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Sample records for classical cytological landmarks

  1. Molecular architecture of classical cytological landmarks: Centromeres and telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyne, J.

    1994-11-01

    Both the human telomere repeat and the pericentromeric repeat sequence (GGAAT)n were isolated based on evolutionary conservation. Their isolation was based on the premise that chromosomal features as structurally and functionally important as telomeres and centromeres should be highly conserved. Both sequences were isolated by high stringency screening of a human repetitive DNA library with rodent repetitive DNA. The pHuR library (plasmid Human Repeat) used for this project was enriched for repetitive DNA by using a modification of the standard DNA library preparation method. Usually DNA for a library is cut with restriction enzymes, packaged, infected, and the library is screened. A problem with this approach is that many tandem repeats don`t have any (or many) common restriction sites. Therefore, many of the repeat sequences will not be represented in the library because they are not restricted to a viable length for the vector used. To prepare the pHuR library, human DNA was mechanically sheared to a small size. These relatively short DNA fragments were denatured and then renatured to C{sub o}t 50. Theoretically only repetitive DNA sequences should renature under C{sub o}t 50 conditions. The single-stranded regions were digested using S1 nuclease, leaving the double-stranded, renatured repeat sequences.

  2. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  3. Impression Cytology

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    Sevda Söker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed.

  4. Enhancing SAT Based Planning with Landmark Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, J.; Konijnenberg, D.; Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches exist to solve Artificial Intelligence planning problems, but little attention has been given to the combination of using landmark knowledge and satisfiability (SAT). Landmark knowledge has been exploited successfully in the heuristics of classical planning. Recently it was also s

  5. Landmark papers on photorefractive nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Pochi

    1995-01-01

    This book, intended for students, researchers and engineers, is a collection of classic papers on photorefractive nonlinear optics. Included are landmark papers on fundamental photorefractive phenomena, two-wave mixing, four-wave mixing, phase conjugators and resonators, material growth and physics, and applications in image processing, optical storage and optical computing.

  6. All that Glitters is not Gold: Using Landmarks for Reward Shaping in FPG

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, Olivier; Hoffmann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Landmarks are facts that must be true at some point in any plan. It has recently been proposed in classical planning to use landmarks for the automatic generation of heuristic functions. We herein apply this idea in probabilistic planning. We focus on the FPG tool, which derives a factored policy based on learning from samples into the state space. The rationale is that FPG's performance can be improved significantly by a trivial heuristic that counts the number of false goals; landmarks prov...

  7. Selecting landmarks in novel environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared; Carlson, Laura

    2011-02-01

    People use salient landmarks when learning a route through a novel environment. However, it is not clear what makes a given landmark salient. In two experiments, subjects learned a route through a virtual museum, performed a recognition memory test for objects in the museum, and provided spatial descriptions and drew maps of the learned route. Objects with strong perceptual features occurred at decision points or at non-decision points along the route. Objects with both of these features were recognized faster and were included more often in the maps and written directions. When these features were separated, perceptual features maintained a strong influence on the recognition task, but had no influence on the spatial tasks, which were influenced only by spatial features. These findings challenge the idea that either a recognition task or descriptive task alone provides a complete account of landmark representation. PMID:21327344

  8. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  9. The Great American Landmarks Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kay

    This profusely illustrated booklet, written primarly for school children, includes drawings and descriptions of 43 of the National Historic Landmarks located in the United States. The accounts move chronologically from prehistoric cave paintings through the moon rocks collected by the Apollo astronauts in 1969. Most of the drawings represent the…

  10. Cytological diagnosis in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Bratu; Florentina Pricop; Ovidiu Toma; Dragos Crauciuc; Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The cytological test has multiple valences, allowing the early discovery and location of feminine genital cancer. Material and methods. In the period of time between 2001 and 2009, the study made within the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of „Sf. Apostol Andrei” Emergency Hospital in Galaţi, revealed that from 415 cases with a changed PAP smear, the cytological diagnosis showed cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions in 53 patients (12.8%). We harvested cytological smears fo...

  11. Informatics applied to cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  12. [Clinical cytology: why and how?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znidarcić, Zeljka

    2013-12-01

    Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

  13. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cytology exam of pleural fluid is a laboratory test to detect cancer cells and certain other cells in the area ... A cytology exam is used to look for cancer and precancerous cells. It may also be done for other conditions, such ...

  14. Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis ...

  15. Testicular cytology in azoospermia

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    Usha Prasad

    2015-06-01

    Results: The commonest group with infertility were in the age group 21-30 years. The testicular size was normal in 87.17% of subjects and 12.82% had small testis. Out of 39 subjects with azoospermia 38.46% subjects had varicocele. Varicocele was commonly associated with duct obstruction. The commonest causes observed in cases with azoospermia were; hypospermatogenesis with maturation arrest (4/39,10.25%, duct obstruction (12/39,30.76%, maturation arrest (7/39,17.94%, testicular atrophy (10/39,25.64% and sertoli cell only syndrome (2/39,5.12%. In the present study diagnostic accuracy was 89.18%. Conclusions: Fine needle aspiration cytology is as informative as biopsy and can be done as a routine procedure. It helps us in ruling out obstructive and non-obstructive causes for azoospermia. In cases where FNAC shows normal spermatogenesis with azoospermia, biopsy and Doppler study is indicated to rule out duct obstruction which can be corrected surgically. It is a simple and cost effective. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 647-652

  16. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks

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    Jorge Othón Esparza-Jiménez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks; from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology.

  17. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Jiménez, Jorge Othón; Devy, Michel; Gordillo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks); from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology. PMID:27070602

  18. Landmarks selection in street map design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Taiwan many electrical maps present their landmarks according to the category of the feature, a designer short of knowledge about mental representation of space, can cause the map to lose its communication effects. To resolve this map design problem, in this research through long-term memory recall, navigation and observation, and short-term memory processing 111 participants were asked to select the proper landmark from study area. The results reveal that in Taiwan convenience stores are the most popular local landmark in rural and urban areas. Their commercial signs have a unique design and bright color. Contrasted to their background, this makes the convenience store a salient feature. This study also developed a rule to assess the priority of the landmarks to design them in different scale maps

  19. Autonomous Robot Navigation based on Visual Landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    autonomous navigation and self-localization using automatically selected landmarks. The thesis investigates autonomous robot navigation and proposes a new method which benefits from the potential of the visual sensor to provide accuracy and reliability to the navigation process while relying on naturally...... update of the estimated robot position while the robot is moving. In order to make the system autonomous, both acquisition and observation of landmarks have to be carried out automatically. The thesis consequently proposes a method for learning and navigation of a working environment and it explores......The use of landmarks for robot navigation is a popular alternative to having a geometrical model of the environment through which to navigate and monitor self-localization. If the landmarks are defined as special visual structures already in the environment then we have the possibility of fully...

  20. Landmark perception planning for mobile robot localization

    OpenAIRE

    Armingol, José M.; Moreno, Luis; Escalera, Arturo de la; Salichs, Miguel A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy perception planner that takes into account the time cost, the suitability of every landmark detection and the different uncertainties the robot encounters along its path for mobile robot localization. The sensor used is a camera with a motorized zoom on a pan & tilt platform and the artificial landmarks are circles detected through normalized grayscale correlation. An Extended Kalman Filter is used to correct the position and orientation of the vehicle. The resulti...

  1. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  2. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Stemm-Wolf, Alexander J; Giddings, Thomas H; Pearson, Chad G

    2012-01-01

    Since their first detection in pond water, large ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila, have captivated school children and scientists alike with the elegance of their swimming and the beauty of their cortical organization. Indeed, cytology - simply looking at cells - is an important component of most areas of study in cell biology and is particularly intriguing in the large, complex Tetrahymena cell. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena is critical for the study of the microtubule cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, complex nuclear movements and interactions, and the cellular remodeling during conjugation, to name a few topics. We briefly review previously reported cytological techniques for both light and electron microscopy, and point the reader to resources to learn about those protocols. We go on to present new and emerging technologies for the study of these marvelous cells. These include the use of fluorescent-protein tagging to localize cellular components in live cells, as well as for tracking the dynamic behavior of proteins using pulse labeling and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. For electron microscopy, cellular and antigenic preservation has been improved with the use of cryofixation and freeze-substitution. The technologies described here advance Tetrahymena cell biology to the cutting-edge of cytological analysis. PMID:22444152

  3. Photocephalometry: errors of projection and landmark location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C; Greer, J; Vig, P; Matteson, S

    1984-09-01

    A method called photocephalometry was recently described for the possible soft-tissue evaluation of orthognathic surgery patients by the superimposition of coordinated cephalographs and photographs. A grid analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of the superimposition method. In addition, the reliability of landmark identification was analyzed by the method error of Baumrind and Frantz, using three replicates of twelve patients' photographs. Comparison of twenty-one grid intervals showed that the magnification of the photographic image for any given grid plane is not correlated to that of the radiographic image. Accurate comparisons between soft- and hard-tissue anatomy by simply superimposing the images are not feasible because of the difference in the enlargement factors between the photographs and x-ray films. As was noted by Baumrind and Frantz, a wide range exists in the variability of estimating the location of landmarks. Sixty-six percent of the lateral photographic landmarks and 57% of the frontal landmarks had absolute mean errors for all twelve patients that were less than or equal to 2.0 mm. In general, the envelope of error for most landmarks was not circular. Although the photocephalometric apparatus as described by Hohl and colleagues does not yield the desired quantitative correlation between hard and soft tissues, valuable quantitative information on soft tissue can be easily obtained with the standardization and replication possible with the camera setup and enlarged photographs. PMID:6591803

  4. Desert ants learn vibration and magnetic landmarks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Buehlmann

    Full Text Available The desert ants Cataglyphis navigate not only by path integration but also by using visual and olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest entrance. Here we show that Cataglyphis noda can additionally use magnetic and vibrational landmarks as nest-defining cues. The magnetic field may typically provide directional rather than positional information, and vibrational signals so far have been shown to be involved in social behavior. Thus it remains questionable if magnetic and vibration landmarks are usually provided by the ants' habitat as nest-defining cues. However, our results point to the flexibility of the ants' navigational system, which even makes use of cues that are probably most often sensed in a different context.

  5. TINA manual landmarking tool: software for the precise digitization of 3D landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunke Anja C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the placing of landmarks and subsequent morphometric analyses of shape for 3D data has increased with the increasing accessibility of computed tomography (CT scanners. However, current computer programs for this task suffer from various practical drawbacks. We present here a free software tool that overcomes many of these problems. Results The TINA Manual Landmarking Tool was developed for the digitization of 3D data sets. It enables the generation of a modifiable 3D volume rendering display plus matching orthogonal 2D cross-sections from DICOM files. The object can be rotated and axes defined and fixed. Predefined lists of landmarks can be loaded and the landmarks identified within any of the representations. Output files are stored in various established formats, depending on the preferred evaluation software. Conclusions The software tool presented here provides several options facilitating the placing of landmarks on 3D objects, including volume rendering from DICOM files, definition and fixation of meaningful axes, easy import, placement, control, and export of landmarks, and handling of large datasets. The TINA Manual Landmark Tool runs under Linux and can be obtained for free from http://www.tina-vision.net/tarballs/.

  6. Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D

    2006-05-01

    The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied. PMID:17152604

  7. CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GELATINOUS ASCITES

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    Samith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a condition characte rized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the peritoneal cavity (gela tinous ascites. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is an uncommon condition in which mucinous ascites causes progressive abdominal distension and gastrointestina l dysfunction. We present a case of 44 year old female who presented with gradually progres sive abdominal distension since 6 months. An ascitic tap was performed and the fluid wa s sent for cytological study. Cytology showed pools of acellular mucin. On laparotomy there was mucinous material in the abdomen that was evacuated. Appendix and omentum were found t o be thickened, hence appendicectomy was done and omental biopsy taken. Histopathological diagnosis of well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix with rupture and mucinous ascitis was made.

  8. Vulval schwannoma: A cytological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Subhashish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the frequent sites of involvement being the head and neck, the flexor aspect of the limbs, especially near the elbow, wrist, knee, and trunk. Involvement of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We present one such rare case of a solitary vulval schwannoma which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology in a 48 year-old female, and confirmed by histopathological examination.

  9. 75 FR 69120 - National Natural Landmark Designations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... the Interior Dirk Kempthorne designated the following National Natural Landmarks: Big Bone Lick, Boone... administered solely by public agencies; i.e., Federal, State, county or municipal governments. Nearly...

  10. Remembered landmarks enhance the precision of path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon O´Leary

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When navigating by path integration, knowledge of one’s position becomes increasingly uncertain as one walks from a known location. This uncertainty decreases if one perceives a known landmark location nearby. We hypothesized that remembering landmarks might serve a similar purpose for path integration as directly perceiving them. If this is true, walking near a remembered landmark location should enhance response consistency in path integration tasks. To test this, we asked participants to view a target and then attempt to walk to it without vision. Some participants saw the target plus a landmark during the preview. Compared with no-landmark trials, response consistency nearly doubled when participants passed near the remembered landmark location. Similar results were obtained when participants could audibly perceive the landmark while walking. A control experiment ruled out perceptual context effects during the preview. We conclude that remembered landmarks can enhance path integration even though they are not directly perceived.

  11. TINA manual landmarking tool: software for the precise digitization of 3D landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Schunke Anja C; Bromiley Paul A; Tautz Diethard; Thacker Neil A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in the placing of landmarks and subsequent morphometric analyses of shape for 3D data has increased with the increasing accessibility of computed tomography (CT) scanners. However, current computer programs for this task suffer from various practical drawbacks. We present here a free software tool that overcomes many of these problems. Results The TINA Manual Landmarking Tool was developed for the digitization of 3D data sets. It enables the generation of a modifi...

  12. Inter-Rater Agreement of Anal Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Darragh, Teresa M.; Tokugawa, Diane; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; LaMere, Brandon J.; Schwartz, Lauren; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most anal cancers are caused by persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV). Similar to cervical carcinogenesis, the progression from HPV infection to anal cancer goes through precancerous lesions that can be treated to prevent invasion. In analogy to cervical cytology, anal cytology has been proposed as a screening tool for anal cancer precursors in high-risk populations. We analyzed the inter-observer reproducibility of anal cytology in a population of 363 HIV-infec...

  13. Cell cycle dynamics of histone variants at the centromere, a model for chromosomal landmarks.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarchuk, Ekaterina; Montes De Oca, Rocío; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2011-01-01

    Classical heterochromatin chromosomal landmarks, such as centromeres and telomeres, are characterized by specific chromatin signatures. Among these, the incorporation of histone variants has recently emerged as an important feature. Using the centromere as a paradigm, we consider the role of histone variant dynamics in locus-specific chromatin organization. We describe the distinct location and dynamics of CenH3, H3.3, and H2AZ at the centromere during the cell cycle. This leads us to present...

  14. CSF cytology versus immunocytochemistry in meningeal carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, W; Vroom, T M; van Heerde, P; Brutel de la Rivière, G; Peterse, J L; van der Sande, J J

    1988-01-01

    CSF immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies was compared with conventional cytology to determine its sensitivity in detecting malignant cells in patients with meningeal carcinomatosis. One hundred and eighteen samples were investigated. Cytology was tumour positive in 83 samples and immunocytochemistry in 85. Dissimilar results between the two diagnostic methods were noted in 12 specimens, invariably occurring in samples with a low cell count and obtained from treated patients. Combined use of the two methods led to a 9% increase of sensitivity in detecting malignant cells compared with cytology alone. It is concluded that immunocytochemistry is of minor help in the problem of false-negative cytology in meningeal carcinomatosis. PMID:2832546

  15. Ultrasound of the elbow: A systematic approach using bony landmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of bony landmarks can be helpful in performing an ultrasound study of the elbow. We discuss bony landmarks that can be used for evaluation of the common extensor tendon, ulnar collateral ligament and common flexor tendon, coronoid and olecranon fossa, ulnar nerve, and biceps tendon. We discuss bony landmarks for each of these structures.

  16. Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Meng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods: This study enrolled 92 JE patients with 108 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF samples. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive immunoglobulin M antibodies against JE virus, which were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients received detailed neurological examinations, relevant cerebrospinal fluid tests, and brain neuroimaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. Results: Prominent involvement in the hippocampus was observed in 10 patients on neuroimaging, in addition to classic involvement in the thalamus and basal ganglia. Lumbar puncture pressure was normal in 61 CSF samples. White cell count increased in 81.19% of CSF samples, 67.65% and 83.33% of CSF samples demonstrated normal chloride and glucose concentrations, respectively, and 82.52% of CSF samples demonstrated >0.4 g/L protein content. JE patients demonstrate mixed-cell reaction on cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the early phase, which subsequently mainly develop as mainly lymphocyte reaction or typical lymphocyte reaction. Conclusion: JE imaging is characterized by bilateral thalamic involvement, and the basal ganglia and hippocampus are also commonly affected. The mixed-cell reaction in JE lasts longer than in general viral encephalitis. This may facilitate the differential diagnosis of JE.

  17. CORRELATION OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY WITH BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE AND BRUSH SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN PULMONARY LESIONS

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    Surabhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL and Brush Cytology are important diagnostic tools for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. Considering the limitations of these procedures correlation of these cytological techniques may help in improving accuracy and increasing the diagnostic yield. AIM: To determine the role of FNAC, Brush and BAL Cytology in pulmonary lesions and to correlate the efficacy of FNAC with Brush and BAL Cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 78 patients with radiologically demonstrable pulmonary lesions in the department of pathology and Dr ML Chest Hospital, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur over a period from nov2011-july2013. The cases selected had to give consent for the procedure. Bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brush sample were taken and FNAC was done in the cases. RESULTS: In present study 78 cases of pulmonary lesions were subjected to FNAC and/ or Bronchoalveolar lavage and brush cytology. Among them 49 cases were selected in which all three procedures were done. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting lung tumors by FNAC was 96.29% and 95.45% which was more than that of BAL cytology (84.61%, 91.30% and Brush cytology (81.48%, 95.45%. FNA correlates with Brush and BAL cytology in 78.57% of malignant lesions. Among malignant lesions 84.61% of BAL and Brush cytology correlates with FNA for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. FNA correlates with 66.67% of brush and 83.37% of BAL fluid cytology for diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. BAL and Brush both correlates with FNA in 83.33% cases of small cell carcinoma. Overall 85.71% of BAL and 82.14% of brush smear cytology correlates with FNA cytology for diagnosis of lung cancers. CONCLUSIONS: FNA, BAL and Brush cytology provide a high yield for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. BAL fluid and brush cytology correlated well with FNAC for diagnosis of lung cancers.

  18. Landmark Image Retrieval Using Visual Synonyms

    OpenAIRE

    Gavves, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the incoherence problem of the visual words in bag-of-words vocabularies. Different from existing work, which performs assignment of words based solely on closeness in descriptor space, we focus on identifying pairs of independent, distant words - the visual synonyms - that are still likely to host image patches with similar appearance. To study this problems we focus on landmark images, where we can examine whether image geometry is an appropriate vehicle for detec...

  19. The behavioural relevance of landmark texture for honeybee homing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDittmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees visually pinpoint the location of a food source using landmarks. Studies on the role of visual memories have suggested that bees approach the goal by finding a close match between their current view and a memorized view of the goal location. The most relevant landmark features for this matching process seem to be their retinal positions, the size as defined by their edges, and their colour. Recently, we showed that honeybees can use landmarks that are statically camouflaged, suggesting that motion cues are relevant as well. Currently it is unclear how bees weight these different landmark features when accomplishing navigational tasks, and whether this depends on their saliency. Since natural objects are often distinguished by their texture, we investigate the behavioural relevance and the interplay of the spatial configuration and the texture of landmarks. We show that landmark texture is a feature that bees memorise, and being given the opportunity to identify landmarks by their texture improves the bees’ navigational performance. Landmark texture is weighted more strongly than landmark configuration when it provides the bees with positional information and when the texture is salient. In the vicinity of the landmark honeybees changed their flight behaviour according to its texture.

  20. Conjunctival impression cytology in contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Priya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the cytological changes in conjunctiva following regular contact lens wear and to determine the correlation, if any, between severity of cytological alteration and symptoms related to contact lens wear. METHODS: One hundred eyes (50 normal asymptomatic subjects who served as a control group were studied by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC. These subjects were fitted with rigid gas permeable (RGP or soft contact lenses and were followed up at the end of 3 and 6 months. At each follow-up visit the CIC was repeated. A filter paper with the impression specimen was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS and haematoxylin stain to study goblet cell loss. Papanicolaou stain was done to study squamous metaplasia. The cytological changes were graded using the system described by Natadisastra et al. RESULTS: Severity of cytological changes increased with the duration of contact lens wear (P = 0.00001. At the end of 6 months, 60% of symptomatic eyes wearing soft contact lens and RGP lens showed abnormal CIC changes. None of the asymptomatic RGP contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes whereas 33.4% of the asymptomatic soft contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes (P = 0.033. Epithelial changes occurred within 3-6 months of contact lens fitting. CONCLUSION: Severity of cytological changes increased with duration of lens wear (P = 0.00001. Prevalence and severity of cytological alteration is more in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Soft contact lens wearers although asymptomatic showed severe CIC changes.

  1. Differential cytology of cervical neoplasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rainer; Bergander, S.

    1990-11-01

    In the context of the early recognition of cervical cancer the cytology has to detect tumor positive cases among a bulk of un suspicious specimens. Unfortunately there is a group of cases with a vague diaxosis, the so called PAP-ill-group. There are many reasons for the recent impossibility of a safe conclusion from the PAP-Ill-smears to their histological diagnoses (Pig. 1). Today for an exact statement a cone biopsy and a microscopical investigation of its histological sections for such caseS are necessary. That results in a high medical and economical expense and, last not least, that means a higher risk of complications and of future family planning problems for the women affected.

  2. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  3. Memory consolidation of landmarks in good navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Gabriele; Jansen, Clemens; van Turennout, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Landmarks play an important role in successful navigation. To successfully find your way around an environment, navigationally relevant information needs to be stored and become available at later moments in time. Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that the human parahippocampal gyrus encodes the navigational relevance of landmarks. In the present event-related fMRI experiment, we investigated memory consolidation of navigationally relevant landmarks in the medial temporal lobe after route learning. Sixteen right-handed volunteers viewed two film sequences through a virtual museum with objects placed at locations relevant (decision points) or irrelevant (nondecision points) for navigation. To investigate consolidation effects, one film sequence was seen in the evening before scanning, the other one was seen the following morning, directly before scanning. Event-related fMRI data were acquired during an object recognition task. Participants decided whether they had seen the objects in the previously shown films. After scanning, participants answered standardized questions about their navigational skills, and were divided into groups of good and bad navigators, based on their scores. An effect of memory consolidation was obtained in the hippocampus: Objects that were seen the evening before scanning (remote objects) elicited more activity than objects seen directly before scanning (recent objects). This increase in activity in bilateral hippocampus for remote objects was observed in good navigators only. In addition, a spatial-specific effect of memory consolidation for navigationally relevant objects was observed in the parahippocampal gyrus. Remote decision point objects induced increased activity as compared with recent decision point objects, again in good navigators only. The results provide initial evidence for a connection between memory consolidation and navigational ability that can provide a basis for successful

  4. Classical antiparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.

  5. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis. PMID:26596046

  6. INCIDENTAL DETECTION OF MICROFILARAE IN CYTOLOGICAL SMEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a major health problem in endemic areas like India. Detection of microfilaria in cytological smear is unusual and association with malignancy is more uncommon. We present ten cases where microfilaria detected incidentally during examination of cytologi cal samples. Eight of them are benign disease entities while two are malignant in nature. CONCLUSION : Microfilaria is public health problem in tropical region of South - East - Asia including Indian subcontinent. Cytology smear can be a very sensitive and cost effective tool for detection of helminthic etiology in unexplained infective pathology and to provide correct treatment.

  7. Efficient and Accurate Indoor Localization Using Landmark Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, F.; Kealy, A.; Khoshelham, K.; Shang, J.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor localization is important for a variety of applications such as location-based services, mobile social networks, and emergency response. Fusing spatial information is an effective way to achieve accurate indoor localization with little or with no need for extra hardware. However, existing indoor localization methods that make use of spatial information are either too computationally expensive or too sensitive to the completeness of landmark detection. In this paper, we solve this problem by using the proposed landmark graph. The landmark graph is a directed graph where nodes are landmarks (e.g., doors, staircases, and turns) and edges are accessible paths with heading information. We compared the proposed method with two common Dead Reckoning (DR)-based methods (namely, Compass + Accelerometer + Landmarks and Gyroscope + Accelerometer + Landmarks) by a series of experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve 73% accuracy with a positioning error less than 2.5 meters, which outperforms the other two DR-based methods.

  8. Navigating virtual mazes : The benefits of audiovisual landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Werkhoven, P.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that multisensory presentation can improve perception, attention, and object memory compared with unisensory presentation. Consequently, we expect that multisensory presentation of landmarks can improve spatial memory and navigation. In this study we tested the effect of visual, auditory and combined landmark presentations in virtual mazes on spatial memory and spatial navigation. Nineteen participants explored four different virtual mazes consisting of nodes with landmarks ...

  9. The Behavioral Relevance of Landmark Texture for Honeybee Homing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eDittmar; Martin eEgelhaaf; Wolfgang eStürzl; Norbert eBoeddeker

    2011-01-01

    Honeybees visually pinpoint the location of a food source using landmarks. Studies on the role of visual memories have suggested that bees approach the goal by finding a close match between their current view and a memorized view of the goal location. The most relevant landmark features for this matching process seem to be their retinal positions, the size as defined by their edges, and their colour. Recently, we showed that honeybees can use landmarks that are statically camouflaged, suggest...

