WorldWideScience

Sample records for classical one-component plasma

  1. The definition of the pressure of the classical one-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navet, Marcel; Jamin, Eric; Feix, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical simulation illustrates the 'virial' kinetic definition of the pressure of the classical one-component plasma introduced in a recent note. In spherical geometry it is found that this pressure, divided by kT, is equal to the density of particles on the wall, and a complete explanation of the discrepancy with the generally accepted thermodynamical definition is given [fr

  2. Asymptotic form of the classical one-component plasma fluid equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Monte Carlo data of Hansen for the internal energy of the classical one-component plasma in the fluid state is found to satisfy accurately a simple functional form, U/NkT = aGAMMA + bGAMMA/sup 1;4/ + c, for GAMMA > 1. The fluid static energy is very close to the bcc lattice energy of the solid, and the fluid thermal energy varies as T/sup 3;4/. Simple and accurate expressions for other thermodynamic functions for the plasma fluid are given

  3. Asymptotic behavior of correlation functions for electric potential and field fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    The correlations of the electric potential fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma are studied for large distances between the observation points. The two-point correlation function for these fluctuations is known to decay slowly for large distances, even if exponential clustering holds for

  4. Surface density profile and surface tension of the one-component classical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Senatore, G.; Trieste Univ.; Tosi, M.P.; Oxford Univ.

    1982-08-01

    The density profile and the interfacial tension of two classical plasmas in equilibrium at different densities are evaluated in the square-density-gradient approximation. For equilibrium in the absence of applied external voltage, the profile is oscillatory in the higher-density plasma and the interfacial tension is positive. The amplitude and phase of these oscillations and the magnitude of the interfacial tension are related to the width of the background profile. Approximate representations of the equilibrium profile by matching of its asymptotic forms are analyzed. A comparison with computer simulation data and a critical discussion of a local-density theory are also presented. (author)

  5. Kinetic theory of self-diffusion in a moderately dense one-component plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    A microscopic description of self-diffusion in a moderately dense classical one-component plasma is given on the basis of renormalized kinetic theory. The effects of close binary collisions and of collective interactions in the plasma are taken into account through the use of a composite memory

  6. On the kinetic theory of the one-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, kinetic theory is applied to transport phenomena of a one-component plasma. Existing kinetic equations, containing both dynamical screening effects and close binary collisions do not suffer from divergencies. Recently an approximation for the pair correlation function has been proposed that is valid for small values of the plasma collision parameter. Upon insertion of this expression into the general form of the collision integral, one obtains another convergent kinetic equation. This thesis shows that both kinetic equations yield the same coefficient of heat conductivity and viscosity; and that for a hot dilute plasma the arbitrary transport coefficient is rather insensitive to the pair correlation function. In the second part, the author studies the diffusion of a tagged particle in an external magnetic field. It is found that the longitudinal self-diffusion coefficient contra-varies monotonically with the magnetic field strength. (Auth.)

  7. Molecular dynamics studies of crystalline nucleation in one-component Yukawa plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravelo, R.; Hammerberg, J.E.; Holian, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    We report on molecular dynamics studies of one-component Yukawa plasmas undergoing rapid quenches from a fluid state with a Coulomb parameter Γ = 40 to solid states in the range 350 < Γ < 800. The detailed dynamical structure of ordering appears more complicated than results from classical theories of nucleation, with planar formation being observed before fully 3-dimensional ordering appears

  8. Collective modes of the quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, P.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The authors derive the collective modes of a quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field by using a projection operator technique. With the help of these modes the long-time behaviour of the time correlation functions for the charge density, the current density and the energy density is

  9. Derivation of the one component plasma fluid equation of state in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.; Rosenfeld, Y.

    1979-01-01

    A variational calculation of the one component plasma energy using the hard sphere Percus-Yevick g(r) and the virial entropy gives U/NkT = a GAMMA + b GAMMAsup(1/4) + c + d/ GAMMAsup(1/4) + ... in agreement with the empirical fit to Monte Carlo data. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic properties of one-component strongly coupled plasmas: The sum-rule approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Askaruly, A.; Davletov, A. E.; Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.; Zwicknagel, G.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled one-component plasmas are studied within the moment approach. Our results on the dynamic structure factor and the dynamic local-field correction satisfy the sum rules and other exact relations automatically. A quantitative agreement is obtained with numerous simulation data on the plasma dynamic properties, including the dispersion and decay of collective modes. Our approach allows us to correct and complement the results previously found with other treatments.

  11. Analogies between random matrix ensembles and the one-component plasma in two-dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Forrester

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The eigenvalue PDF for some well known classes of non-Hermitian random matrices — the complex Ginibre ensemble for example — can be interpreted as the Boltzmann factor for one-component plasma systems in two-dimensional domains. We address this theme in a systematic fashion, identifying the plasma system for the Ginibre ensemble of non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrices G, the spherical ensemble of the product of an inverse Ginibre matrix and a Ginibre matrix G1−1G2, and the ensemble formed by truncating unitary matrices, as well as for products of such matrices. We do this when each has either real, complex or real quaternion elements. One consequence of this analogy is that the leading form of the eigenvalue density follows as a corollary. Another is that the eigenvalue correlations must obey sum rules known to characterise the plasma system, and this leads us to an exhibit of an integral identity satisfied by the two-particle correlation for real quaternion matrices in the neighbourhood of the real axis. Further random matrix ensembles investigated from this viewpoint are self dual non-Hermitian matrices, in which a previous study has related to the one-component plasma system in a disk at inverse temperature β=4, and the ensemble formed by the single row and column of quaternion elements from a member of the circular symplectic ensemble.

  12. Collective modes and generalized transport coefficients for a dense one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; Schoolderman, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The collective modes for a one-component Coulomb plasma in a magnetic field are derived from the microscopic balance equations. The mode frequencies contain nine independent generalized transport coefficients for which Green-Kubo expressions are determined. The discontinuity in the mode spectrum for

  13. Kinetic theory of the collective modes for a dense one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; Cohen, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The collective modes for a classical magnetized Coulomb plasma are determined with the use of kinetic theory. A comparison is made with the results from magnetohydrodynamics. It is shown that only four of the nine independent static transport coefficients are accessible through the damping terms of

  14. Description of collisionless plasmas by classical field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, G.S.

    1975-10-01

    Classical field equations are derived from quantum fields to obtain a different and possibly simpler description of a collisionless plasma. The method is to take the simultaneous limit, Dirac constant, e, m → 0, of charged scalar fields and the electromagnetic field. Laplace transforms for perturbations in a uniform relativistic plasma are compared with corresponding results from the Maxwell--Vlasov equations. For the nonlinear case, a distribution function defined on the classical fields is shown to satisfy the Vlasov equation

  15. Structure of the strongly coupled classical plasma in the self-consistent mean spherical approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, D.K.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-10-01

    An analytic theory is presented for the static structure factor of the one-component classical plasma at strong couplings. The theory combines the hard-core model of Gillan for short-range correlations in the Coulomb fluid with a semiempirical representation of intermediate-range correlations, through which the requirement of thermodynamic consistency on the ''compressibility'' and the known equation of state of the system are satisfied. Excellent agreement is found with the available computer simulation data on the structure of the fluid. The approach becomes inapplicable at intermediate and weak couplings where effects of penetration in the Coulomb hole of each particle become important. (author)

  16. Theory of the interface between a classical plasma and a hard wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.; Trieste Univ.

    1983-09-01

    The interfacial density profile of a classical one-component plasma confined by a hard wall is studied in planar and spherical geometries. The approach adapts to interfacial problems a modified hypernetted-chain approximation developed by Lado and by Rosenfeld and Ashcroft for the bulk structure of simple liquids. The specific new aim is to embody self-consistently into the theory a 'contact theorem', fixing the plasma density at the wall through an equilibrium condition which involves the electrical potential drop across the interface and the bulk pressure. The theory is brought into fully quantitative contact with computer simulation data for a plasma confined in a spherical cavity of large but finite radius. It is also shown that the interfacial potential at the point of zero charge is accurately reproduced by suitably combining the contact theorem with relevant bulk properties in a simple, approximate representation of the interfacial charge density profile. (author)

  17. Classical field isomorphisms in two-fluid plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Richard J.; Moeller, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work recognized a new framework for the equations of a multifluid plasma, wherein each species can be described by a set of equations remarkably similar to the Maxwell equations of classical electrodynamics. This paper extends the previous effort to form an exact isomorphism between the multifluid theory and classical electrodynamics. The major benefits of the new formulation are that the explicit coupling between different species is minimized, and theorems and techniques of classical electrodynamics can be immediately applied to the new multifluid formulation. We introduce the exact isomorphism and investigate some of the immediate consequences from classical electrodynamics. To provide a visualization of the isomorphism, previous 1D and 2D numerical simulations are postprocessed and presented to illustrate the generalized fields and source terms.

  18. Turbulent Evolution of a Plasma Described Through Classical Mechanics Only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, D.F.; Elskens, Y.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time an old dream of the XIXth century comes true: the non trivial evolution of a macroscopic many-body system is described through classical mechanics only. This is done for the relaxation of a warm electron beam in a plasma, which results in the generation of Langmuir turbulence and in the formation of a plateau in the velocity distribution function of the electrons. Our derivation starts from the hamiltonian describing the one-dimensional N-body system corresponding to the beam and plasma bulk electrons in electrostatic interaction. For such a system, the dynamics can be reduced to the resonant interaction of M Langmuir waves with N'( > 1 Langmuir waves with N' >> 1 beam particles. This yields the proof of the classical quasilinear equations describing the coupled evolution of the wave spectrum and of the beam velocity distribution function in the strongly nonlinear regime where their validity is the matter of a longstanding controversy

  19. Dynamics of classical ionic plasmas in an electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postogna, F.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    The Bohm-Staver treatment of electronic screening of the long-wave-length ionic motions in a classical plasma is re-examined and extended to ionic mixtures. In the case of a pure ionic plasma, the Bohm-Staver formula for the speed of sound is brought to consistency with the Ornstein-Zernike compressibility by the inclusion of two (largely compensating) corrections arising from the thermodynamics of the bare plasma and from local pseudopotential effects. Attenuation of sound waves by viscosity in the bare plasma is also displayed. A parallel treatment is given of the effects of electronic screening on the longitudinal excitation spectrum of a bare ionic mixture at long wave-lengths, which contains an ionic plasma mode broadened by collisions as well as a relaxation mode of finite width. Electronic screening transforms the plasma mode into a sound wave mode and yields an interdiffusion relaxation peak whose width vanishes with the square of the wave number and is directly proportional to the interdiffusion coefficient of the two ionic species. The hydrodynamic behaviour of the screened ionic mixture is thus shown to be similar to that of a neutral mixture. (author)

  20. Turbulent Evolution of a Plasma Described Through Classical Mechanics Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, D. F.; Elskens, Y.

    2003-06-01

    For the first time an old dream of the XIXth century comes true: the non trivial evolution of a macroscopic many-body system is described through classical mechanics only. This is done for the relaxation of a warm electron beam in a plasma, which results in the generation of Langmuir turbulence and in the formation of a plateau in the velocity distribution function of the electrons. Our derivation starts from the hamiltonian describing the one-dimensional N-body system corresponding to the beam and plasma bulk electrons in electrostatic interaction. For such a system, the dynamics can be reduced to the resonant interaction of M Langmuir waves with N'(≪ N) beam particles. The rigorous analytical calculation of a quasilinear diffusion coefficient is performed for the chaotic motion of a particle in a quite general set of prescribed longitudinal waves with random phases and large amplitudes. This result proves to be extendable within controllable approximations to the self-consistent evolution of M ≫ 1 Langmuir waves with N' ≫ 1 beam particles. This yields the proof of the classical quasilinear equations describing the coupled evolution of the wave spectrum and of the beam velocity distribution function in the strongly nonlinear regime where their validity is the matter of a longstanding controversy.

  1. Modeling classical and quantum radiation from laser-plasma accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of models and the “Virtual Detector for Synchrotron Radiation” (vdsr code that accurately describe the production of synchrotron radiation are described. These models and code are valid in the classical and linear (single-scattering quantum regimes and are capable of describing radiation produced from laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs through a variety of mechanisms including betatron radiation, undulator radiation, and Thomson/Compton scattering. Previous models of classical synchrotron radiation, such as those typically used for undulator radiation, are inadequate in describing the radiation spectra from electrons undergoing small numbers of oscillations. This is due to an improper treatment of a mathematical evaluation at the end points of an integration that leads to an unphysical plateau in the radiation spectrum at high frequencies, the magnitude of which increases as the number of oscillation periods decreases. This is important for betatron radiation from LPAs, in which the betatron strength parameter is large but the number of betatron periods is small. The code vdsr allows the radiation to be calculated in this regime by full integration over each electron trajectory, including end-point effects, and this code is used to calculate betatron radiation for cases of experimental interest. Radiation from Thomson scattering and Compton scattering is also studied with vdsr. For Thomson scattering, radiation reaction is included by using the Sokolov method for the calculation of the electron dynamics. For Compton scattering, quantum recoil effects are considered in vdsr by using Monte Carlo methods. The quantum calculation has been benchmarked with the classical calculation in a classical regime.

  2. Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 4 Issue 11 November 1999 pp 88-88 Classics. Introduction to Classics Essay · Max Delbrück · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 4 Issue 11 November 1999 pp 89-102 Classics. A Physicist Looks at Biology · Max Delbrück · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 105-105 Classics. Introduction.

  3. Phototropic liquid crystals comprising one component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, Anna; Zawada, Joanna; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Galewski, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    Phototropic liquid crystals (PtLC), in which the phase transition can be controlled by the light, are a new class of liquid crystal materials possessing number of potential applications, especially in photonic devices. So far a significant majority of PtLC materials has been realized by the doping a classical liquid crystal with a photochromic dye. Here we report PtLCs comprising a single compound. Liquid-crystalline and photochromic properties have been accomplished in alkylo-alkoxy derivatives of azobenzene. Such compounds show a rich polymorphism which can be controlled by the light. The phenomenon of the photochemical phase transition has been investigated by means of holographic grating recording.

  4. Plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine as an early response marker in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plattel, Wouter J.; van den Berg, Anke; Visser, Lydia; van der Graaf, Anne-Marijn; Pruim, Jan; Vos, Hans; Hepkema, Bouke; Diepstra, Arjan; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.

    BACKGROUND: Plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine is a potential biomarker for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. To define its value as a marker to monitor treatment response, we correlated serial plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine levels with clinical response in newly

  5. Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves in Classical and Degenerate Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.; Shah, H.A.; Qureshi, M.N.S.; Salimullah, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion relation for general dust low frequency electrostatic surface waves propagating on an interface between a magnetized dusty plasma region and a vacuum is derived by using specular reflection boundary conditions both in classical and quantum regimes. The frequency limit ω ≪ ω ci ≪ ω ce is considered and the dispersion relation for the Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves (DLHSW's) is derived for both classical and quantum plasma half-space and analyzed numerically. It is shown that the wave behavior changes as the quantum nature of the problem is considered. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  6. Lie-transformed action principle for classical plasma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.

    1984-06-01

    The Lie transform for a single particle in a wave is embedded in a Lagrangian action principle for self-consistent plasma dynamics. Variation of the action then yields the Vlasov equation for the oscillation-center distribution, the ray equations and amplitude transport for the wave, and the Poisson equation for the quasistatic field

  7. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    just downstream from the glomerular ultrafiltration apparatus? Again, the system represents a far-from-insignificant aspect of our physiology; 20 to. 25% of the output of the heart passes through this one pair of organs. About 20% of the plasma volume squeezes out of the blood in the process, in absolute terms around 60ml ...

  8. Beta-endorphin and ACTH in plasma during attacks of common and classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F W; Jensen, K; Blegvad, N

    1985-01-01

    Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH were measured during and outside migraine attacks in 17 patients with common migraine and 11 patients with classic migraine. Specific radioimmunoassays for beta-endorphin and ACTH were used. The beta-endorphin assay did not cross-react with beta......-lipotropin. In common migraine, median plasma beta-endorphin was 3.3 pmol/l (95% confidence limits: 2.5-4.0 pmol/l) during attacks and 2.9 (2.4-3.2) pmol/l in the headache-free period. In classic migraine, plasma beta-endorphin was 3.2 (1.4-4.3) pmol/l during attacks and 2.4 (1.1-3.6) pmol/l outside attacks. ACTH...... plasma levels were 15 (10.5-20) pmol/l during and 15.7 (13.4-17) pmol/l outside attacks in common migraine. In classic migraine, plasma ACTH was 16 (7-36) pmol/l and 12.3 (8-28) pmol/l respectively. No significant differences were found between attacks and headache-free periods in common or classic...

  9. Beta-endorphin and ACTH in plasma during attacks of common and classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F W; Jensen, K; Blegvad, N

    1985-01-01

    -lipotropin. In common migraine, median plasma beta-endorphin was 3.3 pmol/l (95% confidence limits: 2.5-4.0 pmol/l) during attacks and 2.9 (2.4-3.2) pmol/l in the headache-free period. In classic migraine, plasma beta-endorphin was 3.2 (1.4-4.3) pmol/l during attacks and 2.4 (1.1-3.6) pmol/l outside attacks. ACTH...... plasma levels were 15 (10.5-20) pmol/l during and 15.7 (13.4-17) pmol/l outside attacks in common migraine. In classic migraine, plasma ACTH was 16 (7-36) pmol/l and 12.3 (8-28) pmol/l respectively. No significant differences were found between attacks and headache-free periods in common or classic......Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH were measured during and outside migraine attacks in 17 patients with common migraine and 11 patients with classic migraine. Specific radioimmunoassays for beta-endorphin and ACTH were used. The beta-endorphin assay did not cross-react with beta...

  10. Beta-endorphin and ACTH in plasma during attacks of common and classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F W; Jensen, K; Blegvad, N

    1985-01-01

    Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH were measured during and outside migraine attacks in 17 patients with common migraine and 11 patients with classic migraine. Specific radioimmunoassays for beta-endorphin and ACTH were used. The beta-endorphin assay did not cross-react with beta......-lipotropin. In common migraine, median plasma beta-endorphin was 3.3 pmol/l (95% confidence limits: 2.5-4.0 pmol/l) during attacks and 2.9 (2.4-3.2) pmol/l in the headache-free period. In classic migraine, plasma beta-endorphin was 3.2 (1.4-4.3) pmol/l during attacks and 2.4 (1.1-3.6) pmol/l outside attacks. ACTH...

  11. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus "Classic" Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor

    2017-04-28

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.

  12. Beta-endorphin and ACTH in plasma during attacks of common and classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F W; Jensen, K; Blegvad, N

    1985-01-01

    Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH were measured during and outside migraine attacks in 17 patients with common migraine and 11 patients with classic migraine. Specific radioimmunoassays for beta-endorphin and ACTH were used. The beta-endorphin assay did not cross-react with beta-lipotropin...... migraine. Accordingly, we could not add evidence to the theory of a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system in migraine....

  13. Modeling quantum processes in classical molecular dynamics simulations of dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau-Riege, S. P.; Weisheit, J.; Castor, J. I.; London, R. A.; Scott, H.; Richards, D. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for treating quantum processes in a classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The computational approach, called ‘Small Ball’ (SB), was originally introduced to model emission and absorption of free-free radiation. Here, we extend this approach to handle ionization/recombination reactions as well as nuclear fusion events. This method exploits the short-range nature of screened-particle interactions in a dense plasma to restrict consideration of quantum processes to a small region about a given ion, and carefully accounts for the effects of the plasma environment on two-particle interaction rates within that region. The use of a reduced set of atomic rates, corresponding to the bottleneck approximation, simplifies their implementation within an MD code. We validate the extended MD code against a collisional-radiative code for model systems under two scenarios: (i) solid-density carbon at conditions encountered in recent experiments, and (ii) high-density Xe-doped hydrogen relevant for laser fusion. We find good agreement for the time-dependent ionization evolution for both systems. We also simulate fast protons stopping in warm, dense carbon plasmas. Here, reasonable agreement with recent experimental data requires contributions from both bound electrons, as modeled by SB in the extended MD code, and free electrons; for the latter, use of the classical random phase approximation (RPA) formula instead of the MD prediction yields better agreement with the experiment, a result that can be attributed to the use of modified Coulomb potentials in MD simulations of electron-ion plasmas. Finally, we confirm that the fusion reaction rate obtained from an MD simulation agrees with analytical expressions for the reaction rate in a weakly screened plasma.

  14. Classical Methods of Statistics With Applications in Fusion-Oriented Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kardaun, Otto J W F

    2005-01-01

    Classical Methods of Statistics is a blend of theory and practical statistical methods written for graduate students and researchers interested in applications to plasma physics and its experimental aspects. It can also fruitfully be used by students majoring in probability theory and statistics. In the first part, the mathematical framework and some of the history of the subject are described. Many exercises help readers to understand the underlying concepts. In the second part, two case studies are presented exemplifying discriminant analysis and multivariate profile analysis. The introductions of these case studies outline contextual magnetic plasma fusion research. In the third part, an overview of statistical software is given and, in particular, SAS and S-PLUS are discussed. In the last chapter, several datasets with guided exercises, predominantly from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, are included and their physical background is concisely described. The book concludes with a list of essential keyword transl...

  15. A multiplex panel of plasma markers of immunity and inflammation in classical kaposi sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Peter V; Kemp, Troy J; Rabkin, Charles S; Shiels, Meredith S; Polizzotto, Mark N; Lauria, Carmela; Vitale, Francesco; Pinto, Ligia A; Goedert, James J

    2015-01-15

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk is affected by perturbed immunity. Herein, we compared plasma from 15 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative classic KS cases to plasma from 29 matched controls, using a multiplex panel of immunity markers. Of 70 markers, CXCL10 (IP-10), sIL-1RII, sIL-2RA, and CCL3 (MIP-1A) were strongly and significantly associated with KS, after adjustment for age and smoking status. These and previous observations are consistent with a tumor-promoting role for these cytokines, particularly CXCL10, but the small sample size and case-control design preclude firm conclusions on KS risk or pathogenesis. Larger, well-designed prospective studies are needed to better assess the association of these markers with KS. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Predicting phase equilibria in one-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M. R.; Esina, Z. N.

    2015-07-01

    It is shown that Simon equation coefficients for n-alkanes and n-alcohols can be modeled using critical and triple point parameters. Predictions of the phase liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and liquid-solid equilibria in one-component systems are based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, Van der Waals and Simon equations, and the principle of thermodynamic similarity.

  17. Collective classical and quantum fields in plasmas, superconductors, superfluid $^{3}$He, and liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen Kleinert

    2018-01-01

    This is an introductory book dealing with collective phenomena in many-body systems. A gas of bosons or fermions can show oscillations of various types of density. These are described by different combinations of field variables. Especially delicate is the competition of these variables. In superfluid 3He, for example, the atoms can be attracted to each other by molecular forces, whereas they are repelled from each other at short distance due to a hardcore repulsion. The attraction gives rise to Cooper pairs, and the repulsion is overcome by paramagnon oscillations. The combination is what finally led to the discovery of superfluidity in 3He. In general, the competition between various channels can most efficiently be studied by means of a classical version of the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. A gas of electrons is controlled by the interplay of plasma oscillations and pair formation. In a system of rod- or disc-like molecules, liquid crystals are observed with directional orientations that behave in ...

  18. Structure factor of liquid alkali metals using a classical-plasma reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1983-11-01

    The paper presents calculations of the liquid structure factor of the alkali metals near freezing, starting from the classical plasma of bare ions as reference liquid. The indirect ion-ion interaction arising from electronic screening is treated by an optimized random phase approximation (ORPA), imposing physical requirements as in the original ORPA scheme developed by Weeks, Chandler and Andersen for liquids with strongly repulsive core potentials. A comparison of the results with computer simulation data for a model of liquid rubidium shows that the present approach overcomes the well-known difficulties met in applying to these metals the standard ORPA based on a reference liquid of neutral hard spheres. The optimization scheme is also shown to be equivalent to a reduction of the range of the indirect interaction in momentum space, as proposed empirically in earlier work. Comparison with experiment for the other alkalis shows that a good overall representation of the data can be obtained for sodium, potassium and cesium, but not for lithium, when one uses a very simple form of the electron-ion potential adjusted to the liquid compressibility. The small-angle scattering region is finally examined more carefully in the light of recent data of Waseda, with a view to possible refinements of the pseudopotential model. (author)

  19. Corrections to classical kinetic and transport theory for a two-temparature, fully ionized plasma in electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeien, A.H.

    1977-06-01

    Sets of lower order and higher order kinetic and macroscopic equations are developed for a plasma where collisions are important but electrons and ions are allowed to have different temperatures when transports, due to gradients and fields, set in. Solving the lower order kinetic equations and taking appropriate velocity moments we show that usual classical transports emerge. From the higher order kinetic equations special notice is taken of some new correction terms to the classical transports. These corrections are linear in gradients and fields, some of which are found in a two-temperature state only. (Auth.)

