHV-1 and KPC-2 β-lactamases, respectively, as well as a comparative analysis of the S02030 binding modes, including a previously determined S02030 class C ADC-7 β-lactamase complex. S02030 is able to inhibit vastly different serine β-lactamases by interacting with the conserved features of these active sites, which includes (i) forming the bond with catalytic serine via the boron atom, (ii) positioning one of the boronic acid oxygens in the oxyanion hole, and (iii) utilizing its amide moiety to make conserved interactions across the width of the active site. In addition, S02030 is able to overcome more distantly located structural differences between the β-lactamases. This unique feature is achieved by repositioning the more polar carboxyl-triazole moiety, generated by click chemistry, to create polar interactions as well as reorient the more hydrophobic thiophene moiety. The former is aided by the unusual polar nature of the triazole ring, allowing it to potentially form a unique C-H…O 2

  11. Crystal Structures of KPC-2[beta]-Lactamase in Complex with 3-Nitrophenyl Boronic Acid and the Penam Sulfone PSR-3-226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Wei; Bethel, Christopher R.; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M.; Pagadala, Sundar Ram Reddy; Nottingham, Micheal; Fernandez, Daniel; Buynak, John D.; Bonomo, Robert A.; van den Akker, Focco (Case Western); (Stokes); (SMU)

    2012-08-01

    Class A carbapenemases are a major threat to the potency of carbapenem antibiotics. A widespread carbapenemase, KPC-2, is not easily inhibited by {beta}-lactamase inhibitors (i.e., clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam). To explore different mechanisms of inhibition of KPC-2, we determined the crystal structures of KPC-2 with two {beta}-lactamase inhibitors that follow different inactivation pathways and kinetics. The first complex is that of a small boronic acid compound, 3-nitrophenyl boronic acid (3-NPBA), bound to KPC-2 with 1.62-{angstrom} resolution. 3-NPBA demonstrated a Km value of 1.0 {+-} 0.1 {micro}M (mean {+-} standard error) for KPC-2 and blocks the active site by making a reversible covalent interaction with the catalytic S70 residue. The two boron hydroxyl atoms of 3-NPBA are positioned in the oxyanion hole and the deacylation water pocket, respectively. In addition, the aromatic ring of 3-NPBA provides an edge-to-face interaction with W105 in the active site. The structure of KPC-2 with the penam sulfone PSR-3-226 was determined at 1.26-{angstrom} resolution. PSR-3-226 displayed a K{sub m} value of 3.8 {+-} 0.4 {micro}M for KPC-2, and the inactivation rate constant (kinact) was 0.034 {+-} 0.003 s{sup -1}. When covalently bound to S70, PSR-3-226 forms a trans-enamine intermediate in the KPC-2 active site. The predominant active site interactions are generated via the carbonyl oxygen, which resides in the oxyanion hole, and the carboxyl moiety of PSR-3-226, which interacts with N132, N170, and E166. 3-NPBA and PSR-3-226 are the first {beta}-lactamase inhibitors to be trapped as an acyl-enzyme complex with KPC-2. The structural and inhibitory insights gained here could aid in the design of potent KPC-2 inhibitors.

  12. Potentiometric determination of peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Malchik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Was proposed two potentiometric methods for determining peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis of sulfuric acid (potentiometric titration method and direct potentiometry, based on its interaction with a known excess of a solution Fe2+.

  13. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  14. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  15. Susceptibility to penicillin derivatives among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered on hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischnik, Alexander; Baumert, Philipp; Hamprecht, Axel; Rohde, Anna; Peter, Silke; Feihl, Susanne; Knobloch, Johannes; Gölz, Hanna; Kola, Axel; Obermann, Birgit; Querbach, Christiane; Willmann, Matthias; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Tacconelli, Evelina; Gastmeier, Petra; Seifert, Harald; Kern, Winfried V

    2017-01-01

    As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.