  10. Using landmarks to support older people in navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, J.; Gray, P.D.G.; Khammampad, K.; Brewster, S.

    2004-01-01

    Although landmarks are an integral aspect of navigation, they have rarely been used within electronic navigation aids. This paper describes the design of a pedestrian navigation aid for a handheld computer, which guides the user along a route using photographs of landmarks, together with audio and text instructions that reference these landmarks. This aid was designed with older users in mind who often find their mobility hampered by declines in sensory, cognitive and motor abilities. It was ...

  11. 36 CFR 62.7 - Natural landmark modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nationally significant features, professional error in the original designation, or additional landowners... landmark: Loss of integrity of the natural features or professional error in the original designation....

  12. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized......" the cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...... the "before" to the "after" period. This increase was significantly higher for exposed than non-exposed women regarding contacts to GP, admissions to hospitals, and drug use. CONCLUSION: Women with abnormal cytology results constitute a selected group with a higher health care use than other women even before...

  13. Role of scrape cytology in ovarian neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the role of scrape cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasm and its utilization for teaching pathology residents. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on 50 solid/solid-cystic ovarian neoplasms sent in 10% buffered formalin. Scrapings obtained from the fresh cut surface of tumors were smeared uniformly on to glass slides, immediately fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology has been satisfactory with 92% of cases correlating with the final diagnosis. Characteristic cytological pattern was noted in various types of surface epithelial, sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. The technique had limited value in mucinous tumors to distinguish borderline cases from invasive carcinoma. Two mucinous carcinomas were diagnosed as borderline mucinous tumor and two endometrioid carcinomas were misinterpreted as cystadenocarcinoma on scrape cytology. Formalin did not interfere or produce any remarkable changes in cytomorphology. Conclusions: Scrape cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive adjunctive cytodiagnostic technique and its routine utilization in ovarian lesions could aid in expanding the cytological knowledge of ovarian neoplasms.

  14. Classical integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  15. DETEKSI LANDMARK CITRA WAJAH DENGAN EXTRAKSI FITUR GABOR ANALISA FUZZY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmana Lim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method that automatically finds human faces as well as its landmark points in color images based on a fuzzy analysis. The proposed approach first uses color information to detect face candidate regions and then uses a fuzzy analysis of the color, shape, symmetry and interior facial features. A deformable Gabor wavelet graph matching is used to locate the facial landmark points describing the face. The latter allows for size and orientation variation since the search for landmark points allows for affine transformations as well as local deformations of the Gabor wavelet graph. The search is performed using a genetic algorithm that is essential because it effectively searches the solution space. Results based on the proposed method are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini mengusulkan sebuah metode deteksi wajah beserta dengan titik landmarknya pada citra berwarna menggunakan analisa fuzzy. Proses awal menggunakan informasi warna kulit untuk menseleksi calon-calon obyek lantas dilanjukan dengan analisa fuzzy terhadap warna, bentuk, simetri dan fitur/landmark wajah. Proses lokalisasi landmark wajah menggunakan Gabor wavelet graph matching dengan memaksimalkan kemiripan antara landmark wajah model dengan obyek inputan. Proses maksimalisasi kemiripan ini menggunakan algoritma genetika. Hasil-hasil percobaan ditampilkan untuk memberikan gambaran keberhasilan dari metode yang diusulkan. Kata kunci: lokalisasi landmark wajah, analisa fuzzy, graph matching, algoritma genetika, Gabor wavelet.

  16. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Jiménez, Jorge Othón; Devy, Michel; Gordillo, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks); from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology. PMID:27070602

  17. NASAL cytology: practical aspects and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Quaranta, N; Landi, M; Passalacqua, G

    2016-06-01

    Nasal cytology is a simple and safe diagnostic procedure that allows to assess the normal and pathological aspects of the nasal mucosa, by identifying and counting the cell types and their morphology. It can be easily performed by a nasal scraping followed by May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining and optical microscopy reading. This procedure allows to identify the normal cells (ciliated and mucinous), the inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells), bacteria, or fungal hyphae/spores. Apart from the normal cell population, some specific cytological patterns can be of help in discriminating among various diseases. Viral infections, allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis and overlapping forms can be easily identified. According to the predominant cell type, various entities can be defined (named as NARES, NARESMA, NARMA). This implies a more detailed knowledge and assessment of the disease that can integrate the standard diagnostic procedures. Nasal cytology also represents a useful research tool for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27009397

  18. Cytology result entry without using the keyboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, R D; DeWitt, C

    1994-01-01

    Many keystrokes are needed to enter routine gynecologic cytology results into many computer systems. Not only is this quite time consuming, but typing errors cannot be avoided and are not always detected before the report is sent to the clinician. Because of continuing shortages of staff time and the desire to avoid transcription errors, we began using $400 bar code wands to enter cytology results and billing information. No changes in our laboratory information system software or tables were necessary. Accession number labels are preprinted on a stand-alone printer. Bar code sheets, containing common keystroke sequences, are printed using a standard Macintosh computer and Laserwriter printer. Scanning the bar codes exactly emulates those keystrokes typed on the keyboard. We have entered the results of > 99% of our gynecologic cytology cases in the past two years without touching the keyboard. PMID:8091908

  19. Classical Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, A G; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission coefficient.

  20. Classical Tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Arthur; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission...

  1. Classical Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previous...

  2. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients. PMID:23722512

  3.  A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Prathvi Shetty; Divakar Shenoy; P. Sathyamoorthy Aithala; Celine George; Hilda Fernandes; Lobo, Geover J.; Leo F. Tauro

    2012-01-01

     Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA) is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC) is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis.Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College ...

  4. Pigeons combine compass and landmark guidance in familiar route navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Biro, Dora; Freeman, Robin; Meade, Jessica; Roberts, Stephen; Guilford, Tim

    2007-01-01

    How do birds orient over familiar terrain? In the best studied avian species, the homing pigeon (Columba livia), two apparently independent primary mechanisms are currently debated: either memorized visual landmarks provide homeward guidance directly, or birds rely on a compass to home from familiar locations. Using miniature Global Positioning System tracking technology and clock-shift procedures, we set sun-compass and landmark information in conflict, showing that experienced birds can acc...

  5. DETEKSI LANDMARK CITRA WAJAH DENGAN EXTRAKSI FITUR GABOR ANALISA FUZZY

    OpenAIRE

    Resmana Lim

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a method that automatically finds human faces as well as its landmark points in color images based on a fuzzy analysis. The proposed approach first uses color information to detect face candidate regions and then uses a fuzzy analysis of the color, shape, symmetry and interior facial features. A deformable Gabor wavelet graph matching is used to locate the facial landmark points describing the face. The latter allows for size and orientation variation since the search for ...

  6. Indoor monocular mobile robot navigation based on color landmarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yuan; ZHANG Bai-sheng; ZHANG Yi; LI Ling

    2009-01-01

    A robot landmark navigation system based on monocular camera was researched theoretically and experimentally. First the landmark setting and its data structure in programming was given; then the coordinates of them getting by robot and global localization of the robot was described; finally experiments based on Pioneer III mobile robot show that this system can work well at different topographic situation without lose of signposts.

  7. Cytologic diagnosis of diseases of hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Garner, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on neoplastic diseases because they may be the most frequent disease processes in captive hedgehogs according to the literature and authors' case files and the most common cases submitted for cytologic diagnosis in these species, particularly the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). PMID:17198959

  8. Spill pleural: Clinical and cytological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spill pleural is a frequent entity in congestive heart failure. The congestive heart failure, is probable that the cause more common of pleural spill, an analysis of the spill causes is made, the pathology is revised from the clinical point of view, highlighting the most excellent characteristics in each entity and an cytological analysis is made

  9. Classical Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previously given rules support all of these cases. Key Words: brain states, conscious observer, detector, measurement, probability current, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.

  10. Classical entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Danforth, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    Classical systems can be entangled. Entanglement is defined by coincidence correlations. Quantum entanglement experiments can be mimicked by a mechanical system with a single conserved variable and 77.8% conditional efficiency. Experiments are replicated for four particle entanglement swapping and GHZ entanglement.

  11. Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This is the English version of a friendly graduate course on Classical Mechanics, containing about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. For the Spanish version, see physics/9906066

  12. WIKIPEDIA ENTRIES AS A SOURCE OF CAR NAVIGATION LANDMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Binski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world’s largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries’ categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  13. Wikipedia Entries as a Source of CAR Navigation Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binski, N.; Zhang, L.; Dalyot, S.

    2016-06-01

    Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world's largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries' categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  14. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs

  15. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K.; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs.

  16. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  17. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Ilyeong; Park, Sunhoo; Jung, Chang Won; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Seol, Hyesil; Choi, Hee Seung; Cho, Soo Youn

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions (PLs). Differentiation between a thyroid lesion and a PL is not easy because of their similar features. We reviewed parathyroid aspirates in our institution and aimed to uncover trends in diagnostic criteria. Methods We selected 25 parathyroid aspirates (from 6 men and 19 women) confirmed surgically or immunohistochemically from 2006 to 2011. Results Major archit...

  18. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  19. Pulmonary actinomycosis in fine needle aspiration cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Keyuri; Gupta Gurudutt; Shah Menka; Patel Purvesh

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months′...

  20. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal V Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality.

  1. Impression Cytology of the Lid Wiper Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; van Doorn, Kevin; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon W

    2016-01-01

    Few reports on the cellular anatomy of the lid wiper (LW) area of the inner eyelid exist and only one report makes use of cytological methods. The optimization of a method of collecting, staining and imaging cells from the LW region using impression cytology (IC) is described in this study. Cells are collected from the inner surface of the upper eyelid of human subjects using hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and stained with cytological dyes to reveal the presence of goblet cells, mucins, cell nuclei and various degrees of pre- and para-keratinization. Immunocytochemical dyes show cell esterase activity and compromised cell membranes by the use of a confocal scanning laser microscope. Up to 100 microscopic digital images are captured for each sample and stitched into a high-resolution, large scale image of the entire IC span. We demonstrate a higher sensitivity of IC than reported before, appropriate for identifying cellular morphologies and metabolic activity in the LW area. To our knowledge, this is the first time this selection of fluorescent dyes was used to image LW IC membranes. This protocol will be effective in future studies to reveal undocumented details of the LW area, such as assessing cellular particularities of contact lens wearers or patients with dry eye or lid wiper epitheliopathy. PMID:27584693

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  3. Time for evidence-based cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed.

  4. Spatial Language and Children’s Spatial Landmark Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber A. Ankowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined how spatial language affected search behavior in a landmark spatial search task. In Experiment 1, two- to six-year-old children were trained to find a toy in the center of a square array of four identical landmarks. Children heard one of three spatial language cues once during the initial training trial (“here,” “in the middle,” “next to this one”. After search performance reached criterion, children received a probe test trial in which the landmark array was expanded. In Experiment 2, two- to four-year-old children participated in the search task and also completed a language comprehension task. Results revealed that children’s spatial language comprehension scores and spatial language cues heard during training trials were related to children’s performance in the search task.

  5. Quality-Aware Estimation of Facial Landmarks in Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    Face alignment in video is a primitive step for facial image analysis. The accuracy of the alignment greatly depends on the quality of the face image in the video frames and low quality faces are proven to cause erroneous alignment. Thus, this paper proposes a system for quality aware face...... alignment by using a Supervised Decent Method (SDM) along with a motion based forward extrapolation method. The proposed system first extracts faces from video frames. Then, it employs a face quality assessment technique to measure the face quality. If the face quality is high, the proposed system uses SDM...... for facial landmark detection. If the face quality is low the proposed system corrects the facial landmarks that are detected by SDM. Depending upon the face velocity in consecutive video frames and face quality measure, two algorithms are proposed for correction of landmarks in low quality faces by...

  6. MICROSURGICAL LANDMARKS IN MINIMALLY INVASIVE TRANSFORAMINAL LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Quillo-Olvera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsurgical landmarks of the facet joint complex were defined to provide guidance and security within the tubular retractor during transforaminal surgery. A retrospective observational study was performed in segments L4-L5 by the left side approach. Microsurgical relevant photos, anatomical models and drawing were used to expose the suggested landmarks. The MI-TLIF technique has advantages compared with conventional open TLIF technique, however minimally invasive technique implies lack of security for the surgeon due to the lack of defined microanatomical landmarks compared to open spine surgery, and disorientation within the tubular retractor, the reason why to have precise microsurgical references and its recognition within the surgical field provide speed and safety when performing minimally invasive technique.

  7. Multirobot FastSLAM Algorithm Based on Landmark Consistency Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of uncertain map information on multirobot SLAM problem, a multirobot FastSLAM algorithm based on landmark consistency correction is proposed. Firstly, electromagnetism-like mechanism is introduced to the resampling procedure in single-robot FastSLAM, where we assume that each sampling particle is looked at as a charged electron and attraction-repulsion mechanism in electromagnetism field is used to simulate interactive force between the particles to improve the distribution of particles. Secondly, when multiple robots observe the same landmarks, every robot is regarded as one node and Kalman-Consensus Filter is proposed to update landmark information, which further improves the accuracy of localization and mapping. Finally, the simulation results show that the algorithm is suitable and effective.

  8. Effects of cephalometric landmark validity on incisor angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C K; Tng, T H; Hägg, U; Cooke, M S

    1994-11-01

    An experimental cephalometric study on the accuracy of independently locating eight landmarks and the subsequent effects on the maxillary (ILs/NL) and mandibular (ILi/ML) incisor angulation was carried out on 30 dry skulls. The true location of each landmark was marked with a steel ball glued onto the skulls. Two additional steel balls were used as reference markers. A purpose-designed skullholder was made to assure a firm and reproducible positioning of the skulls in the cephalostat. Six series of cephalograms were recorded. One reference series with all the steel balls, four series each with a single steel ball marker removed, one at a time, from each jaw and one series with all the steel ball markers removed, except the reference markers. The combined method error in relocating and replacing the steel ball markers, repositioning the skulls into the skull holder, and digitizing, was low. From the first series, the true position of the palatal plane (NL), the maxillary incisor line (ILs), the mandibular plane (ML) and the mandibular incisor line (ILi) were assessed. From series 2 to 5, each of the landmarks without the steel ball markers was estimated. The accuracy of each landmark was then assessed relative to the true cephalometric plane and its perpendicular. On average, the accuracy was high for all the landmarks except posterior nasal spine (PNS), which was estimated 1.2 mm too far anteriorly (p accuracy of the dental and skeletal landmarks were similar, being 1.4 to 2.4 mm. The maxillary incisors were proclined 1.1 degrees (p < 0.05) by the estimates of incision superior (Is).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7977189

  9. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike for human papillomavirus screening, little is known about the possible age-dependent variation in the outcomes of cervical cytology screening. The aim of our study was to describe age-related outcomes of five cytological technologies in a population-based screening program targeting women...... signed out as normal, (3) liquid-based cytology (LBC) with 50% automatically signed out as normal, (4) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal, and (5) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal and with 16 preselected areas for attention in manual reading. We calculated proportion of...... aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...

  10. A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Leo F.; Lobo, Geover J.; Fernandes, Hilda; George, Celine; Aithala, P. Sathyamoorthy; Shenoy, Divakar; Shetty, Prathvi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA) is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC) is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College Hospital from May 2006 to April 2008. The patients with thyroid nodules (diagnosed by palpation) were subjected to both the cytological techniques; FNA and FNC. The specimen and results were compared and then correlated with the final histopathological findings wherever surgical specimens were available (38 cases). Results The mean age of the patients was 39.16 with a female predominance. The majority of cases were diagnosed to have nodular goiters. The FNC technique yielded 88% diagnostic superiority and adequate specimens compared to 94% by FNA. Sensitivity was 50% for FNC and 100% for FNA while specificity was 100% for both techniques; accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in predicting malignancy. While sensitivity was 75% for FNC and 100% for FNA; specificity was 100% for both techniques, and accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in the prediction of neoplasia. Conclusion The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two techniques; if done in tandem can give better and accurate cytological diagnosis. In highly cellular lesions, in which abundant material was obtained, FNC was more likely to be diagnostically superior, but FNA can diagnose most of the lesions. In less cellular lesions, FNA is more likely to be diagnostically superior to FNC. PMID:22496942

  11. Combining Speedup techniques based on Landmarks and Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KALPANA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dijkstra’s algorithm [1] , which is applied in many real world problems like mobile routing, road maps, railway networks, etc,. is used to find the shortest path between source and destination. There are many techniques available to speedup the algorithm while guaranteeing the optimality of the solution. The main focus of the work is to implement landmark technique and Containers separately and compare the results with random graphs and planar graphs. The combined speedup technique which is based on landmarks and containers were also experimented with random graphs and planar graphs to improvethe speedup of the shortest path queries.

  12. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author)

  13. 36 CFR 65.4 - National Historic Landmark criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... yield information of major scientific importance by revealing new cultures, or by shedding light upon... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Historic Landmark... United States in history, architecture, archeology, engineering and culture and that possess a...

  14. Adaptive Landmark-Based Navigation System Using Learning Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidan, Bassel; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2014-01-01

    . Inspired by this, we develop an adaptive landmark-based navigation system based on sequential reinforcement learning. In addition, correlation-based learning is also integrated into the system to improve learning performance. The proposed system has been applied to simulated simple wheeled and more complex...

  15. An Adaptive Algorithm for Finding Frequent Sets in Landmark Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Ong, Kok-Leong; Lee, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a CPU constrained environment for finding approximation of frequent sets in data streams using the landmark window. Our algorithm can detect overload situations, i.e., breaching the CPU capacity, and sheds data in the stream to “keep up”. This is done within a controlled error threshold...

  16. Landmark Finding Algorithms for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tóth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is oriented to ways of computer vision algorithms for mobile robot localization in internal and external agricultural environment. The main aim of this work was to design, create, verify and evaluate speed and functionality of computer vision localization algorithm. An input colour camera data and depth data were captured by MS® Kinect sensor that was mounted on 6-wheel-drive mobile robot chassis. The design of the localization algorithm was focused to the most significant blobs and points (landmarks on the colour picture. Actual coordinates of autonomous mobile robot were calculated out from measured distances (depth sensor and calculated angles (RGB camera with respect to landmark points. Time measurement script was used to compare the speed of landmark finding algorithm for localization in case of one and more landmarks on picture. The main source code was written in MS Visual studio C# programming language with Microsoft.Kinect.1.7.dll on Windows based PC. Algorithms described in this article were created for a future development of an autonomous agronomical m obile robot localization and control.

  17. Navigating virtual mazes : The benefits of audiovisual landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that multisensory presentation can improve perception, attention, and object memory compared with unisensory presentation. Consequently, we expect that multisensory presentation of landmarks can improve spatial memory and navigation. In this study we tested the effect of visual, au

  18. Audiovisual navigation in virtual mazes : The benefits of audiovisual landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, Peter; Philippi, Tom; van Erp, J.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that multisensory presentation can improve perception, attention, and object memory compared with unisensory presentation. Consequently, we expect that multisensory presentation of landmarks can improve spatial memory and navigation. In this study we tested the effect of visual, au

  19. Elections and landmark policies in Tanzania and Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    political elites to focus on policies they perceive to be able to gain votes. This is based on analyses of six landmark decisions made during the last fifteen years in the social, productive and public finance sectors in Tanzania and Uganda. Such policies share a number of key characteristics: they are...... Tanzania and Uganda....

  20. Quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular motion using endocardial landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); T.E.H. Hooghoudt (Ton); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); G.T. Meester (Geert); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the hypothesis is tested that the motion pattern of small anatomic landmarks, recognizable at the left ventricular endocardial border in the contrast angiocardiogram, reflects the motion of the endocardial wall. To verify this, minute metal markers were inserted in the endo

  1. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth. PMID:26712673

  2. Paediatric nasopharyngeal cytology: a new diagnostic opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Colombo, M R; Rosazza, C; Pignataro, L

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the first application of nasopharyngeal cytology (NPC), a new cytological technique to collect cellular material from the nasopharyngeal surface non-invasively in children with chronic adenoiditis associated with recurrent acute otitis media and/or otitis media with effusion. Cellular material was collected transorally using an extra-thin flexible wire nasopharyngeal swab and then examined under a light microscope. The diagnostic accuracy of NPC in detecting the presence of allergy and pathogens (compared to microbiological evaluation of nasopharyngeal aspirates, NPAs) was assessed. NPC was performed on 121 children (mean age 69.4 ± 15.5 months). Inflammatory cells and pathogens were detected in 61.1 % and 44.2 % of patients, respectively. The specificity of nasopharyngeal eosinophils in detecting allergy was good (91.9 %), as was the specificity of mast cells, but the sensitivities were less. The NPAs revealed bacterial colonisation in 84.7 % of the patients, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated (60.0 %). NPC revealed the presence of bacteria in 94.9 % of patients, including bacillary species in 33.9 %. NPC was highly sensitive in detecting pathogens (96.0 %). Its specificity in detecting bacillary species was fairly good (75.0 %), but the corresponding values of the specificity of NPC in detecting pathogens and its sensitivity in detecting bacillary species were poor. Our findings suggest the need for more structured studies that can test the real effectiveness and usefulness of NPC in defining nasopharyngeal cytological patterns in children with chronic nasopharyngeal diseases by comparing it with established diagnostic techniques. PMID:27039342

  3. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  4. Visual SLAM for underwater vehicles using video velocity log and natural landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Joaquim; Petillot, Yvan R.; Thomas, Stephen; Aulinas Masó, Josep M.

    2008-01-01

    A visual SLAM system has been implemented and optimised for real-time deployment on an AUV equipped with calibrated stereo cameras. The system incorporates a novel approach to landmark description in which landmarks are local sub maps that consist of a cloud of 3D points and their associated SIFT/SURF descriptors. Landmarks are also sparsely distributed which simplifies and accelerates data association and map updates. In addition to landmark-based localisation the system utilises visual odom...

  5. Morphological and cytological differences within the species Lupinus luteus L.

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kazimierski; M. Kazimierska

    2015-01-01

    The Lupinus luteus L. from five different geographical proveniences were investigated morphologically and cytologically. The plants originating from Palestine differ from the rest in many morphological traits. Cytologically they differ by one chromosomal translocation. The Palestinian plants give semisterile F1 hybrids with the rest of the species. They are described as a new subspecies: Lupinus luteus L. ssp. orientalis Kazim. et. Kazim.

  6. Solving small spaces: investigating the use of landmark cues in brown capuchins (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Mullo, Enma; Santos, Laurie R

    2013-09-01

    Some researchers have recently argued that humans may be unusual among primates in preferring to use landmark information when reasoning about some kinds of spatial problems. Some have explained this phenomenon by positing that our species' tendency to prefer landmarks stems from a human-unique trait: language. Here, we test this hypothesis-that preferring to use landmarks to solve such tasks is related to language ability-by exploring landmark use in a spatial task in one non-human primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). We presented our subjects with the rotational displacement task, in which subjects attempt to relocate a reward hidden within an array of hiding locations which are subsequently rotated to a new position. Over several experiments, we varied the availability and the salience of a landmark cue within the array. Specifically, we varied (1) visual access to the array during rotation, (2) the type of landmark, (3) the consistency of the landmark qualities, and (4) the amount of exposure to the landmark. Across Experiments 1 through 4, capuchins did not successfully use landmarks cues, suggesting that non-linguistic primates may not spontaneously use landmarks to solve some spatial problems, as in this case of a small-scale dynamic spatial task. Importantly, we also observed that capuchins demonstrated some capacity to learn to use landmarks in Experiment 4, suggesting that non-linguistic creatures may be able to use some landmarks cues in similar spatial tasks with extensive training. PMID:23430144

  7. Audible Signage as a Wayfinding Aid: Verbal Landmark versus Talking Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, B. L.; Mitchell, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison by 40 users of 2 technologies--Verbal Landmark and Talking Signs--that provide speech messages to hand-held receivers for blind travelers found that, on all measures, the Talking Signs system proved superior to the Verbal Landmark system. This was attributed to Verbal Landmark's more cognitively demanding technology. (DB)

  8. Cytologic features of microcystic adnexal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasis Sirikanjanapong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC is an uncommon skin neoplasm with a predilection location around the lips. It is characterized by cords and nests of neoplastic cells forming ductular or glandular structures that are embedded in dense collagenous stroma. An eighty-seven year old Caucasian female patient presented with a painless, slowly enlarging mass measuring 3.3 x 2.7 x 1.0 cm on the lower lip for approximately 6 months. The patient underwent 2 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAs. Smears made from both FNAs demonstrated similar features including low cellular smears, three dimensional cell clusters forming a glandular structure, round to oval cells with high N:C ratio, occasional cytoplasmic lumens, without distinct hyperchromasia, focal inconspicuous nucleoli, smooth regular nuclear membranes, abundant naked nuclei, occasional squamoid cells and focal acellular stromal fragments in the background. The cytologic differential diagnosis included skin adnexal carcinoma and low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the minor salivary gland. The mass was subsequently excised. The diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma was made. We report cytologic features of MAC and also suggest that MAC can possibly be diagnosed by FNA with the appropriate clinical vignette and immunohistochemical profile..