  20. Surges in proteinuria are associated with plasma GL-3 elevations in a young patient with classic Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Takahiro; Ito, Takane; Odaka, Jun; Saito, Takashi; Aoyagi, Jun; Betsui, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked glycosphingolipidosis caused by deficient synthesis of the enzyme α-galactosidase A, which results in accumulations of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in systemic tissues. Nephropathy is a dominant feature of Fabry disease. It still remains unclear how the nephropathy progresses. Recombinant agalsidase replacement therapy is currently the only approved, specific therapy for Fabry disease. The optimal dose of replacement enzyme also still remains unclear. The worldwide shortage of agalsidase-β in 2009 forced dose reduction of administration. It showed that the proteinuria emerged like surges, followed by temporary plasma GL-3 elevations in the early stages of classic Fabry disease. Additionally, it also showed that 1 mg/kg of agalsidase-β every other week could clear the GL-3 accumulations from podocytes and was required to maintain negative proteinuria and normal plasma GL-3 levels. This observation of a young patient with classic Fabry disease about 5 years reveals that the long-term, low-dose agalsidase-β caused proteinuria surges, but not persistent proteinuria, followed by temporary plasma GL-3 elevations, and agalsidase-β at 1 mg/kg every other week could clear accumulated GL-3 from podocytes and was required to maintain normal urinalysis and plasma GL-3 levels.

  1. Investigating the foil-generated deuteron beam interaction with a DT target in degenerate and classical plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2017-06-01

    Deuteron fast ignition of a conically guided pre-compressed DT fuel is investigated. For this purpose, the acceleration of the deuterated thin foil by the intense laser beam is evaluated. The acceleration values and the number of foil-generated deuterons are calculated in terms of the laser pulse duration. Using the created deuterons as the fast ignitors, we investigate the fast ignition scheme by comparing fully degenerate, partial degenerate and classical types of DT plasma. The total energy gain of deuterons "beam fusion" is calculated to show the efficiency of beam reactions in increasing fusion rate. Besides, the stopping time and stopping range of incident deuterons are evaluated. Our numerical results indicate that degeneracy increases the beam-target collisions. Thus, it prepares the ignition situation sooner than the classical plasma. Moreover, the number of generated deuterons and their acceleration depend on the foil thickness and laser parameters. We show that when a 4ps laser with intensity of 10^{19} W/cm^2 focused onto a 20μm foil, 35× 10^{15} deuterons are generated. Moreover, under our analysis, in order to have a practicable fast ignition, 18% of the laser energy is necessary to convert into a deuteron driver.

  2. Is the classical two-term approximation of electron kinetic theory satisfactory for swarms and plasmas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R D; Robson, R E; Schmidt, B; Morrison, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The 'two-term' approximation (representation of the electron distribution by the first two terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics in velocity space) continues to occupy a central role in the low-temperature plasma physics literature, in spite of the mass of evidence illustrating its inadequacy in the swarm (free diffusion) limit for many molecular gases. Part of the problem lies in the failure of many authors to specify quantitatively what they mean when they say that the two-term approximation is 'acceptable'. Thus for example, an error of 10% in transport coefficients may well be acceptable in many plasma applications, but for analysis of highly accurate swarm experiments to compare with ab initio and beam-derived cross-sections, 0.1% or less is required, making 'multi-term' analysis mandatory. While reconciliation of the swarm and plasma literature along the lines of two different accuracy regimes may thus be possible, we dispute claims that the two-term approximation is generally satisfactory for inversion of swarm experiment data to obtain electron impact cross-sections. The unsatisfactory nature of other assumptions implicit in much of the modern plasma kinetic theory literature is also discussed

  3. Complex plasmas and colloidal dispersions particle-resolved studies of classical liquids and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, Alexei; Morfill, Gregor; Royall, C. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Complex plasmas and colloidal dispersions represent different states of soft matter. They are complementary in many ways, with the most important being that complex plasmas are virtually undamped at the particle timescales, whereas colloidal dispersions are overdamped and therefore can be brought into equilibrium in a very controlled manner. Otherwise, both fields have similar advantages: fully resolved 3D particle trajectories can easily be visualized, the pair interactions are tunable, and particles can be manipulated individually or collectively. These unique properties allow us to investigate generic processes occurring in liquids or solids at the most fundamental individual particle level. The principal research topics to be addressed in the book include: particle dynamics in liquids, with the emphasis on mesoscopic processes in the supercooled (glassy) state, e.g. dynamical heterogeneity, phase transitions in solids, with particular attention to the evolutionary paths of crystal structure development an...

  4. The effect of selected classical music and spontaneous imagery on plasma beta-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, C H; Tims, F C; Kumar, A M; Kumar, M

    1997-02-01

    This study explored the effect of music and imagery on plasma beta-endorphin in 78 undergraduates. Subjects screened for relevant psychological and health criteria were assigned to music imaging, silent imaging, music listening, and control conditions. Subjects donated 15 ml of blood prior to and following the 2-hr intervention period. There were no group differences in potential confounding variables. Split-plot factorial analysis controlling for individual differences in pretest level of beta-endorphin revealed that those in the music imaging group experienced a significant pre-post decline in beta-endorphin, while no other group demonstrated any significant pre-post difference. These data suggest that music imaging may lower peripheral beta-endorphin levels in healthy subjects. Further exploration of the effects of music and imagery interventions on physiology and health may be warranted.

  5. A study of water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji

    2000-01-01

    Water hammer phenomena caused by a rapid valve closure, that is, shock phenomena in two-phase flows, are an important problem for the safety assessment of a hypothetical LOCA. This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component tow-phase bubbly flow. In order to clarify the characteristics of water hammer phenomena, experiments for a one-component two-phase flow of Freon R-113 were conducted and a numerical simulation of pressure transients was developed. An overall picture of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase flow is presented an discussed. (author)

  6. Classical local SU(3 gauge invariance in Weyl 2-spinor language and quark–gluon plasma equations of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago

    Full Text Available In a new classical Weyl 2-spinor approach to non abelian gauge theories, starting with the U(1 gauge group in a previous work, we study now the SU(3 case corresponding to quarks (antiquarks interacting with color fields. The principal difference with the conventional approach is that particle-field interactions are not described by means of potentials but by the field strength magnitudes. Some analytical expressions showing similarities with electrodynamics are obtained. Classical equations that describe the behavior of quarks under gluon fields might be in principle applied to the quark–gluon plasma phase existing during the first instants of the Universe.

  7. Ultra-intense laser pulse propagation in plasmas: from classic hole-boring to incomplete hole-boring with relativistic transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S M; Murakami, M; Mulser, P; Sheng, Z M

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic laser pulse propagation into homogeneous plasmas has been investigated as a function of plasma density. At first, the propagation features are compared systematically between relativistic transparency (RT) and hole-boring (HB). Paramountly, a considerably broad intermediate regime, namely the incomplete HB regime, has been found between the RT regime and the HB regime for an extremely intense circularly polarized (CP) pulse. In this regime HB proceeds in collaboration with RT, resulting in a much faster propagation speed and a higher cut-off energy of fast ions than in the classic HB regime. Similarly to the classic HB regime, formulae are presented to model the laser propagation and the ion acceleration according to the modified momentum flux balance in this incomplete HB regime. The simulations give the density boundary between this incomplete HB regime and the classic HB regime for CP pulses, which is crucial for estimating the maximum mean ion energy and the maximum conversion efficiency that can be achieved by the classic HB acceleration at a given laser intensity. For linear polarization (LP) the propagation mechanism apparently undergoes a transition in time between these two regimes. A detailed comparison between LP and circular polarization is made for these phenomena. (paper)

  8. On the glass transition of the one-component metallic melts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 475, October (2017), s. 362-367 ISSN 0022-0248 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification * criterion of the phase transition scenario * one-component metal melts Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022024817304281/1-s2.0-S0022024817304281-main.pdf?_tid=a12ba97e-873b-11e7-b6be-00000aacb35e&acdnat=1503407763_5cdbcdb15d504baf5f8dfb94886b3100

  9. Light-induced phenomena in one-component gas: The transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermyaninov, I. V.; Chernyak, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the theory of transport processes in a one-component gas located in the capillary under the action of resonant laser radiation and the temperature and pressure gradients. The expressions for the kinetic coefficients determining heat and mass transport in the gas are obtained on the basis of the modified Boltzmann equations for the excited and unexcited particles. The Onsager reciprocal relations for cross kinetic coefficients are proven for all Knudsen numbers and for any law interaction of gas particles with each other and boundary surface. Light-induced phenomena associated with the possible non-equilibrium stationary states of system are analyzed.

  10. Thermal singularity and droplet motion in one-component fluids on solid substrates with thermal gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2012-06-26

    Using a continuum model capable of describing the one-component liquid-gas hydrodynamics down to the contact line scale, we carry out numerical simulation and physical analysis for the droplet motion driven by thermal singularity. For liquid droplets in one-component fluids on heated or cooled substrates, the liquid-gas interface is nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line and the Marangoni effect due to temperature gradient is suppressed. Through evaporation or condensation in the vicinity of the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. This effect on the contact angle can be used to move the droplets on substrates with thermal gradients. Our numerical results for this kind of droplet motion are explained by a simple fluid dynamical model at the droplet length scale. Since the mechanism for droplet motion is based on the change of contact angle, a separation of length scales is exhibited through a comparison between the droplet motion induced by a wettability gradient and that by a thermal gradient. It is shown that the flow field at the droplet length scale is independent of the statics or dynamics at the contact line scale.

  11. Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2014-06-04

    We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.

  12. EVAPORATIVE DROPLETS IN ONE-COMPONENT FLUIDS DRIVEN BY THERMAL GRADIENTS ON SOLID SUBSTRATES

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2013-03-20

    A continuum hydrodynamic model is presented for one-component liquid-gas flows on nonisothermal solid substrates. Numerical simulations are carried out for evaporative droplets moving on substrates with thermal gradients. For droplets in one-component fluids on heated/cooled substrates, the free liquid-gas interfaces are nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line while the Marangoni effect due to interfacial temperature variation is suppressed. Through evaporation/condensation near the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. Due to this effect, droplets will move toward the cold end on substrates with thermal gradients. The droplet migration velocity is found to be proportional to the change of substrate temperature across the droplet. It follows that for two droplets of different sizes on a substrate with temperature gradient, the larger droplet moves faster and will catch up with the smaller droplet ahead. As soon as they touch, they coalesce rapidly into an even larger droplet that will move even faster. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  13. Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2014-06-01

    We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.

  14. Numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation of fully ionized magnetized plasmas and classical transport coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendib, A.; Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; El Lemdani, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new numerical approach to solve the linear integrodifferential Fokker-Planck equation (FPE), which describes a collisional and magnetized plasma, is presented. For this purpose, the FPE is reduced to a simple set of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved, with the use of standard numerical methods. The transport coefficients induced by the first anisotropic distribution function computed by Braginskii [Reviews of Plasma Physics (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1] and improved by Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], have been recovered. The viscosity coefficients are computed for arbitrary atomic numbers and arbitrary magnetic field strength and are compared to the results reported in the literature

  15. Hairy nanoparticle assemblies as one-component functional polymer nanocomposites: opportunities and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J.

    2013-03-01

    Over the past three decades, the combination of inorganic-nanoparticles and organic-polymers has led to a wide variety of advanced materials, including polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Recently, synthetic innovations for attaching polymers to nanoparticles to create hairy nanoparticles (HNPs) has expanded opportunities in this field. In addition to nanoparticle compatibilization for traditional particle-matrix blending, neat-HNPs afford one-component hybrids, both in composition and properties, which avoids issues of mixing that plague traditional PNCs. Continuous improvements in purity, scalability, and theoretical foundations of structure-performance relationships are critical to achieving design control of neat-HNPs necessary for future applications, ranging from optical, energy, and sensor devices to lubricants, green-bodies, and structures. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  16. One-component revision in total hip arthroplasty: the fate of the retained component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Ioannis P; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi I; Vlamis, John A; Georgiades, George P; Hartofilakidis, George C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of the unrevised part in one-component total hip arthroplasty revision (index operation). Forty-four patients (46 hips) with a mean age of 58years at the time of the index operation were included. At the final follow-up, 4 of the 19 (21%) unrevised acetabular components and 6 of the 27 (22%) unrevised femoral components were subsequently revised at a mean time of 14 and 11years from the index operation, and 22 and 24years from the primary operation, respectively. We concluded that revision of a stable component is not justifiable on the basis of its long duration in use or non-ideal position or possible loosening on radiographs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective one-component description of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Zachary; Clark, Charles W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate dynamics in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in the context of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations and derive results for the evolution of the total density fluctuations. Using these results, we show how, in many cases of interest, the dynamics can be accurately described with an effective one-component Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one of the components, with the trap and interaction coefficients determined by the relative differences in the scattering lengths. We discuss the model in various regimes, where it predicts breathing excitations, and the formation of vector solitons. An effective nonlinear evolution is predicted for some cases of current experimental interest. We then apply the model to construct quasistationary states of two-component condensates

  18. Mechanistic studies of thioxanthone–carbazole as a one-component type II photoinitiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, Nurcan; Karaca Balta, Demet; Ocal, Nuket; Arsu, Nergis, E-mail: nergisarsu@gmail.com

    2014-02-15

    A mechanistic study concerning photoinitiated free radical polymerization using Thioxanthone–Carbazole (TX–Cz) as a one-component Type II photoinitiator was performed. TX–Cz presented visible initiator characteristics with absorptions at 434 and 414 nm where the molar absorption coefficients were 2014 and 1754 L mol{sup −1} cm{sup −1}, respectively. Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy, as well as laser flash photolysis was employed to study the photophysical properties of TX–Cz. In addition, photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) showed that TX–Cz is efficient photoinitiator. To explain the initiation mechanism of TX–Cz, fluorescence and phosphorescence emission spectra of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were also taken to see whether the initiator covalently bonded to the polymer. The postulated mechanism is based on inter- molecular reaction of the triplet, {sup 3}(TX–Cz){sup ⁎} with the carbazole moiety at ground state, TX–Cz. The photoinitiation efficiency of TX–Cz during gelation of multifunctional acrylates was also investigated by Photo-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (Photo-DSC) technique and high polymerization rates were obtained. -- Highlights: • Thioxanthone–Carbazole was used as visible light photoinitiator for radical polymerization of meth(acrylates). • The detailed photophysical properties of TX–Cz was reported. • Fluorescence quantum yield, phosphorescence lifetime , triplet energy and triplet lifetime were determined. • Photo-DSC was used to follow photopolymerizatin kinetics of acrylates.

  19. Phosphoinositide-signaling is one component of a robust plant defense response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imara Yasmin Perera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide pathway and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3 have been implicated in plant responses to many abiotic stresses; however, their role in response to biotic stress is not well characterized. In the current study, we show that both basal defense and systemic acquired resistance responses are affected in transgenic plants constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase which have greatly reduced InsP3 levels. Flagellin induced Ca2+-release as well as the expressions of some flg22 responsive genes were attenuated in the InsP 5-ptase plants. Furthermore, the InsP 5-ptase plants were more susceptible to virulent and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (PstDC3000. The InsP 5-ptase plants had lower basal salicylic acid (SA levels and the induction of SAR in systemic leaves was reduced and delayed. Reciprocal exudate experiments showed that although the InsP 5-ptase plants produced equally effective molecules that could trigger PR-1 gene expression in wild type plants, exudates collected from either wild type or InsP 5-ptase plants triggered less PR-1 gene expression in InsP 5-ptase plants. Additionally, expression profiles indicated that several defense genes including PR-1, PR-2, PR-5 and AIG1 were basally down regulated in the InsP 5-ptase plants compared with wild type. Upon pathogen attack, expression of these genes was either not induced or showed delayed induction in systemic leaves. Our study shows that phosphoinositide signaling is one component of the plant defense network and is involved in both basal and systemic responses. The dampening of InsP3-mediated signaling affects Ca2+ release, modulates defense gene expression and compromises plant defense responses.

  20. Cascades, ``Blobby'' Turbulence, and Target Pattern Formation in Elastic Systems: A New Take on Classic Themes in Plasma Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Concerns central to understanding turbulence and transport include: 1) Dynamics of dual cascades in EM turbulence; 2) Understanding `negative viscosity phenomena' in drift-ZF systems; 3) The physics of blobby turbulence (re: SOL). Here, we present a study of a simple model - that of Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CHNS) Turbulence - which sheds important new light on these issues. The CHNS equations describe the motion of binary fluid undergoing a second order phase transition and separation called spinodal decomposition. The CHNS system and 2D MHD are analogous, as they both contain a vorticity equation and a ``diffusion'' equation. The CHNS system differs from 2D MHD by the appearance of negative diffusivity, and a nonlinear dissipative flux. An analogue of the Alfven wave exists in the 2D CHNS system. DNS shows that mean square concentration spectrum Hkψ scales as k - 7 / 3 in the elastic range. This suggests an inverse cascade of Hψ . However, the kinetic energy spectrum EkK scales as k-3 , as in the direct enstrophy cascade range for a 2D fluid (not MHD!). The resolution is that the feedback of capillarity acts only at blob interfaces. Thus, as blob merger progresses, the packing fraction of interfaces decreases, thus explaining the weakened surface tension feedback and the outcome for EkK. We also examine the evolution of scalar concentration in a single eddy in the Cahn-Hilliard system. This extends the classic problem of flux expulsion in 2D MHD. The simulation results show that a target pattern is formed. Target pattern is a meta stable state, since the band merger process continues on a time scale exponentially long relative to the eddy turnover time. Band merger resembles step merger in drift-ZF staircases. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  1. Classical antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)

  2. Regularity criteria for the Navier–Stokes equations based on one component of velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, Z.; Caggio, M.; Skalák, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2017), s. 379-396 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Grant - others:Západočeská univerzita(CZ) SGS-2016-003; National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 11301394 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Navier–Stokes equations * regularity of solutions * regularity criteria * Anisotropic Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016

  3. Regularity criteria for the Navier–Stokes equations based on one component of velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, Z.; Caggio, M.; Skalák, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2017), s. 379-396 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Grant - others:Západočeská univerzita(CZ) SGS-2016-003; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 11301394 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Navier–Stokes equations * regularity of solutions * regularity criteria * Anisotropic Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016

  4. Droplet motion in one-component fluids on solid substrates with wettability gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2012-05-11

    Droplet motion on solid substrates has been widely studied not only because of its importance in fundamental research but also because of its promising potentials in droplet-based devices developed for various applications in chemistry, biology, and industry. In this paper, we investigate the motion of an evaporating droplet in one-component fluids on a solid substrate with a wettability gradient. As is well known, there are two major difficulties in the continuum description of fluid flows and heat fluxes near the contact line of droplets on solid substrates, namely, the hydrodynamic (stress) singularity and thermal singularity. To model the droplet motion, we use the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)] for the hydrodynamic equations in the bulk region, supplemented with the boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. In this continuum hydrodynamic model, various physical processes involved in the droplet motion can be taken into account simultaneously, e.g., phase transitions (evaporation or condensation), capillary flows, fluid velocity slip, and substrate cooling or heating. Due to the use of the phase field method (diffuse interface method), the hydrodynamic and thermal singularities are resolved automatically. Furthermore, in the dynamic van der Waals theory, the evaporation or condensation rate at the liquid-gas interface is an outcome of the calculation rather than a prerequisite as in most of the other models proposed for evaporating droplets. Numerical results show that the droplet migrates in the direction of increasing wettability on the solid substrates. The migration velocity of the droplet is found to be proportional to the wettability gradients as predicted by Brochard [Langmuir 5, 432 (1989)]. The proportionality coefficient is found to be linearly dependent on the ratio of slip length to initial droplet radius. These results indicate that the steady migration of the droplets results from the balance between the

  5. Experimental study of the effect of 2/1 classical tearing mode on (intermediate, small)-scale microturbulence in the core of an EAST L mode plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P. J.; Li, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Zhang, X. D.; Wu, G. J.; Lyu, B.; Shi, T. H.; Xu, L. Q.; Wang, F. D.; Li, Q.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Li, J. G.; the EAST team

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report an experimental study of the effect of a m/n = ‑2/‑1 (m, n being poloidal and toroidal mode number, separately) classical tearing mode on (intermediate, small)-scale microturbulence (see the definition in section 1) in the core of an EAST L mode plasma discharge. The microturbulence at different scales k ⊥ = 10, 18 and 26 cm‑1 (i.e., {k}\\perp {ρ }i∼ 2, 3.6 and 5.2, respectively. Here, {ρ }i is the ion gyroradius and k ⊥ is the perpendicular wavenumber) were measured simultaneously by the EAST multi-channel tangential CO2 laser collective scattering diagnostics. Experimental results confirm that the decrease of microturbulent Doppler shift ({f}{{Doppler}}={k}t{v}t/2π ), inversely correlated to the increase of microturbulent mean frequency (defined in equation (1)), is due to the 2/1 tearing mode. Temporal evolution of frequency-integrated spectral power S tot of microturbulence, found to be correlated with the width of 2/1 magnetic island, suggests the modulation effect on microturbulence by the tearing mode beyond Doppler shift effect. Modulation effects on microturbulence by the tearing mode are further demonstrated by the correlation between microturbulent envelope and magnetic fluctuations.

  6. Classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to classical mechanics at a level intermediate between the typical undergraduate and advanced graduate level. This text describes the background and tools for use in the fields of modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics, particle physics, and relativity. Students who have had basic undergraduate classical mechanics or who have a good understanding of the mathematical methods of physics will benefit from this book.

  7. Human toxicology of chemical mixtures toxic consequences beyond the impact of one-component product and environmental exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeliger, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble)/hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author's focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body's methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discussed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and t...

  8. Classical and Ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Other ICF-Relevant Plasma Flows Diagnosed With Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aglitskiy, Y; Karasik, M; Velikovich, A. L; Metzler, N; Zalesak, S; Schmitt, A. J; Gardner, J. H; Serlin, V; Weaver, J; Obenschain, S. P

    2007-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy density physics (HEDP), the most important manifestations of the hydrodynamic instabilities and other mixing processes involve lateral motion of the accelerated plasmas...

  9. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author) [pt

  10. Orbital free molecular dynamics; Approche sans orbitale des plasmas denses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, F

    2007-08-15

    The microscopic properties of hot and dense plasmas stay a field essentially studied thanks to classical theories like the One Component Plasma, models which rely on free parameters, particularly ionization. In order to investigate these systems, we have used, in this PhD work, a semi-classical model, without free parameters, that is based on coupling consistently classical molecular dynamics for the nuclei and orbital free density functional theory for the electrons. The electronic fluid is represented by a free energy entirely determined by the local density. This approximation was validated by a comparison with an ab initio technique, quantum molecular dynamics. This one is identical to the previous except for the description of the free energy that depends on a quantum-independent-particle model. Orbital free molecular dynamics was then used to compute equation of state of boron and iron plasmas in the hot and dense regime. Furthermore, comparisons with classical theories were performed on structural and dynamical properties. Finally, equation of state and transport coefficients mixing laws were studied by direct simulation of a plasma composed of deuterium and copper. (author)

  11. Collaborative project: research on strongly coupled plasmas. Final technical report for period July 15, 1998--July 14, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, Kenneth I.

    2002-09-16

    The main research accomplishments/findings of the project were the following: (1) Publication of an in-depth review article in Physics of Plasmas on the quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) in strongly coupled plasma physics and its application to a variety of Coulomb systems: the model one-component plasma in three and two dimensions, binary ionic mixtures, charged particle bilayers, and laboratory dusty plasmas. (2) In the strongly coupled Coulomb liquid phase, the physical basis of the QLCA, namely, the caging of particles trapped in slowly fluctuating local potential minima, is supported by molecular dynamics simulation of the classical three-dimensional one-component plasma. (3) The QLCA theory, when applied to the analysis of the collective modes in strongly coupled charged particle bilayers, predicts the existence of a remarkable long-wavelength energy gap in the out-of-phase excitation spectrum. More recent theoretical calculations based on the three principal frequency-moment sum rules reveal that the gap persists for arbitrary coupling strengths and over the entire classical to quantum domain all the way down to zero temperature. The existence of the energy gap has now been confirmed in a molecular dynamics simulation of the charged particle bilayer. (4) New compressibility and third-frequency-moment sum rules for multilayer plasmas were formulated and applied to the analysis of the dynamical structure function of charged particle bilayers and superlattices. (5) An equivalent of the Debye-Huckel weak coupling equilibrium theory for classical charged particle bilayer and superlattice plasmas was formulated. (6) The quadratic fluctuation-dissipation theorem (QFDT) for layered classical plasmas was formulated. (7) The QFDT was applied to a powerful kinetic theory-based description of the density-density response function and long-wavelength plasma mode behavior in strongly coupled two-dimensional Coulomb fluids in the weakly degenerate quantum domain.