  16. Examination pf Potential Anti-Tumor Activity of N-Thiolated B-Lactam Antibiotics in Nude Mice Bearing Human Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    end labeling; NK cells, natural killer cells; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide. carbapenems ...lactams that possess antibacterial properties, including the penams, penems, carbapenems , cephalosporins, and clavulanic acids (10). A novel class of...bicyclic beta-lactams were found to also possess antibacterial properties, such as penams, carbapenems and clavulanic acids (figure 1A). The

  17. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  18. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  19. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  1. Autohydrolysis of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, S R; Gray, J S; Montgomery, R

    1999-09-10

    The autohydrolysis of phytic acid at 120 degrees C resulted in the formation of most of the phosphate esters of myo-inositol in varying amounts depending upon the reaction time. Eighteen of the 39 chromatographically distinct myo-inositol mono-, bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphates have been characterized using two different HPLC systems. These myo-inositol phosphates were partially purified by preparative anion-exchange chromatography under acidic and alkaline elution conditions. The combination of these two methods provides a two-tiered chromatographic approach to the rapid and sensitive identification of inositol phosphates in complex mixtures. Identification of the products was confirmed by 1D and 2D (1)H NMR analysis. The analytical procedure was applied to the autohydrolysis of the mixture of inositol phosphates from corn steep water.

  2. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  3. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  4. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  5. Phenolic acids bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The daily intake of phenolic compounds does not necessarily reflect the dose at which they reach the physiological targets in the organisms. The biological activity of phenolic compounds metabolites found in blood, organs and target tissues, as a result of digestive and hepatic activity, may differ from those of the native forms of the substances. This review discusses the absorption and metabolism of phenolic acids, a class of phenolic compounds abundant in food, and the methodologies used f...

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  9. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bilska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2 of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  10. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  11. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent birth defects, or take vitamins containing folic acid before pregnancy. [ Read article ] Use of Supplements Containing Folic Acid ... Report has published a new study looking at folic acid use before pregnancy in women who have had a previous pregnancy ...

  12. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  13. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  14. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid fr

  15. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  16. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  17. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  18. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  19. Acidic aerosol in urban air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Miyazaki, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and chemical composition of acidic aerosol in Osaka City were investigated. Samples were collected at five sites in the city from June to September, 1979. Acidic aerosol was determined by the acid-base titration method, sulfate ion by barium chloride turbidimetry, nitrate ion by the xylenol method, and chloride ion by the mercury thiocyanate method. The concentration of acidic aerosol at five sites ranged from 7.7 micrograms per cubic meter to 10.0 micrograms per cubic meter, but mean concentrations in the residential area were slightly higher than those in the industrial area. When acidic aerosol concentrations were compared with concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride ions, a significant correlation was found between acidic aerosol and sulfate ion. The sum of the ion equivalents of the three types showed good correlation with the acidic aerosol equivalent during the whole period.

  20. Amino Acid Catabolism in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Nunes Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-02

    Amino acids have various prominent functions in plants. Besides their usage during protein biosynthesis, they also represent building blocks for several other biosynthesis pathways and play pivotal roles during signaling processes as well as in plant stress response. In general, pool sizes of the 20 amino acids differ strongly and change dynamically depending on the developmental and physiological state of the plant cell. Besides amino acid biosynthesis, which has already been investigated in great detail, the catabolism of amino acids is of central importance for adjusting their pool sizes but so far has drawn much less attention. The degradation of amino acids can also contribute substantially to the energy state of plant cells under certain physiological conditions, e.g. carbon starvation. In this review, we discuss the biological role of amino acid catabolism and summarize current knowledge on amino acid degradation pathways and their regulation in the context of plant cell physiology.

  1. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  2. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  3. Kinetics of wet oxidation of formic acid and acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shende, R.V.; Mahajani, V.V. [Univ. of Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1997-11-01

    Oxidation of lower molecular weight carboxylic acids such as formic, acetic, glyoxalic, and oxalic acids is often the rate-controlling step during wet oxidation (WO) of an aqueous waste stream exhibiting very high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The kinetics of WO of formic acid was studied in the absence and presence of a cupric sulfate as catalyst in the temperature range 150--240 C and oxygen partial pressure range 0.345--1.380 MPa. Wet oxidation of acetic acid was carried out in the presence of cupric sulfate in the temperature range 215--235 C. Homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a very good catalyst for oxidation of formic acid and acetic acid.