  9. Colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A diagnostic dilemma on cytology

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    Shailja Puri Wahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST is mesenchymal tumors arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal (pace maker cells of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Stomach is the most common site (60-65% of these tumors. Large intestine and rectum constitute only 5-10% of GIT tumors. Pre-operative diagnosis helps in the management of this tumor as it responds well to c-kit inhibitors. The cytological diagnosis of GIST is characteristic, however, associated with many pitfalls leading to erroneous diagnosis. Morphological resemblance is seen with other spindle cell and epithelioid cell tumors. The differentiation between high grade and low grade GISTs is described but not reliable. Cytology combined with cell block and Immunocytochemistry helps in making a confident diagnosis. Here we present colonic GIST diagnosed as GIST on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. We report this case to describe the cytological features of GIST and pitfalls in the cytology.

  10. DIAGNOSTIC VALIDITY OF CYTOLOGICAL IMPRINT IN THYROID FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM

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    I Pustaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy/FNAB examination, imprint cytology and frozen section intraoperative has big implications for diagnosis and surgical strategy of thyroid nodules with follicular neoplasm cytology. FNAB and frozen section has its limitations, it is difficultto detect the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Whereas imprint cytology can preserve cellular overview (especially the cell nucleus, including the capsular and/or vascular invasion. In addition, imprint cytology is faster than frozen section. Frozen sectionexamination could not indicate the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion in most cases so that imprint cytology is used to replace frozen section as an alternative.Method: This research is a diagnostic test study using a descriptive design. This is a prospective study to assess the sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of imprint cytology in patients with thyroid follicular neoplasm cytology. Results: In our study; sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of imprint cytology for follicular neoplasm was found as 84.21%, 95.45%, 94.12%, 87.50% and 90.24% respectively. The outcome was based on likelihood ratio value of 18.21 and the ROC curve, area under the curve obtained at 0.879 and Kappa value of 0.802.Conclusion: Imprint cytology has a value of a gooddiagnostic validity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of thyroid nodules with sensitivity and specifity values of 84.21% and 95.45%. Imprint cytology is a technique that is simple, inexpensive, and has good reliability so that it can be used instead of frozen section.

  11. Landmark Analysis Of Leaf Shape Using Polygonal Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Zakhi; Herdiyeni, Yeni; Paruhum Silalahi, Bib; Douady, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a method to extract landmark of leaf shape using static threshold of polygonal approximation. Leaf shape analysis has played a central role in many problems in vision and perception. Landmark-based shape analysis is the core of geometric morphometric and has been used as a quantitative tool in evolutionary and developmental biology. In this research, the polygonal approximation is used to select the best points that can represent the leaf shape variability. We used a static threshold as the control parameter of fitting a series of line segment over a digital curve of leaf shape. This research focuses on seven leaf shape, i.e., eliptic, obovate, ovate, oblong and special. Experimental results show static polygonal approximation shows can be used to find the important points of leaf shape.

  12. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Othón Esparza-Jiménez; Michel Devy; Gordillo, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the land...

  13. The influence of off-screen landmarks on user orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Korda, Amichai

    2014-01-01

    Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies. Maps displayed on hand held devices, such as smartphones; provide limited visibility due to their small screen display. In order to overcome display limitations, researchers have developed new techniques that point users to objects and landmarks located off-screen, which is known as an “off-screen interface”. Since this is a new type of map interface, there is l...

  14. Insite: Canada's landmark safe injecting program at risk

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Abstract InSite is North Americas first supervised injection site and a landmark public heath initiative operating in Vancouver since 2003. The program is a vital component of that cities internationally recognized harm reduction approach to its serious problems with drugs, crime, homelessness and AIDS. InSite currently operates under a waiver of Federal rules that allow it to provide services as a research project. An extensive evaluation has produced very positive results for thousands of u...

  15. Visual landmarks facilitate rodent spatial navigation in virtual reality environments

    OpenAIRE

    Youngstrom, Isaac A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2012-01-01

    Because many different sensory modalities contribute to spatial learning in rodents, it has been difficult to determine whether spatial navigation can be guided solely by visual cues. Rodents moving within physical environments with visual cues engage a variety of nonvisual sensory systems that cannot be easily inhibited without lesioning brain areas. Virtual reality offers a unique approach to ask whether visual landmark cues alone are sufficient to improve performance in a spatial task. We ...

  16. Detection of point landmarks in multidimensional tensor data☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Alzola, J.; Kikinis, R.; Westin, C.-F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a unified approach to the detection of point landmarks—whose neighborhoods convey discriminant information—including multidimensional scalar, vector, and higher-order tensor data. The method is based on the interpretation of generalized correlation matrices derived from the gradient of tensor functions, a probabilistic interpretation of point landmarks, and the application of tensor algebra. Results on both synthetic and real tensor data are presented.

  17. Automatic Registration and Error Detection of Multiple Slices Using Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Frimmel, Hans; Egevad, Lars; Busch, Christer; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. When analysing the 3D structure of tissue, serial sectioning and staining of the resulting slices is sometimes the preferred option. This leads to severe registration problems. In this paper, a method for automatic registration and error detection of slices using landmark needles has been developed. A cost function takes some parameters from the current state of the problem to be solved as input and gives a quality of the current solution as output. The cost function used in this ...

  18. Associative Basis of Landmark Learning and Integration in Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Leising, Kenneth J.; Blaisdell, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    Early work on spatial navigation evaluated what stimuli (kinesthetic or extra-maze) support small-scale navigation and the nature of the underlying learning (place versus response) process. Contemporary research has focused primarily on how cues interact to determine spatial search. This review covers three general findings from research on landmark-based spatial search in vertebrates. First, pigeons and rats encode simple spatial maps in both open-field and touchscreen environments. Second, ...

  19. Global and local spatial landmarks: their role during foraging by Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, Anna N

    2006-01-01

    Locating food and refuge is essential for an animal's survival. However, little is known how mammals navigate under natural conditions and cope with given environmental constraints. In a series of six experiments, I investigated landmark-based navigation in free-ranging Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus). Squirrels were trained individually to find a baited platform within an array of nine identical platforms and artificial landmarks set up on their territories. After animals learned the location of the food platform in the array, the position of the latter with respect to local artificial, local natural, and global landmarks was manipulated, and the animal's ability to find the food platform was tested. When only positions of local artificial landmarks were changed, squirrels located food with high accuracy. When the location of the array relative to global landmarks was altered, food-finding accuracy decreased but remained significant. In the absence of known global landmarks, the presence of a familiar route and natural local landmarks resulted in significant but not highly accurate performance. Squirrels likely relied on multiple types of cues when orienting towards a food platform. Local landmarks were used only as a secondary mechanism of navigation, and were not attended to when a familiar route and known global landmarks were present. This study provided insights into landmark use by a wild mammal in a natural situation, and it demonstrated that an array of platforms can be employed to investigate landmark-based navigation under such conditions. PMID:16163480

  20. Landmarks or panoramas: what do navigating ants attend to for guidance?

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    Beugnon Guy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects are known to rely on terrestrial landmarks for navigation. Landmarks are used to chart a route or pinpoint a goal. The distant panorama, however, is often thought not to guide navigation directly during a familiar journey, but to act as a contextual cue that primes the correct memory of the landmarks. Results We provided Melophorus bagoti ants with a huge artificial landmark located right near the nest entrance to find out whether navigating ants focus on such a prominent visual landmark for homing guidance. When the landmark was displaced by small or large distances, ant routes were affected differently. Certain behaviours appeared inconsistent with the hypothesis that guidance was based on the landmark only. Instead, comparisons of panoramic images recorded on the field, encompassing both landmark and distal panorama, could explain most aspects of the ant behaviours. Conclusion Ants navigating along a familiar route do not focus on obvious landmarks or filter out distal panoramic cues, but appear to be guided by cues covering a large area of their panoramic visual field, including both landmarks and distal panorama. Using panoramic views seems an appropriate strategy to cope with the complexity of natural scenes and the poor resolution of insects' eyes. The ability to isolate landmarks from the rest of a scene may be beyond the capacity of animals that do not possess a dedicated object-perception visual stream like primates.

  1. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF RETINAL VASCULAR LANDMARKS

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    Hadi Hamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is introducing a method to distinguish between different landmarks of the retina: bifurcations and crossings. The methodology may help in differentiating between arteries and veins and is useful in identifying diseases and other special pathologies, too. The method does not need any special skills, thus it can be assimilated to an automatic way for pinpointing landmarks; moreover it gives good responses for very small vessels. A skeletonized representation, taken out from the segmented binary image (obtained through a preprocessing step, is used to identify pixels with three or more neighbors. Then, the junction points are classified into bifurcations or crossovers depending on their geometrical and topological properties such as width, direction and connectivity of the surrounding segments. The proposed approach is applied to the public-domain DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with the state-of-the-art methods using proper validation parameters. The method was successful in identifying the majority of the landmarks; the average correctly identified bifurcations in both DRIVE and STARE datasets for the recall and precision values are: 95.4% and 87.1% respectively; also for the crossovers, the recall and precision values are: 87.6% and 90.5% respectively; thus outperforming other studies.

  2. Landmark Optimization Using Local Curvature for Point-Based Nonlinear Rodent Brain Image Registration

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    Yutong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a technique to automate landmark selection for point-based interpolating transformations for nonlinear medical image registration. Materials and Methods. Interpolating transformations were calculated from homologous point landmarks on the source (image to be transformed and target (reference image. Point landmarks are placed at regular intervals on contours of anatomical features, and their positions are optimized along the contour surface by a function composed of curvature similarity and displacements of the homologous landmarks. The method was evaluated in two cases (=5 each. In one, MRI was registered to histological sections; in the second, geometric distortions in EPI MRI were corrected. Normalized mutual information and target registration error were calculated to compare the registration accuracy of the automatically and manually generated landmarks. Results. Statistical analyses demonstrated significant improvement (<0.05 in registration accuracy by landmark optimization in most data sets and trends towards improvement (<0.1 in others as compared to manual landmark selection.

  3. Pulmonary actinomycosis in fine needle aspiration cytology

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    Patel Keyuri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months′ duration. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT of the thorax showed a right upper lobe mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. CT-guided FNAC revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. The disease is commonly confused with other chronic suppurative lung diseases and malignancy. An early diagnosis by FNAC prevents difficulties in the management of the disease, as well as considerable physiological and physical morbidity, including unwarranted surgery.

  4. Letter: Contraceptive choice and cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppaluoto, P

    1974-02-15

    In the evaluation of biological potentials of contraceptives in the genesis of cervical cancer, cytology seems to have been given due attention while information on the clinical condition and specific treatment of the target organ, the cervix, is repeatedly neglected. "Cancer does not develop in a healthy cervix" is an old dogma derived from impressions gained by clinical examination of the organ. This concept is supported by epidemiologic studies indicating that cancer is extremely rare in cervices restored to a normal condition by cauterization. It may be postulated that this type of treatment destroys the permissive target cells of the cervix, thus indirectly rendering possible coitus-associated and contraceptive-associated(?) mutagen(s) invalid. Also, in comparative studies, an evaluation should be made of the significance of a higher incidence of cervical ectopy reported in women receiving oral hormonal contraceptives. The importance of ectopy in the genesis of cervical malignancy has been derived from the presumption that permissive cervical cells are thus created and exposed to vaginal contents which may harbor the mutagens(s). Therefore, it would seem not only desirable but imperative to include the neglected parameters of clinical condition and of specific treatment (both past and present) of the uterine cervix in the structure of studies like the recent one in this Journal on "Contraceptive choice and cervical cytology", by Drs. Shulman and Merritt. Still another parameter which might prove to be of significance is the predominant type of vaginal flora, which can be assessed readily in the routine examination of Papanicolaou smears. It may be that vaginal contents, which would seem to be somewhat different in wearers of the intrauterine contraceptive device as compared to "pill" users, might play a part in the advent of cervical malignancy as a medium of or for coitus-associated mutagens(s). PMID:4855868

  5. Significance of nuclear morphometry in cytological aspirates of breast masses

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    Kalhan Shivani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy globally. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is largely subjective. Gradual progression of cells from normal to invasive involves nuclear changes that need to be viewed objectively. Aims : This study aims to apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates. It evaluates its utility in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions and correlates it with cytologic grading in malignant cases. Setting and Design : Nuclear morphometric parameters of malignant and benign cases were compared. Parameters of malignant cases were correlated with cytologic grading. Materials and Methods : Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from breast lumps into malignant (53 cases and benign (29 cases. One hundred cells per case in both groups were mapped on DEBEL Cytoscan and six geometrical and three textural parameters obtained were compared. In malignant cases, morphometry was correlated with Robinson′s cytologic grading, which was further correlated in tissue sections (45 cases with modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. Statistical Analysis : Students "t"-test was applied for comparison between benign and malignant cases. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s post hoc comparison was applied to compare the three cytologic grades. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results : Nuclear morphometry successfully differentiated between benign and malignant aspirates and correlated significantly with cytologic grades. Morphometry was especially useful in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Useful parameters were mean nuclear area, long axis, short axis and total run length. Cytohistologic correlation was 83.3%, 88.9% and 88.9% for cytological grades 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusions : Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in the evaluation of breast masses.

  6. Cytological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cutaneous involvement

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    Sushama A Chandekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block.

  7. Morphological and cytological differences within the species Lupinus luteus L.

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    T. Kazimierski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lupinus luteus L. from five different geographical proveniences were investigated morphologically and cytologically. The plants originating from Palestine differ from the rest in many morphological traits. Cytologically they differ by one chromosomal translocation. The Palestinian plants give semisterile F1 hybrids with the rest of the species. They are described as a new subspecies: Lupinus luteus L. ssp. orientalis Kazim. et. Kazim.

  8. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ayper KAÇAR; İrem PAKER; Gülşah KABAÇAM BAYRAM; Fatma DEMİREL; Şenel, Emrah; Murat KIZILGÜN

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast major...

  9. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

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    Divakar Sullery Raghupathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence.

  10. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in honduran women with normal cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Tábora, N.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Quint, W G V; Massuger, L. F. A. G.; MATUTE, J. A.; Melchers, W J G; Ferrera, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at estimating type-specific HPV prevalence and its cofactors among Honduran women with normal cytology in order to provide valuable information to health policymakers about the epidemiology of this important sexually transmitted infection. Methods A total of 591 women with normal cytology from Tegucigalpa, Honduras were interviewed and tested for HPV using the SPF10 LiPA25. A structured epidemiological questionnaire was administered to each woman. Results The ov...

  12. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelima Tirumalasetti; Prema Latha, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clin...

  13. Diagnosis of Thymic Clear Cell Carcinoma by Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Lale, Seema A.; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G.; Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differentia...

  14. Cytologic changes of ovarian epithelial cancer induced by neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Zheng, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by cytoreduction has now become a part of standard care for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Cytologic changes of the cancer cells induced by NACT, however, sometimes may cause confusion in terms of pathologic diagnosis and therefore inappropriate management. The objective of this study was to characterize the histologic or cytologic features of the ovarian cancers from those patients who received NACT in order to improve the diagnosti...

  15. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Prey Marianne; Raab Stephen; Davey Diane; Mody Dina; Papillo Jacalyn; Solomon Diane; Austin R Marshall; Atkison Karen; Keebler Catherine; Schultz Brenda; Howell Lydia; Bibbo Marluce; Savaloja Lynnette; Birdsong George; Bonfiglio Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-gu...

  16. Imprint cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sushma; Sathibhai Panicker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian neoplasms constitute a major bulk of surgical pathology specimens. Histopathology is the gold standard in diagnosis. Of the many options available for a rapid intra-operative diagnosis imprint cytology has many advantages. This study therefore aimed to study the imprint cytology of ovarian lesions and compare with the histopathology findings and analyze the statistical effectiveness of this study as a rapid intra-operative diagnostic tool. Methods: 200 lesions resected...

  17. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of superficial lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, M R

    1989-01-01

    A series of 244 enlarged superficial lymph nodes was examined by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Twenty-nine smears (11.9%) were inadequate for study. Of the remaining 215, 108 were negative, 13 suspicious for malignancy, and 94 positive. Forty-five excisional biopsies were performed correlating the cytologic and histologic findings. There were two cytologic false-negative results; both were patients who had been treated for carcinoma and whose aspirates were cytologically negative. Of the 13 samples reported as suspicious for malignancy, there were three epidermoid carcinomas, nine reactive hyperplasias, and one non-Hodgkin's lymphocytic lymphoma. Of the positive cases, 83 were metastatic tumors, and 11 were malignant lymphomas (two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and nine Hodgkin's lymphomas). The criteria used in the interpretation of these aspirates and the problems of differential cytological diagnosis are discussed. In spite of the drawbacks of inadequate and false-negative smears, fine-needle aspiration cytology is valuable in preliminary diagnosis of diseased lymph nodes and subsequent management. PMID:2776599

  18. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate: Cytological analyses of four cases with emphasis on the usefulness of cytological examination

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Keiko; ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; Kagotani, Akiko; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Iwai, Muneo; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of small cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder and prostate is rare. Only a few reports on the cytological features of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the urine specimen have been documented and, moreover, the urinary cytological features of prostate small cell carcinoma have been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed the cytological features of four cases of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate, and discussed the usefulness of cytologic...

  19. Notes on the Landmark Development of CBR in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dahong Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Community-based rehabilitation has a history of 22 years in China.In spite of the preliminary achievement and experiences obtained by the pioneering and trial projects,it was not until the beginning of the new century that CBR in China experienced a landmark development.This iS characterized by a number of favorable pohcy by the government for CBR;the mechanism facilitating primary health care with CBR,a new work-force system of CBR reorganized with better motivation and efficiency,99 demonstration projects of CBR bringing about benchmark promotion effect and the active involvement in CBR by social resources agents.

  20. Negative staining of mycobacteria - A clue to the diagnosis in cytological aspirates: Two case reports

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    C.S.B.R Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of lipids present in the cell wall of mycobacteria render them impermeable to dyes used in routine stains. Special staining techniques like Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN, Auromine Rhodamine are needed to demonstrate them. However, they may appear as negatively stained ghosts in Leishman, Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (H and E and Gram stained smears. Awareness of this feature prompts one to look for mycobacteria by special techniques, even in the absence of cytological features of tuberculous infection like epithelioid granulomas and caseous necrosis. In this paper, we aim to present two cases showing negatively stained images in the lymphnode aspirates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients. A study has been done of two cases of HIV positive patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC was carried out for them from the enlarged lymph nodes which revealed purulent material. Smears of FNAC material were prepared for histopathological examination. Fixed smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and air dried smears were stained with Giemsa and ZN-stain and studied. Smear study showed scant cellularity, cells composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Background was necrotic. Giemsa stained smears showed, in addition to cells mentioned, negatively stained ghostly rod shaped structures in the cytoplasm of macrophages and also in the background. ZN-stain showed numerous acid fast bacilli. Both the aspirates were signed out as tuberculous lymphadenitis. In both the cases, cultures grew Mycobacterium avium Intracellulare. Classical cytological features of tuberculosis may not be present in immunocompromised patients and on the contrary there may be suppuration rich in neutrophils or sheets of histiocytes in tuberculosis. One may miss these cases if mycobacteria are not looked for specifically by special stains. Negatively stained ghost images of Tuberculous bacilli on

  1. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  2. Disorientation inhibits landmark use in 12-18-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Adina R; Foster, Kirsty A; Bremner, J Gavin

    2006-07-01

    Recent research has indicated that, particularly under conditions of inertial disorientation, mammals may be sensitive to landmark configuration geometry at the expense of individual featural information when locating hidden goals. The current study sought to establish whether landmark use could be demonstrated in 12-18-month-old infants with and without a disorientation procedure, and with geometrically ambiguous landmark configurations. A peekaboo paradigm was employed in which infants learned to anticipate a peekaboo event after a cue from two locations within a circular arena, followed by a test trial from a novel position in which no peekaboo occurred after the cue. In all conditions, an isosceles triangle arrangement of landmarks was used, with peekaboo occurring between the landmarks of one of the two equal "sides", thus being geometrically ambiguous. In two conditions, the landmarks were distinctive, and in two further conditions, they were identical. In one of the distinctive conditions and one of the identical landmark conditions, infants underwent a disorientation procedure in between training and test trials. Only oriented infants with distinctive landmarks were successful in test trials, thus suggesting that infants are able to use the individual features of landmarks to locate a goal, but can only do so if oriented. PMID:17138289

  3. The use of radial symmetry to localize retinal landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetti, A; Ballerini, L; Trucco, E; Wilson, P J

    2013-01-01

    Locating the optic disc center and the fovea in digital fundus images is surprisingly difficult due to the variation range in color and contrast and the possible presence of pathologies creating bright spots or changing the appearance of retinal landmarks. These reasons make it difficult to find good templates of optic disc and fovea shape and color for pattern matching. In this paper we propose radial symmetry as the principal cue to locate both optic disc and macula centers. Centers of bright and dark circularly symmetrical regions with arbitrary radii, can be found robustly against changes in brightness and contrast by using the Fast Radial Symmetry transform. Detectors based on this transform coupled with a weak hypothesis on vessel density (optic disc intersects large vessels while the fovea lies in an avascular region), can provide a fast location of both OD and macula with accuracy similar or better than state-of-the-art methods. The approach has been chosen as the default technique for fast localization of the two landmarks in the VAMPIRE software suite. PMID:23886574

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology can play a role in neoadjuvant chemotherapy in operable breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbar, Christian; Curé, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that CNB has been progressively replaced by FNAC in the investigation of nonpalpable lesions or microcalcifications without a clinical or radiological mass lesion, FNAC has yet a role in palpable lesions provided it is associated with the triple diagnosis and experienced cytologist. In these conditions, FNAC is a safe, effective, economical, and accurate technique for breast cancer evaluation. Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrated the advantages and disadvantages of both methods CNB and FNAC. The difference does not seem significant when noninformative and unsatisfactory FNAC was excluded. Recently, cytological methods using liquid-based cytology (LBC) technology improve immunocytological and molecular tests with the same efficiency as classical immunohistochemistry. The indications of FNAC were, for palpable lesions, relative contraindication of CNB (elderly or frailty), staging of multiple nodules in conjunction or not with CNB, staging of lymph node status, newly appearing lesion in patient under neoadjuvant treatment, decreasing of anxiety with a rapid diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers and new biomarkers, and chronological evaluation of biomarker following the neoadjuvant therapy response. PMID:23936675

  5. What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum and signifies a break with the Copenhagen interpretation-for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shine some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum-classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classical...

  6. PILOMATRIXOMA: A DIAGNOSTIC PITFALL IN FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pilomatrixoma is an unusual, slowly growing benign tumor of the skin appendages. The histopathological features of pilomatrixoma are characteristic and well recognized, but the cytological diagnosis remains problematic. AIM : The study was undertaken to analyze the cytological features of pilomatrixoma, which are helpful in making a reliable preoperative diagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS : A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Guru Gobind Singh Medic al College and Hospital, Faridkot. All cases of pilomatrixoma reported on histopathology from April 2010 till March 2013 were retrieved. The cytological smears of these, histopathologically confirmed cases of pilomatrixoma were reviewed to ascertain the cy tological features which are helpful in making a diagnosis. RESULTS : During the study period 23 cases of pilomatrixoma were reported on histopathology. However, preoperative FNAC was done only in 9 cases. Out of these 9 cases, a cytological diagnosis of pi lomatrixoma was accurately made in 4 cases while, 5 cases were erroneously diagnosed. The most consistent features in the smears of accurately diagnosed cases were shadow cells, basaloid cells and multinucleate giant cells along with calcium deposits and n ucleated squamous cells. CONCLUSION : The cytological features of pilomatrixoma are characteristic but still the chances of misdiagnosis are high. Shadow cells, basaloid cells and giant cells along with presence of calcification and nucleated squamous cells are helpful for its diagnosis. However, non - representative smears and smears showing predominance of one component lead to erroneous diagnosis. A high degree of suspicion should be kept while evaluating aspirates from subcutaneous growths.

  7. Role of scrape cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis of tumor

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    Kolte Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rapid diagnosis of surgically removed specimens has created many controversies and a single completely reliable method has not yet been developed. Histopathology of a paraffin section remains the ultimate gold standard in tissue diagnosis. Frozen section is routinely used by the surgical pathology laboratories for intraoperative diagnosis. The use of either frozen section or cytological examination alone has an acceptable rate (93-97% of correct diagnosis, with regard to interpretation of benign versus malignant. Aim : To evaluate the utility of scrape cytology for the rapid diagnosis of surgically removed tumors and its utilisation for learning cytopathology. Materials and Methods : 75 surgically removed specimens from various organs and systems were studied. Scrapings were taken from each specimen before formalin fixation and stained by modified rapid Papanicolaou staining. Results : Of the 75 cases studied, 73 could be correctly differentiated into benign and malignant tumors, with an accuracy rate of 97.3%. Conclusions : Intraoperative scrape cytology is useful for intraoperative diagnosis of tumor, where facilities for frozen section are not available. The skill and expertise developed by routinely practicing intraoperative cytology can be applied to the interpretation of fine needle aspirate smears. Thus, apart from its diagnostic role, intraoperative cytology can become a very useful learning tool in the field of cytopathology.

  8. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour: Cytological and immunocytochemical features

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    Filho Adhemar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA. Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.