  12. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  13. Classical and ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and other ICF-relevant plasma flows diagnosed with monochromatic x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y; Metzler, N; Karasik, M; Velikovich, A L; Zalesak, S T; Schmitt, A J; Serlin, V; Weaver, J; Obenschain, S P; Gardner, J H

    2008-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy density physics (HEDP), the most important manifestations of the hydrodynamic instabilities and other mixing processes involve lateral motion of the accelerated plasmas. In order to understand the experimental observations and to advance the numerical simulation codes to the point of predictive capability, it is critically important to accurately diagnose the motion of the dense plasma mass. The most advanced diagnostic technique recently developed for this purpose is the monochromatic x-ray imaging that combines large field of view with high contrast, high spatial resolution and large throughput, ensuring high temporal resolution at large magnification. Its application made it possible for the experimentalists to observe for the first time important hydrodynamic effects that trigger compressible turbulent mixing in laser targets, such as ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, feedout, interaction of an RM-unstable interface with shock and rarefaction waves. It also helped to substantially improve the accuracy of diagnosing many other important plasma flows, ranging from laser-produced jets to electromagnetically driven wires in a Z-pinch, and to test various methods suggested for mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We will review the results obtained with the aid of this technique in ICF-HEDP studies at the Naval Research Laboratory and the prospects of its future applications.

  14. Stabilization of classic and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the mechanism of quantum whirligig can be successfully used for stabilization of classical systems. In particular, the conditions for stabilization of charged particles and radiation fluxes in plasma are found.

  15. Hydrodynamic boundary conditions for one-component liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal solid substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, liquid-gas flows related to droplets, bubbles, and thin films on solid surfaces with thermal and wettability gradients have attracted widespread attention because of the many physical processes involved and their promising potential applications in biology, chemistry, and industry. Various new physical effects have been discovered at fluid-solid interfaces by experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, e.g., fluid velocity slip, temperature slip (Kapitza resistance), mechanical-thermal cross coupling, etc. There have been various models and theories proposed to explain these experimental and numerical observations. However, to the best of our knowledge,a continuum hydrodynamic model capable of predicting the temperature and velocity profiles of liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal, heterogeneous solid substrates is still absent. The purpose of this work is to construct a continuum model for simulating the liquid-gas flows on solid surfaces that are flat and rigid, and may involve wettability gradients and thermal gradients. This model is able to describe fluid velocity slip, temperature slip, and mechanical-thermal coupling that may occur at fluid-solid interfaces. For this purpose, we first employ the diffuse interface modeling to formulate the hydrodynamic equations for one-component liquid-gas flows in the bulk region. This reproduces the dynamic van der Waals theory of Onuki [Phys. Rev. Lett., 94: 054501, 2005]. We then extendWaldmann\\'s method [Z. Naturforsch. A, 22: 1269-1280, 1967] to formulate the boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface that match the hydrodynamic equations in the bulk. The effects of the solid surface curvature are also briefly discussed in the appendix. The guiding principles of our model derivation are the conservation laws and the positive definiteness of entropy production together with the Onsager reciprocal relation. The derived model is self-consistent in the sense that the boundary conditions are

  16. Characterization of the liquid Li-solid Mo (1 1 0) interface from classical molecular dynamics for plasma-facing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Joseph R.; Chen, Mohan; Fürstenberg, Sven; Stillinger, Frank H.; Carter, Emily A.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2017-11-01

    An understanding of the wetting properties and a characterization of the interface between liquid lithium (Li) and solid molybdenum (Mo) are relevant to assessing the efficacy of Li as a plasma-facing component in fusion reactors. In this work, a new second-nearest neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN MEAM) force field is parameterized to describe the interactions between Li and Mo. The new force field reproduces several benchmark properties obtained from first-principles quantum mechanics simulations, including binding curves for Li at three different adsorption sites and the corresponding forces on Li atoms adsorbed on the Mo (1 1 0) surface. This force field is then used to study the wetting of liquid Li on the (1 1 0) surface of Mo and to examine the Li-Mo interface using molecular dynamics simulations. From droplet simulations, we find that liquid Li tends to completely wet the perfect Mo (1 1 0) surface, in contradiction with previous experimental measurements that found non-zero contact angles for liquid Li on a Mo substrate. However, these experiments were not carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions or with a perfect (1 1 0) Mo surface, suggesting that the presence of impurities, such as oxygen, and surface structure play a crucial role in this wetting process. From thin-film simulations, it is observed that the first layer of Li on the Mo (1 1 0) surface has many solid-like properties such as a low mobility and a larger degree of ordering when compared to layers further away from the surface, even at temperatures well above the bulk melting temperature of Li. These findings are consistent with temperature-programmed desorption experiments.

  17. Transport Phenomena in Magnetized Plasmas across Coupling Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a theory is described that treats classical mixtures of magnetized and unmagnetized species across coupling regimes. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a magnetic field. The utility of this approach is that it can be incorporated into magnetohydrodynamic descriptions by modification of the Coulomb logarithm in the transport coefficients. Like weakly coupled plasma theory, the magnetic field is found to suppress cross-field transport. However, the ratio of parallel to cross field transport rates is much closer to unity at strong coupling. Not only cross field, but also parallel, transport rates are found to be reduced by the field. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasma, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from Los Alamos National Laboratory grant LDRD 20150520ER.

  18. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  19. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  20. J. Genet. classic 125

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 125. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 126. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 127. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 128. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  1. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  2. RANDOMNESS of Numbers DEFINITION(QUERY:WHAT? V HOW?) ONLY Via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-Statistics(MBCS) Hot-Plasma VS. Digits-Clumping Log-Law NON-Randomness Inversion ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-Statistics(BEQS) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!

  3. J. Genet. classic 9

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. 9. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 10. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. 11. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 12. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics ...

  4. Thermal equilibrium of a cryogenic magnetized pure electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.; Oneil, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal equilibrium correlation properties of a magnetically confined pure electron plasma (McPEP) are related to those of a one-component plasma (OCP). The N-particle spatial distribution rho sub s and the Helmholtz free energy F are evaluated for the McPEP to O(lambda sub d-squared/a-squared), where lambda sub d is the thermal de Broglie wavelength and is an interparticle spacing. The electron gyromotion is allowed to be fully quantized while the guiding center motion is quasi-classical. The distribution rho sub s is shown to be identical to that of a classical OCP with a slightly modified potential. To O(lambda sub d-squared/a-squared) this modification does not affect that part of F that is caused by correlations, as long as certain requirements concerning the size of the plasma are met. This theory is motivated by a current series of experiments that involve the cooling of a magnetically confined pure electron plasma to the cryogenic temperature range.

  5. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  6. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  7. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  8. Classical diffusion: theory and simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.; Hu, P.N.

    1978-03-01

    A survey is given of the development of classical diffusion theory which arose from the observation of Grad and Hogan that the Pfirsch-Schluter and Neoclassical theories are very special and frequently inapplicable because they require that plasma mass flow be treated as transport rather than as a state variable of the plasma. The subsequent theory, efficient numerical algorithms, and results of various operating codes are described

  9. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  10. Drama : Classical Versus Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran, Ade Aini

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at explaining classical drama and modern drama in general. It is also purposed to compare the differences between classical drama and modern drama. One of the most significant contrasts between classical drama and modern is the difference in the protagonists. Classical tragedy, for instance, involves royalty, the elite. The idea was that for a character to have a great and far-reaching influence over society he/she had to be in a position of great power and authority. In...

  11. The Classics, Con Brio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

  12. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  13. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  14. Mathematical physics classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Knauf, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.

  15. Classical pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacke, G.

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the three types of classical pulsating variables (δ-Cephei stars, W-Virginis stars and RR-Lyrae stars) is studied. Problems of the light-curve analysis such as (1) the frequency distribution of periods for the three types of classical pulsating variables, (2) spurions periods, (3) changes of periods and multiple periodicity as well as (4) the Blazhko-effect and other changes of the light-curve form are discussed

  16. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  17. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  18. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  19. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  20. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  1. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  2. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  3. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  4. Statistical Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ichimaru, Setsuo

    2004-01-01

    Plasma physics is an integral part of statistical physics, complete with its own basic theories. Designed as a two-volume set, Statistical Plasma Physics is intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses on plasma and statistical physics, and as such, its presentation is self-contained and should be read without difficulty by those with backgrounds in classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, quantum mechanics, and statistics. Major topics include: plasma phenomena in nature, kinetic equations, plasmas and dielectric media, electromagnetic properties of Vlasov plasmas in thermodynamic equilibria, transient processes, and instabilities. Statistical Plasma Physics, Volume II, treats subjects in the field of condensed plasma physics, with applications to condensed matter physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. The aim of this book is to elucidate a number of basic topics in physics of dense plasmas that interface with condensed matter physics, atomic physics, nuclear...

  5. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  6. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  7. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  8. Classical galactosaemia revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Annet M.

    2006-01-01

    Classical galactosaemia (McKusick 230400) is an: autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712). Most patients present in the neonatal period, after ingestion of galactose, with jaundice,

  9. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  10. Causality in Classical Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Classical physics encompasses the study of phys- ical phenomena which range from local (a point) to nonlocal (a region) in space and/or time. We discuss the concept of spatial and temporal non- locality. However, one of the likely implications pertaining to nonlocality is non-causality. We study causality in the context of ...

  11. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Essa, M.; Ozand, P.T.; Rashed, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  12. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  13. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  14. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  15. Invitation to classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ

  16. Revisiting a Classic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…

  17. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  18. Lectures on classical electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes cover classical electrodynamics at the level of advanced undergraduates or postgraduates. There is a strong emphasis on the general features of the electromagnetic field and, in particular, on the properties of electromagnetic radiation. It offers a comprehensive and detailed, as well as self-contained, account of material that can be covered in a one-semester course for students with a solid undergraduate knowledge of basic electricity and magnetism.

  19. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  20. What was classical genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, C Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theory-biased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in well-established sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan's theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, 30s, and 40s was organized around efforts to further validate, develop, and extend this theory, I show that classical genetics was structured by an integration of explanatory reasoning (associated with the transmission theory) and investigative strategies (such as the 'genetic approach'). The investigative strategies, which have been overlooked in historical and philosophical accounts, were as important as the so-called laws of Mendelian genetics. By the later 1920s, geneticists of the Morgan school were no longer organizing research around the goal of explaining inheritance patterns; rather, they were using genetics to investigate a range of biological phenomena that extended well beyond the explanatory domain of transmission theories. Theory-biased approaches in history and philosophy of science fail to reveal the overall structure of scientific knowledge and obscure the way it functions.

  1. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  2. Transport Theory for Plasmas that are Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, nonneutral plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a species is considered strongly magnetized if the gyroradius is smaller than the spatial scale over which Coulomb interactions occur. A theory for transport properties is described that treats a wide range of both coupling and magnetization strengths. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a strong magnetic field. The underlying kinetic theory is based on an extension of the Boltzmann equation to include a strong magnetic field in the dynamics of binary scattering events. Corresponding magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived by solving the kinetic equation using a Chapman-Enskog like spectral method. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasmas, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. This material is based upon work supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-16-1-0221 and DOE OFES Award DE-SC0016159.

  3. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  4. One-loop corrections to classical masses of kink families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Izquierdo, A.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Gonzalez Leon, M.A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2004-01-01

    One-loop corrections to kink masses in a family of (1+1)-dimensional field theoretical models with two real scalar fields are computed. A generalized DHN formula applicable to potentials with and without reflection is obtained. It is shown how half-bound states arising in the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator for one-component topological kinks and the vacuum play a central role in the computation of the kink Casimir energy. The issue of whether or not the kink degeneracy exhibited by this family of models at the classical level survives one-loop quantum fluctuations is addressed

  5. Renormalization in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, Guido

    2010-01-01

    We discuss simple examples in which renormalization is required in classical field theory. The presentation is accessible to undergraduate students with a knowledge of the basic notions of classical electromagnetism. (letters and comments)

  6. Classical and semi-classical treatments of Li3+, Ne10++H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A; Suarez, J

    2004-01-01

    We perform molecular close-coupling and impact-parameter classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations of total and partial cross sections for capture and ionization in collisions of highly charged ions on H(1s). We first consider Li 3+ +H(1s) as a benchmark to ascertain the complementarity of the methods, and then Ne 10+ +H(1s), which has been scarcely studied up to now, and has recently become of interest for fusion plasma research

  7. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  8. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  9. Effect of the poloidal current from the classical diffusion in the steady-state neo-classical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igna Junior, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The relevant parameters of two steady-state models of a plasma column, in fusion regime, were analyzed for an ideal Tokamak. The neo-classical transport theory was considered in the banana regime and in the Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The first model proposes a correction in the numerical coefficients of the transport equations. In the other one, a poloidal current from Pfirsch-Schlueter classical diffusion is considered aiming to satisfy the pressure balance. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  11. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  12. Classical mechanics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Strauch, D

    2008-01-01

    This upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate textbook primarily covers the theory and application of Newtonian and Lagrangian, but also of Hamiltonian mechanics. In addition, included are elements of continuum mechanics and the accompanying classical field theory, wherein four-vector notation is introduced without explicit reference to special relativity. The author's writing style attempts to ease students through the primary and secondary results, thus building a solid foundation for understanding applications. So the text is thus structured around developments of the main ideas, explicit proofs, and numerous clarifications, comments and applications. Numerous examples illustrate the material and often present alternative approaches to the final results. Frequent references are made linking mechanics to other fields of physics. These lecture notes have been used frequently by students to prepare for written and/or oral examinations. Summaries and problems conclude chapters and appendices supply nee...

  13. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  14. Analogies between classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some analogies between nonequilibrium classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, at the level of the Liouville equation and at the kinetic level, are commented on. A theorem, related to the Vlasov equation applied to a plasma, is proved. The theorem presents an analogy with Ehrenfest's theorem of quantum mechanics. An analogy between the plasma kinetic theory and Bohm's quantum theory with 'hidden variables' is also shown. (Author) [pt

  15. Beyond classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook discusses the nature of the microscopic universe from a modern perspective, based on Einstein's notions of relativity and Noether's proof of the emergence of conservation laws from symmetries of the equations of motion. These ideas drove the development of the Standard Model of particle physics and string theory. The second half of the book explores various aspects of many-body physics, ranging from chemical systems to plasmas to black holes. Like the previous textbook authored by by Mark Cunningham, Neoclassical Physics, this text uses a guided discovery approach of instruction, highlighting the experimental results that drove development of our modern picture of subatomic physics. Many problems utilize Mathematica software to enable students to explore the meaning of different equations in a graphical manner. Students will gain an appreciation of the current state of physical theory, in preparation for more detailed, advanced study as upperclassmen.

  16. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  17. Classic clover cline clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Matthew S; Levsen, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Adaptive clines are striking examples of natural selection in action, yet few have been studied in depth. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Kooyers & Olsen (2012) introduce modern analyses and thinking towards studies of a classical example of the rapid and repeated evolution of latitudinal and altitudinal clines in cyanogenesis in white clover, Trifolium repens L. Recognizing that adaptive clines represent trade-offs in the selective benefits of traits at different ends of a geographical transect, these researchers focus on whether evidence for selection can be found at regional (coarse) and local (fine) scales. After adjusting for population genetic patterns generated by demographic processes, Kooyers and Olsen provide evidence that the cyanogenesis cline is adaptive across a transect from Louisiana to Wisconsin, USA. Within local populations, divergent selection on coupling dominant and recessive alleles that underlie cyanogenesis is predicted to drive populations to gametic phase disequilibrium (LD), a pattern that has been found in several other studies reviewed by Kooyers and Olsen. The absence of LD within any sampled populations in this study leads the authors to suggest that selective patterns within these clines may be more complex than previously proposed, perhaps even following theoretical predictions of a geographic mosaic. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  19. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  20. UV-Completion by Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a novel approach to UV-completion of a class of non-renormalizable theories, according to which the high-energy scattering amplitudes get unitarized by production of extended classical objects (classicalons), playing a role analogous to black holes, in the case of non-gravitational theories. The key property of classicalization is the existence of a classicalizer field that couples to energy-momentum sources. Such localized sources are excited in high-energy scattering processes and lead to the formation of classicalons. Two kinds of natural classicalizers are Nambu-Goldstone bosons (or, equivalently, longitudinal polarizations of massive gauge fields) and scalars coupled to energy-momentum type sources. Classicalization has interesting phenomenological applications for the UV-completion of the Standard Model both with or without the Higgs. In the Higgless Standard Model the high-energy scattering amplitudes of longitudinal $W$-bosons self-unitarize via classicalization, without the help of any new...

  1. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  2. Rapid, Automated, and Specific Immunoassay to Directly Measure Matrix Metalloproteinase-9–Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Interactions in Human Plasma Using AlphaLISA Technology: A New Alternative to Classical ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pulido-Olmo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The protocol describes a novel, rapid, and no-wash one-step immunoassay for highly sensitive and direct detection of the complexes between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs based on AlphaLISA® technology. We describe two procedures: (i one approach is used to analyze MMP-9–TIMP-1 interactions using recombinant human MMP-9 with its corresponding recombinant human TIMP-1 inhibitor and (ii the second approach is used to analyze native or endogenous MMP-9–TIMP-1 protein interactions in samples of human plasma. Evaluating native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes using this approach avoids the use of indirect calculations of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio for which independent MMP-9 and TIMP-1 quantifications by two conventional ELISAs are needed. The MMP-9–TIMP-1 AlphaLISA® assay is quick, highly simplified, and cost-effective and can be completed in less than 3 h. Moreover, the assay has great potential for use in basic and preclinical research as it allows direct determination of native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes in circulating blood as biofluid.

  3. What is a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierdel, G.

    1974-01-01

    To study this book, written in an intuitive and easily comprehensive manner including many illustrations, presumes the knowledge of highschool level. Beginning with the plasma as the 4. physical condition a review of the three classical physical conditions is given and the following topics are discussed: a) structure of gases kinetic theory, b) foundations of plasma-physics, c) production of a plasma, d) behaviour of a plasma in a magnetic field, c) oscillations and plasma-waves, f) plasma-diagnostics. Finally technical applications in light-technology, for the development of high temperature heat-sources and in energy-technology (transformation and control of electric power, MHD-generator, thermonuclear reactor) are discussed and literature is given for completion and further studies. (GG) [de

  4. Ultra-High Energy Probes of Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2012-01-01

    Classicalizing theories are characterized by a rapid growth of the scattering cross section. This growth converts these sort of theories in interesting probes for ultra-high energy experiments even at relatively low luminosity, such as cosmic rays or Plasma Wakefield accelerators. The microscopic reason behind this growth is the production of N-particle states, classicalons, that represent self-sustained lumps of soft Bosons. For spin-2 theories this is the quantum portrait of what in the classical limit are known as black holes. We emphasize the importance of this quantum picture which liberates us from the artifacts of the classical geometric limit and allows to scan a much wider landscape of experimentally-interesting quantum theories. We identify a phenomenologically-viable class of spin-2 theories for which the growth of classicalon production cross section can be as efficient as to compete with QCD cross section already at 100 TeV energy, signaling production of quantum black holes with graviton occupat...

  5. Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: An Overview -38 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mathematicians, logicians, and computer scientists are trying to model uncertain, imprecise or vague concepts. Here we present two models of vague concepts and draw a comparison between such imprecise sets and the stan- dard classical sets. In Section 1, we define classical sets, which model precise concepts.

  6. Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: An Overview -38 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: Sumita Basu is assistant professor of mathematics at Lady Braboume. College, Kolkata. Her research interests include artificial intelligence, automata theory, and mathematical logic. Keywords. Fuzzy sets, crisp sets, rough sets, law of excluded middle,. DeMorgan's laws. An Overview.

  7. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  8. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  9. Modeling viscosity and diffusion of plasma mixtures across coupling regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Viscosity and diffusion of plasma for pure elements and multicomponent mixtures are modeled from the high-temperature low-density weakly coupled regime to the low-temperature high-density strongly coupled regime. Thanks to an atom in jellium modeling, the effect of electron screening on the ion-ion interaction is incorporated through a self-consistent definition of the ionization. This defines an effective One Component Plasma, or an effective Binary Ionic Mixture, that is representative of the strength of the interaction. For the viscosity and the interdiffusion of mixtures, approximate kinetic expressions are supplemented by mixing laws applied to the excess viscosity and self-diffusion of pure elements. The comparisons with classical and quantum molecular dynamics results reveal deviations in the range 20--40% on average with almost no predictions further than a factor of 2 over many decades of variation. Applications in the inertial confinement fusion context could help in predicting the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  10. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  11. 'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona

    2002-01-01

    Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)

  12. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  13. Doing classical theology in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    This article is about doing classical theology in context. The weight ... Classical texts always share in those liberative moments. The question then is in what sense do they present a challenge to the contemporary reader. The second ... tradition established by Marx (1843); the invention by Haydn of a new musical style after ...

  14. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  15. Classical Dynamics of Triatomic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Christopher Alan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1968-09-05

    The classical equations of motion of some bent triatomic harmonic molecular models are integrated numerically to investigate the assumptions underlying contemporary theories of unimolecular reaction rates. The classical equations of motion of two anharmonic bent triatomic molecular models are integrated numerically. Also, a Sato surface, free of spurious wells, is proposed for the reaction H + DBr.

  16. The Diversity of Classical Archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Classical Archaeology, founded and edited by professors of classical archaeology, Achim Lichtenberger and Rubina Raja. This volume sets out the agenda for this series. It achieves this by familiarizing readers with a wide range of themes and ...

  17. Quantum Plasmas An Hydrodynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the basic concepts and new methods in the emerging scientific area known as quantum plasmas. In the near future, quantum effects in plasmas will be unavoidable, particularly in high density scenarios such as those in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma experiment or in compact astrophysics objects. Currently, plasmas are in the forefront of many intriguing questions around the transition from microscopic to macroscopic modeling of charged particle systems. Quantum Plasmas: an Hydrodynamic Approach is devoted to the quantum hydrodynamic model paradigm, which, unlike straight quantum kinetic theory, is much more amenable to investigate the nonlinear realm of quantum plasmas. The reader will have a step-by-step construction of the quantum hydrodynamic method applied to plasmas. The book is intended for specialists in classical plasma physics interested in methods of quantum plasma theory, as well as scientists interested in common aspects of two major areas of...

  18. Classicalization of Gravitons and Goldstones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We establish a close parallel between classicalization of gravitons and derivatively-coupled Nambu-Goldstone-type scalars. We show, that black hole formation in high energy scattering process represents classicalization with the classicalization radius given by Schwarzschild radius of center of mass energy, and with the precursor of black hole entropy being given by number of soft quanta composing this classical configuration. Such an entropy-equivalent is defined for scalar classicalons also and is responsible for exponential suppression of their decay into small number of final particles. This parallel works in both ways. For optimists that are willing to hypothesize that gravity may indeed self-unitarize at high energies via black hole formation, it illustrates that the Goldstones may not be much different in this respect, and they classicalize essentially by similar dynamics as gravitons. In the other direction, it may serve as an useful de-mystifier of via-black-hole-unitarization process and of the role...

  19. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  20. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  1. Lignopolyol based one-component polyurethane foams

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Mário Filipe Lima do

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Química Tecnológica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Num futuro muito próximo, está previsto um aumento drástico das emissões de CO2 em todo o mundo. Segundo dados da OCDE, as emissões de CO2 aumentarão cerca de 50% até 2050. Um dos grandes contribuidores são as emissões de fontes energéticas como os combustíveis fósseis. Para além disso, é uma fonte não renovável de energia e de matéria-prima para a indústria química, o que ...

  2. Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Verbaal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.

  3. Mathematical methods of classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    This short primer, geared towards students with a strong interest in mathematically rigorous approaches, introduces the essentials of classical physics, briefly points out its place in the history of physics and its relation to modern physics, and explains what benefits can be gained from a mathematical perspective. As a starting point, Newtonian mechanics is introduced and its limitations are discussed. This leads to and motivates the study of different formulations of classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which are the subjects of later chapters. In the second part, a chapter on classical field theories introduces more advanced material. Numerous exercises are collected in the appendix.

  4. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, A.O.

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  5. Classical physics and classical logic in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechtold, M. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Philosophie

    2007-07-01

    Are the measurement outcomes in microphysics ''classical''? If yes, in which sense? In this talk, I come back to Niels Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics and his claim that every measurement outcomes have to be described by means of classical physics. Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker's transcendental version of this claim and its recent justification provided by Brigitte Falkenburg are also discussed. I then support the idea that a measurement outcome in microphysics cannot be considered as ''classical'' because its occurrence would be governed by the deterministic laws of classical physics (indeed, in the general case, it can only be predicted in a probabilistic manner by quantum mechanics). It can be considered as ''classical'', I argue, only by reference to classical logic. It is true, when no measurement is performed, the structure of propositions expressing all the possible events conforms to a kind of quantum logic (e.g. partial Boolean algebra or orthomodular lattice). However, if considering a performed measurement, the propositions expressing its possible outcomes (i.e. ''possible'' according to the predictions of quantum mechanics) are characterized as follows: at the end of the measurement (i) each of these propositions is either true or false (principle of bivalence), and (ii) only one of these propositions is true (principle of mutual exclusiveness). (orig.)

  6. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  7. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  8. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  9. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  10. Dynamical systems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V V

    1995-01-01

    This book shows that the phenomenon of integrability is related not only to Hamiltonian systems, but also to a wider variety of systems having invariant measures that often arise in nonholonomic mechanics. Each paper presents unique ideas and original approaches to various mathematical problems related to integrability, stability, and chaos in classical dynamics. Topics include… the inverse Lyapunov theorem on stability of equilibria geometrical aspects of Hamiltonian mechanics from a hydrodynamic perspective current unsolved problems in the dynamical systems approach to classical mechanics

  11. Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.