  4. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  5. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  6. Japodic Acid, A Novel Aliphatic Acid from Jatropha podagrica Hook

    OpenAIRE

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Gloer, James B.

    2008-01-01

    A new aliphatic acid named japodic acid (1) with a gem-dimethyl cyclopropane ring has been isolated from the roots of Jatropha podagrica. Its structure was established by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data. Two other known compounds, erythrinasinate (2) and fraxidin (3) were also isolated from this plant for the first time. Japodic acid showed mild insect growth inhibition activity against Helicoverpa zea (37% growth reduction at 100 ppm). Fraxidin and erythrinasinate exhibited antibac...

  7. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  8. Rotational study of the bimolecule acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther

    2017-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of the acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid bimolecule was measured by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. One conformer, in which fluoroacetic acid is in trans form, has been observed. The rotational transitions are split into two component lines, due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of acetic acid. From these splittings, the corresponding V3 barrier has been determined. The dissociation energy of this complex has been estimated to 66 kJ/mol. An increase of the distance between the two monomers upon the OH → OD substitution (Ubbelohde effect) has been observed.

  9. Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

  10. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn hydrolysis to salicylic acid. With the method for free acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, recovery was 95-98␏or acetylsalicylic acid added to foods and 92-102␏or salicylic acid. Recovery of a...

  11. Molecular Simulation of Naphthenic Acid Removal on Acidic Catalyst Ⅱ. Experimental results of catalytic decarboxylation over acidic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqin; Tian Songbai; Hou Shuandi; Longjun; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    The energy barriers of thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids and catalytic decarboxylation reactions of Br(o)nsted acid and Lewis acid were analyzed using molecular simulation technology.Compared with thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids, the decarboxylation reactions by acid catalysts were easier to occur. The decarboxylaton effect by Lewis acid was better than Br(o)nsted acid. The mechanisms of catalytic decarboxylation over acid catalyst were also verified by experiments on a fixed bed and a fluidized bed, the experimental results showed that the rate of acid removal could reach up to 97% over the acidic catalyst at a temperature above 400℃.

  12. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones......,4-lactone, respectively. A 2,3-aziridino-2,3-dideoxypentonamide 70 was also prepared from D-glucono-1,5-lactone. The lactones were converted into methyl 3,4-O-isopropylidene-2-O-sulfonyl esters 42, 50, 62 and 68, which upon treatment with concentrated aqueous ammonia yielded the aziridino compounds...

  13. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  14. Enzymatic tRNA acylation by acid and alpha-hydroxy acid analogues of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Alina; Safro, Mark; Wolfson, Alexey D

    2008-01-08

    Incorporation of unnatural amino acids with unique chemical functionalities has proven to be a valuable tool for expansion of the functional repertoire and properties of proteins as well as for structure-function analysis. Incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acids (primary amino group is substituted with hydroxyl) leads to the synthesis of proteins with peptide bonds being substituted by ester bonds. Practical application of this modification is limited by the necessity to prepare corresponding acylated tRNA by chemical synthesis. We investigated the possibility of enzymatic incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues (lacking amino group) of amino acids into tRNA using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). We studied direct acylation of tRNAs by alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues of amino acids and corresponding chemically synthesized analogues of aminoacyl-adenylates. Using adenylate analogues we were able to enzymatically acylate tRNA with amino acid analogues which were otherwise completely inactive in direct aminoacylation reaction, thus bypassing the natural mechanisms ensuring the selectivity of tRNA aminoacylation. Our results are the first demonstration that the use of synthetic aminoacyl-adenylates as substrates in tRNA aminoacylation reaction may provide a way for incorporation of unnatural amino acids into tRNA, and consequently into proteins.

  15. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-11-07

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  16. Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Chyba, Christopher F.