  9. Chronic Pancreatitis: Landmark Papers, Management Decisions, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMagno, Eugene P; DiMagno, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    On May 16, 2015 at the invitation of the American Gastroenterological Association Institute Council E.P.D. presented a state-of-the-art lecture at Digestive Disease Week 2015. The aims were to discuss a selection of landmark papers in chronic pancreatitis (CP) that influence modern management and to conclude by suggesting some future directions. This is based on that presentation. We will specifically review the following: duct anatomy and pancreas divisum, description of chronic relapsing pancreatitis and its differentiation from recurrent acute pancreatitis and established CP (ECP), natural histories and gene discoveries of alcoholic, idiopathic and hereditary pancreatitis, development of pancreatic cancer in CP, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and calculation of dose and delivery of enzymes, endoscopic ultrasonography, and autoimmune pancreatitis. With some exceptions, we exclude basic science and surgery. PMID:27077713

  10. Posterior belly of the digastric muscle: An important landmark for various head and neck surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrinda Hari Ankolekar

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: As the PBD muscle is an important surgical landmark, the present study adds to the existing knowledge about it. The present study has also included few newer landmarks, which were not given importance in the previous studies. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 79-82

  11. STUDY ON COMPARISON BETWEEN LANDMARK GUIDED (BRINKMAN'S TECHNIQUE ) AND ULTRASOUND GUIDED INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN CANNULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod; Sashi Walling

    2015-01-01

    Technique of cannulating the central veins , until recently has been based on landmark guided technique . Recently ultrasound machines with high frequency probes are being used to increase success rate and reducing complications. OBJECTIVE: In our study we compare landmark guided technique ( Brinkman's technique ) ( 1 ) with ultrasound guided technique. STUDY DESIGN: outcome was evaluated in terms of 1 ) Number of attempts 2 ) ...

  12. Reorienting strategies in a rectangular array of landmarks by domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, Tommaso; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Spatial reorientation in a rectangular array of four landmarks located in the center of a circular enclosure was investigated in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus). One of the landmark possessed unique visual features, indicating the location of a food reward. After training, chicks were tested (a) with the same array as during the training; (b) with four identical landmarks of the type previously nonrewarded, of the type previously rewarded, or of a new type; (c) after having transformed one of the landmarks located at the geometric incorrect location into the type of landmark previously rewarded; or (d) with a fifth landmark of the rewarded type at a new location. Chicks encoded information provided by local featural cues but not the geometric information provided by the shape of the array. Moreover, when trained in a rectangular array of identical landmarks chicks failed to reorient. In a second series of experiments, the array was located in correspondence to the corners of a rectangular enclosure. This time chicks successfully learned to locate the reward using geometric information. However, when the rectangular array was located in the center of a larger rectangular enclosure, chicks failed to reorient, indicating that the geometric information given by the macroscopic layout of arena surfaces was not used to specify different locations. These results suggest that chicks reorient on the basis of a local representation of single landmarks and that encoding of the global aspects of geometry only occurs with respect to the large, extended surfaces of an enclosure. PMID:20476814

  13. An Evaluation of Cellular Neural Networks for the Automatic Identification of Cephalometric Landmarks on Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Leonardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been made to completely automate cephalometric analysis by automatic landmark search. However, accuracy obtained was worse than manual identification in every study. The analogue-to-digital conversion of X-ray has been claimed to be the main problem. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of the Cellular Neural Networks approach for automatic location of cephalometric landmarks on softcopy of direct digital cephalometric X-rays. Forty-one, direct-digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained by a Siemens Orthophos DS Ceph and were used in this study and 10 landmarks (N, A Point, Ba, Po, Pt, B Point, Pg, PM, UIE, LIE were the object of automatic landmark identification. The mean errors and standard deviations from the best estimate of cephalometric points were calculated for each landmark. Differences in the mean errors of automatic and manual landmarking were compared with a 1-way analysis of variance. The analyses indicated that the differences were very small, and they were found at most within 0.59 mm. Furthermore, only few of these differences were statistically significant, but differences were so small to be in most instances clinically meaningless. Therefore the use of X-ray files with respect to scanned X-ray improved landmark accuracy of automatic detection. Investigations on softcopy of digital cephalometric X-rays, to search more landmarks in order to enable a complete automatic cephalometric analysis, are strongly encouraged.

  14. Looking beyond the Boundaries: Time to Put Landmarks Back on the Cognitive Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Adina R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the proposal of Tolman (1948) that mammals form maplike representations of familiar environments, cognitive map theory has been at the core of debates on the fundamental mechanisms of animal learning and memory. Traditional formulations of cognitive map theory emphasize relations between landmarks and between landmarks and goal locations as…

  15. The Development of Landmark and Beacon Use in Young Children: Evidence from a Touchscreen Search Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jennifer E.

    2006-01-01

    Children ages 2, 3 and 4 years participated in a novel hide-and-seek search task presented on a touchscreen monitor. On beacon trials, the target hiding place could be located using a beacon cue, but on landmark trials, searching required the use of a nearby landmark cue. In Experiment 1, 2-year-olds performed less accurately than older children…

  16. Visual landmark-directed scatter-hoarding of Siberian chipmunks Tamias sibiricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyuan; Li, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yi, Xianfeng

    2016-05-01

    Spatial memory of cached food items plays an important role in cache recovery by scatter-hoarding animals. However, whether scatter-hoarding animals intentionally select cache sites with respect to visual landmarks in the environment and then rely on them to recover their cached seeds for later use has not been extensively explored. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence on whether there are sex differences in visual landmark-based food-hoarding behaviors in small rodents even though male and female animals exhibit different spatial abilities. In the present study, we used a scatter-hoarding animal, the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus to explore these questions in semi-natural enclosures. Our results showed that T. sibiricus preferred to establish caches in the shallow pits labeled with visual landmarks (branches of Pinus sylvestris, leaves of Athyrium brevifrons and PVC tubes). In addition, visual landmarks of P. sylvestris facilitated cache recovery by T. sibiricus. We also found significant sex differences in visual landmark-based food-hoarding strategies in Siberian chipmunks. Males, rather than females, chipmunks tended to establish their caches with respect to the visual landmarks. Our studies show that T. sibiricus rely on visual landmarks to establish and recover their caches, and that sex differences exist in visual landmark-based food hoarding in Siberian chipmunks. PMID:27160702

  17. Anatomic landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Marcelo D; Furlan, Julio C; Teixeira, Gilberto V; Friguglietti, Celso U M; Kulcsar, Marco A V; Magalhães, Roberto P; Ferraz, Alberto R; Brandão, Lenine G

    2009-05-01

    This anatomical study examines the anatomic topography and landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) during surgical dissections in 40 fresh human cadavers (2 females and 38 males; ages from 22 to 89 years with a mean of 60 years). In the submandibular region, the SAN was found anteriorly to the transverse process of the atlas in 77.5% of the dissections. When the SAN crossed the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the mean distance from the point of crossing to the tendon of the muscle was 1.75 +/- 0.54 cm. Distally, the SAN crossed between the two heads of the SCM muscle in 45% of the dissections and deep to the muscle in 55%. The SAN exited the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in a point superior to the nerve point with a mean distance between these two anatomic parameters of 0.97 +/- 0.46 cm. The mean overall extracranial length of the SAN was 12.02 +/- 2.32 cm, whereas the mean length of the SAN in the posterior triangle was 5.27 +/- 1.52 cm. There were 2-10 lymph nodes in the SAN chain. In conclusion, the nerve point is one of the most reliable anatomic landmarks for localization of the SAN in surgical neck dissections. Although other anatomic parameters including the transverse process of the atlas and the digastric muscle can also be used to localize the SAN, the surgeon should be aware of the possibility of anatomic variations of those parameters. Similar to previous investigations, our results suggest that the number of lymph nodes of the SAN chain greatly varies. PMID:19373901

  18. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocmăreanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Drăgan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  19. CD-ROM transnational training program in cervical cytology (CYTOTRAIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsan, C; Coleman, D V; Branca, M; Cochand-Priollet, B; Molinié, V

    2001-01-01

    The Transnational Training Programme in Cervical Cytology (CYTOTRAIN) is a 3-yr project funded by the European Commission to harmonize training and quality standards in cervical screening across the European Union. The aim of the program is to develop new approaches in initial and continuing vocational training, particularly in the area of life-long learning with the aim of meeting national, regional, and local needs. We present a new approach to training in cervical cytology, using an interactive program of cytological images. The method used to prepare the program and the problems encountered are described. The authors have the feeling that giving details of the organizational and management structure adopted for the project implementation might help other pathologists realize more or less similar CD-ROM training programs in their own field of activity. PMID:11135473

  20. Pilomatrixoma of the Arm: A Rare Case with Cytologic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, a benign skin appendageal tumor, is seen commonly in head and neck. Occurrence of pilomatrixoma in the upper extremities is not common and has been reported infrequently in the available literature. Only a few cases with preoperative aspiration cytology have been reported in the literature. A five-year-old girl underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA of a firm subcutaneous nodule on the lateral aspect of left arm. FNA smears showed scattered and few fragments of round to oval cells along with multinucleated giant cells. Few shadow cells were seen. A cytologic impression of pilomatrixoma was rendered, which was confirmed on histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, a common skin appendageal tumor in head and neck region, should be considered in the cytologic differential diagnoses of subcutaneous masses even in unusual locations like arm. The varied cytomorphology should be remembered to avoid misdiagnosis.

  1. Cytological diagnostic of canine transmissible venereal tumor - Case report

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    Ulčar Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (CTVT is a benign reticuloendothelial (histiocytic tumor of the dog that mainly affects the external genitalia. This tumor was found in male 2 years old mongrel dog. According the anamnestic data, there was no visible change of its general clinical status, except spontaneous bleeding with blood drops on the praeputium and the presence of blood in the urine. With clinical examination a multilobular mass on radix penis mucosa was found, which actually caused pseudohemorrhagia. The material for cytological diagnostic was taken with the imprint method and 4 cytological films were prepared and strained. The conclusion of the cytological diagnosis was CTVT. The tumor cause only local disturbances, and the differential diagnosis of the other "round cells tumors", histiocytomas, plasmacytomas, lymphoma, some melanomas and especially lymphosarcomas, which could be located on the external genitalia, had a big significance. Although some authors are mentioning spontaneous regression, however, because this is invasive tumor, a complete chirurgical excision was made.

  2. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  3. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. Litherland, J.C. (2002)

  4. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. PMID:11977938

  5. 3D facial landmarks: Inter-operator variability of manual annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Harder, Stine; Rosengren, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    .g. the research fields of orthodontics and cephalometrics. We present a full facial 3D annotation procedure and a sparse set of manually annotated landmarks, in effort to reduce operator time and minimize the variance. Method Facial scans from 36 voluntary unrelated blood donors from the Danish Blood...... landmarks in order to construct a dense correspondence map of the 3D scans with a minimum point variance. Results The anatomical landmarks of the eye were associated with the lowest variance, particularly the center of the pupils. Whereas points of the jaw and eyebrows have the highest variation. We see......Background Manual annotation of landmarks is a known source of variance, which exist in all fields of medical imaging, influencing the accuracy and interpretation of the results. However, the variability of human facial landmarks is only sparsely addressed in the current literature as opposed to e...

  6. Contributions of cytology examination and methods in lung cancer diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Lung cancer (LC) is still the leading cause of cancer death according to published data worldwide and confirmed also by the data obtained from the central Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Early detection of LC has an important impact on the long-term survival rate of the patients. In spite of a great advance in imaging technology for a better visualization and early detection of the neoplasms and a variety of screening tests, only cytopathology examination finally define the neoplastic lesion. Methods. To evaluate the contribution of cytology examination in the diagnosis of LC we studied the cytology diagnoses, comparing them with histology reports in patients, who underwent the diagnostic procedure under suspicion of the LC during last 2 years. Results. Of a total 772 patients, in 241 patients cancer was microscopically confirmed. The most frequent diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (36.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (26.6%), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) (12.9%). There were 22% of neoplasms classified as non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). From the clinician point of view considering the therapy it is very important to distinguish NSCLC from SCLC. And in our study the cytology-histology correlation between these two major types of carcinoma was almost 100%. Based only on cytology, 68 (28.2%) patients received microscopic diagnosis of malignoma, and the specimens for this group of patients were obtained mostly from transbronchial or transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies. Conclusions. Cytology is of great diagnostic value, a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Cytology specimens should be taken in cases where it is not possible to obtain samples for histology. (author)

  7. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, Hemalatha Anthanahalli; Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-05-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as "Intramuscular Sarcocystosis" and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  8. Role of cytology in fibroadenoma with clinging carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Swetha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in adolescent girls and young women with a peak incidence in the second and third decades of life. Carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is rare and is usually discovered incidentally. We describe a case of clinging type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS arising within a fibroadenoma. Clinging carcinoma, a variant of DCIS is an under recognized entity. Diagnosis of DCIS is made based on architecture and cytology. This case report highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of this entity coexisting in a fibroadenoma.

  9. Diagnosis of chordoma by cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigil, M A; Pardo-Mindan, F J; Joly, M

    1983-09-01

    This is a case report of a 44-year-old man with a chordoma of the clivus that caused dysphonia, low back pain, and urinary and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis was made by cytologic study of the CSF, which demonstrated vacuolated malignant cells. The patient was treated with intrathecal methotrexate, dexamethasone, and radiotherapy. At autopsy extensive dissemination of chordoma was found at the base of the brain, in the ventricles, and in the leptomeninges of the spinal cord. This is the sixth reported case of intrathecal dissemination of a chordoma and the first diagnosed by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:6881106

  10. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  11. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  12. Landmark and route knowledge in children’s spatial representation of a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eNys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the development of landmark and route knowledge in complex wayfinding situations. Our study focuses on how children (aged 6, 8 and 10 years and young adults (n=79 indicate, recognize, and bind landmarks and directions in both verbal and visuo-spatial tasks after learning a virtual route. Performance in these tasks is also related to general verbal and visuo-spatial abilities as assessed by independent standardized tests (attention, working memory, perception of direction, production and comprehension of spatial terms, sentences and stories. The results first show that the quantity and quality of landmarks and directions produced and recognized by participants in both verbal and visuo-spatial tasks increased with age. In addition, an increase with age was observed in participants’ selection of decisional landmarks (i.e. landmarks associated with a change of direction, as well as in their capacity to bind landmarks and directions. Our results confirm the view that children first acquire landmark knowledge, then route knowledge, as shown by their late developing ability to bind knowledge of directions and landmarks. Overall, the quality of verbal and visuo-spatial information in participants’ spatial representations was found to vary mostly with their visuo-spatial abilities (attention and perception of directions and not with their verbal abilities. Interestingly, however, when asked to recognize landmarks encountered during the route, participants show an increasing bias with age toward choosing a related landmark of the same category, regardless of its visual characteristics, i.e. they incorrectly choose the picture of another fountain. The discussion highlights the need for further studies to determine more precisely the role of verbal and visuo-spatial knowledge and the nature of how children learn to represent and memorize routes.

  13.  A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathvi Shetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis.Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College Hospital from May 2006 to April 2008. The patients with thyroid nodules (diagnosed by palpation were subjected to both the cytological techniques; FNA and FNC. The specimen and results were compared and then correlated with the final histopathological findings wherever surgical specimens were available (38 cases.Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.16 with a female predominance. The majority of cases were diagnosed to have nodular goiters. The FNC technique yielded 88�0diagnostic superiority and adequate specimens compared to 94�0by FNA. Sensitivity was 50�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA while specificity was 100�0for both techniques; accuracy score was 97.4�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA in predicting malignancy. While sensitivity was 75�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA; specificity was 100�0for both techniques, and accuracy score was 97.4�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA in the prediction of neoplasia.Conclusion: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two techniques; if done in tandem can give better and accurate cytological diagnosis. In highly cellular lesions, in which abundant material was obtained, FNC was more likely to be diagnostically superior, but FNA can diagnose most of the lesions. In less cellular lesions, FNA is more likely to be diagnostically superior to FNC.

  14. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  15. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara

  16. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina

    OpenAIRE

    GERMANA, MARIA ANTONIETTA; Aleza, Pablo; Carrera, Esther; Chen, Chunxian; Chiancone, Benedetta; Costantino, Gilles; Dambier, Dominique; Deng, Xiuxin; Federici, Claire T.; Froelicher, Yann; Guo, Wenwu; Ibanez, Victoria; Juarez, Jose; Kwok, Kevin; Luro, François

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow c...

  17. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  18. Human papillomavirus infection in Honduran women with normal cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Matute, J.A.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Ferrera, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at estimating type-specific HPV prevalence and its cofactors among Honduran women with normal cytology in order to provide valuable information to health policymakers about the epidemiology of this important sexually transmitted infection. METHODS: A total of 591 wome

  19. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  20. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses - Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Early pathological classification of retroperitoneal masses is important for pin-point diagnosis and timely management. Aims : This study was done to evaluate the usefulness and drawbacks of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of retroperitoneal masses covering a period of two years with an intention to distinguish between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and to correlate with histologic findings. Materials and Methods : FNAC was done under radiological guidance in all cases using long needle fitted with disposable syringe. Appropriate staining was done and cytology was correlated with histology which was taken as the gold standard for comparison. Results : Fifty-one patients who presented with retroperitoneal masses were studied. Forty-four lesions were malignant cytologically and 7 were inflammatory (tuberculous. According to radiological and cytologic findings, we classified our cases into four groups: renal tumors, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, germ cell tumors, soft tissue tumors. Except for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and metastatic lesions, we had sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In NHL the sensitivity and specificity were both 50%. In cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusions : Ignoring the pitfalls, guided FNAC is still an inexpensive and reliable method of early diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions.

  1. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  2. Reproducibility of imaging skull anatomic landmarks utilizing three-dimensional computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Yasushi; Harii, Kiyonori (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hirabayashi, Shinichi

    1994-05-01

    The study investigated the reproducibility of locating specific anatomic landmarks, utilizing computed tomography (CT), for the purpose of assigning accurate coordinates on the skull. Three-dimensional (3-D) CT data, obtained by scanning a dry adult skull, were processed using a multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) system. Each landmark was identified five times by the same technician, and the average distances between points identifying the same landmark were calculated. The 15 landmarks studied were the infra-orbital foramina, the external auditory meatus, the foramina rotundum, the foramina ovale, the optic canals, anterior crinoid processes, anterior nasal spine, crista galli, and the sella turcica. Three additional artificial markers placed in occlusal dental splints were also examined. The crinoid processes were identified with the highest degree of accuracy. The crista galli and optic canals were also located with reproducible results. The standard deviation calculated from the fine attempts to locate the artificial markers was smaller than that calculated from attempts to identify any of the landmarks. This implies that coordinates on the craniofacial bones should be defined using artificial markers rather than bony landmarks. Artificial markers placed in occlusal dental splints easily can be applied clinically. Complicated facial bone contours should be analyzed mathematically. In clinical setting, these points were found to be reproducible in 15 bony landmarks on the skull. (N.K.).

  3. Reproducibility of imaging skull anatomic landmarks utilizing three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated the reproducibility of locating specific anatomic landmarks, utilizing computed tomography (CT), for the purpose of assigning accurate coordinates on the skull. Three-dimensional (3-D) CT data, obtained by scanning a dry adult skull, were processed using a multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) system. Each landmark was identified five times by the same technician, and the average distances between points identifying the same landmark were calculated. The 15 landmarks studied were the infra-orbital foramina, the external auditory meatus, the foramina rotundum, the foramina ovale, the optic canals, anterior crinoid processes, anterior nasal spine, crista galli, and the sella turcica. Three additional artificial markers placed in occlusal dental splints were also examined. The crinoid processes were identified with the highest degree of accuracy. The crista galli and optic canals were also located with reproducible results. The standard deviation calculated from the fine attempts to locate the artificial markers was smaller than that calculated from attempts to identify any of the landmarks. This implies that coordinates on the craniofacial bones should be defined using artificial markers rather than bony landmarks. Artificial markers placed in occlusal dental splints easily can be applied clinically. Complicated facial bone contours should be analyzed mathematically. In clinical setting, these points were found to be reproducible in 15 bony landmarks on the skull. (N.K.)

  4. Landmark navigation and autonomous landing approach with obstacle detection for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Simon; Werner, Stefan; Dickmanns, Dirk; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    A machine perception system for aircraft and helicopters using multiple sensor data for state estimation is presented. By combining conventional aircraft sensor like gyros, accelerometers, artificial horizon, aerodynamic measuring devices and GPS with vision data taken by conventional CCD-cameras mounted on a pan and tilt platform, the position of the craft can be determined as well as the relative position to runways and natural landmarks. The vision data of natural landmarks are used to improve position estimates during autonomous missions. A built-in landmark management module decides which landmark should be focused on by the vision system, depending on the distance to the landmark and the aspect conditions. More complex landmarks like runways are modeled with different levels of detail that are activated dependent on range. A supervisor process compares vision data and GPS data to detect mistracking of the vision system e.g. due to poor visibility and tries to reinitialize the vision system or to set focus on another landmark available. During landing approach obstacles like trucks and airplanes can be detected on the runway. The system has been tested in real-time within a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Simulated aircraft measurements corrupted by noise and other characteristic sensor errors have been fed into the machine perception system; the image processing module for relative state estimation was driven by computer generated imagery. Results from real-time simulation runs are given.

  5. Encoding and retrieval of landmark-related spatial cues during navigation: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Joost; Tyborowska, Anna; Janzen, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    To successfully navigate, humans can use different cues from their surroundings. Learning locations in an environment can be supported by parallel subsystems in the hippocampus and the striatum. We used fMRI to look at differences in the use of object-related spatial cues while 47 participants actively navigated in an open-field virtual environment. In each trial, participants navigated toward a target object. During encoding, three positional cues (columns) with directional cues (shadows) were available. During retrieval, the removed target had to be replaced while either two objects without shadows (objects trial) or one object with a shadow (shadow trial) were available. Participants were informed in blocks about which type of retrieval trial was most likely to occur, thereby modulating expectations of having to rely on a single landmark or on a configuration of landmarks. How the spatial learning systems in the hippocampus and caudate nucleus were involved in these landmark-based encoding and retrieval processes were investigated. Landmark configurations can create a geometry similar to boundaries in an environment. It was found that the hippocampus was involved in encoding when relying on configurations of landmarks, whereas the caudate nucleus was involved in encoding when relying on single landmarks. This might suggest that the observed hippocampal activation for configurations of objects is linked to a spatial representation observed with environmental boundaries. Retrieval based on configurations of landmarks activated regions associated with the spatial updation of object locations for reorientation. When only a single landmark was available during retrieval, regions associated with updating the location of oneself were activated. There was also evidence that good between-participant performance was predicted by right hippocampal activation. This study therefore sheds light on how the brain deals with changing demands on spatial processing related purely

  6. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  7. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayper KAÇAR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast majority of patients with thyroid nodules were cytopathologically diagnosed as benign (97.3%. Of these patients, 64.8% (24 patients were diagnosed as nodular goiter and 35.2% (13 patients as lymphocytic thyroiditis. Thyroid malignancy was found in two patients; one was diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/ minimal invasive follicular carcinoma on surgical evaluation while the other was a secondary tumor (Burkitt's lymphoma. The majority of our subjects were females (66.6%: the female/male ratio was 2:1 for nodular goiter and 3.3:1 for thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in 5 patients (4 cases of nodular goiter, 1 suspicious for malignancy and cytological diagnoses were confirmed by histology.Conclusion: Our study confirmed the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in childhood thyroid disorders along with a possible higher incidence of nodular thyroiditis in childhood. Nodular autoimmune thyroiditis, focal thyroiditis and thyroid cancer in children are discussed and attention is drawn to some special subtypes of thyroid cancer and some benign lesions that can cause difficulty in interpreting fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen sections at this age.

  8. Faithful Completion of Images of Scenic Landmarks Using Internet Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Tan, Zhi-Peng; Xu, Kun; Hu, Shi-Min

    2016-08-01

    Previous works on image completion typically aim to produce visually plausible results rather than factually correct ones. In this paper, we propose an approach to faithfully complete the missing regions of an image. We assume that the input image is taken at a well-known landmark, so similar images taken at the same location can be easily found on the Internet. We first download thousands of images from the Internet using a text label provided by the user. Next, we apply two-step filtering to reduce them to a small set of candidate images for use as source images for completion. For each candidate image, a co-matching algorithm is used to find correspondences of both points and lines between the candidate image and the input image. These are used to find an optimal warp relating the two images. A completion result is obtained by blending the warped candidate image into the missing region of the input image. The completion results are ranked according to combination score, which considers both warping and blending energy, and the highest ranked ones are shown to the user. Experiments and results demonstrate that our method can faithfully complete images. PMID:26394429

  9. Bidirectional coherent classical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.

    2005-01-01

    A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...

  10. Entanglement in Classical Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha; Mukherjee, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate betw...

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Kala

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same.

  12. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  13. Teleportation via classical entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    We present a classical counterpart to quantum teleportation that uses classical entanglement instead of quantum entanglement. In our implementation we take advantage of classical entanglement among three parties: orbital angular momentum (OAM), polarization, and the radial degrees of freedom of a beam of light. We demonstrate the teleportation of arbitrary OAM states, in the subspace spanned by any two OAM states, to the polarization of the same beam. Our letter presents the first classical demonstration of a commonly-perceived--quantum phenomenon that requires entanglement among more than two parties.

  14. A global solution for the gravity field, rotation, landmarks and ephemeris of Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Miller, J. K.; Owen, W. M.; Yeomans, D. K.; Giorgini, J. D.; Garmier, R.; Barriot, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    This solution uses the entire one-year in orbit collection of X-band radiometric tracking (Doppler and range) from the Deep Space Network and landmark tracking observations generated from the NEAR spacecraft images of Eros.