    1991-01-01

    Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem

  12. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  13. Classical approach in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  14. Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Principal parameters of classical multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.; Wolf, B.H.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of the operational principles of classical multiply charged ion sources (operating sources for intense beams of multiply charged ions using discharge plasmas; MCIS). The fractional rates of creation of multiply charged ions in MCIS plasmas cannot be deduced from the discharge parameters in a simple manner; they depend essentially on three principal parameters, the density and energy distribution of the ionizing electrons, and the confinement time of ions in the ionization space. Simple discharge models were used to find relations between principal parameters, and results of model calculations are compared to actually measured charge state density distributions of extracted ions. Details of processes which determine the energy distribution of ionizing electrons (heating effects), confinement times of ions (instabilities), and some technical aspects of classical MCIS (cathodes, surface processes, conditioning, life time) are discussed

  16. Classical field theory with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Hindmarsh, M.

    2009-01-01

    Classical field theory simulations have been essential for our understanding of non-equilibrium phenomena in particle physics. In this talk we discuss the possible extension of the bosonic classical field theory simulations to include fermions. In principle we use the inhomogeneous mean field approximation as introduced by Aarts and Smit. But in practice we turn from their deterministic technique to a stochastic approach. We represent the fermion field as an ensemble of pairs of spinor fields, dubbed male and female. These c-number fields solve the classical Dirac equation. Our improved algorithm enables the extension of the originally 1+1 dimensional analyses and is suitable for large-scale inhomogeneous settings, like defect networks.

  17. From Classical to Quantum Plasmonics in Three and Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    This thesis presents theoretical results for the description and understanding of plasmonsin three- and two-dimensional platforms, with a special emphasis on the evolution from classical to nonclassical behavior as the optical and structural length scales are reduced towards the intrinsic scales...... of the electronic plasma. The content is divided into two parts and split by dimensionality. First, following a general introduction to the topic of plasmonics in three dimensions, we review the fundamental shortcomings of the conventional classical approach, finding its limitations to fall in four categories. We...... dissimilar weighting of spectral features, with particular importance to the excitation of multipole plasmons. Moreover, for these multipole plasmons, we find a hydrodynamic shift which increases with multipole order. This shift removes the singular classical pile-up of multipoles near the planar surface...

  18. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  19. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  20. Resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Mine; Aikawa, Toshiki

    1981-01-01

    To investigate resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids, the non-linear radial oscillation of stars is studied based on the assumption that the non-adiabatic perturbation is expressed in terms of van der Pol's type damping. Two- and three-wave resonance in this system is applied to classical cepheids to describe their bump and double-mode behavior. The phase of bump and the depression of amplitude are explained for bump cepheids. The double-periodicity is shown by the enhancement of the third overtone in three-wave resonance. Non-linear effect on resonant period is also discussed briefly. (author)

  1. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired...... by the Higher-Order Π-calculus. The key to our calculus is that sequents are asymmetric: one side types sessions as in CP and the other types process variables, which can be instantiated with process values. The controlled interaction between the two sides ensures that process variables can be used at will...

  2. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  3. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, Rutherford's atomic model was not perfect and raised many questions. The needed improvement was worked out by Niels Bohr in two years after Rutherford proposed his theory. Bohr, after getting his PhD from the University of Copenhagen in 1911, joined Rutherford at Manchester in. March 1912, stayed there till ...

  4. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    by others and by himself. d) While the phase for which he is well known is part of this paper, it is clearly not an isolated discovery but part of a much larger programme. One also cannot help noticing the mature, measured, clear, and careful style, old fashioned though it may seem to today's readers. We also reproduce.

  5. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    when they shed their skins and finally change into butterflies, moths, beetles, bees, and flies. All these little creatures were placed on the plants, flowers, and fruit which they ate for nourishment;. I have also included here species of West Indian spiders, ants, snakes, lizards, rare toads, and frogs, all of which I myself sketched ...

  6. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nium bombarded with a tiny neutron can yield fragments of much lower atomic number. Sitting on a tree trunk, Meitner estimated the energy release in this breakup process, which they later named 'fission'. After the vacation, Frisch returned to his home institute in Copenhagen and discussed with Bohr, who immedi-.

  7. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    important female steroid hormone. It was the time when a good number of prominent organic chemists were engaged in the chemistry of steroids. Because of their biological importance, there was tremendous competitive activity to develop convenient stereospe- cific routes for their synthesis. This paper and his other papers ...

  8. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and how the related ideas of relativity affect our formulation of field theories, form the ... problem. While relativity is a strong tool provided by physicists for dealing with the cosmological problem, its early orgins are actually to be found in cosmology. .... dynamical relations of physics is provided by tensor analysis, for the lan-.

  9. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... It tried to envisage individual trajectories and anticipated the role of reagent translation and vibration on the rate of a chemical ... has been fully translated and the official version published in the same journal recently (2013). We are grateful to the journal for ...... tainties of the procedure. Instead we take into ...

  10. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Winter Meeting and receives a monetary award, the Oersted Medal, an Award Certifi- cate, and travel expenses to the ... special lectures on the theory of relativity, especially in its four dimensional form, as developed by ... on this theory were heard by Linus Pauling, who learned as much from them as I did myself. In 1927, in ...

  11. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    A B Kempe, an English kinematician, provided in this paper a constructive proof that a linkage can be methodically created to trace a general algebraic curve. ... Statement about ownership and other particulars of. Resonance – journal of science education. 1. Place of Publication : Bangalore. 2. Periodicity of Publication :.

  12. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    self confidence of a C V Raman, might they have been the first rather than the second to publish the lifetime of spontaneous fission? On the other hand, we must keep in mind that Raman knew that the phenomenon he was looking for was predicted by theory, while the lifetime measured in this work was far shorter than.

  13. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    family of curves, a feat which marked the entry of the prodigy Norbert Wiener onto the mathematical scene. The curves are continuous but nowhere differentiable – a phenom- enon regarded as a mathematical curiosity by most physicists but not Jean Perrin, whose intuitive insights were later proved rigorously. Many more ...

  14. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    139th Meeting at Shereton Park Hotel, Wilmington Room, AAAS Section on Environmental Sciences, New. Approaches to Global Weather: GARP (The Global Atmospheric Research ... Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Lest I appear frivolous in even posing the title question, let alone suggesting that it ...

  15. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    What is worth learning from this paper is the rather confused situation at that time, with many ideas floating around, proposed by famous astronomers like Kapetyn, Jeans, Lindblad and Shapley. Oort is meticulous in citing his sources, but he also quickly disposes of untenable ideas, though in rather mild language.

  16. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Astronomical Quarterly chose to reprint the unpublished report written by Lyman Spitzer as early as. 1947, on the benefits to astronomy from space telescopes. Artificial earth satellites launched by rockets were just being talked about then; the first success came in 1957 with the launch of 'Sputnik' by the then. USSR.

  17. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The paper deals with his and his co-worker K M Sivanandaiah's (who later joined the chemistry faculty of Bangalore. University and made some very useful contributions to peptide chemistry) efforts to develop a convenient stereospecific synthesis of oestrone (written also as estrone), an important female steroid hormone.

  18. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    were a dart game, I would be thrown out – for throwing darts at a wall first and only subsequently painting ... to check the performance of the evolutionary process. In particular, it can provide a test for ..... Biochem. Physiol. 83A 255–259. Vallee R B 1998 Molecular motors and the cytoskeleton (San Diego: Academic Press).

  19. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swimming Against the Current of Racism. It was a strange state of pain and agony in which I found myself. “Who is this man,. Jones?” I said to myself, “to sit in judgement upon me and my abilities”3. But the thing had been done, and both the Principal and the Director of Public Instruction had unhesitatingly put the seal of ...

  20. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Following LondonГs arguments, one may express the energy of such systems for each spatial conf guration of the atoms in terms of the energy function of the diatomic molecules that can be formed by pairwise combination of the reacting atoms. When two molecules of hi react, e. g., according to. 2hi i2 h2 at every stage of ...

  1. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    From tim e im m em orial m en studied the heavens w ith their unaided eyes. F inally, about three centuries ago, the telescope w as invented. W ith the grow th and developm ent of these giant eyes, the exploration of space has. The article reproduced here was written by Edwin Hubble for P opular A stronom y. (Vol.54, p.183 ...

  2. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Though bacterial sexuality was discovered in 1946 by Lederberg and Tatum, the evidence was entirely based on genetics. The experiment essentially involved the isolation of prototrophic recombinants by mixing two cultures of auxotrophs. Though the involvement of cell-cell contact was confirmed by the U-tube experiment ...

  3. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  4. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University,Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-30

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  5. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza]. E-mail: rafael@cfp.ufpb.br; Almeida, W. Pires de [Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; Fonseca Neto, I. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-06-01

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, {phi}(t;{theta}). (author)

  6. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  7. Alternate formulations of classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beil, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Lorentz--Dirac, Wheeler--Feynman, and Synge formulations of classical electrodynamics are compared with regard to their equations of motion for charged particles and their treatment of radiation. It is found that the less familiar Synge theory offers a viable alternate to the other two, since it is theoretically consistent and predicts results not at variance with experiment

  8. On teaching Classics in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very idea of a university is one that has its roots in ancient Greece. The Academy of. Plato, the Lyceum of Aristotle and the Museum at Alexandria are precursors of today's institutions of learning. Classics has close links with subjects such as history, philosophy, theology, English and law. The writing of history as we ...

  9. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  10. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  11. Classical mechanics and symplectic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    The author analyzes some classical or more recent mechanics notions (force, impulse, momentum, energy, mass, action and reaction, electric charge, spin, magnetic moment, etc..) which give physical examples of various mathematical structures: symplectic and pre-symplectic varieties, groups and Lie algebra cohomology, homotopy, homology, etc.. [fr

  12. CLASSIC APPROACH TO BUSINESS COACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present business coaching in a classical way. An overview of coaching definitions will be provided. Attention will be drawn to coaching components and varieties. Moreover, a brief description of coach competences and tools supporting their work will be offered. Joanna Żukowska

  13. Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy student...

  14. Quantum proofs for classical theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drucker, A.; de Wolf, R.

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the development of quantum algorithms and quantum complexity theory in recent years, quantum techniques have also proved instrumental in obtaining results in diverse classical (non-quantum) areas, such as coding theory, communication complexity, and polynomial approximations. In this paper

  15. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  16. QED plasma and magnetars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytsis, Marat; Gralla, Samuel E., E-mail: freytsis@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: sgralla@physics.harvard.edu [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Magnetars are surrounded by diffuse plasma in magnetic field strengths well above the quantum electrodynamic critical value. We derive equations of ''quantum force-free electrodynamics'' for this plasma using effective field theory arguments. We argue that quantum effects do not modify the large scale structure of the magnetosphere, and in particular that the spin-down rate does not deviate significantly from the classical result. We provide definite evolution equations that can be used to explore potentially important small-scale corrections, such as shock formation, which has been proposed as a mechanism for both burst and quiescent emission from magnetars.

  17. A two-dimensional transport-problem in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.; Adam, G.; Hittmair, O.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that by a generalization of the classical theory for a cylindrical plasma the expression for the so-called banana-diffusion in a toroidal plasma may be deduced. The ratio of the coefficient of the banana-diffusion to the one of classical diffusion is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Classical electrodynamics is reformulated in terms of wave functions in the classical phase space of electrodynamics, following the Koopman–von Neumann–Sudarshan prescription for classical mechanics on Hilbert spaces sans the superselection rule which prohibits interference effects in classical mechanics.

  19. Characterization of Classical and Nonclassical Fabry Disease: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Maarten; Wanner, Christoph; Hughes, Derralynn; Mehta, Atul; Oder, Daniel; Watkinson, Oliver T; Elliott, Perry M; Linthorst, Gabor E; Wijburg, Frits A; Biegstraaten, Marieke; Hollak, Carla E

    2017-05-01

    Fabry disease leads to renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular manifestations. Phenotypic differences between classically and nonclassically affected patients are evident, but there are few data on the natural course of classical and nonclassical disease in men and women. To describe the natural course of Fabry disease stratified by sex and phenotype, we retrospectively assessed event-free survival from birth to the first clinical visit (before enzyme replacement therapy) in 499 adult patients (mean age 43 years old; 41% men; 57% with the classical phenotype) from three international centers of excellence. We classified patients by phenotype on the basis of characteristic symptoms and enzyme activity. Men and women with classical Fabry disease had higher event rate than did those with nonclassical disease (hazard ratio for men, 5.63, 95% confidence interval, 3.17 to 10.00; P Fabry disease had lower eGFR, higher left ventricular mass, and higher plasma globotriaosylsphingosine concentrations than men with nonclassical Fabry disease or women with either phenotype ( P Fabry disease had a history of more events than men with nonclassical disease or women with either phenotype; women with classical Fabry disease were more likely to develop complications than women with nonclassical disease. These data may support the development of new guidelines for the monitoring and treatment of Fabry disease and studies on the effects of intervention in subgroups of patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Turbulence in unmagnetized Vlasov plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The classical technique of transformation and characteristics is employed to analyze the problem of strong turbulence in unmagnetized plasmas. The effect of resonance broadening and perturbation expansion are treated simultaneously, without time secularities. The renormalization procedure of Dupree and Tetreault is used in the transformed Vlasov equation to analyze the turbulence and to derive explicitly a diffusion equation. Analyses are extended to inhomogeneous plasmas and the relationship between the transformation and ponderomotive force is obtained. (author)

  1. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    for understanding the structure of task-oriented dialogues. Such dialogues locate conversational acts in contexts containing both pending tasks and the acts which bring them about. The ability to infer causal implicatures lets us interleave decisions about "how to sequence actions" with decisions about "when......In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  2. [Diet treatment of classical galactosemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Erika; Balogh, Lídia; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Classical galactosemia is an inherited disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, most often caused by the deficient activity of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase. Classical galactosemia presents in the neonatal period with life threatening illness after galactose is introduced in the diet. Symptoms and signs include poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, weight loss, jaundice, hypotension, cataracts, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatocellular insufficiency, and encephalopathy. Since 1975 the testing for galactosemia is part of the neonatal screening program in Hungary. Affected newborns are recognized in the first days of their life, and special diet is introduced immediately. The therapy of galactosemia is the lactose-free and galactose-poor diet for life. As a result of the nationwide newborn screening and the lifelong medical therapy, early treatment with galactosemia can achieve a normal life without serious complications. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1864-1867.

  3. Classical and multilinear harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Muscalu, Camil

    2013-01-01

    This two-volume text in harmonic analysis introduces a wealth of analytical results and techniques. It is largely self-contained and useful to graduates and researchers in pure and applied analysis. Numerous exercises and problems make the text suitable for self-study and the classroom alike. The first volume starts with classical one-dimensional topics: Fourier series; harmonic functions; Hilbert transform. Then the higher-dimensional Calderón-Zygmund and Littlewood-Paley theories are developed. Probabilistic methods and their applications are discussed, as are applications of harmonic analysis to partial differential equations. The volume concludes with an introduction to the Weyl calculus. The second volume goes beyond the classical to the highly contemporary and focuses on multilinear aspects of harmonic analysis: the bilinear Hilbert transform; Coifman-Meyer theory; Carleson's resolution of the Lusin conjecture; Calderón's commutators and the Cauchy integral on Lipschitz curves. The material in this vo...

  4. Suppressing Quantum Fluctuations in Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Vikman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We study vacuum quantum fluctuations of simple Nambu-Goldstone bosons - derivatively coupled single scalar-field theories possessing shift-symmetry in field space. We argue that quantum fluctuations of the interacting field can be drastically suppressed with respect to the free-field case. Moreover, the power-spectrum of these fluctuations can soften to become red for sufficiently small scales. In quasiclassical approximation, we demonstrate that this suppression can only occur for those theories that admit such classical static backgrounds around which small perturbations propagate faster than light. Thus a quasiclassical softening of quantum fluctuations is only possible for theories which classicalize instead of having a usual Lorentz invariant and local Wilsonian UV- completion. We illustrate our analysis by estimating the quantum fluctuations for the DBI-like theories.

  5. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  6. CPT invariance in classical electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Aaron D.; Tsankov, Tsvetelin D.

    2017-11-01

    The transformation properties of classical electrodynamic variables under charge conjugation C, parity reversal P, and time inversion T are considered both for standard and atypical assumptions for the nature of charge. We have shown that four distinct behaviours of charge under space and time inversion are consistent with the invariance of Maxwell’s equations under CPT and P. No prior knowledge of CPT invariance is assumed and the material is accessible to undergraduate students.

  7. Primary classical hemangiopericytomas of thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicakcioglu, Pinar; Aydin, Ertan; Celik, Ali; Demirag, Funda; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin

    2012-07-01

    Hemangiopericytoma, an uncommon hypervascular tumor, occurs anywhere in the body with capillary vessels originating from the pericyte. These tumors most frequently occur in the musculature of the lower extremities and retroperitoneum, but are rarely seen in the thoracic cavity. The objective of this study is to present primary classical hemangiopericytomas of the thorax together with a literature review. The postoperative pathologic records of 17,165 operations that were performed between January 1990 and December 2010 in the clinic were retrospectively searched, and the files of 6 cases with the diagnosis of primary classical hemangiopericytoma were analyzed for clinical characteristics of patients, surgical procedures, histopathologic features, treatments after surgery, and morbidity and mortality results. There were 4 female and 2 male patients with an average age of 30.3 years (range, 15 to 60 years). Three patients had thoracic wall lesions, 2 patients had intrathoracic extrapulmonary lesions, and 1 patient had mediastinal lesion. Four left and two right posterolateral thoracotomies were performed. Chest wall resection was performed in 3 patients, intrathoracic extrapulmonary mass excision in 2 patients, and mediastinal mass excision and left lower lobectomy in 1 patient. Postoperative histopathologic diagnoses were primary classical hemangiopericytomas in 4 patients and primary classical malignant hemangiopericytomas in 2 patients. Four patients underwent reoperation for recurrence. In the follow-up period, 2 patients are still alive at 30 months and 14 years postoperatively; 3 patients died at 7, 8, and 16 years postoperatively. One patient was lost to follow-up. All 3 mortalities were related to the recurrence or distant metastasis of the tumor. Although hemangiopericytomas are benign or malignant tumors, they generally display malignant behaviors. The risk of recurrence and distant metastasis occurs even many years after resection, suggesting that the

  8. THE BUREAUCRATIC PHENOMENON: CLASSICAL CONCEPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Дама Ибрагима

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this article - to analyze Hegel and Karl Marx’s classic bureaucracy theories and also Max Weber’s concept of rational bureaucracy and its development in the works of Herbert Simon, Robert Merton, Peter Blau and Michel Crozier. It shows that the above listed researchers only undertook a change of terminology within the same theoretical tradition. The article describes different approaches to the bureaucratic system of administrative schools of the late 1950s and early 1980s. Major concl...

  9. Classical music and the teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth.

  10. Classical solutions of quasielliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belonosov, V S

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental solutions of quasielliptic equations are constructed; this allows the author to develop a relevant theory of volume potentials, establish estimates for the Holder norms of solutions of equations with constant coefficients, and extend them after that to equations with variable coefficients. As a result, sharp Schauder-type interior estimates are obtained, of which the well-known classical results for elliptic and parabolic equations are special cases

  11. Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294

  12. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  13. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  14. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  15. Intuitionism vs. classicism a mathematical attack on classical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer launched a powerful attack on the prevailing mathematical methods and theories. He developed a new kind of constructive mathematics, called intuitionism, which seems to allow for a rigorous refutation of widely accepted mathematical assumptions including fundamental principles of classical logic. Following an intense mathematical debate esp. in the 1920s, Brouwer's revolutionary criticism became a central philosophical concern in the 1970s, when Michael Dummett tried to substantiate it with meaning-theoretic considerations.

  16. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.

  17. Electrostatic screening in classical Coulomb fluids: exponential or power-law decay or both? An investigation into the effect of dispersion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellander, Roland

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the nature of the non-electrostatic part of the pair interaction potential in classical Coulomb fluids can have a profound influence on the screening behaviour. Two cases are compared: (i) when the non-electrostatic part equals an arbitrary finite-ranged interaction and (ii) when a dispersion r -6 interaction potential is included. A formal analysis is done in exact statistical mechanics, including an investigation of the bridge function. It is found that the Coulombic r -1 and the dispersion r -6 potentials are coupled in a very intricate manner as regards the screening behaviour. The classical one-component plasma (OCP) is a particularly clear example due to its simplicity and is investigated in detail. When the dispersion r -6 potential is turned on, the screened electrostatic potential from a particle goes from a monotonic exponential decay, exp(-κr)/r, to a power-law decay, r -8 , for large r. The pair distribution function acquire, at the same time, an r -10 decay for large r instead of the exponential one. There still remains exponentially decaying contributions to both functions, but these contributions turn oscillatory when the r -6 interaction is switched on. When the Coulomb interaction is turned off but the dispersion r -6 pair potential is kept, the decay of the pair distribution function for large r goes over from the r -10 to an r -6 behaviour, which is the normal one for fluids of electroneutral particles with dispersion interactions. Differences and similarities compared to binary electrolytes are pointed out

  18. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  19. Classical limit for quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Sengupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    The classical limit problem is discussed for the quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, free from the problem at the classical turning points. A proper perspective of the whole issue is sought to appreciate the significance of the discussion. It is observed that for bound states in arbitrary potential, appropriate limiting condition is definable in terms of a dimensionless classical limit parameter leading smoothly to all observable classical results. Most important results are the emergence of classical phase space, keeping the observable distribution functions non-zero only within the so-called classical region at the limit point and resolution of some well-known paradoxes. (author)

  20. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerman, Igor, E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  1. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  2. Equilibrium 𝛽-limits in classical stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Nührenberg, C.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out to understand the equilibrium -limit in a classical stellarator. The stepped-pressure equilibrium code (Hudson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 19 (11), 2012) is used in order to assess whether or not magnetic islands and stochastic field-lines can emerge at high . Two modes of operation are considered: a zero-net-current stellarator and a fixed-iota stellarator. Despite the fact that relaxation is allowed (Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58 (3), 1986, pp. 741-763), the former is shown to maintain good flux surfaces up to the equilibrium -limit predicted by ideal-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), above which a separatrix forms. The latter, which has no ideal equilibrium -limit, is shown to develop regions of magnetic islands and chaos at sufficiently high , thereby providing a `non-ideal -limit'. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the value of at which the Shafranov shift of the axis reaches a fraction of the minor radius follows in all cases the scaling laws predicted by ideal-MHD. We compare our results to the High-Beta-Stellarator theory of Freidberg (Ideal MHD, 2014, Cambridge University Press) and derive a new prediction for the non-ideal equilibrium -limit above which chaos emerges.

  3. Lie group analysis : Classical Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov, Nail H.

    2004-01-01

    Classical works in Lie group analysis, e.g. important papers of S.Lie and A.V.Bäcklund are written in old German and somewhat old fashioned mathematical language. The present volume comprises translation into English of fundamental papers of S. Lie, A.V.Bäcklund and L.V. Ovsyannikov. I have selected here some of my favorite papers containing profound results significant for modern group analysis. The first paper imparts not only Lie's interesting view on the development of the general th...

  4. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Marshall W; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience.

  5. Ultrasonic waves in classical gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, A. G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Grygoriev, U. V.

    2017-12-01

    The velocity and absorption coefficient for the plane sound waves in a classical gas are obtained by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation, which describes the reaction of the single-particle distribution function to a periodic external field. Within the linear response theory, the nonperturbative dispersion equation valid for all sound frequencies is derived and solved numerically. The results are in agreement with the approximate analytical solutions found for both the frequent- and rare-collision regimes. These results are also in qualitative agreement with the experimental data for ultrasonic waves in dilute gases.

  6. Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1981-08-01

    We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)

  7. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  8. Physiological characteristics of classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, P G; Astrand, P O

    1984-10-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 35-45% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 ml X min-1 X kg-1 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low.

  9. Friedreich Ataxia in Classical Galactosaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Siobhán; O'Sullivan, Siobhan; Sweeney, Bronagh; Lynch, Bryan; Hanrahan, Donncha; Knerr, Ina; Lynch, Sally Ann; Crushell, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders such as ataxia are a recognized complication of classical galactosaemia, even in diet-compliant patients. Here, we report the coexistence of classical galactosaemia and Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) in nine children from seven Irish Traveller families. These two autosomal recessive disorders, the loci for which are located on either side of the centromere of chromosome 9, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium in this subgroup. Both conditions are known to occur with increased frequency amongst the Irish Traveller population.Each member of our cohort had been diagnosed with galactosaemia in the neonatal period, and all are homozygous for the common Q188R mutation in the GALT gene. Eight of the nine patients later presented with progressive ataxia, between the ages of 5-13 years. Another child presented in cardiac failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy at 7 years of age. He was not ataxic at presentation and, one year from diagnosis, his neurological examination remains normal. The diagnosis of FRDA was confirmed by detecting the common pathogenic GAA expansion in both alleles of the frataxin gene (FXN) in each patient.Neurological symptoms are easily attributed to an underlying diagnosis of galactosaemia. It is important to consider a diagnosis of Friedreich ataxia in a child from the Irish Traveller population with galactosaemia who presents with ataxia or cardiomyopathy.