    2000-05-01

    Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D/L) molecules. We calculate D/L ratios for seven biological, α-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization by the time they are recovered on Earth. If the mechanism of amino acid formation imposes some enantiomeric preference on the amino acids, a chiral signature can be retained through the entire history of the meteorite. Original enantiomeric excesses in meteorites such as Murchison, which have undergone apparently short and cool alteration scenarios, should have persisted to the present time. Of the seven amino acids for which relevant data are available, we expect glutamic acid, isoleucine, and valine, respectively, to be the most likely to retain an initial enantiomeric excess, and phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and alanine the least. Were the D/L ratio initially identical in each amino acid, final D/L ratios could be used to constrain the initial ratio and the thermal history experienced by the whole suite.

  17. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  18. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  19. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  20. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  2. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  3. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  4. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  5. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  6. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  7. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scalabrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  8. Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid and its derivatives : Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marek J.

    1981-11-01

    Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid, O-deutero-salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid crystals have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Interpretation of these spectra was based on the Witkowski-Maréchal model. Semi-quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be achieved with the simplest form of this model, with values of interaction parameters transferable for equivalent intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  9. Production of succinic Acid from citric Acid and related acids by lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneuchi, C; Seki, M; Komagata, K

    1988-12-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, alpha-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli.

  10. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  11. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  12. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  13. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do ... Pantothenas, Calcium D-Pantothenate, Calcium Pantothenate, Complexe de Vitamines B, D-Calcium Pantothenate, D-Panthenol, D-Panthénol, ...

  14. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  15. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  16. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  17. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  18. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound.

  19. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid.

  20. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  1. The Property and Application of Arachidonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相勤; 姚建铭; 袁成凌; 王纪; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). This paper mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic healthcare function and application of AA.

  2. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  3. Terahertz spectrum of gallic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Zhao, Guozhong; Wang, Haiyan; Liang, Chengshen

    2009-11-01

    Gallic acid is natural polyphenol compound found in many green plants. More and more experiments have demonstrated that the gallic acid has comprehensive applications. In the field of medicine, the gallic acid plays an important role in antianaphylaxis, antineoplastic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, antivirotic, antiasthmatic and inhibiting the degradation of insulin. It also has a lot of applications in chemical industry, food industry and light industry. So it is important to study the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of gallic acid. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new coherent spectral technology based on the femtosecond laser. In this work, the spectral characteristics of gallic acid in the range of 0.4 THz to 2.6 THz have been measured by THz-TDS. We obtained its absorption and refraction spectra at room temperature. The vibration absorption spectrum of the single molecule between 0.4 THz and 2.6 THz is simulated based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is found that the gallic acid has the spectral response to THz wave in this frequency range. The results show the abnormal dispersion at 1.51 THz and 2.05 THz. These results can be used in the qualitative analysis of gallic acid and the medicine and food inspection.

  4. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  5. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.

  6. ELECTRODIALYTIC PRODUCTION OF HYPOPHOSPHOROUS ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jianzhong; ZHANG Yingzhe; ZHANG Baogui; ZHANG Zhengpu

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of preparing hypophosphorous acid comprising contacting an insoluble anode with an aqueous solution of hypophosphite anions and applying a direct current through the insoluble anode to a cathode in electrical contact with the aqueous solution to generate H+ ions in the aqueous solution thereby forming a hypophosphorous acid solution. The process is simple,low cost and high efficient, which can be tied into an existing process for producing sodium hypophosphite wherein the product of sodium hypophosphite process is used as a starting material in the hypophosphorous acid process.

  7. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  8. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  9. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  11. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article: Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects:... Article: Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects:... Article: Folic Acid Supplementation for Prevention of ...

  12. Low acid producing solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  13. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  14. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  15. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  16. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  17. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  18. Anthranilic acid derivatives from Inula japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jiang Qin; Hui Zi Jin; Jian Jun Fu; Xiao Jia Hu; Yan Zhu; Yun Heng Shen; Shi Kai Yan; Wei Dong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Three new anthranilic acid derivatives, N-heneicosanoylanthranilic acid (1b), N-tricosanoylanthranilic acid (1d), N-tetra-cosanoylanthranilic acid (1e), and two known N-arachidylanthranilic acid (1a) and N-docosanoylanthranilic acid (1c) were isolatedfrom the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods.2008 Hui Zi Jin. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids....