  15. CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-fang He; Mei-lu Bian; Ying Wang; Xiao-yan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and follow up cervical cytology of pregnant and postpartum women and study their cytopathologic characteristics, so as to determine screening and managing programs for abnormal cervical cytology.Methods Totally 5296 patients in pregnancy and postpartum, in which 3729 by computer-assisted cytology test and 1567 by liquid-based monolayers cytology test, were examined and diagnosed by the Bethesda System made in 2001. Those proven epithelial abnormalities patients were followed up until the lesions regressed to normal. The remaining patients,who exhibited persistent abnormalities or progression, were given further examinations.Results The positive rate of cervical cytological test was 8.72% (462/5296), including squamous carcinoma (SCA) 1case (0.02%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 34 cases (0.64%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 145 cases (2.74%), atypical glandular cells (AGC) 5 cases (0.09%), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) 14 cases (0.26%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 263 cases (4.97%). The 419 proven cytological abnormality cases were followed up successfully. The total transnegative rate in three months was 73.74% (309/419), in which 303 cases (72.32%) persisted normal status for more than six months after regression. And the transnegative rate of ASC-US, ASC-H, AGC, LSIL, and HSIL were 79.56%, 64.29%, 100%,72.14% and 44.12%, respectively. Forty-six cases received biopsy directed by colposcopy. The distribution of coincidence of cytopathologic and histopathologic diagnosis was: SCA 1 case (100%), HSIL 10 cases (76.92%), LSIL 13 cases (65%), ASC-H 2 cases (50%), ASC-US 3 cases (37.50%), total 29 cases (63.04%).Conclusions We should cast more attention to screening cervix lesions in pregnant and postpartum women. Their cytopathologic characteristics are liable to make the clinician give a false positive diagnosis. So we propose to follow up them closely

  16. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Hyukdoo Choi; Ryunseok Kim; Euntai Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM) technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide ad...

  17. Cálculo distribuido de landmarks para sistemas de planificación multiagente

    OpenAIRE

    Oropesa Física, Ana

    2013-01-01

    En este Proyecto Final de Carrera se verá la motivación por la que hacer una heurística multiagente utilizando landmarks, la construcción de ésta y unos posteriores resultados y comparativas con la heurística monoagente entre otras. Oropesa Física, A. (2013). Cálculo distribuido de landmarks para sistemas de planificación multiagente. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/32520. Archivo delegado

  18. Effects of image enhancement on reliability of landmark identification in digital cephalometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although digital cephalometric radiography is gaining popularity in orthodontic practice, the most important source of error in its tracing is uncertainty in landmark identification. Therefore, efforts to improve accuracy in landmark identification were directed primarily toward the improvement in image quality. One of the more useful techniques of this process involves digital image enhancement which can increase overall visual quality of image, but this does not necessarily mean a better identification of landmarks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of digital image enhancements on reliability of landmark identification. Materials and Methods: Fifteen common landmarks including 10 skeletal and 5 soft tissues were selected on the cephalograms of 20 randomly selected patients, prepared in Natural Head Position (NHP. Two observers (orthodontists identified landmarks on the 20 original photostimulable phosphor (PSP digital cephalogram images and 20 enhanced digital images twice with an intervening time interval of at least 4 weeks. The x and y coordinates were further analyzed to evaluate the pattern of recording differences in horizontal and vertical directions. Reliability of landmarks identification was analyzed by paired t test. Results: There was a significant difference between original and enhanced digital images in terms of reliability of points Ar and N in vertical and horizontal dimensions, and enhanced images were significantly more reliable than original images. Identification of A point, Pogonion and Pronasal points, in vertical dimension of enhanced images was significantly more reliable than original ones. Reliability of Menton point identification in horizontal dimension was significantly more in enhanced images than original ones. Conclusion: Direct digital image enhancement by altering brightness and contrast can increase reliability of some landmark identification and this may lead to more

  19. EXPLOITING 3D ULTRASOUND FOR FETAL DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSE THROUGH FACIAL LANDMARKING

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Vezzetti; Domenico Speranza; Federica Marcolin; Giulia Fracastoro; Giorgia Buscicchio

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, three-dimensional landmarking has gained attention for different applications, such as face recognition for both identification of suspects and authentication, facial expression recognition, corrective and aesthetic surgery, syndrome study and diagnosis. This work focuses on the last one by proposing a geometrically-based landmark extraction algorithm aimed at diagnosing syndromes on babies before their birth. Pivotal role in this activity is the support provided by physic...

  20. Insite: Canada's landmark safe injecting program at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucker Ernest

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InSite is North Americas first supervised injection site and a landmark public heath initiative operating in Vancouver since 2003. The program is a vital component of that cities internationally recognized harm reduction approach to its serious problems with drugs, crime, homelessness and AIDS. InSite currently operates under a waiver of Federal rules that allow it to provide services as a research project. An extensive evaluation has produced very positive results for thousands of users. Normally such strong evidence documenting the successes of such a program, and the medical and public health significance of these positive outcomes, would be the basis for celebration and moves to expand the model and provide similar services elsewhere in Canada. Instead, there is a distinct possibility that InSite will be closed by the newly elected Canadian Prime Minister Paul Harper – a conservative who has traveled to the US to visit George WQ Bush and come back antagonistic to harm reduction in all its forms. Because InSites federal waiver is expiring and up for renewal in September, the fear is that Mr. Harpers will not renew the approval and that the program will be forced to close down. The risks associated with the potential closure of InSite need to be fully understood. This editorial lays out these public health risks and the associated economic impact if InSite were to be closed. In addition to preventable deaths and disease, InSites closure will cost Vancouver and British Columbia between $3.8 and $ 8.8 million in preventable health care expenses over the next two years.

  1. Lectures on Classical Integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the lectures consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schroedinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  2. Ultrasound Guided Internal Jugular Venous Cannulation: Comparison with Land-Mark Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare real-time ultrasonography-guided technique versus the traditional land-mark technique for internal Jugular venous cannulation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from September 2013 to July 2014. Methodology:Atotal of 200 patients who required internal jugular vein cannulation were randomly assigned using either real-time ultrasound-guided technique or land-mark technique. Access time, number of attempts until successful cannulation, complications and the demographics of each patient were recorded. Results:Access time was significantly less in real-time ultrasound group (34.95 ± 11.47 vs. 146.59 ± 40.20 seconds, p < 0.001). Cannulation was performed in first attempt in 99 percentage of patients in ultrasound group as compared to 89 percentage of landmark group. Complication rate was significantly higher in the land-mark group than in the ultrasound-guided group. Carotid artery puncture rate (9 percentage vs. 1 percentage) and haematoma formation (7 percentage vs. 0 percentage) were more frequent in the land-mark group than in the ultrasound-guided group. Brachial plexus irritation was also more in land-mark group (6 percentage vs. 0 percentage). Conclusion:Access time, failure rate and procedure related complications are reduced when real-time ultrasonography is used to cannulate internal Jugular vein. (author)

  3. Indirect building localization based on a prominent solid landmark from a forward-looking infrared imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Wang; Tianxu Zhang; Xiaoyu Yang

    2011-01-01

    A novel indirect building localization technique based on a prominent solid landmark from a forwardlooking infrared imagery is proposed to localize low, deeply buried, or carefully camouflaged buildings in dense urban areas.First, the widely used effective methods are applied to detect and localize the solid landmark.The building target is then precisely indirectly localized by perspective transformation according to the imaging parameters and the space constraint relations between the building target and the solid landmark.Experimental results demonstrate this technique can indirectly localize buildings in dense urban areas effectively.%@@ A novel indirect building localization technique based on a prominent solid landmark from a forward-looking infrared imagery is proposed to localize low, deeply buried, or carefully camouflaged buildings in dense urban areas.First, the widely used effective methods are applied to detect and localize the solid landmark.The building target is then precisely indirectly localized by perspective transformation according to the imaging parameters and the space constraint relations between the building target and the solid landmark.Experimental results demonstrate this technique can indirectly localize buildings in dense urban areas effectively.

  4. Endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Weber; Claus van Weyhern; Falko Fend; Jochen Schneider; Bruno Neu; Alexander Meining; Hans Weidenbach; Roland M Schmid; Christian Prinz

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the sensitivity of brush cytology and forceps biopsy in a homogeneous patient group with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.METHODS:Brush cytology and forceps biopsy were routinely performed in patients with suspected malignant biliary strictures.Fifty-eight consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) including forceps biopsy and brush cytology in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995-2005.RESULTS:Positive results for malignancy were obtained in 24/58 patients (41.4%) by brush cytology and in 31/58 patients (53.4%) by forceps biopsy.The combination of both techniques brush cytology and forceps biopsy resulted only in a minor increase in diagnostic sensitivity to 60.3% (35/58 patients).In 20/58 patients (34.5%),diagnosis were obtained by both positive cytology and positive histology,in 11/58 (19%) by positive histology (negative cytology) and only 4/58 patients (6.9%) were confirmed by positive cytology (negative histology).CONCLUSION:Brush cytology and forceps biopsy have only limited sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant hilar tumors.In our eyes,additional diagnostic techniques should be evaluated and should become routine in patients with negative cytological and histological findings.

  5. Cytological investigations in populations of D. melanogaster exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described was carried out to investigate structural changes in the chromosomes of irradiated populations of D.melanogaster that can be analysed on the basis of cytological methods. It mainly dealt with two particular aspects of this subject: I. Different types of chromosomes (polytene chromosomes, mitotic and meiotic chromosomes) were used to examine whether and to which extent chromosomal variability would alter or remain unchanged under the influence of mutation. II. The prophase of the first division of female cells was analysed with respect to the role of resistance factor rar-2. In this connection, it was of interest whether the prophase of meiosis would show visible cytological changes in the interchromosomal structure that are caused by factor rar-2. (orig./MG)

  6. Coral Reef Monitoring: From Cytological Parameters to Community Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Ben-Tzvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound-ecosystem-based management of coral reefs is largely based on indicators of reef health state. Currently there are various ecological parameters that serve as reef state indices; however, their practical implications are under debate. In the present study we examine an alternative parameter, the deterioration index (DI, which does not purport to replace the traditional indices but can provide a reliable, stand-alone indication of reef state. Patterns of cytological indices, which are considered as reliable indicators of environmental stressors, have been compared to ten selected reef community indices. The DI showed the highest correlations among community indices to the cytological indices in artificial reefs and high correlation in natural reefs as well. Our results suggest that in cases of lacking adequate monitoring abilities where a full set of community indices cannot be obtained, the DI can serve in many cases as the preferred, stand-alone indicator of coral reef state.

  7. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts a...

  8. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Simonato

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC. Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205 in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg. Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94. miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  9. Role of gastric brush cytology in the diagnosis of giardiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Varma Deepali; Jain Shyama; Khurana Nita

    2008-01-01

    Background: Giardiasis, common in developing countries, has mostly nonspecific clinical symptoms, resulting in a limited role for preliminary tests. Aims: The present study aims to highlight the utility of endoscopic brush cytology (EBC) in the diagnosis of giardiasis in clinically unsuspected cases. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic brush smears (EBS) are routinely obtained in all patients presenting with gastric symptoms. The present study is a retrospective analysis of EBS, consis...

  10. Colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A diagnostic dilemma on cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Shailja Puri Wahal; Reetika Sharma; Neelam Gupta; Anchana Gulati

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is mesenchymal tumors arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal (pace maker cells) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Stomach is the most common site (60-65%) of these tumors. Large intestine and rectum constitute only 5-10% of GIT tumors. Pre-operative diagnosis helps in the management of this tumor as it responds well to c-kit inhibitors. The cytological diagnosis of GIST is characteristic, however, associated with many pitfalls leading to erroneo...

  11. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-07-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus - series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus - series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743

  12. "Comparison of ultrasound findings with cytologic results in Thyroid nodules "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Razmpa E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The nodular thyroid diseas is one of the most common disturbances o the thyroid gland wheras malignant tumors are among the most unusual entities of it. Not only differentiation of these two spectra but also the problems to achieve early diagnosis and treatment, have been a matter of concern, research, and controversy. Two hundred patients were assessed at the Cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital as a retrospective research, considering the aim of evaluating and comparing the results of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology with the postoperative histopathologic report. The ultrosound findings included location, number, size, feature, echogenicity, and presence of calcification; and those of the fine needle aspiration cytology consisted of benign, malignant, and suspicious samples. The cases mentioned as recurrent cancer or metastases of previous thyroid cancer were omitted from the study. In this research we found a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 92.3% , 76.4% and 88.1%, respectively , for fine needle aspiration cytology and also showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of malignant lesions of solid nodules was more than in cystic or mixed nodules of thyroid. Moreover, the incidence of false negatives in malignant cases of the studied sample was 7.7% (11/43. This rate was very higher in mixed and cystic lesions compared to benign ones (20% versus 5.7%. According to ultrasound findings, we showed that micro-calcificantion had a significant higher frequency in malignant nodules in comparision with the benign ones (4% in benign lesions versus 35% in malignant ones. The rate of malignancy in solid lesions revealed a significant increment compared to cystic and mixed nodules (P<0.0001. Moreover, the potential for malignancy in nodules with low echogenicity was very higher than high echogenicity producting nodules.

  13. Optimal z-axis scanning parameters for gynecologic cytology specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Amber D Donnelly; Mukherjee, Maheswari S.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Bridge, Julia A.; Subodh M Lele; Najia Wright; Mary F McGaughey; Culberson, Alicia M.; Adam J. Horn; Whitney R Wedel; Stanley J Radio

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of virtual microscopy (VM) in clinical cytology has been limited due to the inability to focus through three dimensional (3D) cell clusters with a single focal plane (2D images). Limited information exists regarding the optimal scanning parameters for 3D scanning. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal number of the focal plane levels and the optimal scanning interval to digitize gynecological (GYN) specimens prepared on SurePath™ glass slides while m...

  14. Comparative cervical cytology and conception rate in postpartum dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ahmadi, Mohammad; NAZIFI, Saeed; Reza Ghaisari, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    During the early postpartum period, multiple bacterial species invade the uterus of cows. Phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells is a primary mechanism involved in the elimination of bacteria and improvement of conception rate. Therefore, a relationship could exist between endometrial cytology and conception rate of postpartum dairy cows. In this study 50 postpartum healthy Holstein Frisian dairy cows were selected. They had a normal parturition history and had no mucopurulent discharge from...

  15. Impression Cytology in Different Types of Contact Lens Users

    OpenAIRE

    ISKELELI, Guzin; Arici, Ceyhun; DEGER BILGEC, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Cuyan; SERAP ARSLAN, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared tear function tests and cytologic changes on the conjunctival surface in asymptomatic patients wearing contact lens of different materials. Included in this study were 40 eyes wearing daily wear 4 week replacement hydrogel (H) lenses, 32 eyes wearing silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses, 18 eyes wearing rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, and 21 healthy eyes (no lenses) as the control group. Epithelial morphology of the conjunctival surface was evaluated, based on Nelson classific...

  16. [THE MORPHOMETRY IN CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXUDATIVE FLUIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snikhovskaya, K V; Shabalova, I P

    2015-08-01

    The cytological technique takes a leading position in diagnostic of tumor processes according exudative fluids. However, its results depend on large number of subjective factors. The morphometry is one of techniques by virtue of which objectification of data of cytological analysis is possible. The study was carried out to establish differences of morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cells of pleural effusion. The morphometric analysis of cells of mesothelium, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach was implemented. The parameters characterizing size (area, perimeter) and form (form factor) of nucleus and cell, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio. The results demonstrated that in pleural effusion between cells of proliferating mesothelium and malignant neoplasms exist significant differences in morphometric parameters (p<0.001). The differences between area of nuclei and cells are especially significant. The comparison of data of morphometry of cells of breast cancer; adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach demonstrated that despite of some morphological similarities, analysis of morphometric parameters can provide important data for proper establishment of cytological diagnosis. PMID:26596045

  17. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  18. Imprint cytology of osteosarcoma of the jaw: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Janete

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteosarcomas are highly malignant bone-forming neoplasms that account for about 20% of all sarcomas. In light of their aggressive behavior, early diagnosis is crucial for determining adequate treatment. Dental professionals may be the first to detect jaw osteosarcomas in their initial stages. The aim of this case report is to draw attention to the possibility of diagnosing this tumor based on clinical, radiographical and cytological characteristics before confirmation by histology. Case presentation A 24-year-old Afro-Brazilian man presented with swelling and pain on the left side of the mandible in the region of the third molar (tooth 38. Radiography showed a poorly delimited intraosseous lesion with radiolucent and radiopaque areas. The cytological aspects were consistent with the diagnosis of osteosarcoma, which was confirmed by biopsy. Conclusion Imprint cytology was found to be a reliable, rapid and easy complementary examination. An early diagnosis of osteosarcoma of the jaw is fundamental to the early determination of an adequate treatment.

  19. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  20. Impression Cytology with Transfer in xerophthalmia and conjunctival diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnikoff, S; Luzeau, R; Filliard, G; Amedee-Manesme, O

    1992-11-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of clinical signs of xerophthalmia and of major conjunctival diseases in a randomized sample of 2,445 subjects representative of the population of the Republic of Djibouti. On a part of this sample, conjunctival Impression Cytology with Transfer (ICT) test and a plasma retinol determination were performed. Xerophthalmia as a public health problem was displayed by clinical signs (Bitot's spots, corneal scars among preschool children), low plasma retinol levels and ICT test results: 9.3% with deficient cytology in the rural area and 12.3% in the urban one (age-standardized rates). Results of ICT were related to age (p children but also up to 15 years. Moreover, ICT results are influenced by conjunctival diseases: compared to age-matched controls, there were more abnormal cytologies among patients with trachomatous inflammation (p = 0.025), conjunctivitis (p = 0.024) or Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (p = 0.015). Thus ICT shouldn't be performed among children with conjunctival diseases. In the region under study conjunctival diseases had high rates of prevalence: 16.4% of trachomatous scarrings in the urban area (standardized rate), 8% of conjunctivitis among rural preschool children, and 5% of Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis among children between 5 and 14 years in both areas. PMID:1490836

  1. Pure choriocarcinoma of ovary diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniwadekar M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pure ovarian choriocarcinoma is extremely rare and can develop as a germ cell tumor or as a metastasis from uterine or tubal gestational choriocarcinoma or rarely from an ovarian pregnancy. The cytomorphologic findings have been reported previously in different sites. However, this is the first case of pure ovarian choriocarcinoma diagnosed on cytology to the best of our knowledge. The distinction between a gestational and nongestational choriocarcinoma is difficult. A 19-year-old female patient presented with an irregular per-vaginal bleeding and a mass in lower abdomen. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears of the mass were hypocellular and showed large, multinucleated giant cells and malignant mononucleated cells. Background was hemorrhagic. Serum β hCG level was 3,80,000 mIU/ml. A diagnosis of choriocarcinoma was offered which was later confirmed by histopathology. The diagnosis of choriocarcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology is based on the presence of large, multinucleated giant cells and malignant mononucleated cells. A high index of suspicion should be maintained and estimation of serum β hCG plays a key role in supporting the diagnosis.

  2. Localization of skeletal and aortic landmarks in trauma CT data based on the discriminative generalized Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Hansis, Eberhard; Weese, Jürgen; Carolus, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography is the modality of choice for poly-trauma patients to assess rapidly skeletal and vascular integrity of the whole body. Often several scans with and without contrast medium or with different spatial resolution are acquired. Efficient reading of the resulting extensive set of image data is vital, since it is often time critical to initiate the necessary therapeutic actions. A set of automatically found landmarks can facilitate navigation in the data and enables anatomy oriented viewing. Following this intention, we selected a comprehensive set of 17 skeletal and 5 aortic landmarks. Landmark localization models for the Discriminative Generalized Hough Transform (DGHT) were automatically created based on a set of about 20 training images with ground truth landmark positions. A hierarchical setup with 4 resolution levels was used. Localization results were evaluated on a separate test set, consisting of 50 to 128 images (depending on the landmark) with available ground truth landmark locations. The image data covers a large amount of variability caused by differences of field-of-view, resolution, contrast agent, patient gender and pathologies. The median localization error for the set of aortic landmarks was 14.4 mm and for the set of skeleton landmarks 5.5 mm. Median localization errors for individual landmarks ranged from 3.0 mm to 31.0 mm. The runtime performance for the whole landmark set is about 5s on a typical PC.

  3. Grassmannians of classical buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Pankov, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are combinatorial constructions successfully exploited to study groups of various types. The vertex set of a building can be naturally decomposed into subsets called Grassmannians. The book contains both classical and more recent results on Grassmannians of buildings of classical types. It gives a modern interpretation of some classical results from the geometry of linear groups. The presented methods are applied to some geometric constructions non-related to buildings - Grassmannians of infinite-dimensional vector spaces and the sets of conjugate linear involutions. The book is self

  4. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003 and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914 and William James (1842-1910. I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect briefly on the relevance –often unrecognized- of classical pragmatist ideas in the context of contemporary philosophi-cal discussions.

  5. Physics of classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    The classical electromagnetism described by the Maxwell equations constitutes a fundamental law in contemporary physics. Even with the advent of sophisticated new materials, the principles of classical electromagnetism are still active in various applied areas in today’s advanced communication techniques. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism, by Minoru Fujimoto, is written with concise introductory arguments emphasizing the original field concept, with an aim at understanding objectives in modern information technology. Following basic discussions of electromagnetism with a modernized approach, this book will provide readers with an overview of current problems in high-frequency physics. To further the reader’s understanding of the concepts and applications discussed, each illustration within the book shows the location of all active charges, and the author has provided many worked-out examples throughout the book. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism is intended for students in physics and engineering ...

  6. Injuries in classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, R

    1984-11-01

    The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832

  7. Classical and Quantum Intertwine

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Ph.; Jadczyk, A.

    1993-01-01

    Model interactions between classical and quantum systems are briefly discussed. These include: general measurement-like couplings, Stern-Gerlach experiment, model of a counter, quantum Zeno effect, SQUID-tank model.

  8. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods

  9. Multiple landmarks, the encoding of environmental geometry and the spatial logics of a dual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, A Della; Pecchia, T; Tommasi, L; Vallortigara, G

    2006-10-01

    A series of place learning experiments was carried out in young chicks (Gallus gallus) in order to investigate how the geometry of a landmark array and that of a walled enclosure compete when disoriented animals could rely on both of them to re-orient towards the centre of the enclosure. A square-shaped array (four wooden sticks) was placed in the middle of a square-shaped enclosure, the two structures being concentric. Chicks were trained to ground-scratch to search for food hidden in the centre of the enclosure (and the array). To check for effects of array degradation, one, two, three or all landmarks were removed during test trials. Chicks concentrated their searching activity in the central area of the enclosure, but their accuracy was inversely contingent on the number of landmarks removed; moreover, the landmarks still present within the enclosure appeared to influence the shape of the searching patterns. The reduction in the number of landmarks affected the searching strategy of chicks, suggesting that they had focussed mainly on local cues when landmarks were present within the enclosure. When all the landmarks were removed, chicks searched over a larger area, suggesting an absolute encoding of distances from the local cues and less reliance on the relationships provided by the geometry of the enclosure. Under conditions of monocular vision, chicks tended to rely on different strategies to localize the centre on the basis of the eye (and thus the hemisphere) in use, the left hemisphere attending to details of the environment and the right hemisphere attending to the global shape. PMID:16941155

  10. Comparison of landmark-based and automatic methods for cortical surface registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Dimitrios; Joshi, Anand; Jiang, Jintao; Shattuck, David W; Bernstein, Lynne E; Damasio, Hanna; Leahy, Richard M

    2010-02-01

    Group analysis of structure or function in cerebral cortex typically involves, as a first step, the alignment of cortices. A surface-based approach to this problem treats the cortex as a convoluted surface and coregisters across subjects so that cortical landmarks or features are aligned. This registration can be performed using curves representing sulcal fundi and gyral crowns to constrain the mapping. Alternatively, registration can be based on the alignment of curvature metrics computed over the entire cortical surface. The former approach typically involves some degree of user interaction in defining the sulcal and gyral landmarks while the latter methods can be completely automated. Here we introduce a cortical delineation protocol consisting of 26 consistent landmarks spanning the entire cortical surface. We then compare the performance of a landmark-based registration method that uses this protocol with that of two automatic methods implemented in the software packages FreeSurfer and BrainVoyager. We compare performance in terms of discrepancy maps between the different methods, the accuracy with which regions of interest are aligned, and the ability of the automated methods to correctly align standard cortical landmarks. Our results show similar performance for ROIs in the perisylvian region for the landmark-based method and FreeSurfer. However, the discrepancy maps showed larger variability between methods in occipital and frontal cortex and automated methods often produce misalignment of standard cortical landmarks. Consequently, selection of the registration approach should consider the importance of accurate sulcal alignment for the specific task for which coregistration is being performed. When automatic methods are used, the users should ensure that sulci in regions of interest in their studies are adequately aligned before proceeding with subsequent analysis. PMID:19796696

  11. Classical confined particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

    1993-01-01

    An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.

  12. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Rossi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003) and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) and William James (1842-1910). I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect brie...

  13. Comparison of ThinPrep and conventional smears in head and neck fine needle aspiration cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU; Önal, Binnur; Gülçin Güler ŞİMŞEK; Yilmazer, Demet; Han, Ünsal

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The ThinPrep Processor has gained popularity as a collection and preparation technique for fine needle aspiration cytology in addition to Papanicolaou smear test. The aim of this study was to compare the various cytologic features of ThinPrep and conventional smear in head and neck masses.Material and Methods: We reviewed 71 consecutive fine needle aspiration cytology specimens and the conventional smear and ThinPrep slides diagnosed without knowledge of histopathologic diagnosis. Statis...