  10. Drama of the English classicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the numerous dramatic forms that have emerged during the English Classicism, there are few who could be considered the successors of the rich theatrical tradition. The dramatic genres that were created by mixing many traditional comic elements with the modern influences would be short-lived or become part of the commercial milieu of contemporary theater. On the other hand, the tragedy has lost its lofty character and the primacy over the comedy that has not been restored until today. However, few tragedies that have managed to avoid the rules and spirit of the Classicism have hinted the element of modern tragedy: the main roles are finally given to the ordinary citizens with their everyday problems. Although this shift was made due to the strengthening of the middle class and was a part of the actual intellectual climate, it has created the conditions for the birth of the modern tragedy that will begin to conquer the stage with Henrik Ibsen. .

  11. Teaching classical mechanics using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf.4 Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming."5 Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics teachers could add that smartphones are "perfect for teaching science." The software iMecaProf displays in real time the measured data on a screen. The visual representation is built upon the formalism of classical mechanics. iMecaProf receives data 100 times a second from iPhone sensors through a Wi-Fi connection using the application Sensor Data.6 Data are the three components of the acceleration vector in the smartphone frame and smartphone's orientation through three angles (yaw, pitch, and roll). For circular motion (uniform or not), iMecaProf uses independent measurements of the rotation angle θ, the angular speed dθ/dt, and the angular acceleration d2θ/dt2.

  12. Mental Toughness in the Classical Martial Arts

    OpenAIRE

    Minnix, Douglas Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Mental Toughness in the Classical Martial Arts Douglas Wayne Minnix ABSTRACT The construct of mental toughness is in a state of evolution and refinement. The current study proposed to investigate; (1) the importance of mental toughness attributes from a Classical Martial Arts context, (2) the trainability of the mental toughness attributes from a Classical Martial Arts context, (3) and the extent to which classical martial artists perceive that attributes converge under broader...

  13. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...

  14. About the modern house - and the classical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....

  15. Plasma diagnostics by means of electric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colunga S, S.

    1991-04-01

    In this work a summary of the classical theoretical models to interpret the characteristic curve of a Langmuir electric probe placed in a plasma without magnetic field and with the one is made. The methodology for the electron temperature calculation and the density of the plasma in both cases is given, starting from the characteristic curve of the probe, as well as the approaches for the correct application of this diagnostic method of the plasma. (Author)

  16. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2017-05-01

    Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius-Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  17. Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Klimontovich, Yu L

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor

  18. Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics. Keywords. Hilbert space; Koopman–von Neumann theory; classical electrodynamics. PACS No. 03.50.De. 1. Introduction. Much recent work has unexpectedly revealed that ...

  19. Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…

  20. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  1. Physical domains in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liboff, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Do the plasma in the sun's core and the electron-conduction plasma in a semiconductor behave in the same way? This question is both fundamental and practical, for plasma physics plays a role in a vast area of natural phenomena and in many engineering devices. Understanding the cosmos, or designing a computer chip or a thermonuclear fusion reactor, requires first of all a realization of equations of motion that are appropriate to the particular problem. Similar physical differences occur in engineered structures. The plasmas in most thermonuclear fusion devices are basically like the plasma in the core of the sun: weakly coupled and classical - that is, obeying Newton's laws and Maxwell's equations. The conduction electrons in a semiconductor, on the other hand, obey the laws of quantum mechanics

  2. Equation of state of strongly coupled plasma mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled (high density) plasmas of mixtures of light elements have been obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. For an assumed uniform charge background the equation of state of ionic mixtures is a simple extension of the one-component plasma EOS. More realistic electron screening effects are treated in linear response theory and with an appropriate electron dielectric function. Results have been obtained for the ionic pair distribution functions, and for the electric microfield distribution

  3. The classical origins of Pavlov's conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief description of the scientific discovery of classical conditioning both in the United States and in Russia. The incorporation of classical conditioning as a scientific method in the United States is described. Particular attention is given to how and why the terminologies used to identify the components of classical conditioning were modified over the years. I then trace the curious evolution of the terminology associated with Pavlov's form of conditioning, from its introduction to the United States as "the Pawlow salivary reflex method" to its present appellation as classical conditioning. Finally I conclude by developing a theory as to when and why the term classical conditioning was adopted.

  4. Quantum classical correspondence in nonrelativistic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, B.; Weatherford, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    A form of classical electrodynamic field exists which gives exact agreement with the operator field of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for the Lamb shift of a harmonically bound point electron. Here it is pointed out that this form of classical theory, with its physically acceptable interpretation, is the result of an unconventional resolution of a mathematically ambiguous term in classical field theory. Finally, a quantum classical correspondence principle is shown to exist in the sense that the classical field and expectation value of the QED operator field are identical, if retardation is neglected in the latter

  5. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  6. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a identify the most frequent postural changes; (b determine the postural pattern; (c verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a questionnaire; (b a checkerboard; (c postural chart; (d measure tape; (e camera and (f pedoscope were used as instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis. The results revealed the most frequent postural changes such as hyperlordosis, unleveled shoulders and pronated ankles. Ballet seems to have negative implications in the postural development , affecting especially the vertebral spine, trunk and feet. The practice time was not a parameter to indicate the increase in postural changes. In conclusion, ballet may be associated with postural changes and determining a characteristic postural pattern.

  7. Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivetti, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  8. Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Scivetti, I

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  9. Classical and quantum thermal physics

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, R

    2016-01-01

    Covering essential areas of thermal physics, this book includes kinetic theory, classical thermodynamics, and quantum thermodynamics. The text begins by explaining fundamental concepts of the kinetic theory of gases, viscosity, conductivity, diffusion, and the laws of thermodynamics and their applications. It then goes on to discuss applications of thermodynamics to problems of physics and engineering. These applications are explained with the help of P-V and P-S-H diagrams where necessary and are followed by a large number of solved examples and unsolved exercises. The book includes a dedicated chapter on the applications of thermodynamics to chemical reactions. Each application is explained by taking the example of an appropriate chemical reaction, where all technical terms are explained and complete mathematical derivations are worked out in steps starting from the first principle.

  10. Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

    2010-05-01

    Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in pre-college science classes, or in public science education setting.

  11. From classical to quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, Laurent; Sénéor, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate the correct mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unified theories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a re...

  12. A course in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bettini, Alessandro

    This first volume covers the mechanics of point particles, gravitation, extended systems (starting from the two-body system), the basic concepts of relativistic mechanics and the mechanics of rigid bodies and fluids. The four-volume textbook, which covers electromagnetism, mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics, and waves and light, is designed to reflect the typical syllabus during the first two years of a calculus-based university physics program. Throughout all four volumes, particular attention is paid to in-depth clarification of conceptual aspects, and to this end the historical roots of the principal concepts are traced. Writings by the founders of classical mechanics, G. Galilei and I. Newton, are reproduced, encouraging students to consult them. Emphasis is also consistently placed on the experimental basis of the concepts, highlighting the experimental nature of physics. Whenever feasible at the elementary level, concepts relevant to more advanced courses in modern physics are included. Each chapter b...

  13. Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...

  14. A Classical Model of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener P.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A classical model of gravitation is proposed with time as an independent coordinate. The dynamics of the model is determined by a proposed Lagrangian. Applying the canonical equations of motion to its associated Hamiltonian gives conservation equa- tions of energy, total angular momentum and the z component of the angular momen- tum. These lead to a Keplerian orbit in three dimensions, which gives the observed values of perihelion precession and bending of light by a massive object. An expression for gravitational redshift is derived by accepting the local validity of special relativity at all points in space. Exact expressions for the GEM relations, as well as their associated Lorentz-type force, are derived. An expression for Mach’s Principle is also derived.

  15. Quantum and classical gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Terashima, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The use of the mass term of the gauge field as a gauge fixing term, which was discussed by Zwanziger, Parrinello and Jona-Lasinio in a large mass limit, is related to the non-linear gauge by Dirac and Nambu. We have recently shown that this use of the mass term as a gauge fixing term is in fact identical to the conventional local Faddeev-Popov formula without taking a large mass limit, if one takes into account the variation of the gauge field along the entire gauge orbit. This suggests that the classical massive vector theory, for example, could be re-interpreted as a gauge invariant theory with a gauge fixing term added in suitably quantized theory. As for massive gauge particles, the Higgs mechanics, where the mass term is gauge invariant, has a more intrinsic meaning. We comment on several implications of this observation. (author)

  16. Classically Stable Nonsingular Cosmological Bounces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-09-01

    One of the fundamental questions of theoretical cosmology is whether the Universe can undergo a nonsingular bounce, i.e., smoothly transit from a period of contraction to a period of expansion through violation of the null energy condition (NEC) at energies well below the Planck scale and at finite values of the scale factor such that the entire evolution remains classical. A common claim has been that a nonsingular bounce either leads to ghost or gradient instabilities or a cosmological singularity. In this Letter, we consider a well-motivated class of theories based on the cubic Galileon action and present a procedure for explicitly constructing examples of a nonsingular cosmological bounce without encountering any pathologies and maintaining a subluminal sound speed for comoving curvature modes throughout the NEC violating phase. We also discuss the relation between our procedure and earlier work.

  17. Classical databases and knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...... examines this claim and argues for the continued value of Boolean systems, which suggests two further considerations: (1) the important role of human expertise in searching (expert searchers and “information literate” users) and (2) the role of library and information science and knowledge organization (KO...... implications for the maintenance of information science and KO as research fields, as well as for the information profession as a profession in its own right....

  18. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  19. Citation classics in pediatric orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ranjit A; Dhawale, Arjun A; Zavaglia, Bogard C; Slobogean, Bronwyn L; Mulpuri, Kishore

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical pediatric orthopaedic articles with at least 100 citations published in all orthopaedic journals and to examine their characteristics. All journals dedicated to orthopaedics and its subspecialties were selected from the Journal Citation Report 2001 under the subject category "orthopedics." Articles cited 100 times or more were identified using the database of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED, 1900 to present). The articles were ranked in a comprehensive list. Two authors independently reviewed the full text of each article and applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria to the list of articles. The 2 lists were then compared. All disagreements were resolved by consensus with input from the senior author. The final list of pediatric orthopaedic articles was then compiled. There were a total of 49 journals under the search category "orthopedics." Five journals were excluded as they were non-English journals. The remaining 44 journals were screened for articles with at least 100 citations. A total of 135 clinical pediatric orthopaedic articles cited at least 100 times were included. The most cited article was cited 692 times. The mean number of citations per article was 159 (95% confidence interval, 145-173). All the articles were published between 1949 and 2001, with 1980 and 1989 producing the most citation classics (34). The majority (90) originated from the United States, followed by the United Kingdom (12) and Canada (11). Scoliosis/kyphosis was the most common topic with 26 papers. The second most common subject was hip disorders (24). Therapeutic studies were the most common study type (71). Ninety-seven papers were assigned a 4 for level of evidence. The list of citation classics in pediatric orthopaedic articles is useful for several reasons. It identifies important contributions to the field of pediatric orthopaedics and their originators; it facilitates the understanding and discourse

  20. Classical foundations of quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garola, C.

    1991-01-01

    The author constructs a language L for a classical first-order predicate calculus with monadic predicates only, extended by means of a family of statistical quantifiers. Then, a formal semantic model M is put forward for L which is compatible with a physical interpretation and embodies a truth theory which provides the statistical quantifiers with properties that fit their interpretation; in this framework, the truth mode of physical laws is suitably characterized and a probability-frequency correlation principle is established. By making use of L and M, a set of basic physical laws is stated that hold both in classical physics (CP) and in quantum physics (QP), which allow the selection of suitable subsets of primitive predicates of L and the introduction on these subsets of binary relations. Two languages L E x and L E S are constructed that can be mapped into L; the mapping induces on them mathematical structures, some kind of truth function, an interpretation. The formulas of L E S can be endowed with two different interpretations as statements about the frequency of some physical property in some class (state) of physical objects; consequently, a two-valued truth function and a multivalued fuzzy-truth function are defined on L E S . In all cases the algebras of propositions of these 'logics' are complete ortho-complemented lattices isomorphic to (E E , prec). These results hold both in CP and in QP; further physical assumptions endow the lattice (E E , prec), hence L E x and L E s , with further properties, such as distributivity in CP and weak modularity and covering law in QP. In the latter case, L E x and L E s , together with their interpretations, can be considered different models of the same basic mathematical structure, and can be identified with standard (elementary) quantum logics

  1. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  2. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  3. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  4. Quantum remnants in the classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Científicas (CIC) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); SThAR, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-09-16

    We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.

  5. Quantum remnants in the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, A.M.; Plastino, A.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.

  6. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics.  The next bo...

  7. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  8. THE BUREAUCRATIC PHENOMENON: CLASSICAL CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дама Ибрагима

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article - to analyze Hegel and Karl Marx’s classic bureaucracy theories and also Max Weber’s concept of rational bureaucracy and its development in the works of Herbert Simon, Robert Merton, Peter Blau and Michel Crozier. It shows that the above listed researchers only undertook a change of terminology within the same theoretical tradition. The article describes different approaches to the bureaucratic system of administrative schools of the late 1950s and early 1980s. Major conclusions in the article include the following: administering the state apparatus consists in the organization of government on the basis of regulated rights, mandatory procedures that are invoked to ensure balance in the interest of man and society; bad effectiveness of government, infringement of the rights and freedoms of the individual is the result of dysfunction in the state apparatus; the struggle against it can be carried out with the help of administrative, economical and legal methods.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-45

  9. Plasma diagnostics by means of electric probes; Diagnostico del plasma por medio de sondas electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colunga S, S

    1991-04-15

    In this work a summary of the classical theoretical models to interpret the characteristic curve of a Langmuir electric probe placed in a plasma without magnetic field and with the one is made. The methodology for the electron temperature calculation and the density of the plasma in both cases is given, starting from the characteristic curve of the probe, as well as the approaches for the correct application of this diagnostic method of the plasma. (Author)

  10. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  11. Classical and semiclassical treatments of highly charged ions + H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Illescas, C.; Mendez, L.; Pons, B.; Riera, A.; Suarez, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present impact-parameter classical trajectory Monte-Carlo and molecular close-coupling calculations for total and partial cross sections for Ne 10+ , Ar 18 + H(1s) collisions, which have recently became of interest in fusion plasma research

  12. Relativistic electrons in pulsar magnetospheres: quantum corrections to the classical regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.A. da (Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica Univ. de Evora (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica); Kahn, F.D. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy)

    1991-08-15

    A classical description of the motion of plasmas in pulsar magnetospheres has been developed following the single-particle approach. It will be shown that this description needs to take into account quantum corrections due to radiative effects. Instead of deterministic trajectories we shall find stochastic ones and radiative effects will be stronger than expected. (author).

  13. Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Bodard, Gabriel; Romanello, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    This volume, edited by the organizers of the “Digital Classicist” seminars series, presents research in classical studies, digital classics and digital humanities, bringing together scholarship that addresses the impact of the study of classical antiquity through computational methods on audiences such as scientists, heritage professionals, students and the general public. Within this context, chapters tackle particular aspects, from epigraphy, papyrology and manuscripts, via Greek language, ...

  14. The relation between classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Peter.

    1984-01-01

    The thesis examines the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics from philosophical, mathematical and physical standpoints. Arguments are presented in favour of 'conjectural realism' in scientific theories, distinguished by explicit contextual structure and empirical testability. The formulations of classical and quantum mechanics, based on a general theory of mechanics is investigated, as well as the mathematical treatments of these subjects. Finally the thesis questions the validity of 'classical limits' and 'quantisations' in intertheoretic reduction. (UK)

  15. Classical Mechanics as Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Hrvoje

    2007-01-01

    All measurable predictions of classical mechanics can be reproduced from a quantum-like interpretation of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The key observation leading to classical physics is the fact that a wave function that satisfies a linear equation is real and positive, rather than complex. This has profound implications on the role of the Bohmian classical-like interpretation of linear quantum mechanics, as well as on the possibilities to find a consistent interpretation of arbitrary nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics

  16. On the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Allori, Valia; Zanghì, Nino

    2001-01-01

    Contrary to the widespread belief, the problem of the emergence of classical mechanics from quantum mechanics is still open. In spite of many results on the $\\h \\to 0$ asymptotics, it is not yet clear how to explain within standard quantum mechanics the classical motion of macroscopic bodies. In this paper we shall analyze special cases of classical behavior in the framework of a precise formulation of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, which contains in its own structure the possibility o...

  17. Basics of plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuderi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to contemporary plasma physics that discusses the most relevant recent advances in the field and covers a careful choice of applications to various branches of astrophysics and space science. The purpose of the book is to allow the student to master the basic concepts of plasma physics and to bring him or her up to date in a number of relevant areas of current research. Topics covered include orbit theory, kinetic theory, fluid models, magnetohydrodynamics, MHD turbulence, instabilities, discontinuities, and magnetic reconnection. Some prior knowledge of classical physics is required, in particular fluid mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. The mathematical developments are self-contained and explicitly detailed in the text. A number of exercises are provided at the end of each chapter, together with suggestions and solutions.

  18. Limitations on Cloning in Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Fenyes, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a result precisely analogous to the traditional quantum no-cloning theorem holds in classical mechanics. This classical no-cloning theorem does not prohibit classical cloning, we argue, because it is based on a too-restrictive definition of cloning. Using a less popular, more inclusive definition of cloning, we give examples of classical cloning processes. We also prove that a cloning machine must be at least as complicated as the object it is supposed to clone.

  19. Limitations on cloning in classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyes, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a result precisely analogous to the traditional quantum no-cloning theorem holds in classical mechanics. This classical no-cloning theorem does not prohibit classical cloning, we argue, because it is based on a too-restrictive definition of cloning. Using a less popular, more inclusive definition of cloning, we give examples of classical cloning processes. We also prove that a cloning machine must be at least as complicated as the object it is supposed to clone.

  20. Classical Trajectories from Coherent Quantum Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadin, Alan

    2013-03-01

    In the conventional Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, classical behavior arises from microscopic coherent quantum systems only in the presence of decoherence on the macroscopic scale. On the contrary, we derive classical Hamiltonian trajectories for a confined quantum wave directly from coherent phase evolution on the microscopic scale, without decoherence or wavefunction collapse (see also). This suggests that the basis for classical macroscopic physics, including relativity, lies in the microscopic behavior of coherently oscillating quantum fields. An outline of such a theory will be presented, which resolves longstanding paradoxes involving wave-particle duality, quantum entanglement, and the quantum-to-classical transition.

  1. Polar cap hot patches: Enhanced density structures different from the classical patches in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.-H.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Moen, J.; Lockwood, M.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Foster, J. C.; Zhang, S.-R.; Wang, Y.; Themens, D. R.; Zhang, B.-C.; Xing, Z. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Based on in situ and ground-based observations, a new type of "polar cap hot patch" has been identified that is different from the classical polar cap enhanced density structure (cold patches). Comparing with the classical polar cap patches, which are transported from the dayside sunlit region with dense and cold plasma, the polar cap hot patches are associated with particle precipitations (therefore field-aligned currents), ion upflows, and flow shears. The hot patches may have the same order of density enhancement as classical patches in the topside ionosphere, suggesting that the hot patches may be produced by transported photoionization plasma into flow channels. Within the flow channels, the hot patches have low-energy particle precipitation and/or ion upflows associated with field-aligned currents and flow shears. Corresponding Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal scintillation measurements indicate that hot patches may produce slightly stronger radio signal scintillation in the polar cap region than classical patches. A new type of polar cap patches, "polar cap hot patches," is identified to differentiate enhanced density structures from classical patches. Hot patches are associated with particle precipitations, ion upflows, field-aligned currents, and shear flows in the polar cap. Hot patches may lead to slightly stronger ionospheric scintillations of GNSS signals in the polar cap region than classical patches.

  2. Classical and quantum theories of the polarization bremsstrahlung in the local electron density model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astapenko, V.A.; Bureeva, L.A.; Lisitsa, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    Classical and quantum theories of polarization bremsstrahlung in a statistical (Thomas-Fermi) potential of complex atoms and ions are developed. The basic assumptions of the theories correspond to the approximations employed earlier in classical and quantum calculations of ordinary bremsstrahlung in a static potential. This makes it possible to study on a unified basis the contribution of both channels in the radiation taking account of their interference. The classical model makes it possible to obtain simple universal formulas for the spectral characteristics of the radiation. The theory is applied to electrons with moderate energies, which are characteristic for plasma applications, specifically, radiation from electrons on the argon-like ion KII at frequencies close to its ionization potential. The computational results show the importance of taking account of the polarization channel of the radiation for plasma with heavy ions

  3. Interaction between ions in hot dense plasma via screened Cornell potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.; Gabdullin, M. T. [Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Str., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-04-15

    Hot dense plasma with non-ideal ions and weakly coupled electrons is studied analytically in the framework of the random phase approximation. It is shown that at some plasma parameters ions interact by a screened Cornell potential. The reduction in the transport coefficients due to the localization of the electron around the ion is predicted. This prediction is confirmed by the molecular dynamics simulation of the one-component ion plasma interacting via the obtained screened Cornell type potential.

  4. Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-09-01

    Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease. Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Primary mediastinal NS-CHL consists of nodules of polymorphous inflammatory cells surrounded by broad fibrous bands extending from a thickened lymph node capsule. The cellular nodules contain variable numbers of large Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, required for diagnosis. Primary thymic CHL may exhibit prominent cystic changes. The histopathologic recognition of NS-CHL can be challenging in cases with prominent fibrosis, scant cellularity, artifactual cell distortion, or an exuberant granulomatous reaction. The differential diagnosis includes primary mediastinal non-HLs, mediastinal germ cell tumors, thymoma, and metastatic carcinoma or melanoma to the mediastinum. Distinction from primary mediastinal non-HLs is crucial for adequate therapeutic decisions. Approximately 95% of patients with primary mediastinal CHL will be alive and free of disease at 10 years after treatment with short courses of combined chemoradiotherapy. In this review, we discuss the history, classification, epidemiology, clinicoradiologic features, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and treatment of primary mediastinal CHL.

  5. Classical An-W-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    By analyzing the extrinsic geometry of two dimensional surfaces chirally embedded in C P n (the C P n W-surface), we give exact treatments in various aspects of the classical W-geometry in the conformal gauge: First, the basis of tangent and normal vectors are defined at regular points of the surface, such that their infinitesimal displacements are given by connections which coincide with the vector potentials of the (conformal) A n -Toda Lax pair. Since the latter is known to be intrinsically related with the W symmetries, this gives the geometrical meaning of the A n W-Algebra. Second, W-surfaces are put in one-to-one correspondence with solutions of the conformally-reduced WZNW model, which is such that the Toda fields give the Cartan part in the Gauss decomposition of its solutions. Third, the additional variables of the Toda hierarchy are used as coordinates of C P n . This allows us to show that W-transformations may be extended as particular diffeomorphisms of this target-space. Higher-dimensional generalizations of the WZNW equations are derived and related with the Zakharov-Shabat equations of the Toda hierarchy. Fourth, singular points are studied from a global viewpoint, using our earlier observation that W-surfaces may be regarded as instantons. The global indices of the W-geometry, which are written in terms of the Toda fields, are shown to be the instanton numbers for associated mappings of W-surfaces into the Grassmannians. The relation with the singularities of W-surface is derived by combining the Toda equations with the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. (orig.)

  6. Classical and Quantum Stochastic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Peter

    1996-03-01

    The idea that noise can assist the formation of order might sound paradoxical but does indeed occur in nonlinear systems with the phenomenon of Stochastic Resonance (SR)(F. Moss et al., Stochastic Resonance: Tutorial and Update), Int. J. Bif. and Chaos 4, 1383 (1994); K. Wiesenfeld and F. Moss, Nature 373, 33 (1995); P. Jung, Phys. Rep. 234 C, 175 (1993). This term is given to the effect where the detection of weak periodic signals is enhanced in presence of noise activated crossings of barriers or threshold levels. After introducing the audience into the common characterization of SR by use of the power spectrum of the output signal and/or the probability density of correponding residence times, I shall report new features for nonlinear SR where strong driving can give rise to anomalous amplification of higher harmonics, hole-burning in power spectra, or SR-induced, almost complete deletion of higher harmonics(R. Bartussek, P. Jung, P. Hänggi, Phys. Rev. E49), 3930 (1994); V. Shneidman, P. Jung, P. Hänggi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2682 (1994). These novel effects have recently been confirmed experimentally in a magnetic flux driven sensitive detection device (superconducting quantum-interference device)(R. Rouse, S. Han, J.E. Lukens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66), 108 (1995). This device constitutes a macroscopic quantum system where with decreasing temperature quantum tunneling transitions begin to modify and blur the classical SR-responce. Recent progress in the quest of SR phenomena in the deep quantum regime(M. Grifoni and P. Hänggi, submitted to PRL) is reviewed together with experimental proposals where Quantum-SR induced manipulation of individual atoms, or whole molecular groups, can be observed.

  7. Quantum experiments without classical counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present a generalized and exhaustive method of finding the directions of the quantization axes of the measured eigenstates within experiments which have no classical counterparts. The method relies on a constructive and exhaustive definition of sets of such directions (which we call Kochen-Specker vectors) in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. Kochen-Specker vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in n-dim Hilbert space, Hn, n > 2 to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such Kochen-Specker vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic to 0-1 states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all 4-dim KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all 3-dim vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found. (author)

  8. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  9. Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, S.K.