  20. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  1. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  2. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing...... strategies and of new principles for regulating the activity of the inhibitory action of aptamers of general interest to researchers working with nucleic acid aptamers...

  3. Cyanuric acid-epichlorohydrin prepolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, L. M.; Simões, P; Portugal, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the reaction of cyanuric acid and epichlorohydrin (ECH). SnCl4 was used as a catalyst. Several reaction conditions were tested, and the products were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared and 1H-NMR spectroscopy, hydroxyl group content, molar mass, elemental and thermal analysis, viscosity, and density. ECH reacted with the amine groups of the cyanuric acid ring to form lateral chains that contained chloroalkyl and hydroxyl end groups. Full substitutio...

  4. Biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Winkler, Margit

    2014-06-01

    An increasing demand for non-petroleum-based products is envisaged in the near future. Carboxylic acids such as citric acid, succinic acid, fatty acids, and many others are available in abundance from renewable resources and they could serve as economic precursors for bio-based products such as polymers, aldehyde building blocks, and alcohols. However, we are confronted with the problem that carboxylic acid reduction requires a high level of energy for activation due to the carboxylate's thermodynamic stability. Catalytic processes are scarce and often their chemoselectivity is insufficient. This review points at bio-alternatives: currently known enzyme classes and organisms that catalyze the reduction of carboxylic acids are summarized. Two totally distinct biocatalyst lines have evolved to catalyze the same reaction: aldehyde oxidoreductases from anaerobic bacteria and archea, and carboxylate reductases from aerobic sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. The majority of these enzymes remain to be identified and isolated from their natural background in order to evaluate their potential as industrial biocatalysts.

  5. SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  6. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  7. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  8. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids. [Hydroxy acids: acetylsalicylic, gallic, lactic, salicyclic, orotic,. gamma. -hydroxybutyric acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen' eva, T.I. (Gor' kovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-03-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, ..gamma..-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp/sub 2/, VOCOR or CpV (OCOR)/sub 2/ type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented.

  9. An Efficient Procedure for Esterification of Aryloxyacetic Acid and Arylthioacetic Acid Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Hong-Ya; LI,Ji-Tai; LI,Hui-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Aryloxyacetate and arylthioacetate are wildly used in herbicides, plant regulator and insecticides. Recently, Wille et al. have reported that methyl aryloxyacetate is an efficient agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.[1] The most popular synthesis is by heating sodium phenoxide (mercaptide) with ethyl chloroacetate in DMF,[2] or by the esterification of acid with alcohol using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst.[3] In this paper, synthesis of aryloxyacetate and aryl thioacetate from aryloxyacetic acid and arylthioacetic acid respectively in ether catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid in 83%~94% yields is described. The catalyst is reused for 3 times without significant loss of activity (Entry 4). Compared with common procedures, the present procedure possesses the advantages of the operational simplicity, short reaction time,less-corrosion, high yield and reusable catalyst.

  10. Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

    2009-01-28

    The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine.

  11. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  12. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  13. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  14. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-06-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  15. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...... boronate internucleosidic linkages. The DNA- or RNA-templated system comprises a 5′-ended boronic acid probe connecting a 3′-ended ribonucleosidic oligonucleotide partner. To explore the dominant factors that control the reversible linkage, we synthesized a series of 3′-end modified ribonucleotidic strands...

  16. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1097 - Tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1097 Tannic acid. (a) Tannic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1401-55-4), or hydrolyzable gallotannin, is a complex polyphenolic organic structure that yields gallic acid and either glucose or quinic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tannic acid. 184.1097 Section 184.1097 Food...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may...

  19. Microbial production of amino acids in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H

    2000-01-01

    The microbial biotechnology of amino acids production which was developed and industrialized in Japan have been summarized. The amino acids include L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-p-hydroxyphenyl-glycine, and hydroxy-L-proline.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...