  14. Juvenile xanthogranuloma-diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG is a rare cutaneous lesion with paucity of literature on its cytological features. We report one such case which on fine-needle aspiration cytology yielded a mixed population of foamy histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells and variable admixture of lymphocytes and eosinophils causing diagnostic dilemma with other differentials, especially Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, clinical correlation followed by histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Hence, JXG has characteristic and diagnostic cytologic features.

  15. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pleomorphic Carcinomas of the Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hee Seung; Seol, Hyesil; Heo, Il Yeong; Jung, Chang Won; Cho, Soo Youn; Park, Sunhoo; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Background Pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) is a rare pulmonary malignancy. Because of its rarity and histological heterogeneity, cytopathologists might suspect PC only rarely on the basis of its cytological specimen. In addition, cytological findings from fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens have rarely been described. Hence, we investigated the cytological features of FNA in the cases of PC. Methods We reviewed 7 FNA specimens of PC. The patients had undergone surgical resection at the Korea Ca...

  16. Liquid-Based Cytology of Villoglandular Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix: A Report of 3 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Younghwa; Kim, Haeryoung; Choi, Haiyoung; Hwang, Daehyun; Choe, Gheeyoung; Chung, Jin-Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Hye Seung; Paik, Jin Ho; Park, Hyo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Villoglandular adenocarcinoma (VGA) is a rare subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma with a more favorable prognosis compared to conventional adenocarcinomas. Although the tumors are usually recognized on colposcopic examination due to the mainly exophytic growth pattern, they may be underdiagnosed as benign lesions by cytology because of their minimal cytologic atypia. We report the liquid-based cytology (LBC) findings of three histologically confirmed VGAs which we have recently identified. The...

  17. Role of brush cytology in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of eight cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, Femila; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Although debatable, role of cytology in diagnosing Barrett's esophagus has been stressed by some authors. Our brief report analyses the role of brush cytology (BC) in its diagnosis. Eight patients who presented with upper gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and subsequently diagnosed to have Barrett's esophagus with or without adenocarcinoma on brush cytology (BC) or, endoscopic biopsy (EB) or, a combination of both the techniques were included in the study. In all the cases routine cytologic smears and histologic sections with relevant special stains (when essential) were studied. On cytology, the diagnosis of "Barrett's esophagus" was made when the esophageal brushings obtained from a region beyond 3 cm from the gastroesophageal junction showed closely intermingled clusters of squamous and columnar cells, or when there was evidence of intestinal metaplasia. Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus was diagnosed by the usual criteria for malignancy with features of adenocarcinoma. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the histologic diagnoses. Of the eight cases, seven had histopathologic correlation of which six had evidence of BE on BC; four had cytohistologic concordance, of which three cases revealed adenocarcinoma arising in BE. Two endoscopic biopsies were nonrepresentative. In one case, cytology missed Barrett's esophagus. For two cases in which cytology detected Barrett's mucosa, biopsies were nonrepresentative. Our study showed brush cytology (BC) to be a fairly reliable test for detecting Barrett's esophagus. Owing to its inherent advantage of sampling a wider and circumferential area, a technically well performed brushing procedure is likely to be more representative and superior than multiple endoscopic biopsies. PMID:21162095

  18. Online updating of context-aware landmark detectors for prostate localization in daily treatment CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xiubin [College of Geographic and Biologic Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210015, China and IDEA Lab, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 (United States); Gao, Yaozong [IDEA Lab, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 (United States); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [IDEA Lab, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In image guided radiation therapy, it is crucial to fast and accurately localize the prostate in the daily treatment images. To this end, the authors propose an online update scheme for landmark-guided prostate segmentation, which can fully exploit valuable patient-specific information contained in the previous treatment images and can achieve improved performance in landmark detection and prostate segmentation. Methods: To localize the prostate in the daily treatment images, the authors first automatically detect six anatomical landmarks on the prostate boundary by adopting a context-aware landmark detection method. Specifically, in this method, a two-layer regression forest is trained as a detector for each target landmark. Once all the newly detected landmarks from new treatment images are reviewed or adjusted (if necessary) by clinicians, they are further included into the training pool as new patient-specific information to update all the two-layer regression forests for the next treatment day. As more and more treatment images of the current patient are acquired, the two-layer regression forests can be continually updated by incorporating the patient-specific information into the training procedure. After all target landmarks are detected, a multiatlas random sample consensus (multiatlas RANSAC) method is used to segment the entire prostate by fusing multiple previously segmented prostates of the current patient after they are aligned to the current treatment image. Subsequently, the segmented prostate of the current treatment image is again reviewed (or even adjusted if needed) by clinicians before including it as a new shape example into the prostate shape dataset for helping localize the entire prostate in the next treatment image. Results: The experimental results on 330 images of 24 patients show the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed online update scheme in improving the accuracies of both landmark detection and prostate segmentation

  19. The Use of Quick Response (QR Codes in Landmark-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Basiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle navigation systems usually simply function by calculating the shortest fastest route over a road network. In contrast, pedestrian navigation can have more diverse concerns. Pedestrians are not constrained to road/path networks; their route may involve going into buildings (where accurate satellite locational signals are not available and they have different priorities, for example, preferring routes that are quieter or more sheltered from the weather. In addition, there are differences in how people are best directed: pedestrians noticing landmarks such as buildings, doors, and steps rather than junctions and sign posts. Landmarks exist both indoors and outdoors. A system has been developed that uses quick response (QR codes affixed to registered landmarks allowing users to localise themselves with respect to their route and with navigational instructions given in terms of these landmarks. In addition, the system includes images of each landmark helping users to navigate visually in addition to through textual instructions and route maps. The system runs on a mobile device; the users use the device’s camera to register each landmark’s QR code and so update their position (particularly indoors and progress through the route itinerary.

  20. The definitions of three-dimensional landmarks on the human face: an interdisciplinary view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katina, Stanislav; McNeil, Kathryn; Ayoub, Ashraf; Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khambay, Balvinder; Siebert, Paul; Sukno, Federico; Rojas, Mario; Vittert, Liberty; Waddington, John; Whelan, Paul F; Bowman, Adrian W

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of shape is a key part of anatomical research and in the large majority of cases landmarks provide a standard starting point. However, while the technology of image capture has developed rapidly and in particular three-dimensional imaging is widely available, the definitions of anatomical landmarks remain rooted in their two-dimensional origins. In the important case of the human face, standard definitions often require careful orientation of the subject. This paper considers the definitions of facial landmarks from an interdisciplinary perspective, including biological and clinical motivations, issues associated with imaging and subsequent analysis, and the mathematical definition of surface shape using differential geometry. This last perspective provides a route to definitions of landmarks based on surface curvature, often making use of ridge and valley curves, which is genuinely three-dimensional and is independent of orientation. Specific definitions based on curvature are proposed. These are evaluated, along with traditional definitions, in a study that uses a hierarchical (random effects) model to estimate the error variation that is present at several different levels within the image capture process. The estimates of variation at these different levels are of interest in their own right but, in addition, evidence is provided that variation is reduced at the observer level when the new landmark definitions are used. PMID:26659272

  1. Krakatau 1883: A classic geophysical event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Tom; Fiske, Richard S.

    This week marks the 100th anniversary of Krakatau's 1883 eruption, perhaps the most famous volcanic event in recorded history. During a 23-hour period on August 26 and 27, 1883, more than 18 km3 of volcanic debris thundered upward from Krakatau, resulting in the death of more than 36,000 people and causing widespread devastation to the surrounding area. Moreover, the 1883 events at Krakatau caused geophysical phenomena that were observed around the world, making it (at least up until Mount St. Helens' 1980 eruption) the household word for a classic volcanic catastrophe.One hundred years ago, Krakatau was a 5×9 km island in the Sunda Straits, between Java and Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies. It was a familiar landmark, both to the tens of thousands of nearby coastal residents and to the crews of thousands of ships from Europe and the Americas that passed through the Straits each year on their way to and from the far east. The volcano had last erupted in 1681 and was not regarded as a likely site for renewed and catastrophic activity.

  2. Classically-Controlled Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Perdrix, Simon; Jorrand, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Quantum computations usually take place under the control of the classical world. We introduce a Classically-controlled Quantum Turing Machine (CQTM) which is a Turing Machine (TM) with a quantum tape for acting on quantum data, and a classical transition function for a formalized classical control. In CQTM, unitary transformations and measurements are allowed. We show that any classical TM is simulated by a CQTM without loss of efficiency. The gap between classical and quantum computations, ...

  3. Optimal z-axis scanning parameters for gynecologic cytology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber D Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of virtual microscopy (VM in clinical cytology has been limited due to the inability to focus through three dimensional (3D cell clusters with a single focal plane (2D images. Limited information exists regarding the optimal scanning parameters for 3D scanning. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal number of the focal plane levels and the optimal scanning interval to digitize gynecological (GYN specimens prepared on SurePath™ glass slides while maintaining a manageable file size. Subjects and Methods: The iScanCoreo Au scanner (Ventana, AZ, USA was used to digitize 192 SurePath™ glass slides at three focal plane levels at 1 μ interval. The digitized virtual images (VI were annotated using BioImagene′s Image Viewer. Five participants interpreted the VI and recorded the focal plane level at which they felt confident and later interpreted the corresponding glass slide specimens using light microscopy (LM. The participants completed a survey about their experiences. Inter-rater agreement and concordance between the VI and the glass slide specimens were evaluated. Results: This study determined an overall high intra-rater diagnostic concordance between glass and VI (89-97%, however, the inter-rater agreement for all cases was higher for LM (94% compared with VM (82%. Survey results indicate participants found low grade dysplasia and koilocytes easy to diagnose using three focal plane levels, the image enhancement tool was useful and focusing through the cells helped with interpretation; however, the participants found VI with hyperchromatic crowded groups challenging to interpret. Participants reported they prefer using LM over VM. This study supports using three focal plane levels and 1 μ interval to expand the use of VM in GYN cytology. Conclusion: Future improvements in technology and appropriate training should make this format a more preferable and practical option in clinical cytology.

  4. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  5. Geodesic distances to landmarks for dense correspondence on ensembles of complex shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Manasi; Lyu, Ilwoo; Kim, SunHyung; Cates, Joshua; Styner, Martin A; Whitaker, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Establishing correspondence points across a set of biomedical shapes is an important technology for a variety of applications that rely on statistical analysis of individual subjects and populations. The inherent complexity (e.g. cortical surface shapes) and variability (e.g. cardiac chambers) evident in many biomedical shapes introduce significant challenges in finding a useful set of dense correspondences. Application specific strategies, such as registration of simplified (e.g. inflated or smoothed) surfaces or relying on manually placed landmarks, provide some improvement but suffer from limitations including increased computational complexity and ambiguity in landmark placement. This paper proposes a method for dense point correspondence on shape ensembles using geodesic distances to a priori landmarks as features. A novel set of numerical techniques for fast computation of geodesic distances to point sets is used to extract these features. The proposed method minimizes the ensemble entropy based on these features, resulting in isometry invariant correspondences in a very general, flexible framework. PMID:24579119

  6. Automatic landmark extraction from image data using modified growing neural gas network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemizadeh, Emad; Lucas, Caro; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2003-06-01

    A new method for automatic landmark extraction from MR brain images is presented. In this method, landmark extraction is accomplished by modifying growing neural gas (GNG), which is a neural-network-based cluster-seeking algorithm. Using modified GNG (MGNG) corresponding dominant points of contours extracted from two corresponding images are found. These contours are borders of segmented anatomical regions from brain images. The presented method is compared to: 1) the node splitting-merging Kohonen model and 2) the Teh-Chin algorithm (a well-known approach for dominant points extraction of ordered curves). It is shown that the proposed algorithm has lower distortion error, ability of extracting landmarks from two corresponding curves simultaneously, and also generates the best match according to five medical experts. PMID:12834162

  7. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  8. A Single Classical Quark

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, V D

    1997-01-01

    The spherically symmetric solution in classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory is found. It is supposed that such solution describes a classical quark. It is regular in origin and hence the interaction between two quarks is small on the small distance. The obtained solution has the singularity on infinity. It is possible that is the reason why the free quark cannot exist. Evidently, nonlocality of this object leads to the fact that in quantum chromodynamic the difficulties arise connected with investigation of quarks interaction on large distance.

  9. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  10. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  11. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  12. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  13. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  14. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Tirumalasetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%, reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%, suppurative (n=16, 12.4% lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%, and Hodgkin′s lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%. Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of

  15. The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannelly, Grainne

    2010-02-01

    The management of women with abnormal cytology in pregnancy represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for colposcopists. The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer). Following an initial assessment, careful follow-up is essential. This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.

  16. Do familiar landmarks reset the global path integration system of desert ants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, M; Collett, T S; Chameron, S; Wehner, R

    2003-03-01

    It is often suggested that animals may link landmark memories to a global coordinate system provided by path integration, thereby obtaining a map-like representation of familiar terrain. In an attempt to discover if desert ants form such associations we have performed experiments that test whether desert ants recall a long-term memory of a global path integration vector on arriving at a familiar food site. Ants from three nests were trained along L-shaped routes to a feeder. Each route was entirely within open-topped channels that obscured all natural landmarks. Conspicuous artificial landmarks were attached to the channelling that formed the latter part of the route. The homeward vectors of ants accustomed to the route were tested with the foodward route, either as in training, or with the first leg of the L shortened or extended. These ants were taken from the feeder to a test area and released, whereupon they performed a home vector. If travelling the latter part of a familiar route and arriving at a familiar food site triggers the recall of an accustomed home vector, then the home vector should be the same under both test conditions. We find instead that the home vector tended to reflect the immediately preceding outward journey. In conjunction with earlier work, these experiments led us to conclude in the case of desert ants that landmark memories do not prime the recall of long-term global path integration memories. On the other hand, landmark memories are known to be linked to local path integration vectors that guide ants along a segment of a route. Landmarks thus seem to provide procedural information telling ants what action to perform next but not the positional information that gives an ant its location relative to its nest. PMID:12547942

  17. EXPLOITING 3D ULTRASOUND FOR FETAL DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSE THROUGH FACIAL LANDMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Vezzetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, three-dimensional landmarking has gained attention for different applications, such as face recognition for both identification of suspects and authentication, facial expression recognition, corrective and aesthetic surgery, syndrome study and diagnosis. This work focuses on the last one by proposing a geometrically-based landmark extraction algorithm aimed at diagnosing syndromes on babies before their birth. Pivotal role in this activity is the support provided by physicians and 3D ultrasound tools for working on real faces. In particular, the landmarking algorithm here proposed only relies on descriptors coming from Differential Geometry (Gaussian, mean, and principal curvatures, derivatives, coefficients of first and second fundamental forms, Shape and Curvedness indexes and is tested on nine facial point clouds referred to nine babies taken by a three-dimensional ultrasound tool at different weeks' gestation. The results obtained, validated with the support of four practitioners, show that the localization is quite accurate. All errors lie in the range between 0 and 3.5 mm and the mean distance for each shell is in the range between 0.6 and 1.6 mm. The landmarks showing the highest errors are the ones belonging to the mouth region. Instead, the most precise landmark is the pronasal, on the nose tip, with a mean distance of 0.55 mm. Relying on current literature, this study is something missing in the state-of-the-art of the field, as present facial studies on 3D ultrasound do not work on automatic landmarking yet.

  18. Atlas Toolkit: Fast registration of 3D morphological datasets in the absence of landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Timothy; Thomas, Paul; Münsterberg, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Image registration is a gateway technology for Developmental Systems Biology, enabling computational analysis of related datasets within a shared coordinate system. Many registration tools rely on landmarks to ensure that datasets are correctly aligned; yet suitable landmarks are not present in many datasets. Atlas Toolkit is a Fiji/ImageJ plugin collection offering elastic group-wise registration of 3D morphological datasets, guided by segmentation of the interesting morphology. We demonstrate the method by combinatorial mapping of cell signalling events in the developing eyes of chick embryos, and use the integrated datasets to predictively enumerate Gene Regulatory Network states. PMID:26864723

  19. UAV Control on the Basis of 3D Landmark Bearing-Only Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an approach to the control of a UAV on the basis of 3D landmark observations. The novelty of the work is the usage of the 3D RANSAC algorithm developed on the basis of the landmarks' position prediction with the aid of a modified Kalman-type filter. Modification of the filter based on the pseudo-measurements approach permits obtaining unbiased UAV position estimation with quadratic error characteristics. Modeling of UAV flight on the basis of the suggested algorithm shows good performance, even under significant external perturbations. PMID:26633394

  20. A Catalytic Role for Mod5 in the Formation of the Tea1 Cell Polarity Landmark

    OpenAIRE

    Bicho, Claudia C.; Kelly, David A.; Snaith, Hilary A.; Goryachev, Andrew B.; Sawin, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Many systems regulating cell polarity involve stable landmarks defined by internal cues [1–5]. In the rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, microtubules regulate polarized vegetative growth via a landmark involving the protein Tea1 [6–9]. Tea1 is delivered to cell tips as packets of molecules associated with growing microtubule ends [10] and anchored at the plasma membrane via a mechanism involving interaction with the membrane protein Mod5 [11, 12]. Tea1 and Mod5 are hi...

  1. When do objects become landmarks? A VR study of the effect of task relevance on spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Byrne, Patrick; Kahana, Michael; Becker, Suzanna

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how objects come to serve as landmarks in spatial memory, and more specifically how they form part of an allocentric cognitive map. Participants performing a virtual driving task incidentally learned the layout of a virtual town and locations of objects in that town. They were subsequently tested on their spatial and recognition memory for the objects. To assess whether the objects were encoded allocentrically we examined pointing consistency across tested viewpoints. In three experiments, we found that spatial memory for objects at navigationally relevant locations was more consistent across tested viewpoints, particularly when participants had more limited experience of the environment. When participants' attention was focused on the appearance of objects, the navigational relevance effect was eliminated, whereas when their attention was focused on objects' locations, this effect was enhanced, supporting the hypothesis that when objects are processed in the service of navigation, rather than merely being viewed as objects, they engage qualitatively distinct attentional systems and are incorporated into an allocentric spatial representation. The results are consistent with evidence from the neuroimaging literature that when objects are relevant to navigation, they not only engage the ventral "object processing stream", but also the dorsal stream and medial temporal lobe memory system classically associated with allocentric spatial memory. PMID:22586455

  2. Nuclear motion is classical

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.

  3. Strong Coupling and Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2016-01-01

    Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...

  4. Classical Iterative Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013 - (Björm, E.), s. 205-224 ISBN 978-3-540-70528-4 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : classical iterative methods * applied computational mathematics * encyclopedia Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.springerreference.com/docs/ navigation .do?m=Encyclopedia+of+Applied+and+Computational+Mathematics+%28Mathematics+and+Statistics%29-book224

  5. Classical and quantum satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    de Araújo, Anderson; 10.4204/EPTCS.81.6

    2012-01-01

    We present the linear algebraic definition of QSAT and propose a direct logical characterization of such a definition. We then prove that this logical version of QSAT is not an extension of classical satisfiability problem (SAT). This shows that QSAT does not allow a direct comparison between the complexity classes NP and QMA, for which SAT and QSAT are respectively complete.

  6. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  7. Classics in What Sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Charles

    2008-01-01

    They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008--each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…

  8. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosu, H. C.

    1999-01-01

    First Internet graduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  9. Classical galactosaemia revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Bosch

    2006-01-01

    Classical galactosaemia (McKusick 230400) is an: autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712). Most patients present in the neonatal period, after ingestion of galactose, with jaundice, hepatospl

  10. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  11. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  12. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C

    1999-01-01

    First Internet undergraduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  13. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  14. The Classical Cake Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

  15. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.L.P. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases. The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001. The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02, and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

  16. Accurate assessment of cell density in low cellular liquid-based cervical cytology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Huberts-Manders, R.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    A. G. Siebers, J. A. W. M. van der Laak, R. Huberts-Manders, J. E. M. Vedder and J. Bulten Accurate assessment of cell density in low cellular liquid-based cervical cytology Objective: Scant cellularity is the most important source of unsatisfactory liquid-based cytology. Although still being debate

  17. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar;

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  18. Urine cytology in the evaluation of urological malignancy revisited: is it still necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falebita, Opeyemi Adegboyega

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. METHODS: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000-2005) were retrieved from our institution\\'s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for age, sex, flexible cystoscopy and radiological imaging results. The cost of urine cytology was retrieved from the pathology department. RESULTS: There were a total of 2,568 urine cytological examinations. Of these, 25 were positive for malignant cells. There were 19 male (76%) and 6 female (24%) patients with a mean age of 72 years (range: 49-97). In 21 patients with positive cytology, a bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy and\\/or imaging studies. For a positive cytology yield of 1%, EUR 210,000 was spent. CONCLUSIONS: Routine urine cytology was not cost effective and did not add to the diagnostic yield beyond cystoscopy and diagnostic imaging. It may be omitted in the initial evaluation of urological malignancy.

  19. CYTOLOGICAL TYPING OF LIVER TUMORS AND ITS HISTOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evaluation and management of discrete hepatic masses is a clinical problem. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a rapid, accurate and safe diagnostic procedure that can be used in various neoplastic and non‑neoplastic diseases of the liver. AIM: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound guided FNAC of liver tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrasound‑guided fine needle aspiration and true cut liver biopsies were performed on 52 patients clinically suspected of having hepatic lesion. Results of cytology were compared with histology. RESULTS: Malignancy was detected in 50 cases. The primary malignancies consisted of 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 4 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 2 of hepatoblastoma. There were 29 metastatic lesions, which included 26 cases of adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 1 of lymphoma. The sensitivity and specificity of FNA for malignancies was found to be 96% and 100% respectively. Accuracy of FNAC was found to be 96.1 % with no false positive diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: FNA of hepatic lesions is an effective, safe and well accepted practice with good sensitivity and specificity. It is recommended that image directed FNAC should be the primary diagnostic modality for assessing potential malignancy in any patient with a localized hepatic mass.

  20. Role of gastric brush cytology in the diagnosis of giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varma Deepali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardiasis, common in developing countries, has mostly nonspecific clinical symptoms, resulting in a limited role for preliminary tests. Aims: The present study aims to highlight the utility of endoscopic brush cytology (EBC in the diagnosis of giardiasis in clinically unsuspected cases. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic brush smears (EBS are routinely obtained in all patients presenting with gastric symptoms. The present study is a retrospective analysis of EBS, consisting of 12 cases whose smears had revealed trophozoites of Giardia lamblia . Biopsy correlation was available in five cases. Results: The patients ranged in age from 15 to 78 years (mean age: 34.08 years with a 1:1 sex ratio. Stool examination in all 12 cases yielded negative results for giardiasis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was normal in all these cases. EBS from these cases revealed Giardia trophozoites, which were identified by their typical morphology. Conclusions: Endoscopic brush cytology can be used as a reliable screening tool in the diagnosis of gastro-duodenal giardiasis in clinically unsuspected cases, especially in developing countries where parasitic infections are common.

  1. Intrathyroidal oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma: A potential diagnostic caveat in cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yin Ping; Sharifah, Noor Akmal; Tan, Geok Chin; Gill, Anthony James; Ali, Syed Z

    2016-08-01

    Oxyphilic (oncocytic) parathyroid lesions are very uncommon and their cytological features are rarely described. Due to the similarities in anatomical location and indistinguishable cytomorphological features, these lesions are easily confused with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration (FNA). The diagnosis becomes more challenging in cases of unusual intrathyroidal location of the parathyroid lesions in the absence of clinical evidence of hyperparathyroidism, which simulate thyroid nodules clinically. We describe a case of intrathyroidal oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma in a 66-year-old female, who presented with a dominant left "thyroid" nodule. FNA smears were cellular, comprising predominantly of oxyphilic cells arranged in papillary-like architecture with occasional nuclear grooves, which was mistaken for oncocytic variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The histological diagnosis of oxyphilic parathyroid "adenoma" was made following total thyroidectomy. The tumor, unfortunately, recurred 7 years later with associated multiple lung metastases. When dealing with thyroid lesions comprising predominantly of oncocytic cells, one should consider oxyphilic parathyroid neoplasms as one of the differential diagnosis. In difficult equivocal cases, a panel of immunocytochemical stains (PTH, GATA3, TTF-1, PAX8, and thyroglobulin) can be helpful. In addition, a combination of valuable clinical, radiological, and laboratory data, including serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels are key to arriving at an accurate cytological diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:688-692. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27229757

  2. Cytological effect of γ-radiation on vicia faba pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the radiation cytological effect on pollen grain function, fresh pollen samples shed from Vicia faba were exposed to 60Co γ-ray in doses ranging from 0 to 837 Gy, and immediately permitted to germinate in vitro. It was shown that with increasing dose of γ-irradiation, both the rate of pollen germination and the rate of sperm nucleus that migrating into pollen tube were reduced, concurrently, the rate of aberrant nuclei was elevated. Cytological examination showed that formation of the nuclei and organella in the pollen tube appeared to be normal by irradiation of 93 Gy, while with γ-radiation of 279 Gy and up subcellular structure of the germinating pollen cells exhibited various degrees of distortion: mitochondria and immature plastids vacuolated, nuclear membrane disrupted, sperm nucleus fractured, occasionally, and photo-chemo-ferritin accumulated in the immature plastids. With the doses of above 465 Gy, multi-vesicular bodies presented in the pollen tube, suggesting that 465 Gy could be marked as the semi-lethal dose

  3. Amyloidoma secondary to insulin injection: Cytologic diagnosis and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Grunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidomas are rare tumors composed of deposits of amyloid protein not associated with systemic amyloidosis. They can present as an initial manifestation of a systemic disease process or can be a completely localized phenomenon. We present a case of amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site found incidentally in an 80-year-old male with multiple co-morbidities who presented with diverticulitis associated bleeding. A subcutaneous abdominal mass was found on physical examination. Imaging revealed a 5 cm Χ 1.6 cm homogenous subcutaneous lesion. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA and core biopsy were performed under ultrasound guidance to reveal amorphous material proven to be amyloidosis at insulin injection sites (AIns type amyloid. The patient had no treatment for this lesion and has had his care triaged to his more serious health problems. This is the first case of AIns type amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site reported in cytology literature. We highlight the cytologic findings and diagnostic pitfalls. As the incidence of diabetes is increasing, cytopathologists may encounter this lesion more often on FNA.