    1982-08-01

    Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H/sub 2/C/sub 2/ ..-->.. HC/sub 2/H, HNC ..-->.. HCN, and H/sub 2/CO ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I ..-->.. Na /sup +/ + I/sup -/ is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features. (WHM)

  10. Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.K.

    1982-08-01

    Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H 2 C 2 → HC 2 H, HNC → HCN, and H 2 CO → H 2 + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I → Na + + I - is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  13. Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, following Bondar et al, {\\it Phys. Rev.} A 88, 052108 (2013), it is pointed out that quantum processes that preserve the positivity or nonpositivity of theWigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics.

  14. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  15. COLLEGE CLASSICAL ENROLLMENTS, 1965-66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIEBERMAN, SAMUEL

    THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA) STATISTICAL SURVEY AVAILABLE IN MARCH 1966 CORROBORATED PREVIOUS, LESS EXTENSIVE, STUDIES SPONSORED BY "THE CLASSICAL WORLD," AND SHOWED THAT ENROLLMENTS IN LATIN AND GREEK HAVE GROWN SLOWLY BUT RESPECTABLY, AND THAT ALTHOUGH A NUMBER OF COLLEGES DO NOT OFFER CLASSICAL LANGUAGES, MANY DO NOT PROVIDE…

  16. The Dirac equation in classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ord, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The Dirac equation, usually obtained by 'quantizing' a classical stochastic model is here obtained directly within classical statistical mechanics. The special underlying space-time geometry of the random walk replaces the missing analytic continuation, making the model 'self-quantizing'. This provides a new context for the Dirac equation, distinct from its usual context in relativistic quantum mechanics

  17. The Zoology of the classical islamic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe; Aarab, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This article brings a survey of research on the science of zoology in the Classical Arabic/Islamic Culture as revealed in texts on this subject written in Classical Arabic from the second half of the 8th century to the 15th century A.D. In the light of recent research and by use of examples from...

  18. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  19. Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…

  20. Why/How Does Classics Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Classics is in the news--or on the screen: "Gladiator" a few years ago, "Troy" very recently, "Alexander" as I write. How significant is this current Hollywood fascination with the ancient Greeks and Romans? Or should we take far more seriously the decline of the teaching of the Classical languages in schools, a…

  1. Linguistic Investigations into Ellipsis in Classical Sanskrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Brendan S.

    Ellipsis is a common phenomenon of Classical Sanskrit prose. No inventory of the forms of ellipsis in Classical Sanskrit has been made. This paper presents an inventory, based both on a systematic investigation of one text and on examples based on sundry reading.

  2. Copies of classical logic in intuitionistic logic

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Classical logic (the logic of non-constructive mathematics) is stronger than intuitionistic logic (the logic of constructive mathematics). Despite this, there are copies of classical logic in intuitionistic logic. All copies usually found in the literature are the same. This raises the question: is the copy unique? We answer negatively by presenting three different copies.

  3. Classical Conditioning: Eliciting the Right Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Classical conditioning is responsible for students' positive and negative feelings, whether directed toward subject matter, peers, teachers, or education in general. This article explains how educators can use classical conditioning principles (such as reinforcement, extinction, and paired stimuli) to create an anxiety-free learning environment.…

  4. Conduction bands in classical periodic potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The particle may hop from classically allowed site to nearest-neighbour classically allowed site in the potential, behaving as if it were a quantum particle in an energy gap and undergoing repeated tunnelling processes or; the particle may behave as a quantum particle in a conduction band and drift at a constant average ...

  5. Conduction bands in classical periodic potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a quantum particle in a conduction band and drift at a constant average velocity through the potential as if it were undergoing resonant tunnelling. The classical conduction bands for this potential are determined numerically with high precision. Keywords. PT symmetry; complex trajectories; complex classical mechanics; ...

  6. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  7. Quantum Statistical Operator and Classically Chaotic Hamiltonian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantum Statistical Operator and Classically Chaotic Hamiltonian System. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... In a Hamiltonian system von Neumann Statistical Operator is used to tease out the quantum consequence of (classical) chaos engendered by the nonlinear coupling of system to its ...

  8. Semiclassical Quantization of Classical Field Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattaneo, A.; Mnev, P.; Reshetikhin, N.; Calaque, D.; Strobi, Th.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract These lectures are an introduction to formal semiclassical quantization of classical field theory. First we develop the Hamiltonian formalism for classical field theories on space time with boundary. It does not have to be a cylinder as in the usual Hamiltonian framework. Then we outline

  9. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  10. Citation Classics from Industrial Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Adam; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    review, qualitative methodology, or quantitative methodology). In addition, these citation classics can be classified by topic (firm performance, goods-dominant and service-dominant logics, Internet and high-technology markets, product innovation, relationships and business networks, supply chains......This article proposes a categorization of what constitutes a citation classic. General observations reveal, with regard to the top 30 citation classics from Industrial Marketing Management, the number of authors per article, country of origin of the lead author, and type of article (literature......, system sellers and systems integrator, third-party logistics providers, and value). Finally, each of the 30 citation classics is introduced, and the classics' theoretical implications to business-to-business marketing management and fields related to (e.g., supply chain management, strategic management...

  11. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  12. Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.

  13. Emergence of quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual setting of quantum mechanics is subject to an ongoing debate from its beginnings until now. The consequences of the apparent differences between quantum statistics and classical statistics range from the philosophical interpretations to practical issues as quantum computing. In this note we demonstrate how quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistical systems. We discuss conditions and circumstances for this to happen. Quantum systems describe isolated subsystems of classical statistical systems with infinitely many states. While infinitely many classical observables 'measure' properties of the subsystem and its environment, the state of the subsystem can be characterized by the expectation values of only a few probabilistic observables. They define a density matrix, and all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem.

  14. Randomness in Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovich, Igor V.

    2011-03-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics assumes the existence of the classical deterministic Newtonian world. We argue that in fact the Newton determinism in classical world does not hold and in the classical mechanics there is fundamental and irreducible randomness. The classical Newtonian trajectory does not have a direct physical meaning since arbitrary real numbers are not observable. There are classical uncertainty relations: Δ q>0 and Δ p>0, i.e. the uncertainty (errors of observation) in the determination of coordinate and momentum is always positive (non zero). A "functional" formulation of classical mechanics was suggested. The fundamental equation of the microscopic dynamics in the functional approach is not the Newton equation but the Liouville equation for the distribution function of the single particle. Solutions of the Liouville equation have the property of delocalization which accounts for irreversibility. The Newton equation in this approach appears as an approximate equation describing the dynamics of the average values of the position and momenta for not too long time intervals. Corrections to the Newton trajectories are computed. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is attempted in which both classical and quantum mechanics contain fundamental randomness. Instead of an ensemble of events one introduces an ensemble of observers.

  15. Classical Ising chain in transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccoli, A.; Taiti, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.

    2007-01-01

    The spin 12 Ising chain in transverse field is considered the prototypical system for quantum phase transitions. However, very little is apparently known in literature about its classical counterpart, not to be confused with the standard classical Ising model: while the latter is constructed from classical discrete variables, the model we consider is a chain of classical vectors of modulus 1, interacting via an Ising-like Hamiltonian. When an uniform field is applied perpendicular to the exchange interaction, both the quantum model and its classical counterpart get to be characterized by a critical field separating a ferromagnetically ordered state of minimal energy from a paramagnetic one. The properties of the classical model, and especially the behaviour of the correlation length, are investigated at low temperature around the critical field and compared with those of the quantum model, in order to single out the role played by quantum and classical fluctuations at finite temperature; the possibility to experimentally observe peculiar quantum critical effects in Ising spin chains is discussed

  16. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. On the quantization of classically chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, N.F. de.

    1988-01-01

    Some propeties of a quantization in terms of observables of a classically chaotic system, which exhibits a strange are studied. It is shown in particular that convenient expected values of some observables have the correct classical limit and that in these cases the limits ℎ → O and t → ∞ (t=time) rigorously comute. This model was alternatively quantized by R.Graham in terms of Wigner function. The Graham's analysis is completed a few points, in particular, we find out a remarkable analogy with general results about the semi-classical limit of Wigner function. Finally the expected values obtained by both methods of quantization were compared. (author) [pt

  18. Classical dynamics of particles and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, Jerry B

    1965-01-01

    Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems presents a modern and reasonably complete account of the classical mechanics of particles, systems of particles, and rigid bodies for physics students at the advanced undergraduate level. The book aims to present a modern treatment of classical mechanical systems in such a way that the transition to the quantum theory of physics can be made with the least possible difficulty; to acquaint the student with new mathematical techniques and provide sufficient practice in solving problems; and to impart to the student some degree of sophistication in handl

  19. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L; Flores, J; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics

  20. Classical Music, liveness and digital technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Performances of classical composition music have seen a decline in their audiences for some years. Does the classical concert ritual scare people off? This notion has spurred off a development of design concepts directed at rethinking concert rituals in order to create new audience experiences...... of interrelated design experiments are presented which all share the ambition of integration digital technologies in life performances of classical music. A particular focus is put on the ongoing development of a design concept where interactive audio and visual experiences in an underground metro station shall...

  1. Classical realizability in the CPS target language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by considerations about Krivine's classical realizability, we introduce a term calculus for an intuitionistic logic with record types, which we call the CPS target language. We give a reformulation of the constructions of classical realizability in this language, using the categorical...... techniques of realizability triposes and toposes. We argue that the presentation of classical realizability in the CPS target language simplifies calculations in realizability toposes, in particular it admits a nice presentation of conjunction as intersection type which is inspired by Girard's ludics....

  2. Classical thermodynamics of non-electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Van Ness, H C

    1964-01-01

    Classical Thermodynamics of Non-Electrolyte Solutions covers the historical development of classical thermodynamics that concerns the properties of vapor and liquid solutions of non-electrolytes. Classical thermodynamics is a network of equations, developed through the formal logic of mathematics from a very few fundamental postulates and leading to a great variety of useful deductions. This book is composed of seven chapters and begins with discussions on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and the thermodynamic properties of fluids. The succeeding chapter presents the equations of state for

  3. Beethoven : The Arbiter of Classical Style

    OpenAIRE

    デュカウスキー, トム

    2002-01-01

    The Classical style of music met its absolute apex in the music of Ludwig van Beethoven. To illustrate this, I shall divide this paper into four parts. First, I shall explain the underlying structure and tonal qualities of Classical music, making many references to Charles Rosen's book on the subject, which is considered to be the best and most thorough study of classical music to date. In part two, I shall make an in-depth analysis of an early work by Beethoven, String Quartet #6,opus 18 in ...

  4. Bohmian measures and their classical limit

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter

    2010-09-01

    We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations of the sequence of wave functions under consideration. The obtained results are consequently compared to those derived via semi-classical Wigner measures. To this end, we shall also give a connection to the theory of Young measures and prove several new results on Wigner measures themselves. Our analysis gives new insight on oscillation and concentration effects in the semi-classical regime. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  6. Quantum vertex model for reversible classical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, C; Mucciolo, E R; Ruckenstein, A E; Yang, Z-C

    2017-05-12

    Mappings of classical computation onto statistical mechanics models have led to remarkable successes in addressing some complex computational problems. However, such mappings display thermodynamic phase transitions that may prevent reaching solution even for easy problems known to be solvable in polynomial time. Here we map universal reversible classical computations onto a planar vertex model that exhibits no bulk classical thermodynamic phase transition, independent of the computational circuit. Within our approach the solution of the computation is encoded in the ground state of the vertex model and its complexity is reflected in the dynamics of the relaxation of the system to its ground state. We use thermal annealing with and without 'learning' to explore typical computational problems. We also construct a mapping of the vertex model into the Chimera architecture of the D-Wave machine, initiating an approach to reversible classical computation based on state-of-the-art implementations of quantum annealing.

  7. Can classical noise enhance quantum transmission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, Mark M

    2009-01-01

    A modified quantum teleportation protocol broadens the scope of the classical forbidden-interval theorems for stochastic resonance. The fidelity measures performance of quantum communication. The sender encodes the two classical bits for quantum teleportation as weak bipolar subthreshold signals and sends them over a noisy classical channel. Two forbidden-interval theorems provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of the nonmonotone stochastic resonance effect in the fidelity of quantum teleportation. The condition is that the noise mean must fall outside a forbidden interval related to the detection threshold and signal value. An optimal amount of classical noise benefits quantum communication when the sender transmits weak signals, the receiver detects with a high threshold and the noise mean lies outside the forbidden interval. Theorems and simulations demonstrate that both finite-variance and infinite-variance noise benefit the fidelity of quantum teleportation.

  8. From quantumness to classicality: A Bohmian journey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Ángel S.

    2014-01-01

    WG2 workshop "Quantum and Classical Complexity: From Atoms to Biosystems", Homburg, Germany, 5-7 May 2014. Dedicated to Hermann Hartmann on the Occasion of his 100th Birthday. http://www.theochem.uni-frankfurt.de/COST/FRANKFURT2014/

  9. The complexity of arterial classical monocyte recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Maik; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of classical monocytes is imperative for the progression of atherosclerosis. Hence, therapeutic interference with mechanisms of lesional monocyte recruitment, the primary mechanism controlling macrophage accumulation, may allow for targeting atheroprogression and its clinical

  10. Classic Phenylketonuria: Diagnosis Through Heterozygote Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert F.; Elsas, Louis J.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the identification of the asymptomatic carrier of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) 59 male and female normal control Ss were differentiated from 18 males and females heterozgous for PKU. (DB)

  11. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  12. Quantum machine learning: a classical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberto, Carlo; Herbster, Mark; Ialongo, Alessandro Davide; Pontil, Massimiliano; Rocchetto, Andrea; Severini, Simone; Wossnig, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as algorithmic advances, have led machine learning (ML) techniques to impressive results in regression, classification, data generation and reinforcement learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets is motivating a growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the power of quantum computation to speed up classical ML algorithms. Here we review the literature in quantum ML and discuss perspectives for a mixed readership of classical ML and quantum computation experts. Particular emphasis will be placed on clarifying the limitations of quantum algorithms, how they compare with their best classical counterparts and why quantum resources are expected to provide advantages for learning problems. Learning in the presence of noise and certain computationally hard problems in ML are identified as promising directions for the field. Practical questions, such as how to upload classical data into quantum form, will also be addressed.

  13. The classical limit of W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Ramos, E.

    1992-01-01

    We define and compute explicitly the classical limit of the realizations of W n appearing as hamiltonian structures of generalized KdV hierarchies. The classical limit is obtained by taking the commutative limit of the ring of pseudodifferential operators. These algebras - denoted w n - have free field realizations in which the generators are given by the elementary symmetric polynomials in the free fields. We compute the algebras explicitly and we show that they are all reductions of a new algebra w KP , which is proposed as the universal classical W-algebra for the w n series. As a deformation of this algebra we also obtain w 1+∞ , the classical limit of W 1+∞ . (orig.)

  14. Classical algebra its nature, origins, and uses

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger L

    2008-01-01

    This insightful book combines the history, pedagogy, and popularization of algebra to present a unified discussion of the subject. Classical Algebra provides a complete and contemporary perspective on classical polynomial algebra through the exploration of how it was developed and how it exists today. With a focus on prominent areas such as the numerical solutions of equations, the systematic study of equations, and Galois theory, this book facilitates a thorough understanding of algebra and illustrates how the concepts of modern algebra originally developed from classical algebraic precursors. This book successfully ties together the disconnect between classical and modern algebraand provides readers with answers to many fascinating questions that typically go unexamined, including: What is algebra about? How did it arise? What uses does it have? How did it develop? What problems and issues have occurred in its history? How were these problems and issues resolved? The author answers these questions and more,...

  15. Quantum machine learning: a classical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberto, Carlo; Herbster, Mark; Ialongo, Alessandro Davide; Pontil, Massimiliano; Rocchetto, Andrea; Severini, Simone; Wossnig, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as algorithmic advances, have led machine learning (ML) techniques to impressive results in regression, classification, data generation and reinforcement learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets is motivating a growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the power of quantum computation to speed up classical ML algorithms. Here we review the literature in quantum ML and discuss perspectives for a mixed readership of classical ML and quantum computation experts. Particular emphasis will be placed on clarifying the limitations of quantum algorithms, how they compare with their best classical counterparts and why quantum resources are expected to provide advantages for learning problems. Learning in the presence of noise and certain computationally hard problems in ML are identified as promising directions for the field. Practical questions, such as how to upload classical data into quantum form, will also be addressed.

  16. Semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilansky, U.

    1992-02-01

    The semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards will be developed using scattering theory approach. This will be used to introduce and explain the inherent difficulties in the semi-classical quantization of chaos, and to show some of the modern tools which were developed recently to overcome these difficulties. To this end, we shall first obtain a semi-classical secular equation which is based on a finite number of classical periodic orbits. We shall use it to derive some spectral properties, and in particular to investigate the relationship between spectral statistics of quantum chaotic systems and the predictions of random-matrix theory. We shall finally discuss an important family of chaotic billiard, whose statistics does not follow any of the canonical ensembles, (GOE,GUE,...) but rather, corresponds to a new universality class. (author)

  17. High Temperature Plasmas Theory and Mathematical Tools for Laser and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Spatschek, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Filling the gap for a treatment of the subject as an advanced course in theoretical physics with a huge potential for future applications, this monograph discusses aspects of these applications and provides theoretical methods and tools for their investigation. Throughout this coherent and up-to-date work the main emphasis is on classical plasmas at high-temperatures, drawing on the experienced author's specialist background. As such, it covers the key areas of magnetic fusion plasma, laser-plasma-interaction and astrophysical plasmas, while also including nonlinear waves and phenomena.

  18. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  19. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Novel plasma sources for the plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The plasma opening switch (POS) is used in pulsed power systems where a fast opening and very high current switch is required. Plasma is injected into the switch, which carries a large conduction current before it opens in a process that lasts for a few nanoseconds and transfers the current to a parallel-connected load. The conduction and opening times of the switch are dependent on the plasma parameters such as distribution, speed, temperature and species, which are all determined by the plasma source. This thesis begins with a description of the POS, with its conduction and opening mechanisms and the techniques of plasma generation all being considered, before it concentrates on the simple and inexpensive carbon gun. Plasma is normally produced by a pulsed discharge that evolves plasma from the evaporation and ionisation of a carbon based insulator. The first prototype carbon gun discussed in the thesis uses a classical coaxial arrangement that successfully produces dense, fast and hot plasma, although this is only capable of filling a small region with plasma. A number of plasma diagnostic techniques are described, before details are provided of the electrical probes that were used to characterise the plasma. In a large POS a well-distributed plasma is obtained by combining a large number of guns in a complex and large system. This restricts the compactness of the POS resulting in a problem for any future commercial applications. A succession of developments to the prototype gun has led to a novel ring-shaped version that produces a much improved distribution of plasma, without the need for additional guns. In this, a pulsed discharge is initiated at a single point and the self-generated magnetic field forces the discharge to spread and to travel around the gun, whilst continuously ejecting plasma into the POS. The ideas and theories that explain how a discharge can be forced to move are described, together with details of the prototype designs. Results are

  1. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration

  2. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  3. Classical Music Clustering Based on Acoustic Features

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xindi; Haque, Syed Arefinul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we cluster 330 classical music pieces collected from MusicNet database based on their musical note sequence. We use shingling and chord trajectory matrices to create signature for each music piece and performed spectral clustering to find the clusters. Based on different resolution, the output clusters distinctively indicate composition from different classical music era and different composing style of the musicians.

  4. Classical and Quantum Chaos in Atom Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Saif, Farhan

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of an atom with an electromagnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electromagnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits ...

  5. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Despres, JP; Burnard, Pamela Anne; Dube, F; Stevance, S

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice’s aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers’ thinking processes are not yet thoroughly documented. As a result of this gap, our research addresses the following question: What strategies are implement...

  6. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  7. On classical orthogonal polynomials and differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranian, L

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the four families of classical orthogonal polynomials (Jacobi, Bessel, Hermite and Laguerre) each satisfy an equation FP n (x) = λ n P n (x), n ≥ 0, for an appropriate second-order differential operator F. In this paper it is shown that any linear differential operator U which has the Jacobi, Bessel, Hermite or Laguerre polynomials as eigenfunctions has to be a polynomial with constant coefficients in the classical second-order operator F

  8. New mechanism for bubble nucleation: Classical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T. Jr; Hui Lam; Lim, Eugene A.

    2009-01-01

    Given a scalar field with metastable minima, bubbles nucleate quantum mechanically. When bubbles collide, energy stored in the bubble walls is converted into kinetic energy of the field. This kinetic energy can facilitate the classical nucleation of new bubbles in minima that lie below those of the 'parent' bubbles. This process is efficient and classical, and changes the dynamics and statistics of bubble formation in models with multiple vacua, relative to that derived from quantum tunneling.

  9. PLASMA ENERGIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, H.P.; Chambers, E.S.

    1962-03-01

    BS>A method is given for ion cyclotron resonance heatthg of a magnetically confined plasma by an applied radio-frequency field. In accordance with the invention, the radiofrequency energy is transferred to the plasma without the usual attendent self-shielding effect of plasma polarlzatlon, whereby the energy transfer is accomplished with superior efficiency. More explicitly, the invention includes means for applying a radio-frequency electric field radially to an end of a plasma column confined in a magnetic mirror field configuration. The radio-frequency field propagates hydromagnetic waves axially through the column with the waves diminishing in an intermediate region of the column at ion cyclotron resonance with the fleld frequency. In such region the wave energy is converted by viscous damping to rotational energy of the plasma ions. (AEC)

  10. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  11. Bohmian mechanics and the emergence of classicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzkin, A

    2009-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics is endowed with an ontological package that supposedly allows to solve the main interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We are concerned in this work by the emergence of classicality from the quantum mechanical substrate. We will argue that although being superficially attractive, the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation does not shed new light on the quantum-to-classical transition. This is due to nature of the dynamical law of Bohmian mechanics by which the particles follow the streamlines of the probability flow. As a consequence, Bohmian trajectories can be highly non-classical even when the wavefunction propagates along classical trajectories, as happens in semiclassical systems. In order to account for classical dynamics, Bohmian mechanics needs non-spreading and non-interfering wave packets: this is achieved for practical purposes by having recourse to decoherence and dense measurements. However one then faces the usual fundamental problems associated with the meaning of reduced density matrices. Moreover the specific assets of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation - in particular the existence of point-like particles pursuing well-defined trajectories - would play no role in accounting for the emergence of classical dynamics.

  12. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  13. The Spectral Web of stationary plasma equilibria. II. Internal modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The new method of the Spectral Web to calculate the spectrum of waves and instabilities of plasma equilibria with sizeable flows, developed in the preceding Paper I [Goedbloed, Phys. Plasmas 25, 032109 (2018)], is applied to a collection of classical magnetohydrodynamic instabilities operating in

  14. Relativistic effects on the modulational instability of electron plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Centre for Science Education and Research, P-1 B.P. Township, Kolkata 700 094, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: bsdvghosh@gmail.com. MS received 24 August 2011; revised .... tic electron plasma waves in classical plasma. The group dispersion effect is found to increase sharply with wavenumber k in the low-k ...

  15. Decreased adrenomedullary function in infants with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mimi S; Ryabets-Lienhard, Anna; Bali, Bhavna; Lane, Christianne J; Park, Ashley H; Hall, Sandra; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2014-08-01

    Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency can cause life-threatening adrenal crises as well as severe hypoglycemia, especially in very young children. Studies of CAH patients 4 years old or older have found abnormal morphology and function of the adrenal medulla and lower levels of epinephrine and glucose in response to stress than in controls. However, it is unknown whether such adrenomedullary abnormalities develop in utero and/or exist during the clinically high-risk period of infancy and early childhood. The objective of the study was to characterize adrenomedullary function in infants with CAH by comparing their catecholamine levels with controls. Design/Settings: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in a pediatric tertiary care center. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were measured by HPLC. Infants with CAH (n = 9, aged 9.6 ± 11.4 d) had significantly lower epinephrine levels than controls [n = 12, aged 7.2 ± 3.2 d: median 84 [(25th; 75th) 51; 87] vs 114.5 (86; 175.8) pg/mL, respectively (P = .02)]. Norepinephrine to epinephrine ratios were also significantly higher in CAH patients than controls (P = .01). The control infants had primary hypothyroidism, but pre- and posttreatment analyses revealed no confounding effects on catecholamine levels. This study demonstrates for the first time that infants with classical CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency have significantly lower plasma epinephrine levels than controls, indicating that impaired adrenomedullary function may occur during fetal development and be present from birth. A longitudinal study of adrenomedullary function in CAH patients from infancy through early childhood is warranted.

  16. Entanglement-assisted classical communication can simulate classical communication without causal order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akibue, Seiseki; Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Murao, Mio

    2017-12-01

    Phenomena induced by the existence of entanglement, such as nonlocal correlations, exhibit characteristic properties of quantum mechanics distinguishing from classical theories. When entanglement is accompanied by classical communication, it enhances the power of quantum operations jointly performed by two spatially separated parties. Such a power has been analyzed by the gap between the performances of joint quantum operations implementable by local operations at each party connected by classical communication with and without the assistance of entanglement. In this work, we present a formulation for joint quantum operations connected by classical communication beyond special relativistic causal order but without entanglement and still within quantum mechanics. Using the formulation, we show that entanglement-assisting classical communication necessary for implementing a class of joint quantum operations called separable operations can be interpreted to simulate "classical communication" that does not respect causal order. Our results reveal a counterintuitive aspect of entanglement related to space-time.

  17. Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator, or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of nonlocal plasma oscillation. A Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression and electron/ion acceleration

  18. Current control necessary for toroidal plasma equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, S.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a significant amount of dipole current is necessary for the plasma equilibrium of toroidal configurations in general. Through the vector product with the poloidal field, this dipole current force has to balance with the hoop force of plasma pressure itself of the annular shape. The measurement of such a current of dipole type may be interesting for the confirmation of the plasma equilibrium in the toroidal system. Moreover it is certained that there is a new mode of a tokamak operation with such a dipole current component and with smaller vertical field than that based on the classical tokamak theory. (author) [pt

  19. Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufty, James W.

    2007-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.

  20. Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájícek, P

    2012-01-01

    Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is no such disturbance, one finds a new interpretation of von Neumann's 'first kind of dynamics', and so a new way to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. The present paper gives a very short review of this work.

  1. Population structure of the Classic period Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Andrew K

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the population structure of Classic period (A.D. 250-900) Maya populations through analysis of odontometric variation of 827 skeletons from 12 archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The hypothesis that isolation by distance characterized Classic period Maya population structure is tested using Relethford and Blangero's (Hum Biol 62 (1990) 5-25) approach to R matrix analysis for quantitative traits. These results provide important biological data for understanding ancient Maya population history, particularly the effects of the competing Tikal and Calakmul hegemonies on patterns of lowland Maya site interaction. An overall F(ST) of 0.018 is found for the Maya area, indicating little among-group variation for the Classic Maya sites tested. Principal coordinates plots derived from the R matrix analysis show little regional patterning in the data, though the geographic outliers of Kaminaljuyu and a pooled Pacific Coast sample did not cluster with the lowland Maya sites. Mantel tests comparing the biological distance matrix to a geographic distance matrix found no association between genetic and geographic distance. In the Relethford-Blangero analysis, most sites possess negative or near-zero residuals, indicating minimal extraregional gene flow. The exceptions were Barton Ramie, Kaminaljuyu, and Seibal. A scaled R matrix analysis clarifies that genetic drift is a consideration for understanding Classic Maya population structure. All results indicate that isolation by distance does not describe Classic period Maya population structure. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey; Deriglazov, Alexei; Guzman, Walberto

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)

  3. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  4. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  5. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  6. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  7. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  8. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  9. Unification of Quantum and Gravity by Non Classical Information Entropy Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Fiscaletti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantum entropy space is suggested as the fundamental arena describing the quantum effects. In the quantum regime the entropy is expressed as the superposition of many different Boltzmann entropies that span the space of the entropies before any measure. When a measure is performed the quantum entropy collapses to one component. A suggestive reading of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics and of Bohm’s quantum potential in terms of the quantum entropy are provided. The space associated with the quantum entropy determines a distortion in the classical space of position, which appears as a Weyl-like gauge potential connected with Fisher information. This Weyl-like gauge potential produces a deformation of the moments which changes the classical action in such a way that Bohm’s quantum potential emerges as consequence of the non classical definition of entropy, in a non-Euclidean information space under the constraint of a minimum condition of Fisher information (Fisher Bohm- entropy. Finally, the possible quantum relativistic extensions of the theory and the connections with the problem of quantum gravity are investigated. The non classical thermodynamic approach to quantum phenomena changes the geometry of the particle phase space. In the light of the representation of gravity in ordinary phase space by torsion in the flat space (Teleparallel gravity, the change of geometry in the phase space introduces quantum phenomena in a natural way. This gives a new force to F. Shojai’s and A. Shojai’s theory where the geometry of space-time is highly coupled with a quantum potential whose origin is not the Schrödinger equation but the non classical entropy of a system of many particles that together change the geometry of the phase space of the positions (entanglement. In this way the non classical thermodynamic changes the classical geodetic as a consequence of the quantum phenomena and quantum and gravity are unified. Quantum

  10. Classical diffusion: theory and simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.; Hu, P.N.

    1977-01-01

    The nonstandard mathematical and numerical problems which arise in classical diffusion theory upon reinsertion of the time derivative of the magnetic field (curl E not equal to 0) are discussed. The extension of classical diffusion theory to curl E not equal to 0 requires solution of a global boundary value problem before the surface averaged flux can be obtained. It also introduces coupling between plamsa diffusion and magnetic flux diffusion (the shin effect). The most effective method for treating Grad--Hogan classical diffusion was to introduce independent and dependent variables so as to eliminate the convection velocity (it can be computed afterwards). This procedure reduced the nonstandard, two dimensional problem to one with computation time only slightly more than for a one-dimensional diffusion problem. 23 references, 1 figure

  11. Classical bound for Mach-Zehnder superresolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I; Ambar, O; Silberberg, Y

    2010-03-26

    The employment of path-entangled multiphoton states enables measurement of phase with enhanced precision. It is common practice to demonstrate the unique properties of such quantum states by measuring superresolving oscillations in the coincidence rate of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Similar oscillations, however, have also been demonstrated in various configurations using classical light only; making it unclear what, if any, are the classical limits of this phenomenon. Here we derive a classical bound for the visibility of superresolving oscillations in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This provides an easy to apply, fundamental test of nonclassicality. We apply this test to experimental multiphoton coincidence measurements obtained using photon number resolving detectors. Mach-Zehnder superresolution is found to be a highly distinctive quantum effect.

  12. The chronicle of the classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalo, J.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    In this Chronicle of the classical electrodynamics it is shown how this important branch of classical physics was developed since the mathematical formulation of the electromagnetism empiric laws carried by Maxwell, mainly the laws of Coulomb, Oersted, Ampere, Biot-Savart, Faraday, Henry and Lenz, up to the settlement of the radiation theory, scientific background for the technological development of the wireless telegraphy. Through this chronicle, it is also seen how Maxwell got one of the main results of the past century classical physics - the electromagnetic theory of light -, and how the experimental production of an electromagnetic wave by Hertz, unchained a collection of theoretical papers which explained many experimental results such as dispersion of light, thermical radiation, X-rays and its scattering through the matter. At last, it is still seen that the study of electrodynamics of moving bodies led to the relativity theory, presented by Einstein's famous paper about such subject. (Author) [pt

  13. Globalising the classical foundations of IPE thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Helleiner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current efforts to teach and research the historical foundations of IPE thought in classical political economy in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries centre largely on European and American thinkers. If a more extensive 'global conversation' is to be fostered in the field today, the perspectives of thinkers in other regions need to be recognised, and brought into the mainstream of its intellectual history. As a first step towards 'globalising' the classical foundations of IPE thought, this article demonstrates some ways in which thinkers located beyond Europe and the United States engaged with and contributed to debates associated with the three well-known classical traditions on which current IPE scholarship often draws: economic liberalism, economic nationalism and Marxism. It also reveals the extensive nature of 'global conversations' about IPE issues in this earlier era.

  14. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kodrat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal neuralgia is a debilitating pain syndrome with a distinct symptom mainly excruciating facial pain that tends to come and go unpredictably in sudden shock-like attacks. Medical management remains the primary treatment for classical trigeminal neuralgia. When medical therapy failed, surgery with microvascular decompression can be performed. Radiosurgery can be offered for classical trigeminal neuralgia patients who are not surgical candidate or surgery refusal and they should not in acute pain condition. Radiosurgery is widely used because of good therapeutic result and low complication rate. Weakness of this technique is a latency period, which is time required for pain relief. It usually ranges from 1 to 2 months. This review enlightens the important role of radiosurgery in the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia.

  15. Quantum and classical optics–emerging links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J H; Qian, Xiao-Feng; Qasimi, Asma Al; Ali, Hazrat; Alonso, M A; Gutiérrez-Cuevas, R; Little, Bethany J; Howell, John C; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A N

    2016-01-01

    Quantum optics and classical optics are linked in ways that are becoming apparent as a result of numerous recent detailed examinations of the relationships that elementary notions of optics have with each other. These elementary notions include interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement. All of them are present in both quantum and classical optics. They have historic origins, and at least partly for this reason not all of them have quantitative definitions that are universally accepted. This makes further investigation into their engagement in optics very desirable. We pay particular attention to effects that arise from the mere co-existence of separately identifiable and readily available vector spaces. Exploitation of these vector-space relationships are shown to have unfamiliar theoretical implications and new options for observation. It is our goal to bring emerging quantum–classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work will promote discussion and lead to unified understanding. (invited comment)

  16. Modeling Classical Heat Conduction in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hendon, Raymond Cori [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory FLAG code contains both electron and ion heat conduction modules; these have been constructed to be directly relevant to user application problems. However, formal code verification of these modules requires quantitative comparison to exact solutions of the underlying mathematical models. A wide variety of exact solutions to the classical heat conduction equation are available for this purpose. This report summarizes efforts involving the representation of the classical heat conduction equation as following from the large electron-ion coupling limit of the electron and ion 3T temperature equations, subject to electron and ion conduction processes. In FLAG, this limiting behavior is quantitatively verified using a simple exact solution of the classical heat conduction equation. For this test problem, both heat conduction modules produce nearly identical spatial electron and ion temperature profiles that converge at slightly less than 2nd order to the corresponding exact solution.

  17. Compound heterozygosity in nonphenylketonuria hyperphenylalanemia: the contribution of mutations for classical phenylketonuria.

    OpenAIRE

    Avigad, S; Kleiman, S; Weinstein, M; Cohen, B E; Schwartz, G; Woo, S L; Shiloh, Y

    1991-01-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) results from defective hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the liver, in most cases because of defective phenylalanine hydroxylase. HPA is highly variable, ranging from moderate elevation of plasma phenylalanine with no clinical consequences to a severe disease, classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Non-PKU HPA was found in excess of PKU in Israel, while the opposite is true in Europe. To study the genetic basis of non-PKU HPA, we performed haplotype analysis at the pheny...

  18. Classical and quantum chaos in atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, Farhan

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of an atom with an electro-magnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electro-magnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits dynamical localization and quantum recurrences

  19. Violation of quantum inequalities with classical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, J. Acacio de; Sant'Anna, Adonai S.

    1997-01-01

    We use as experimental configuration two classical sources α 1 (θ 1 ) with θ 1 phase, and α 2 (θ 2 ) with θ 2 phase, and a third one u(θ) with unknown phase, to be studied. The configuration has two homodyne detections (D 1 , D 2 ) and (D 3 , D 4 ). We compute the correlation functions which violate the inequalities. We calculate the classical intensities for the four detectors used in configuration. These intensities are conditioned in the θ variable. For obtaining the unconditional intensities we assume an uniform distribution for θ, and integrate the expressions for all the possible θ values

  20. Classical solutions of Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews classical, static solutions of the Yang Mills field equations in the presence of charge and current sources. The full Yang Mills equations are given. Abelian solutions are considered, but the paper really concentrates on nonabelian solutions describing spherically symmetric situations. A situation is called spherically symmetric if any deviation from the symmetry can be gauged away. The discussed solutions can be considered as the simplest non-abelian generalization of the well known Coulomb-Biot-Savart solution in classical electrodynamics

  1. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  2. Classical Fields Derived from Quantum Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Fred Gordon

    The Clifford algebra C(,4) is shown to be a suitable formalism for classical and quantum physics, and enables classical electromagnetic and gravitational field equations to be derived from the quantum conservation laws for electric charge and energy-momentum. The resulting linear theory of gravitation is shown to make predictions in agreement with the results of the classic weak field tests of gravitation theories. The C(,4) formalism is a physically intuitive, unifying, and mathematically powerful formalism. It can be developed as a geometric algebra in which its elements and operations have direct geometrical interpretations. The Dirac algebra of 4 x 4 matrices is a matrix representation of C(,4). C(,4) also contains the Pauli algebra, the generators of the Lorentz group, tensors, and differential forms. Because of these features C(,4) is both unifying, effectively merging tensor formulations of classical physics with the Dirac and Pauli algebras of quantum physics, and mathematically powerful, as its simple rules allow a wide variety of mathematical operations and structures to be defined. The unified treatment of classical and quantum physics permits a straightforward discussion of the classical limit of quantum field equations and conservation laws. Electromagnetic and gravitational field equations are derived from the local conservation laws for electric charge and energy-momentum by using the Poincare lemma from differential forms theory. The electromagnetic field equations thereby obtained are the usual Maxwell equations. The gravitational field equations obtained have an analogous mathematical form to the Maxwell equations and describe a linear gravitational field. The resulting theory provides a relativistic treatment of the motion of particles in a central gravitational field. The theory makes predictions in agreement with the predictions of general relativity for the classic weak field tests so can be considered a valid theory in problems in which the

  3. Beam structures classical and advanced theories

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Beam theories are exploited worldwide to analyze civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures. Many beam approaches have been proposed during the last centuries by eminent scientists such as Euler, Bernoulli, Navier, Timoshenko, Vlasov, etc.  Most of these models are problem dependent: they provide reliable results for a given problem, for instance a given section and cannot be applied to a different one. Beam Structures: Classical and Advanced Theories proposes a new original unified approach to beam theory that includes practically all classical and advanced models for be

  4. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way

  5. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadi, Z. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Laboratoire de physique théorique, Faculté des sciences exactes, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Menas, F. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Ecole Nationale Préparatoire aux Etudes d’ingéniorat, Laboratoire de physique, RN 5 Rouiba, Alger (Algeria); Bérard, A. [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France); Mohrbach, H., E-mail: herve.mohrbach@univ-lorraine.fr [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.

  6. Mathematical optics classical, quantum, and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2012-01-01

    Going beyond standard introductory texts, Mathematical Optics: Classical, Quantum, and Computational Methods brings together many new mathematical techniques from optical science and engineering research. Profusely illustrated, the book makes the material accessible to students and newcomers to the field. Divided into six parts, the text presents state-of-the-art mathematical methods and applications in classical optics, quantum optics, and image processing. Part I describes the use of phase space concepts to characterize optical beams and the application of dynamic programming in optical wave

  7. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannous, C; Langlois, J

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems. (review)

  8. On the Classical and Quantum Momentum Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Chiara

    In this thesis we study the classical and quantum momentum maps and the theory of reduction. We focus on the notion of momentum map in Poisson geometry and we discuss the classification of the momentum map in this framework. Furthermore, we describe the so-called Poisson Reduction, a technique...... that allows us to reduce the dimension of a manifold in presence of symmetries implemented by Poisson actions. Using techniques of deformation quantization and quantum groups, we introduce the quantum momentum map as a deformation of the classical momentum map, constructed in such a way that it factorizes...

  9. Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)

  10. Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Gerald

    2008-11-03

    anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)

  11. Random electrodynamics: the theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation is outlined here under the title random electrodynamics. The work represents a reanalysis of the bounds of validity of classical electron theory which should sharpen the understanding of the connections and distinctions between classical and quantum theories. The new theory of random electrodynamics is a classical electron theory involving Newton's equations for particle motion due to the Lorentz force, and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields with point particles as sources. However, the theory departs from the classical electron theory of Lorentz in that it adopts a new boundary condition on Maxwell's equations. It is assumed that the homogeneous boundary condition involves random classical electromagnetic radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum, classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. The implications of random electrodynamics for atomic structure, atomic spectra, and particle-interference effects are discussed on an order-of-magnitude or heuristic level. Some detailed mathematical connections and some merely heuristic connections are noted between random electrodynamics and quantum theory. (U.S.)

  12. Fluctuations properties and collective modes of quantum plasmas in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; Van Horn, H.M.; Ichimaru, S.

    1993-01-01

    A complete set of equilibrium fluctuation formulas for the charge density, the momentum density and the energy density of a magnetized one-component quantum plasma is presented. The derivation is based on the use of equations of motion for Fourier-transformed imaginary-time Green functions. The

  13. Nonlocal transport in hot plasma. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of describing charged particle transport in hot plasma under the conditions in which the ratio of the electron mean free path to the gradient length is not too small is one of the key problems of plasma physics. However, up to now, there was a deficit of the systematic interpretation of the current state of this problem, which, in most studies, is formulated as the problem of nonlocal transport. In this review, we fill this gap by presenting a self-consistent linear theory of nonlocal transport for small plasma perturbations and an arbitrary collisionality from the classical highly collisional hydrodynamic regime to the collisionless regime. We describe a number of nonlinear transport models and demonstrate the application of the nonclassical transport theory to the solution of some problems of plasma physics, first of all for plasmas produced by nanosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 13 –10 16 W/cm 2

  14. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  15. On incompleteness of classical field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sardanashvily, G.

    2009-01-01

    Classical field theory is adequately formulated as Lagrangian theory on fibre bundles and graded manifolds. One however observes that non-trivial higher stage Noether identities and gauge symmetries of a generic reducible degenerate Lagrangian field theory fail to be defined. Therefore, such a field theory can not be quantized.

  16. Classical diagnostic radiological features of Von Recklinghausen's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and appropriately guiding management decisions. The patient presented is a 29- year old female who had presented with right orbital and periorbital masses, lisch nodules, multiple scalp and body nodules, cranial bony defect and complex kyphoscoliosis. She had three of the seven classical diagnostic features of NF-1 ...

  17. Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1977-01-01

    A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...

  18. Quantum machine learning: a classical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberto, Carlo; Herbster, Mark; Ialongo, Alessandro Davide; Pontil, Massimiliano; Severini, Simone; Wossnig, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as algorithmic advances, have led machine learning (ML) techniques to impressive results in regression, classification, data generation and reinforcement learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets is motivating a growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the power of quantum computation to speed up classical ML algorithms. Here we review the literature in quantum ML and discuss perspectives for a mixed readership of classical ML and quantum computation experts. Particular emphasis will be placed on clarifying the limitations of quantum algorithms, how they compare with their best classical counterparts and why quantum resources are expected to provide advantages for learning problems. Learning in the presence of noise and certain computationally hard problems in ML are identified as promising directions for the field. Practical questions, such as how to upload classical data into quantum form, will also be addressed. PMID:29434508

  19. Multiple-Access Quantum-Classical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mohsen

    2011-10-01

    A multi-user network that supports both classical and quantum communication is proposed. By relying on optical code-division multiple access techniques, this system offers simultaneous key exchange between multiple pairs of network users. A lower bound on the secure key generation rate will be derived for decoy-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  20. Classical or equilibrium thermodynamics: basic conceptual aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Calvo Tiritan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Classical or Equilibrium Thermodynamics is one of the most consolidated fields of Physics. It is synthesized by a well-known and self coherent knowledge structure. The essence of the Classical Thermodynamics theoretical structure consists of a set of natural laws that rule the macroscopic physical systems behavior. These laws were formulated based on observations generalizations and are mostly independent of any hypotheses concerning the microscopic nature of the matter. In general, the approaches established for the Classical Thermodynamics follow one of the following alternatives: the historical approach that describes chronologically the evolution of ideas, concepts and facts, and the postulational approach in which postulates are formulated but are not demonstrated a priori but can be confirmed a posteriori. In this work, a brief review of the pre-classical historical approach conceptual evolution is elaborated, from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. As for this, the following themes are dealt with in an evolutionary and phenomenological way: heat nature, thermometry, calorimetry, Carnot’s heat engine, heat mechanical equivalent and the first and second laws. The Zeroth law that was formulated afterwards is included in the discussion.

  1. Immune reactions in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppema, S; Potters, M; Emmens, R; Visser, L; van den Berg, A.

    The immune reaction in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) can be separated into an inflammatory response in the involved tissues and a generalized immune response in the patient. The local immune reaction in HL is by far the most prominent among all tumors, with the exception of so called T-cell-rich

  2. Embedding classical fields in quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, S.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a procedure for quantizing a classical field theory which is the field-theoretica analog of Sudarshan's method for embedding a classical-mechanical system in a quantum-mechanical system. The essence of the difference between our quantization procedure and Fock-space quantization lies in the choice of vacuum states. The key to our choice of vacuum is the procedure we outline for constructing Lagrangians which have gradient terms linear in the field varialbes from classical Lagrangians which have gradient terms which are quadratic in field variables. We apply this procedure to model electrodynamic field theories, Yang-Mills theories, and a vierbein model of gravity. In the case of electrodynamics models we find a formalism with a close similarity to the coherent-soft-photon-state formalism of QED. In addition, photons propagate to t = + infinity via retarded propagators. We also show how to construct a quantum field for action-at-a-distance electrodynamics. In the Yang-Mills case we show that a previously suggested model for quark confinement necessarily has gluons with principle-value propagation which allows the model to be unitary despite the presence of higher-order-derivative field equations. In the vierbein-gravity model we show that our quantization procedure allows us to treat the classical and quantum parts of the metric field in a unified manner. We find a new perturbation scheme for quantum gravity as a result

  3. Classical and quantum effects in electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komar, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers on classical and quantum effects in electrodynamics. It covers the following topics: The physics of superhigh energy neutrinos; Quantum, particle in nonstationary; Correlated coherent states; The non degenerate gauge and generalized canonical formalism; and Ultimate capabilities of soft x-ray optics

  4. On dual representation in classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlovets, Dmitrii V

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of the use of the dual representation in solving multipole radiation and electromagnetic wave diffraction problems in classical electrodynamics. In the method discussed, actual electric field sources are replaced by 'magnetic' ones. It is shown that despite the absence of Dirac magnetic monopoles, such formalism allows for a physical interpretation of some frequently used methods. (methodological notes)

  5. On the regularization procedure in classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaremko, Yu

    2003-01-01

    We consider the self-action problem in classical electrodynamics. A strict geometrical sense of commonly used renormalization of mass is made. A regularization procedure is proposed which relies on energy-momentum and angular momentum balance equations. We correct the expression for angular momentum tensor obtained by us in a previous paper (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 831)

  6. Functional integral approach to classical statistical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.V.

    1980-04-01

    A functional integral method is developed for the statistical solution of nonlinear stochastic differential equations which arise in classical dynamics. The functional integral approach provides a very natural and elegant derivation of the statistical dynamical equations that have been derived using the operator formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose

  7. Classical stochastic approach to cosmology revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The classical stochastic model of cosmology recently developed by us is reconsidered. In that approach the parameter defined by the equation of state = wρ was taken to be fluctuating with mean zero and we compared the theoretical probability distribution function (PDF) for the Hubble parameter with observational ...

  8. Classical stochastic approach to cosmology revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The classical stochastic model of cosmology recently developed by us is reconsidered. In that approach the parameter w defined by the equation of state p wρ was taken to be fluctuat- ing with mean zero and we compared the theoretical probability distribution function (PDF) for the. Hubble parameter with ...

  9. Classical solutions of the p-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D.T.

    1988-11-01

    An appropriate subsidiary condition is introduced in the classical actions of the p-branes (p arbitrary). A general class of exact solutions of the resulting nonlinear equations of motion are obtained which yield a broad class of characteristics for the original covariant equations of the p-branes. (author). 11 refs

  10. Summary of classical general relativity workshop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the classical general relativity workshop, ten lectures were presented on various topics. The topics included aspects of black-hole physics, gravitational collapse and the formation of black holes, specific stellar models like a superdense star, method of extracting solutions by exploiting Noether symmetry, brane world and.

  11. Data Structures in Classical and Quantum Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Fillinger (Max)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis survey summarizes several results about quantum computing related to (mostly static) data structures. First, we describe classical data structures for the set membership and the predecessor search problems: Perfect Hash tables for set membership by Fredman, Koml\\'{o}s and

  12. The Oxford Treasury of Classic Poems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael, Ed.; Stuart-Clark, Christopher, Ed.

    This book contains over 90 classic poems for children. The collection of poems includes nonsense verse by Lear and Carroll, story poems by Tennyson and Keats, and humorous poems by Belloc and Betjeman. The collection also includes poems by modern poets, such as Charles Causley, Ted Hughes, John Agard, Roger McGough, and Stevie Smith. The…

  13. Transpupillary Thermotherapy for Classic Subfoveal Choroidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To report a case of successful treatment of a classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization with a transpupillary thermotherapy protocol. Case Report: A 67-year old pensioner presented with a sixmonth history of reduced vision in both eyes. He had been previously diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma.

  14. Aspects of Negation in Classical Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J.

    1972-01-01

    Traditional grammars are criticized as having obscured or omitted many significant features of negation patterns in classical Greek. The author demonstrates that negation in Greek extensively involves semantic and syntactic factors. Certain of the factors are thoroughly embedded in the traditional approach to grammar, while others are derived from…

  15. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics. Martha Goodway. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 63-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Classical "Topoi" and the Academic Commonplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Laurence E.