  4. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Morelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS in the hospital information system (HIS through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS. Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD. Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM, introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA, has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  5. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  6. Testicular touch preparation cytology in the evaluation of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Z Yildiz-Aktas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological-histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years. TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89% cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility.

  7. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic ovarian masses: Diagnosis on cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the distinction between neoplastic and nonneoplastic ovarian masses. Materials and Methods : One hundred and twenty patients with ovarian masses were studied. After detailed history and clinical examination, ultrasound (USG-guided FNAC was performed in 92 clinical benign cases while FNAC and/or imprints of surgically resected ovarian masses was performed in 28 clinically suspected malignant cases. The smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and histopathological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain with inclusion of special stain whenever required. Serum b-human chorionic gonadotrophin and a-fetoprotein estimations were carried out in cytologically diagnosed germ cell tumors. Results : The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing various ovarian masses were 79.2%, 90.6% and 89.9%, respectively. Conclusions : The clinical examination, pelvic ultrasound and FNAC were complementary and none of the methods was, in itself, diagnostic. However, USG-guided FNAC was found to be a fairly specific and accurate technique and should be employed as a routine, especially in young females with clinically benign ovarian lesions. The reasons for false diagnosis and limitations of USG and FNAC have been analyzed.

  8. Cytological Findings of the Micropapillary Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma: A Comparison with Typical High-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyu-Ho; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Han, Jee-Young; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, In-Suh; Kim, Joon-Mee; Chu, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background Micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (MPUC) showed distinct pathologic features and aggressive behavior. The cytologic findings of MPUC are still indistinct. In this study, we evaluated the cytological findings of MPUC compared with those of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). Methods The voided urine cytology of 8 cases of MPUC and 8 cases of HGUC was reviewed. Following cytological parameters were evaluated: cellularity, background, number of small, tight papillary ...

  9. Dorsolateral Striatal Lesions Impair Navigation Based on Landmark-Goal Vectors but Facilitate Spatial Learning Based on a "Cognitive Map"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yutaka; Poulter, Steven L.; Austen, Joe M.; McGregor, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, the nature of the interaction between multiple memory systems in rats solving a variation of a spatial task in the water maze was investigated. Throughout training rats were able to find a submerged platform at a fixed distance and direction from an intramaze landmark by learning a landmark-goal vector. Extramaze cues were…

  10. Animals' Use of Landmarks and Metric Information to Reorient: Effects of the Size of the Experimental Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Bisazza, Angelo; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Disoriented children could use geometric information in combination with landmark information to reorient themselves in large but not in small experimental spaces. We tested fish in the same task and found that they were able to conjoin geometric and non-geometric (landmark) information to reorient themselves in both the large and the small space…

  11. Quantum emulation of classical dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Margolus, Norman

    2011-01-01

    In statistical mechanics, it is well known that finite-state classical lattice models can be recast as quantum models, with distinct classical configurations identified with orthogonal basis states. This mapping makes classical statistical mechanics on a lattice a special case of quantum statistical mechanics, and classical combinatorial entropy a special case of quantum entropy. In a similar manner, finite-state classical dynamics can be recast as finite-energy quantum dynamics. This mapping...

  12. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype Analysis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyotyping can be helpful for understanding species evolution and relationships. Cytological studies in Apiaceae have provided information on the chromosome number and morphology of several crops. However, karyological data of their wild relatives are scarce. In addition, the number of chromosomes ...

  13. 36 CFR 62.4 - Natural landmark designation and recognition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sufficient representation of the significant natural features. (g) National Park System Advisory Board. (1... Board. The board reviews the information and recommends whether or not the land with consenting owners qualifies for national natural landmark designation. (2) Notice of Advisory Board meetings to...

  14. Landmarks in the Professional and Academic Development of Mid-Career Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Vivienne; Thompson, Simon; Hryniewicz, Liz

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the professional and academic development of mid-career teacher educators from two universities in England. The objectives of the study were to analyse and compare the career experiences of teacher educators; in particular, to identify stages of development, landmark events and contextual factors affecting professional…

  15. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bakri Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their programs to determine the obstacles facing promoting cultural tourism in Islamic landmarks' areas. Additionally, the study would identify positive results in the case of developing heritage tourism in Egypt. To achieve a high result, a survey approach was employed to collect data from 100 tour operators, using a completed questionnaire technique as well as a Likert Scale and statistical models in order to test and interpret the research outcomes. The research findings indicated that although tour operators in Egypt are convinced of the significance of the Islamic landmarks, there is no contradiction between creating global understanding and at the same time achieving benefit to the local community. However, there is a range of obstacles facing promoting such type of tourism in Egypt. Keywords: Culture heritage tourism, community, Egypt, Islamic civilization.

  16. The developmental trajectory of intramaze and extramaze landmark biases in spatial navigation: An unexpected journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew G; Haselgrove, Mark; Smith, Alastair D

    2015-06-01

    Adults learning to navigate to a hidden goal within an enclosed space have been found to prefer information provided by the distal cues of an environment, as opposed to proximal landmarks within the environment. Studies with children, however, have shown that 5- or 7-year-olds do not display any preference toward distal or proximal cues during navigation. This suggests that a bias toward learning about distal cues occurs somewhere between the age of 7 years and adulthood. We recruited 5- to 11-year-old children and an adult sample to explore the developmental profile of this putative change. Across a series of 3 experiments, participants were required to navigate to a hidden goal in a virtual environment, the location of which was signaled by both extramaze and intramaze landmark cues. During testing, these cues were placed into conflict to assess the search preferences of participants. Consistent with previously reported findings, adults were biased toward using extramaze information. However, analysis of the data from children, which incorporated age as a continuous variable, suggested that older children in our sample were, in fact, biased toward using the intramaze landmark in our task. These findings suggest the bias toward using distal cues in spatial navigation, frequently displayed by adults, may be a comparatively late developing trait, and one that could supersede an initial developmental preference for proximal landmarks. PMID:25844850

  17. Precision landmark location for machine vision and photogrammetry finding and achieving the maximum possible accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, José A

    2007-01-01

    Shows the reader how to derive theoretical limits to the precision of landmark identification in electronic imagesMATLAB® package assists the reader with applying theoretical results in real engineering systemsSteps outside the usual earth-sciences and civil-engineering base of photogrammetry to improve animation, medical imaging and robotic vision applications

  18. 3D ultrasound-CT registration of the liver using combined landmark-intensity information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue in computer-assisted surgery of the liver is a fast and reliable transfer of preoperative resection plans to the intraoperative situation. One problem is to match the planning data, derived from preoperative CT or MR images, with 3D ultrasound images of the liver, acquired during surgery. As the liver deforms significantly in the intraoperative situation non-rigid registration is necessary. This is a particularly challenging task because pre- and intraoperative image data stem from different modalities and ultrasound images are generally very noisy. One way to overcome these problems is to incorporate prior knowledge into the registration process. We propose a method of combining anatomical landmark information with a fast non-parametric intensity registration approach. Mathematically, this leads to a constrained optimization problem. As distance measure we use the normalized gradient field which allows for multimodal image registration. A qualitative and quantitative validation on clinical liver data sets of three different patients has been performed. We used the distance of dense corresponding points on vessel center lines for quantitative validation. The combined landmark and intensity approach improves the mean and percentage of point distances above 3 mm compared to rigid and thin-plate spline registration based only on landmarks. The proposed algorithm offers the possibility to incorporate additional a priori knowledge - in terms of few landmarks - provided by a human expert into a non-rigid registration process. (orig.)

  19. Global Polity in Adult Education and UNESCO: Landmarking, Brokering and Framing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Aknowledging the complexity of local-global interconnections, the author argues for the adoption of a global polity perspective in adult education, here applied to study mobilisation processes that occur through UNESCO. The findings point to three processes that cross geopolitical borders and professional interests: "landmarking," by…

  20. Parallel striatal and hippocampal systems for landmarks and boundaries in spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeller, Christian F; King, John A; Burgess, Neil

    2008-04-15

    How the memory systems centered on the hippocampus and dorsal striatum interact to support behavior remains controversial. We used functional MRI while people learned the locations of objects by collecting and replacing them over multiple trials within a virtual environment comprising a landmark, a circular boundary, and distant cues for orientation. The relative location of landmark and boundary was occasionally changed, with specific objects paired with one or other cue, allowing dissociation of learning and performance relative to either cue. Right posterior hippocampal activation reflected learning and remembering of boundary-related locations, whereas right dorsal striatal activation reflected learning and remembering of landmark-related locations. Within the right hippocampus, anterior processing of environmental change (spatial novelty) was dissociated from posterior processing of location. Behavioral studies show that landmark-related learning obeys associative reinforcement, whereas boundary-related learning is incidental [Doeller CF, Burgess N (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:5909-5914]. The distinct incidental hippocampal processing of boundaries is suggestive of a "geometric module" or "cognitive map" and may explain the hippocampal support of incidental/observational learning in "declarative" or "episodic" memory versus the striatal support of trial-and-error learning in "procedural" memory. Finally, the hippocampal and striatal systems appear to combine "bottom-up," simply influencing behavior proportional to their activations, without direct interaction, with "top-down" ventromedial prefrontal involvement when both are similarly active. PMID:18408152

  1. An intelligent gradient detector with minimization of visual landmarks distortion for monitoring of passenger flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbenko, A.; Popov, V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of monitoring of passenger flows. We consider an intelligent gradient algorithm to solve the problem. We use a method of minimization of visual landmarks distortion to improve the quality of recognition. © 2013 Anna Gorbenko and Vladimir Popov.

  2. Electronic and film portal images: a comparison of landmark visibility and review accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare a scanning liquid ion chamber electronic portal imaging device (SLIC-EPID) and an amorphous silicon flat panel (aSi) EPID with portal film in clinical applications using measures of landmark visibility and treatment review accuracy. Methods and Materials: Six radiation oncologists viewed 39 electronic portal images (EPIs) from the SLIC-EPID, 36 EPIs from the aSi-EPID, and portal films of each of these treatment fields. The physicians rated the clarity of anatomic landmarks in the portal images, and the scores were compared between EPID and film. Nine hundred portal image reviews were performed. EPID and film portal images were acquired with known setup errors in either phantom or cadaver treatments. Physicians identified the errors visually in portal films and with computerized analysis for EPID. Results: There were no statistically significant (p<0.05) differences between film and SLIC-EPID in ratings of landmark clarity. Eleven of 12 landmarks were more visible in aSi-EPID than in film. Translational setup errors were identified with an average accuracy of 2.5 mm in film, compared to 1.5 mm with SLIC-EPID and 1.3 mm with aSi-EPID. Conclusions: Both EPIDs are clinically viable replacements for film, but aSi-EPID represents a significant advancement in image quality over film

  3. Illusionary Inclusion--What Went Wrong with New Labour's Landmark Educational Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence and evolution of New Labour's landmark educational policy; namely that of inclusion. The author, Alan Hodkinson, associate professor at the Centre for Cultural and Disability Studies at Liverpool Hope University, illuminates his conceptual difficulties in attempting to define what inclusion was and what…

  4. The accuracy of the central landmark used for central venous catheterization of the internal jugular vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Peter L; Whitaker, Emmett E; Palmer, Linda S; Glance, Laurent G

    2006-05-01

    We simulated needle paths based on the central landmark used for central venous catheterization of the internal jugular vein. We obtained ultrasound images to quantify the landmark's accuracy (precision and bias) in 107 subjects placed in Trendelenburg position with their heads turned 30-35 degrees. We also determined the frequency of simulated carotid artery puncture. The simulated needle path missed the middle 80% of the lumen of the internal jugular vein in 34% of subjects (95% confidence interval [CI], 25% to 44%) and traversed the carotid artery in 26% of subjects (95% CI, 18% to 35%). Both events occurred in 20% of subjects (95% CI, 13%-29%). The landmark had a medial bias of 3.7 mm (95% CI, 2.7 to 4.8); it was more often (77 of 104 subjects) medial to the center of the right internal jugular vein (P yield frequent success on first needle pass without risk of carotid puncture because of its imprecision and bias. The measured bias should be considered when the central landmark is used for central venous catheterization. PMID:16632804

  5. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  6. A comparative analysis of fine-needle capillary cytology vs. fine-needle aspiration cytology in superficial lymph node lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeev, Suraj; Siddaraju, Neelaiah

    2009-11-01

    Fine-needle capillary cytology (FNCC) has been attempted in various organs and studies have shown this procedure to yield qualitatively superior material compared with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Studies evaluating the efficacy of this technique in lymph nodes are rare. The present study has attempted to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the FNCC technique in comparison to the more widely applied FNAC technique.Thirty enlarged lymph nodes from 26 patients were sampled by both the FNCC and FNAC techniques. The smears obtained were routinely stained by May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou staining. The quality of smears was evaluated using an objective scoring system originally devised by Mair et al., for various organs. The score of individual parameters in each case as well as the total scores for FNAC and FNCC procedures were calculated separately and Mann-Whitney's test was performed; a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical results showed smears obtained by FNCC to be qualitatively better than those obtained by FNAC. Though, individual parameters were not statistically significant, FNCC smears showed better scores as compared with those of FNA smears. Also, the technique was found to be easier to perform and less apprehensive to the patient.Our study convincingly proved the technical superiority of the FNCC technique in cellular lymph node lesions, emphasizing the need for this less publicized procedure to be more widely applied. PMID:19526570

  7. Randomness: quantum versus classical

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g., quantum random generators. This development stimulates a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of quantum state. Closely related problem is clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. The second part of this review is devoted to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in the spirit of Zeilinger and Brukner (and QBism of Fuchs et al.) and physics in general (e.g., Wheeler's "it from bit") as well as digital philosophy of Chaitin (with historical coupling to ideas of Leibnitz). Finally, w...

  8. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  9. Computation in Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss the ways we have used computation in our classical mechanics courses, focusing on how computational work can improve students' understanding of physics as well as their computational skills. We present examples of computational problems that serve these two purposes. In addition, we provide information about resources for instructors who would like to include computation in their courses.

  10. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  11. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  12. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  13. Visual homing in the absence of feature-based landmark information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillner, Sabine; Weiss, Anja M; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2008-10-01

    Despite that fact that landmarks play a prominent role in human navigation, experimental evidence on how landmarks are selected and defined by human navigators remains elusive. Indeed, the concept of a 'landmark' is itself not entirely clear. In everyday language, the term landmark refers to salient, distinguishable, and usually nameable objects, rendering the problem of landmark recognition a special case of the general object recognition problem. In contrast, in the insect and robot literature, this notion of landmarks is often replaced by the "local position information" [e.g., Trullier, O., Wiener, S., Berthoz, A., & Meyer, J.-A. (1997). Biologically based artificial navigation systems: Review and prospects. Progress in Neurobiology, 51, 483-544], referring to the entire set of sensor readings obtained at one location. This set may then serve as a characteristic of the particular location. Honey bees have been shown to base place recognition and homing on a snapshot-like memory of the place's visual environment, not on the distances to recognized objects [Cartwright, B., & Collett, T. (1983). Landmark learning in bees. Experiments and models. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 151, 521-543]. A number of theoretical models of snapshot-based homing [e.g., Franz, M., Schölkopf, B., Mallot, H. A., Bülthoff, H. H. (1998). Where did I take that snapshot? Scene-based homing by image matching. Biological Cybernetics, 79, 191-202; Vardy, A., & Möller, R. (2005). Biologically plausible visual homing methods based on optical flow techniques. Connection Science, 17, 47-89] predict that the accuracy of snapshot-based homing should depend on image contrast. For rodent hippocampal place fields, models have been developed using additional image information such as three-dimensional depth and allocentric orientations (e.g., room axes) and are thus less sensitive to image contrast and noise [e.g. Barry, C., Lever, C., Hayman, R., Hartley, T., Burton, S., O'Keefe, J., et al

  14. Impact of different anatomical landmarks on registration in imaging-guided radiation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of different anatomical landmarks on registration in imaging-guided radiation (IGRT) for lung cancer. Methods: For 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Fudan University Cancer Hospital, 100 frames of kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography scanning were evaluated in this study. The spine, carina and tumor were selected as landmarks for registration, respectively. Results of registration using different landmarks were documented and compared. Results: The average set-up errors in the left-right, superior inferior and anterior-posterior directions were -0.08 cm ±0.32 cm, -0.16 cm ±0.45 cm and 0.06 cm ±0.23 cm with the spine for registration; 0.06 cm ±0.34 cm, -0.13 cm ±0.45 cm and -0.02 cm±0.23 cm with the carina; and -0.17 cm ±0.25 cm, 0.03 cm ±0.47 cm and 0.15 cm ±0.38 cm with tumor. The registration results between using the carina and tumor as landmarks were statistically significant different (q=4.61, P=0.002; q = 2.23 , P=0.118; q=3.44, P=0.017). The registration results were equal when using the spine and tumor as landmarks (q =1.85, P = 0.195; q = 2.54, P = 0.075; q = 1.89, P=0.185), as well as using the carina and tumor as landmarks (q=2.76, P=0.054; q=0.31, P=0.826; q=1.55, P=0.276). Conclusions: For early stage lung cancer, the spine and tumor can be used equally as registration landmarks in imaging-guided SBRT. The carina is not suggested for its poor reproducible position. (authors)

  15. Are superparamagnetic spins classical?

    OpenAIRE

    Garanin, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Effective giant spins of magnetic nanoparticles are considered classically in the conventional theory of superparamagnetism based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Langevin equation. However, microscopic calculations for a large spin with uniaxial anisotropy, coupled to the lattice via the simplest generic mechanism, show that the results of the conventional theory are not reproduced in the limit S ->\\infty. In particular, the prefactor Gamma_0 in the Arrhenius escape rate over the barrier Gamma =Gamma_...

  16. Injuries in classical ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external ...

  17. A Classic's New Charm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ North Korea's Phibada Opera Troupe arrived in Beijing on May3,bringing with it a Korean opera adapted from China's classic novel A Dream of Red Mansions written by Cao Xueqin(around 1715-63),a great novelist of the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911).The troupe,invited by the Chinese Ministry of Culture,is one of the largest performing groups having visited China in recent years.

  18. Computation in Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Timberlake, Todd; Hasbun, Javier E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss th...

  19. Sociology and Classical Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    KLEIN, Daniel; Stern, Lotta

    2005-01-01

    We advocate the development of a classical-liberal character within professional sociology. The American Sociological Association (ASA) is taken as representative of professional sociology in the United States. We review the ASA’s activities and organizational statements, to show the association’s leftist character. Internal criticism is often very uneasy about leftist domination of the field. We present survey results establishing that, in voting and in policy views, the ASA membership is mo...

  20. Revisiting a Classic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…

  1. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    2004-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  2. Diffusion of Classical Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1998-01-01

    We study the diffusion and deformation of classical solitons coupled to thermal noise. The diffusion coefficient for kinks in the $\\phi^4$ theory is predicted up to the second order in $kT$. The prediction is verified by numerical simulations. Multiskyrmions in the vector O(3) sigma model are studied within the same formalism. Thermal noise results in a diffusion on the multisoliton collective coordinate space (moduli space). There are entropic forces which tend, for example, to bind pairs of...

  3. What was classical genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, C Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theory-biased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in well-established sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan's theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, 30s, and 40s was organized around efforts to further validate, develop, and extend this theory, I show that classical genetics was structured by an integration of explanatory reasoning (associated with the transmission theory) and investigative strategies (such as the 'genetic approach'). The investigative strategies, which have been overlooked in historical and philosophical accounts, were as important as the so-called laws of Mendelian genetics. By the later 1920s, geneticists of the Morgan school were no longer organizing research around the goal of explaining inheritance patterns; rather, they were using genetics to investigate a range of biological phenomena that extended well beyond the explanatory domain of transmission theories. Theory-biased approaches in history and philosophy of science fail to reveal the overall structure of scientific knowledge and obscure the way it functions. PMID:15682554

  4. Reproducibility of the sella turcica landmark in three dimensions using a sella turcica-specific reference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittayapat, Pisha; Jacobs, Reinhilde [University Hospitals Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odri, Guillaume A. [Service de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Centre Hospitalier Regional d' Orleans, Orleans Cedex2 (France); De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Willems, Guy [Dept. of Oral Health Sciences, Orthodontics, KU Leuven and Dentistry, University Hospitals Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Olszewski, Raphael [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    This study was performed to assess the reproducibility of identifying the sella turcica landmark in a three-dimensional (3D) model by using a new sella-specific landmark reference system. Thirty-two cone-beam computed tomographic scans (3D Accuitomo 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) were retrospectively collected. The 3D data were exported into the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard and then imported into the Maxilim software (Medicim NV, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium) to create 3D surface models. Five observers identified four osseous landmarks in order to create the reference frame and then identified two sella landmarks. The x, y, and z coordinates of each landmark were exported. The observations were repeated after four weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the multiple paired t-test with Bonferroni correction (intraobserver precision: p<0.005, interobserver precision: p<0.0011). The intraobserver mean precision of all landmarks was <1 mm. Significant differences were found when comparing the intraobserver precision of each observer (p<0.005). For the sella landmarks, the intraobserver mean precision ranged from 0.43±0.34 mm to 0.51±0.46 mm. The intraobserver reproducibility was generally good. The overall interobserver mean precision was <1 mm. Significant differences between each pair of observers for all anatomical landmarks were found (p<0.0011). The interobserver reproducibility of sella landmarks was good, with >50% precision in locating the landmark within 1 mm. A newly developed reference system offers high precision and reproducibility for sella turcica identification in a 3D model without being based on two-dimensional images derived from 3D data.

  5. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: A puzzling entity on fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nasit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT is a rare unique but controversial thyroid neoplasm, characterized by prominent trabecular growth pattern and stromal hyalinization. Whether HTT is a benign tumor or a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is still unclear. Cytology findings of HTT have been described in few reports. Cytological features of HTT frequently overlap with those of PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, which can lead to frequent misdiagnosis. In order to avoid overtreatment like total thyroidectomy, pathologist should be aware of cytological features of HTT. We present a case of 35-year-old female with a right-side thyroid swelling for three years. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. According to The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, cytological diagnosis of benign thyroid neoplasm was made. Histopathology of the right thyroidectomy specimen showed HTT. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of HTT requires a very meticulous and cautious approach in the evaluation of cytological features. Trabecular pattern of cells, vague curved nuclear palisading, radiating arrangement of cells around hyaline material, spindled to elongated cells, filamentous cytoplasmic processes with ill-defined cell border and yellow bodies are important diagnostic features of HTT. Nuclear features alone are insufficient for the diagnosis of HTT. Any suspicious cytology of thyroid lesion should follow hemithyroidectomy and histopathological evaluation.

  6. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  7. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  8. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  9. Cytological causes of blond psyllium for male sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish G. Vala, Fougat. R.S. ,Roshni.S. and Vinay Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytological male sterility is a useful trait in plant breeding, especially in medicinal plants such as Cassia angustifolia, Commiphorawightii, Asparagus racemosus .Abnormalities appeared to be the cause of male sterility in plants, we carried out this research in anattempt to make clear the characteristics and inheritance of this male sterility. In Plantago ovata germplasm cytoplasmicabnormality was found to be the cause of abnormality. cytomixis varied from 2% to 48 % in plants. Maximum numbers of PMCscarrying B-chromosomes were recorded in male sterile plants of line JI-214(62%. No B-chromosomes were observed in fertile,sterile and partial male sterile line of JI-107 and maximum abnormal chromosomal segregation was recorded in JI-206. Thesecytological abnormality parameters can be used for hetrosis breeding and hybrid seed production to improve quality of psyllium.

  10. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy

  11. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnosis of an Urachal Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Balamurugan; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Yadav, Siddharth; Kumar, Rajeev; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-04-01

    Urachal Carcinoma (UC) is a rare malignancy of urinary bladder. It is usually found in adults in advanced stages because the tumour often grows outside the bladder without producing clinical symptoms. Most of the cases are mucinous, intestinal or signet ring cell adenocarcinoma and the diagnosis is usually made on biopsy. Radiographic images of this tumour may show characteristic features with a midline solid or cystic mass in the anterior wall of bladder associated with small calcification, which is considered as a pathognomonic sign for the diagnosis of UC. We report a case of UC in an adult, whose radiographic images suggested an urachal tumour and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) cytology revealed an adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy with umbilectomy and pelvic node dissection was done without further histopathological confirmation. Surgical intervention of UC on the basis of FNA diagnosis has not been reported in the literature. PMID:27190817

  12. Fibromatosis colli - a rare cytological diagnosis in infantile neck swellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabina; Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-11-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  13. Cytology of 2n Pollen Formation in Nonastringent Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xian-ying; LUO Zheng-rong

    2002-01-01

    Cytological mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in ‘Zenjimaru' nonastringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. ) were studied. The following abnormalities in meiosis were found to be responsible for the production of 2n pollens: (1) disoriented spindles, including parallel, fused and tripolar spindles, were formed at metaphase Ⅱ and anaphase Ⅱ; (2) the nuclei at telophase Ⅱ were arranged to two poles, each of which contained two nuclei, or to three poles, one of which contained two nuclei, the other two contained one nucleus respectively; (3) dyads and triads were produced at the tetrad stage. The dyad would develop into two 2n pollens, and the triad would develop into one 2n and two n pollens. The 2n pollens produced by this mechanism were genetically equivalent to FDR (first division restitution) gametes, thus providing a potential value for sexual polyploidization.