    An investigation of the various ways the term "topos" is used in classical rhetoric reveals the limited range of invention strategies offered by academic discourse pedagogy. Donald Bartholmae's work on basic writing addresses the relationship of the commonplace to topical invention within academic discourse. Investigation of the history…

  17. Free Fermions and the Classical Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Mezzadri, Francesco; O'Connell, Neil

    2018-04-01

    There is a close connection between the ground state of non-interacting fermions in a box with classical (absorbing, reflecting, and periodic) boundary conditions and the eigenvalue statistics of the classical compact groups. The associated determinantal point processes can be extended in two natural directions: (i) we consider the full family of admissible quantum boundary conditions (i.e., self-adjoint extensions) for the Laplacian on a bounded interval, and the corresponding projection correlation kernels; (ii) we construct the grand canonical extensions at finite temperature of the projection kernels, interpolating from Poisson to random matrix eigenvalue statistics. The scaling limits in the bulk and at the edges are studied in a unified framework, and the question of universality is addressed. Whether the finite temperature determinantal processes correspond to the eigenvalue statistics of some matrix models is, a priori, not obvious. We complete the picture by constructing a finite temperature extension of the Haar measure on the classical compact groups. The eigenvalue statistics of the resulting grand canonical matrix models (of random size) corresponds exactly to the grand canonical measure of free fermions with classical boundary conditions.

  18. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A remarkable contribution of Professor Cyril Stanley Smith was the translation of metallurgical classics into English from several languages - both ancient and modem ... He had not prepared for the role of technical translator. His wife,. Alice Kimball Smith, in oral history interviews made for Harvard. University related how his ...

  19. Conduction bands in classical periodic potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The energy of a quantum particle cannot be determined exactly unless there is an infinite amount of time to perform the measurement. This paper considers the possibility that , the uncertainty in the energy, may be complex. To understand the effect of a particle having a complex energy, the behaviour of a classical ...

  20. Nanotribology investigations with classical molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a number of nanotribological problems investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, within the context of the applicability of continuum mechanics contact theories at the atomic scale. Along these lines, three different themes can be recognized herein:

  1. On normal modes in classical Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Normal modes of Hamittonian systems that are even and of classical type are characterized as the critical points of a normalized kinetic energy functional on level sets of the potential energy functional. With the aid of this constrained variational formulation the existence of at least one family

  2. Equilibration and thermalization of classical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, F.; Neuhaus, T.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Novotny, M. A.; Katsnelson, M. I.; De Raedt, H.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical evidence is presented that the canonical distribution for a subsystem of a closed classical system of a ring of coupled harmonic oscillators (integrable system) or magnetic moments (nonintegrable system) follows directly from the solution of the time-reversible Newtonian equation of motion

  3. Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)

  4. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  5. Priority in the Classical Conditioning of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George; Lamal, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Contrary to widely held belief, Watons and Rayner's (1920) experiment with Little Albert is not first reported case of classical conditioning of a child. Their work was preceded by that of Bogen and of Krasnogorskii. Mateer's work either preceded or coincided with Watons and Rayner's. This article clarifies chronology of these early studies of…

  6. The Role of Contingency in Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Bitterman, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiments suggesting that classical conditioning depends on the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) are reconsidered along with later evidence that shows conditioning of the CS and its context in random training. CS-US contingency is neither necessary nor sufficient for conditioning. (SLD)

  7. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Classical dynamics simulations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classical dynamics simulations of interstellar glycine formation via CH2=NH + CO + H2O reaction. YOGESHWARAN KRISHNAN, ALLEN VINCENT, and MANIKANDAN. PARANJOTHY∗. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur, Rajasthan,. India. E-mail: pmanikandan@iitj.ac.in.

  8. Quantum scattering from classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.M.; Poppitz, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes between initial wave packet states and certain coherent final states can be computed in a systematic weak coupling expansion about classical solutions satisfying initial-value conditions. The initial-value conditions are such as to make the solution of the classical field equations amenable to numerical methods. We propose a practical procedure for computing classical solutions which contribute to high energy two-particle scattering amplitudes. We consider in this regard the implications of a recent numerical simulation in classical SU(2) Yang-Mills theory for multiparticle scattering in quantum gauge theories and speculate on its generalization to electroweak theory. We also generalize our results to the case of complex trajectories and discuss the prospects for finding a solution to the resulting complex boundary value problem, which would allow the application of our method to any wave packet to coherent state transition. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results to the issues of baryon number violation and multiparticle scattering at high energies. ((orig.))

  9. Classical Etymologies of Select Gynaecological and Ophthalmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In early times, many terms were traced to the treatises of early Greek and Roman physicians such as Hippocrates, Galen and Celsus, who were famous doctors in antiquity. This paper attempts to identify, through the philological and semantic methods, the Classical stories and linguistic history that surround the etymology of ...

  10. Maxwell and the classical wave particle dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J T

    2008-05-28

    Maxwell's equations are one of the greatest theoretical achievements in physics of all times. They have survived three successive theoretical revolutions, associated with the advent of relativity, quantum mechanics and modern quantum field theory. In particular, they provide the theoretical framework for the understanding of the classical wave particle dualism.

  11. A slow component of classic Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R. Hans; Horsman, Hark H.; van der Moolen, Bas; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The interference in colour naming may extend beyond critical Stroop trials. This "slow'' effect was first discovered in emotional Stroop tasks, but is extended here to classical Stroop. In two experiments, meaningless coloured letter strings followed a colour word or neutral word. Student

  12. The Strange World of Classical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    2010-01-01

    We have heard many times that the commonsense world of classical physics was shattered by Einstein's revelation of the laws of relativity. This is certainly true; the shift from our everyday notions of time and space to those revealed by relativity is one of the greatest stretches the mind can make. What is seldom appreciated is that the laws of…

  13. CLASSICS Invention of the Integrated Circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSICS. Jack Kilby demonstrated the working of the world's first integrated circuit in September 1958. He was awarded ... bility was established. In the early 1950's, Robert Henry of this group, working under ..... to the Air Force a small working computer complete with a few hundred bits of semiconductor memory, and. 1.

  14. On the zeros of the classical polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogero, F.

    1977-01-01

    Some theorems and conjectures concerning the zeros of the classical polynomials (of Hermite, Laguerre and Jacobi) are announced. The theorems, whose proof is not reported, have been obtained from the relationship between the motion of the zeros of special solutions of simple linear partial differential equations (in x and t), and one-dimensional many-body problems. (author)

  15. A 'missing' family of classical orthogonal polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    We study a family of 'classical' orthogonal polynomials which satisfy (apart from a three-term recurrence relation) an eigenvalue problem with a differential operator of Dunkl type. These polynomials can be obtained from the little q-Jacobi polynomials in the limit q = -1. We also show that these polynomials provide a nontrivial realization of the Askey-Wilson algebra for q = -1.

  16. The Coming of a Classical World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 9. The Coming of a Classical World. Anu Venugopalan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 9 ... Author Affiliations. Anu Venugopalan1. School of Basic and Applied Sciences GGS Indraprastha University Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110 006, India.

  17. Treatment of classical Kaposi's sarcoma with gemcitabine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, L; Labianca, R; Ferrucci, SM; Taglioni, M; Boneschi, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Background: Several drugs are active in aggressive classical Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS); chemotherapeutic agents with fewer side-effects, more rapid response and able to overcome resistance to previous treatment are advisable when treating patients in a second line. Gemcitabine, an analogue of

  18. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  19. Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to Charlie via two classical bits. Now, the Bob–Charlie system evolves into a state given by Ux(α|00〉 + β|11〉)23, where Ux is a unitary operator. Hence, the unknown single qubit information is locked between Bob and Charlie in such a way that neither of them can obtain the unknown qubit completely, by local operations on.

  20. Functional integral approach to classical statistical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.V.

    1980-04-01

    A functional integral method is developed for the statistical solution of nonlinear stochastic differential equations which arise in classical dynamics. The functional integral approach provides a very natural and elegant derivation of the statistical dynamical equations that have been derived using the operator formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose.

  1. Classical BV theories on manifolds with boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattaneo, A.S.; Mnev, P.; Reshetikhin, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we extend the classical BV framework to gauge theories on spacetime manifolds with boundary. In particular, we connect the BV construction in the bulk with the BFV construction on the boundary and we develop its extension to strata of higher codimension in the case of manifolds with

  2. Generalized classical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to build up a large panel of the present situation of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms involving higher order derivatives. The achievements of differential geometry in formulating a more modern and powerful treatment of these theories are developed. An extensive review of the development of these theories in classical language is also given. (Auth.)

  3. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  4. Hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets in one-component fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2013-04-24

    Using the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], we numerically investigate the hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets under gravity in two dimensions. Some recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations are confirmed in our simulations. A Leidenfrost droplet larger than a critical size is shown to be unstable and break up into smaller droplets due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the bottom surface of the droplet. Our simulations demonstrate that an evaporating Leidenfrost droplet changes continuously from a puddle to a circular droplet, with the droplet shape controlled by its size in comparison with a few characteristic length scales. The geometry of the vapor layer under the droplet is found to mainly depend on the droplet size and is nearly independent of the substrate temperature, as reported in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012)]. Finally, our simulations demonstrate that a Leidenfrost droplet smaller than a characteristic size takes off from the hot substrate because the levitating force due to evaporation can no longer be balanced by the weight of the droplet, as observed in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 034501 (2012)].

  5. Hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets in one-component fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2013-04-01

    Using the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], we numerically investigate the hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets under gravity in two dimensions. Some recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations are confirmed in our simulations. A Leidenfrost droplet larger than a critical size is shown to be unstable and break up into smaller droplets due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the bottom surface of the droplet. Our simulations demonstrate that an evaporating Leidenfrost droplet changes continuously from a puddle to a circular droplet, with the droplet shape controlled by its size in comparison with a few characteristic length scales. The geometry of the vapor layer under the droplet is found to mainly depend on the droplet size and is nearly independent of the substrate temperature, as reported in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012)]. Finally, our simulations demonstrate that a Leidenfrost droplet smaller than a characteristic size takes off from the hot substrate because the levitating force due to evaporation can no longer be balanced by the weight of the droplet, as observed in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 034501 (2012)].

  6. One Component Encapsulating Material Matrix as High Barrier Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for new flexible food packaging materials with effective high barrier against oxygen and moisture to protect food, minimize weight and...

  7. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  8. Transport studies in high-performance field reversed configuration plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S., E-mail: sgupta@trialphaenergy.com; Barnes, D. C.; Dettrick, S. A.; Trask, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Hubbard, K.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; Zhai, K.; Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A significant improvement of field reversed configuration (FRC) lifetime and plasma confinement times in the C-2 plasma, called High Performance FRC regime, has been observed with neutral beam injection (NBI), improved edge stability, and better wall conditioning [Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)]. A Quasi-1D (Q1D) fluid transport code has been developed and employed to carry out transport analysis of such C-2 plasma conditions. The Q1D code is coupled to a Monte-Carlo code to incorporate the effect of fast ions, due to NBI, on the background FRC plasma. Numerically, the Q1D transport behavior with enhanced transport coefficients (but with otherwise classical parametric dependencies) such as 5 times classical resistive diffusion, classical thermal ion conductivity, 20 times classical electron thermal conductivity, and classical fast ion behavior fit with the experimentally measured time evolution of the excluded flux radius, line-integrated density, and electron/ion temperature. The numerical study shows near sustainment of poloidal flux for nearly 1 ms in the presence of NBI.

  9. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  10. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  11. CLASSICAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND UAV – SELECTED ASCPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mikrut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2 for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle. Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy. After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and

  12. Classical Photogrammetry and Uav - Selected Ascpects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikrut, S.

    2016-06-01

    The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side

  13. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  14. Burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  15. A Study of Classics-Reading Curriculum, Classics-Reading Promotion, and Classics-Reading Effect Modeling Exploration in Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chuen-An; Chen, Kuang-Ming; Chang, Li-Chuan; Lin, Deng-Shun

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to test reliabilities and validities of classics-reading curriculum (CRC) scale, classics-reading promotion (CRP) scale, and classics-reading effect (CRE) scale and to examine the relationships between CRC, CRP, and CRE in elementary schools through applying CORPS framework. The pilot sample and formal sample contain 141 and 500 participants from elementary school faculties and classics-reading volunteers in the north, central, south, and east regions of Taiwan....

  16. Gravitation in the 'quasi-classical' theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, J.W.G.; Zangari, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 'quasi-classical' picture of particles as extendend periodic disturbances in a classical nonlinear field, previously shown to imply all the equations of Maxwell electrodynamics with very little formal input, is here applied to the other known long-range force, gravitation. It is shown that the picture's absolute interpretation of inertial mass and four-potential as measures of the local spacing between equal-phase hypersurfaces, together with the empirically established proportionality of gravitational 'charge' to inertial mass, leads naturally to the gravitational red-shift formula, and it thus provides a physical basis for the spacetime curvature that is the central idea of Einstein's general theory of relativity. 16 refs., 1 fig

  17. Green’s functions in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rother, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the Green’s function formalism in a basic way and demonstrates its usefulness for applications to several well-known problems in classical physics which are usually solved not by this formalism but other approaches. The book bridges the gap between applications of the Green’s function formalism in quantum physics and classical physics. This book is written as an introduction for graduate students and researchers who want to become more familiar with the Green’s function formalism. In 1828 George Green has published an essay that was unfortunately sunken into oblivion shortly after its publication. It was rediscovered only after several years by the later Lord Kelvin. But since this time, using Green’s functions for solving partial differential equations in physics has become an important mathematical tool. While the conceptual and epistemological importance of these functions were essentially discovered and discussed in modern physics - especially in quantum field theory and quantum...

  18. Hearing loss among classical-orchestra musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Toppila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to evaluate classical musicians′ risk of hearing loss. We studied 63 musicians from four Helsinki classical orchestras. We measured their hearing loss with an audiometer, found their prior amount of exposure to sound and some individual susceptibility factors with a questionnaire, measured their present sound exposure with dosimeters, and tested their blood pressure and cholesterol levels, then compared their hearing loss to ISO 1999-1990′s predictions. The musicians′ hearing loss distribution corresponded to that of the general population, but highly exposed musicians had greater hearing loss at frequencies over 3 kHz than less-exposed ones. Their individual susceptibly factors were low. Music deteriorates hearing, but by less than what ISO 1999-1990 predicted. The low number of individual susceptibility factors explained the difference, but only reduced hearing loss and not the prevalence of tinnitus.

  19. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  20. Classical collisions of protons with hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.; Hughes, P.E.; Percival, I.C.; Barnes, K.S.; Valentine, N.A.; Wilson, Mc.B.

    1977-01-01

    The program solves the equations of motion for the interaction of 3 charged particles, obtaining final states in terms of initial states, and energy transfers, angles of ejection, and final cartesian co-ordinates of relative motion. Using a Monte Carlo method on many orbits total ionization and charge transfer cross sections, integral energy transfer cross sections and moments of energy transfers are estimated. Facilities are provided for obtaining angular distributions, momentum transfer cross sections and for comparison with various approximate classical theories. The equations of motion are solved using stepwise fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration with automatic steplength change. Selection of initial conditions is determined by the user, usually as a statistical distribution determined by a pseudorandom number subroutine. Classical representation theory and transformation methods are extensively used. (Auth.)

  1. Model predictive control classical, robust and stochastic

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaritakis, Basil

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a textbook that brings together classical predictive control with treatment of up-to-date robust and stochastic techniques. Model Predictive Control describes the development of tractable algorithms for uncertain, stochastic, constrained systems. The starting point is classical predictive control and the appropriate formulation of performance objectives and constraints to provide guarantees of closed-loop stability and performance. Moving on to robust predictive control, the text explains how similar guarantees may be obtained for cases in which the model describing the system dynamics is subject to additive disturbances and parametric uncertainties. Open- and closed-loop optimization are considered and the state of the art in computationally tractable methods based on uncertainty tubes presented for systems with additive model uncertainty. Finally, the tube framework is also applied to model predictive control problems involving hard or probabilistic constraints for the cases of multiplic...

  2. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  3. Classical trajectory in non-relativistic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    With the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics as a guide, the classical trajectory is incorporated into quantum scattering theory. The Feynman path integral formalism is used as a starting point, and classical transformation theory is applied to the phase of the wave function so derived. This approach is then used to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude for potential scattering. It is found that the amplitude can be expressed in an impact parameter representation similar to the Glauber formalism. Connections are then made to the Glauber approximation and to semiclassical approximations derived from the Feynman path integral formalism. In extending this analysis to projectile-nucleus scattering, an approximation scheme is given with the first term being the same as in Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Higher-order approximations, thus, are found to give corrections to the fixed scatterer form of the impulse approximation inherent in the Glauber theory

  4. Global aspects of classical integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a uniquely complete description of the geometry of the energy momentum mapping of five classical integrable systems: the 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the geodesic flow on the 3-sphere, the Euler top, the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. It presents for the first time in book form a general theory of symmetry reduction which allows one to reduce the symmetries in the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. Also the monodromy obstruction to the existence of global action angle coordinates is calculated for the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. The book addresses professional mathematicians and graduate students and can be used as a textbook on advanced classical mechanics or global analysis.

  5. Quantum-classical path integral. I. Classical memory and weak quantum nonlocality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Roberto; Makri, Nancy

    2012-12-14

    We consider rigorous path integral descriptions of the dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a polyatomic environment, assuming that the latter is well approximated by classical trajectories. Earlier work has derived semiclassical or purely classical expressions for the influence functional from the environment, which should be sufficiently accurate for many situations, but the evaluation of quantum-(semi)classical path integral (QCPI) expressions has not been practical for large-scale simulation because the interaction with the environment introduces couplings nonlocal in time. In this work, we analyze the nature of the effects on a system from its environment in light of the observation [N. Makri, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2994 (1998)] that true nonlocality in the path integral is a strictly quantum mechanical phenomenon. If the environment is classical, the path integral becomes local and can be evaluated in a stepwise fashion along classical trajectories of the free solvent. This simple "classical path" limit of QCPI captures fully the decoherence of the system via a classical mechanism. Small corrections to the classical path QCPI approximation may be obtained via an inexpensive random hop QCPI model, which accounts for some "back reaction" effects. Exploiting the finite length of nonlocality, we argue that further inclusion of quantum decoherence is possible via an iterative evaluation of the path integral. Finally, we show that the sum of the quantum amplitude factors with respect to the system paths leads to a smooth integrand as a function of trajectory initial conditions, allowing the use of Monte Carlo methods for the multidimensional phase space integral.

  6. Classical and new ideas of a university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    The chapter examines what has happened to ideas of the university in the light of current reforms and the implementation of performance management. Taking a retrospective view of the most central ideas of a university, focus will be on why even a modernized and corporatized university apparently...... cannot survive without reference to ideas and idealistic justifications, including a number of classical ideas, as well as on which new ideas may be delineated on the basis of the old....

  7. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Raya, Alfredo; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics

  8. Quantum systems that follow classical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Manfredi, G; Feix, M R

    1993-01-01

    For a special class of potentials, the dynamical evolution of any quantum wavepacket is entirely determined by the laws of classical mechanics. Here, the properties of this class are investigated both from the viewpoint of the Ehrenfest theorem (which provides the evolution of the average position and momentum), and the Wigner representation (which expresses quantum mechanics in a phase space formalism). Finally, these results are extended to the case of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. (author)

  9. The Classical Music Culture of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Ramanan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper sketches briefly the cultural and political context against which one may study the classical South Indian concert called the Kutcheri. It goes on to trace the development of the modern concert and then concentrates on the devotional poetry of Tyagaraja who is the foremost composer in the tradition. The paper demonstrates the centrality of Bhakti (devotion as an emotion and its role in creating a link between the composer, the singer, the song and the audience.

  10. Complexity and nonseparability of classical Liouvillian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Tomaž

    2011-03-01

    We propose a simple complexity indicator of classical Liouvillian dynamics, namely the separability entropy, which determines the logarithm of an effective number of terms in a Schmidt decomposition of phase space density with respect to an arbitrary fixed product basis. We show that linear growth of separability entropy provides a stricter criterion of complexity than Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, namely it requires that the dynamics be exponentially unstable, nonlinear, and non-Markovian.

  11. A Neuronal Model of Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Moore (1985), Gelperin, HopfieIG, aria Tank (1985), Blazis, Desmond, Moore, and Lerthier (1986), Tesauro (1986), dnd Donegan and Wagner (1987). Proposals...sometimes called Hopfield networks (Hopfield, 1982; Cohen and Grossberg, 1983; Hopfield, 1984; Hopfield and Tank, 1985, 1986; Tesauro , 1986). These latter... Tesauro , G. (1986). S itple neural models of classical conditioning. F1ulogical Cybernetic., 55, 187-200. Thompson, R. F. (1976). The scarch for the

  12. Classical limit of relativistic dynamical fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hruška, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we summarise existing results concerning the absence of "gravitational aberration" in Einstein's general theory of relativity, i.e., the fact that the gravitational "force" points towards the instantaneous position of objects with mass, although the field propagates at the speed of light. The electromagne- tic interaction behaves similarly. Thanks to that, the classical limit with infinite speed of propagation of electricity and gravitation is a good approximation of relativisti...

  13. Classical Novae. The thermonuclear runaway model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truran, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The identification of classical nova explosions with thermonuclear runaway events is examined. It is shown that the detailed characteristics of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle hydrogen-burning reactions serve to impose severe restrictions on the energetics of the critical stages of these runaways and thereby afford a physical basis for distinguishing 'fast' and 'slow' novae. Subsequent to runaway, hydrogen burning by means of these same CNO cycles dictates the evolution of nova systems through outburst. (U.K.)

  14. Classical and quantum probabilities as truth values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Andreas; Isham, Chris J.

    2012-03-01

    We show how probabilities can be treated as truth values in suitable sheaf topoi. The scheme developed in this paper is very general and applies both in classical and quantum physics. On the quantum side, the results naturally tie in with the topos approach to quantum theory that has been developed in the last 14 years by the authors and others . Earlier results on the representation of arbitrary quantum states are complemented with a purely logical perspective.

  15. Hybrid quantum-classical master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    We discuss hybrid master equations of composite systems, which are hybrids of classical and quantum subsystems. A fairly general form of hybrid master equations is suggested. Its consistency is derived from the consistency of Lindblad quantum master equations. We emphasize that quantum measurement is a natural example of exact hybrid systems. We derive a heuristic hybrid master equation of time-continuous position measurement (monitoring). (paper)

  16. Etiology of diverticular disease with classic illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; Bumpers, H. L.; Hoover, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    Diverticulosis is a common colonic disorder and often is found incidentally on colonic endoscopy and contrast enema radiographs. Theories relating to the etiology of the pathologic processes are commonly quoted, although the actual anatomic features are rarely seen during colonoscopic examinations. Here we show classic illustrations that support the widely held theories regarding the etiologies of diverticular diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8691502

  17. Socialcultural background of formation of classical metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-01-01

    The classical model of philosophy has shaped ideas about its nature and aims that were laid in ancient metaphysics, but have been substantially amended by civilizational change. Socialcultural background of philosophy became trends that began to emerge in late medieval culture has particularly flourished there during modern times. Sphere of existence is important for the development of any spiritual phenomenon. For metaphysics it is the idea of humanity, acting as a kind of cultural protest a...

  18. Testing for Classicality of a Physical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, Dietmar; Länger, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Often quantum logics are algebraically modelled by orthomodular posets. The physical system described by such a quantum logic is classical if and only if the corresponding orthomodular poset is a Boolean algebra. We provide an easy testing procedure for this case. Moreover, we characterize orthomodular posets which are lattices and consider orthomodular posets which admit a full set of states and hence represent so-called spaces of numerical events. This way further test procedures are obtained.

  19. Citation classics in pediatrics: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhapola, Viswas; Tiwari, Soumya; Deepthi, Bobbity; Kanwal, Sandeep Kumar

    2018-03-06

    Citation analysis provides insights into the history and developmental trajectory of scientific fields. Our objective was to perform an analysis of citation classics in the journals of pediatric specialty and to examine their characteristics. Initially, all the journals listed under the category of pediatrics (n = 120) were identified using Journal Citation Reports. Web of science database was then searched (1950-2016) to select the top-100 cited articles in the above identified pediatric journals. The top-100 cited article were categorized according the study design, sub-specialty, country, institutional affiliation, and language. The top-100 articles were published in 18 different journals, with Pediatrics having the highest numbers (n = 40), followed by The Journal of Pediatrics (n = 17). The majority (n = 62) of classics were published after 1990. The most cited article had citation count of 3516 and the least cited had a citation count of 593. The USA (n = 71) was the most commonly represented country, and 60 institutions contributed to 100 articles. Fifteen authors contributed to more than one classic as first or second author. Observational study (n = 55) was the commonest study design across all decades, followed by reviews (n = 12), scale development studies (n = 11), and guidelines (n = 11). Among the pediatric sub-specialties, growth and development articles were highly cited (n = 24), followed by pediatric psychiatry and behavior (n = 21), endocrinology (n = 15), and neonatology (n = 12). The top-100 cited articles in pediatrics identify the impactful authors, journals, institutes, and countries. Observational study design was predominant-implying that inclusion among citation classics is not related to soundness of study design.

  20. Special relativity and classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman are back. This time, they introduce readers to Einstein's special relativity and Maxwell's classical field theory. Using their typical brand of real math, enlightening drawings, and humor, Susskind and Friedman walk us through the complexities of waves, forces, and particles by exploring special relativity and electromagnetism. It's a must-read for both devotees of the series and any armchair physicist who wants to improve their knowledge of physics' deepest truths.