  14. Cytological Effects of Space Environment on Different Genotype of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Li-jun; QIAN Yu; YANG Qian; XU Jian-long; WANG Jun-min; SUN Ye-qing

    2007-01-01

    For exploring the biological effect of space environment on different genotype of rice seeds, the cytological effects of M1 generation after space flight were studied.Twelve different genotypes of rice seeds which belong to different climate ecotype (early, medium and late) of indica and japonica were onboard "Shenzhou 4" spaceship for 162 h.After recovered the total number of mitosis cells and chromosomal aberration were observed.In all the lines the mitotic index (MIs) of space flight are much higher than control, which indicates the stimulate effect of space environment.The cell rate of chromosomal aberration (CRCA) of space flight is also much higher than control, but varies from line to line.It indicates that biological effect of space environment on rice seed dependents not only on flight duration but also on rice genotype.The radiosensitivities of different lines were also discussed according to CRCAs.

  15. Dynamics of conjunctival impression cytologic changes after vitamin A supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S; Kumar, R; Ganguly, N K; Kumar, L; Verma, M; Walia, B N

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the chronological changes in conjunctival epithelium after supplementation with a massive oral dose of vitamin A, conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) with transfer was carried out repeatedly among 200 children aged 6-120 months in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Chandigarh (India). Significant conversion to normal CIC started 71-80 d after vitamin A supplementation and by 101-110 d conversion had taken place in all children. Compared with the placebo group, plasma retinol concentration at 100 d post-supplement was found to be significantly higher in the vitamin A-supplemented group P = 0.04. This study demonstrates that CIC responds to a massive oral dose of vitamin A 3-4 months after supplementation. These findings should guide future studies and evaluations in which CIC is used to assess response to vitamin A interventions. PMID:9227184

  16. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infection affecting mainly the skin and peripheral nerve. Pure neuritic form of this disease manifests by involvement of the nerve in the absence of skin lesions. Therefore, it can sometimes create a diagnostic problem. It often requires a nerve biopsy for diagnosis, which is an invasive procedure and may lead to neural deficit. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of an affected nerve can be a valuable and less invasive procedure for the diagnosis of such cases. We report five suspected cases of pure neuritic Hansen's disease involving the common and superficial peroneal, ulnar, and median nerve, who underwent FNAC. Smears revealed nerve fibers infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells in all cases, presence of epithelioid cells granulomas, and Langhans giant cells in three cases, and acid fast bacilli in two cases. In conclusion, FNAC is a safe, less invasive, and time saving procedure for the diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy.

  17. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, M. (Univ. Health Center of Pittsburgh, PA); Reigel, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

  18. Imprint cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma

    2015-12-01

    Results: The 195 cases were classified broadly according to WHO system into 4 groups and the lesions were statistically analyzed. 122 surface epithelial tumors showed 97.5%sensitivity and 94.5%specificity in diagnosis with an overall accuracy of 96.4%. 8 sex cord stromal tumors had 98.5% diagnostic accuracy with a specificity of 99.5%. There was 100 % sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing the 25 germ cell tumors. The tumor like lesions showed a diagnostic accuracy of 97% with a specificity of 100%. Conclusions: Imprint cytology is an inexpensive and a fairly sensitive tool for rapid intra-operative diagnosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3770-3774

  19. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  20. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Bravo Maia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher′s test, particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001 and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002. Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy.

  1. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  2. Mechanics classical and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mechanics: Classical and Quantum explains the principles of quantum mechanics via the medium of analytical mechanics. The book describes Schrodinger's formulation, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the Lagrangian formulation. The author discusses the Harmonic Oscillator, the generalized coordinates, velocities, as well as the application of the Lagrangian formulation to systems that are partially or entirely electromagnetic in character under certain conditions. The book examines waves on a string under tension, the isothermal cavity radiation, and the Rayleigh-Jeans result pertaining to the e

  3. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  4. Cytological features of Kimura's disease: A case report with histological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Tanveer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kimura's disease and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE together form a spectrum of chronic inflammatory disorders of unknown etiology with similar and overlapping histological features. We report a case of Kimura's disease in a young Indian girl with its cytohistological correlation. The cytological features of these inflammatory disorders are fairly specific and in an appropriate clinical setting, a cytological diagnosis of Kimura's/ALHE is possible. However, it may not be possible to differentiate between the two based on cytology alone.

  5. Prospective study of fine needle aspiration cytology of clinically palpable breast lump with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin K. Hebbar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in differentiating the benign and malignant lesions of palpable breast lump with histopathological correlation and also to study the accuracy of the needle tip localizing the tumor during fine needle aspiration cytology procedure. Methods: Two years prospective study was conducted in our institution and in that 100 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the palpable breast lump after thorough physical examination. The cytological diagnosis was classified in to 3 groups benign, suspicious and malignant. After this reporting all the patients were later subjected to open/excision biopsy and its histopathological confirmation. Later diagnostic accuracy of cytology reporting was compared with that of histopathology. Accuracy of the needle tip in localizing the tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology was also studied by comparing the normal glandular cell aspirate with tumor cell aspirate. Repeat cytology was carried out before open/excision biopsy if the pathologist reports the cytology slide as “inadequate”. Results: We had accuracy rate of 100% for benign lesion and 93.10% for malignant lesion with false negative rate of 6.9% and false positive rate of zero with fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of palpable breast lump. The overall sensitivity of fine needle aspiration in diagnosing the palpable breast lump is 93.10%, specificity is 100%, positive predictive value is 100% and negative predictive value is 90.47%. Since inadequate sampling rate is 2% in our study, the accuracy rate of needle tip in localizing the tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology is 98%. Conclusion: Since our diagnostic accuracy rate and predictive values are very high and comparable to any other published series it can be advised that the patients in which fine needle aspiration cytology is unequivocally diagnostic for

  6. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Bravo Maia; Larissa Cardoso Marinho; Tânia Wanderley Paes Barbosa; Lara Franciele Ribeiro Velasco; Patrícia Godoy Garcia Costa; Fabiana Pirani Carneiro; Paulo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was d...

  7. Modeling and matching of landmarks for automation of Mars Rover localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, begun in January 2004, has been extremely successful. However, decision-making for many operation tasks of the current MER mission and the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission is performed on Earth through a predominantly manual, time-consuming process. Unmanned planetary rover navigation is ideally expected to reduce rover idle time, diminish the need for entering safe-mode, and dynamically handle opportunistic science events without required communication to Earth. Successful automation of rover navigation and localization during the extraterrestrial exploration requires that accurate position and attitude information can be received by a rover and that the rover has the support of simultaneous localization and mapping. An integrated approach with Bundle Adjustment (BA) and Visual Odometry (VO) can efficiently refine the rover position. However, during the MER mission, BA is done manually because of the difficulty in the automation of the cross-sitetie points selection. This dissertation proposes an automatic approach to select cross-site tie points from multiple rover sites based on the methods of landmark extraction, landmark modeling, and landmark matching. The first step in this approach is that important landmarks such as craters and rocks are defined. Methods of automatic feature extraction and landmark modeling are then introduced. Complex models with orientation angles and simple models without those angles are compared. The results have shown that simple models can provide reasonably good results. Next, the sensitivity of different modeling parameters is analyzed. Based on this analysis, cross-site rocks are matched through two complementary stages: rock distribution pattern matching and rock model matching. In addition, a preliminary experiment on orbital and ground landmark matching is also briefly introduced. Finally, the reliability of the cross-site tie points selection is validated by fault detection, which

  8. Software Designation to Assess the Proximity of Different Facial Anatomic Landmarks to Midlines of the Mouth and Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recognition and determination of facial and dental midline is important in dentistry. Currently, there are no verifiable guidelines that direct the choice of specific anatomic landmarks to determine the midline of the face or mouth. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine which of facial anatomic landmarks is closest to the midline of the face as well as that of the mouth. Materials and Methods: Frontal full-face digital images of 92 subjects (men and women age range: 20-30 years in smile were taken under standardized conditions; commonly used anatomic landmarks, nasion, tip of the nose, and tip of the philtrum were digitized on the images of subjects and aesthetic analyzer software used for midline analysis using Esthetic Frame. Deviations from the midlines of the face and mouth were measured for the 3 clinical landmarks; the existing dental midline was considered as the fourth landmark. The entire process of midline analysis was done by a single observer and repeated twice. Reliability analysis and 1-sample t- tests were conducted. Results: The Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs for reliability analysis of RFV and RCV measures made two times revealed that the reliabilities were all acceptable. The results indicated that each of the 4 landmarks deviated uniquely and significantly (P<.001 from the midlines of the face as well as mouth in both males and females. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between the mean ratios of the chosen anatomic landmarks and the midlines of the face and mouth. The hierarchy of anatomic landmarks closest to the midline of the face is: (1 midline of the commissures, (2 nasion , (3 tip of philtrum,(4 dental midline, and (5 tip ofthe nose. The closest anatomic landmarks to the mouth midline are: (1 tip of philtrum, (2 dental midline, (3 tip of nose, and (4 nasion.

  9. Numerical calculation of classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, D; Neyenhuis, B; Christensen, Dan; Durfee, Dallin S.; Neyenhuis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    We present a numerical exercise in which classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials were calculated. The non-classical fields take into account effects due to a possible non-zero photon rest mass. We show that in the limit of small photon rest mass, both the classical and non-classical potential can be found by solving Poisson's equation twice, using the first calculation as a source term in the second calculation. Our results support the assumptions in a recent proposal to use ion interferometry to search for a non-zero photon rest mass.

  10. Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…

  11. Age-Related Differences in Associative Learning of Landmarks and Heading Directions in a Virtual Navigation Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jimmy Y; Moffat, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that spatial memory declines with age but have not clarified the relevance of different landmark cues for specifying heading directions among different age groups. This study examined differences between younger, middle-aged and older adults in route learning and memory tasks after they navigated a virtual maze that contained: (a) critical landmarks that were located at decision points (i.e., intersections) and (b) non-critical landmarks that were located at non-decision points (i.e., the sides of the route). Participants were given a recognition memory test for critical and non-critical landmarks and also given a landmark-direction associative learning task. Compared to younger adults, older adults committed more navigation errors during route learning and were poorer at associating the correct heading directions with both critical and non-critical landmarks. Notably, older adults exhibited a landmark-direction associative memory deficit at decision points; this was the first finding to show that an associative memory deficit exist among older adults in a navigational context for landmarks that are pertinent for reaching a goal, and suggest that older adults may expend more cognitive resources on the encoding of landmark/object features than on the binding of landmark and directional information. This study is also the first to show that older adults did not have a tendency to process non-critical landmarks, which were regarded as distractors/irrelevant cues for specifying the directions to reach the goal, to an equivalent or larger extent than younger adults. We explain this finding in view of the low number of non-critical cues in our virtual maze (relative to a real-world urban environment) that might not have evoked older adults' usual tendency toward processing or encoding distractors. We explain the age differences in navigational and cognitive performance with regards to functional and structural changes in the hippocampus and

  12. Accurate definition of brain regions position through the functional landmark approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poline, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    In many application of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), including clinical or pharmacological studies, the definition of the location of the functional activity between subjects is crucial. While current acquisition and normalization procedures improve the accuracy of the functional signal localization, it is also important to ensure that functional foci detection yields accurate results, and reflects between-subject variability. Here we introduce a fast functional landmark detection procedure, that explicitly models the spatial variability of activation foci in the observed population. We compare this detection approach to standard statistical maps peak extraction procedures: we show that it yields more accurate results on simulations, and more reproducible results on a large cohort of subjects. These results demonstrate that explicit functional landmark modeling approaches are more effective than standard statistical mapping for brain functional focus detection. PMID:20879321

  13. Development of a landmark recognition system for the posture measurement of mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A landmark recognition system, consisting of retroreflective landmarks, a CCD camera, a strobe unit, an image processing board, and processing software, has been developed to solve the problem of the posture (position and orientation) identification of mobile robots in manufacturing environments. The binary image processing technique instead of gray image technique has been adapted in this system to perform the fast posture measurement of the robots. The experimental results demonstrated real-time measurement capability of this system while maintaining good reliability and reasonable accuracy. A camera calibration technique has been described to reduce the effects of unwanted measurement error sources. The system after camera calibration procedure has demonstrated enhanced performance in terms of error component in posture measurement. (Author)

  14. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  15. Grassmannization of classical models

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V; Svistunov, Boris V

    2016-01-01

    Applying Feynman diagrammatics to non-fermionic strongly correlated models with local constraints might seem generically impossible for two separate reasons: (i) the necessity to have a Gaussian (non-interacting) limit on top of which the perturbative diagrammatic expansion is generated by Wick's theorem, and (ii) the Dyson's collapse argument implying that the expansion in powers of coupling constant is divergent. We show that for arbitrary classical lattice models both problems can be solved/circumvented by reformulating the high-temperature expansion (more generally, any discrete representation of the model) in terms of Grassmann integrals. Discrete variables residing on either links, plaquettes, or sites of the lattice are associated with the Grassmann variables in such a way that the partition function (and correlations) of the original system and its Grassmann-field counterpart are identical. The expansion of the latter around its Gaussian point generates Feynman diagrams. A proof-of-principle implement...

  16. Comparison of Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnosis of Malignant Breast Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Takhellambam, Yumjaobabu Singh; Lourembam, Sunil Singh; Sapam, Opendro Singh; Kshetrimayum, Raju Singh; Ningthoujam, Bhubon Singh; Khan, Tousif

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women worldwide and usually presents as lump in the breast. Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are two investigational tools often used to differentiate malignant breast lump from benign one.

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma with squamous and appendageal metaplasia mimicking mucoepidermoid carcinoma on cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrani Meenakshi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histological diversity is the hallmark of pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor. It may cause difficulty in cytological interpretation, due to limited and selective sampling. Case presentation: A 16-year-old female patient presented with right cheek swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed squamous cells, basaloid cells, and foamy cells, along with extracellular keratin and foreign body giant cells. Characteristic metachromatic fibrillary chondromyxoid stroma, which is usually seen in pleomorphic adenoma, was not seen in the aspirate. A diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma was given on cytology. Subsequent resection revealed an encapsulated pleomorphic adenoma, with extensive squamous metaplasia and appendageal differentiation on histology. Conclusion: This case illustrates that pleomorphic adenoma with squamous metaplasia presents a potential for misinterpretation as mucoepidermoid carcinoma on cytology. We discuss the various pitfalls and the features that are helpful in distinguishing these two lesions.

  18. Exfoliative cytology in study of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of cytological judgment of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer by comparison between pre- and post-irradiation smears given 1,000 rads by telecobalt external test irradiation. The estimation of radiation effects on nuclei and the cytological presumption of histological typing in pre-irradiation smears have brought about satisfactory results; agreement between histological and cytological judgements of radiosensitivity was about 96.8%. Cytological criteria of good sensitivity are as follows; Disparity in size of chromatin particles and irregular distribution. Irregularity of nuclear membrane with nuclear wrinkling with diminution of thickness of nuclear membrane. Mature squamous cell carcinoma without pearl formation. Those of poor sensitivity are as follows; Existence of many unchanged viable cells and less disturbances of chromatines. Existence of cells exibiting adenocarcinoma and carcinoma of intermediate type. Clusters of cyanophilic cells having lacy, indistinct cell borders. (auth.)

  19. Cytological Punctures in the Diagnosis of Renal Tumours: A Study on Accuracy and Reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.E.D. Kümmerlin; F Smedts; F.J.W. ten Kate; T Horn; F. Algaba; I. Trias; H. Wijkstra; J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; M.P. Laguna

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is under consideration as an auxiliary preoperative diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of renal masses. However, reports for FNA are contradictory with regard to diagnostic accuracy and applicability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy

  20. Radiological and cytological detection of renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated US, CT, intraveneous urography, arteriography, retrograde pyelography and urine cytology results in a series of 23 patients with renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinomas, 14 of whom underwent US, 17 i.v. urography, 8 CT, 15 arteriography, 9 retrograde pyelography, and 17 patients urine cytology. A tumour was identified in 5 patients (36%) at US, in 11 patients (61%) at urography, in 7 (88%) at CT, in 10 patients (67%) at arteriography, and in 8 (89%) at retrograde pyelography. Urine cytology was assessed as showing changes consistent with Papanicolaou class III-V in 15 (88%) of 17 patients. When renal pelvic cancer is suspected, intravenous urography should be performed as the initial radiological examination and followed by CT, which may also identify tumour spread. Arteriography and retrograde pyelography are sometimes complementary investigations. Repeated urinary cytology is mandatory. Our results show that US alone is unreliable in detecting renal pelvic cancer. (orig.)

  1. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  2. Navigation in wood ants Formica japonica: context dependent use of landmarks.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushi, T; Wehner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Wood ants Formica japonica can steer their outbound (foraging) and inbound (homing) courses without using celestial compass information, by relying exclusively on landmark cues. This is shown by training ants to run back and forth between the nest and an artificial feeder, and later displacing the trained ants either from the nest (when starting their foraging runs: outbound full-vector ants) or from the feeder (when starting their home runs: inbound full-vector ants) to various nearby releas...

  3. Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmook, Maria T.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor; Nemec, Stefan; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology/Division of Neuro- and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Integrative Morphology Group, Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Krampl-Bettelheim, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology / Division of Obstetrics and Feto-maternal Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27. MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average {+-}sd: gw 22 {+-} 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below. The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p=0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p<0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases. This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided. (orig.)

  4. Superficial cortical landmarks for localization of the hippocampus: Application for temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shane Tubbs; Marios Loukas; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Aaron A Cohen-Gadol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accessing the hippocampus for amygdalohippocampectomy and procedures such as depth electrode placement requires accurate knowledge regarding the location of the hippocampus. Methods: The authors removed 10 human cadaveric brains (20 sides) from their crania, noted relationships between the lateral temporal neocortex and underlying hippocampus, and measured the distance between the hippocampus and superficial landmarks. Results: Mean distances were as follows: 3.8 cm from t...

  5. Delivering high-resolution landmarks using inkjet micropatterning for spatial monitoring of leaf expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Cronk Quentin CB; Beyer Simon T; Wang Lisheng; Walus Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inkjet micropatterning is a versatile deposition technique with broad applications in numerous fields. However, its application in plant science is largely unexplored. Leaf expansion is one of the most important parameters in the field of plant science and many methods have been developed to examine differential expansion rates of different parts of the leaf lamina. Among them, methods based on the tracking of natural landmarks through digital imaging require a complicated...

  6. Automatic landmark annotation and dense correspondence registration for 3D human facial images

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jianya; Mei, Xi; Tang, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional anthropometric studies of human face rely on manual measurements of simple features, which are labor intensive and lack of full comprehensive inference. Dense surface registration of three-dimensional (3D) human facial images holds great potential for high throughput quantitative analyses of complex facial traits. However there is a lack of automatic high density registration method for 3D faical images. Furthermore, current approaches of landmark recognition require fu...

  7. Nasolacrimal Duct Orifice: A Cadaveric Study in Relation to Important Anatomical Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Ankolekar, Vrinda Hari; Hosapatna, Mamatha; Das M, Aswin; Supriya, Supriya; Anne D Souza; Antony Sylvan D Souza

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThe nasolacrimal apparatus is intimately associated with the lateral nasal wall and may be approached using an endoscopic technique. This study was undertaken to describe in detail the gross anatomy of the nasolacrimal duct orifice in relation to various landmarks of the lateral nasal wall to improve the safety and efficiency of endoscopic surgical procedures. The study was conducted on 25 sagittal sections of adult cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mani...

  8. Comparison of landmark-based and automatic methods for cortical surface registration

    OpenAIRE

    Pantazis, Dimitrios; Joshi, Anand; Jiang, Jintao; Shattuck, David; Bernstein, Lynne E.; Damasio, Hanna; Leahy, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Group analysis of structure or function in cerebral cortex typically involves as a first step the alignment of the cortices. A surface based approach to this problem treats the cortex as a convoluted surface and coregisters across subjects so that cortical landmarks or features are aligned. This registration can be performed using curves representing sulcal fundi and gyral crowns to constrain the mapping. Alternatively, registration can be based on the alignment of curvature metrics computed ...

  9. Knee joint secondary motion accuracy improved by quaternion-based optimizer with bony landmark constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Zheng, Naiqaun Nigel

    2010-12-01

    Skin marker-based motion analysis has been widely used in biomechanical studies and clinical applications. Unfortunately, the accuracy of knee joint secondary motions is largely limited by the nonrigidity nature of human body segments. Numerous studies have investigated the characteristics of soft tissue movement. Utilizing these characteristics, we may improve the accuracy of knee joint motion measurement. An optimizer was developed by incorporating the soft tissue movement patterns at special bony landmarks into constraint functions. Bony landmark constraints were assigned to the skin markers at femur epicondyles, tibial plateau edges, and tibial tuberosity in a motion analysis algorithm by limiting their allowed position space relative to the underlying bone. The rotation matrix was represented by quaternion, and the constrained optimization problem was solved by Fletcher's version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization technique. The algorithm was validated by using motion data from both skin-based markers and bone-mounted markers attached to fresh cadavers. By comparing the results with the ground truth bone motion generated from the bone-mounted markers, the new algorithm had a significantly higher accuracy (root-mean-square (RMS) error: 0.7 ± 0.1 deg in axial rotation and 0.4 ± 0.1 deg in varus-valgus) in estimating the knee joint secondary rotations than algorithms without bony landmark constraints (RMS error: 1.7 ± 0.4 deg in axial rotation and 0.7 ± 0.1 deg in varus-valgus). Also, it predicts a more accurate medial-lateral translation (RMS error: 0.4 ± 0.1 mm) than the conventional techniques (RMS error: 1.2 ± 0.2 mm). The new algorithm, using bony landmark constrains, estimates more accurate secondary rotations and medial-lateral translation of the underlying bone. PMID:21142329

  10. Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27. MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average ±sd: gw 22 ± 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below. The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p=0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p<0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases. This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided. (orig.)

  11. Single Robot Localisation Approach for Indoor Robotic Systems through Integration of Odometry and Artificial Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Ņikitenko, A; Liekna, A; Ekmanis, M.; Kuļikovskis, G; Andersone, I

    2013-01-01

    we present an integrated approach for robot localization that allows to integrate for the artificial landmark localization data with odometric sensors and signal transfer function data to provide means for different practical application scenarios. The sensor data fusion deals with asynchronous sensor data using inverse Laplace transform. We demonstrate a simulation software system that ensures smooth integration of the odometry-based and signal transfer – based localization into one approach.

  12. Design of an enhanced visual odometry by building and matching compressive panoramic landmarks online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LU; Zhi-yu XIANG; Ji-lin LIU

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and precise localization is a prerequisite for the intelligent navigation of mobile robots. Traditional visual localization systems, such as visual odometry (VO) and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), suffer from two short-comings: a drift problem caused by accumulated localization error, and erroneous motion estimation due to illumination varia-tion and moving objects. In this paper, we propose an enhanced VO by introducing a panoramic camera into the traditional stereo-only VO system. Benefiting from the 360° field of view, the panoramic camera is responsible for three tasks: (1) detect-ing road junctions and building a landmark library online; (2) correcting the robot’s position when the landmarks are revisited with any orientation; (3) working as a panoramic compass when the stereo VO cannot provide reliable positioning results. To use the large-sized panoramic images efficiently, the concept of compressed sensing is introduced into the solution and an adap-tive compressive feature is presented. Combined with our previous two-stage local binocular bundle adjustment (TLBBA) stereo VO, the new system can obtain reliable positioning results in quasi-real time. Experimental results of challenging long-range tests show that our enhanced VO is much more accurate and robust than the traditional VO, thanks to the compressive panoramic landmarks built online.

  13. Anatomical landmarks accurately determine interfractional lymph node shifts during radiotherapy of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Low contrast in the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans hampers fast online evaluation of interfractional changes in the lymph node position on a daily basis. In this study we have investigated whether high-contrast anatomical landmarks in the vicinity of the nodes may be used as surrogates for the lymph node positions. Materials and methods: Forty lung cancer patients were treated with an online CBCT-based setup strategy involving soft-tissue match on the primary tumor. One hundred and sixteen lymph nodes were delineated separately on the planning-CT scans and categorized according to the lymph node stations. Five anatomical landmarks were selected as surrogate structures and assigned to the individual nodes. In addition, the carina was delineated. Registrations between the planning-CT and the daily CBCTs were performed retrospectively and positional deviations between the nodes and the surrogate structures or the carina were registered. Results: The mean displacement between lymph nodes and surrogate structures was 1.6 mm with systematic/random errors of 0.7/0.7 mm, significantly smaller than the mean displacement between nodes and the carina. Conclusions: The position of the lymph nodes can be evaluated using selected anatomical landmarks on a daily basis using CBCT

  14. A low-cost test-bed for real-time landmark tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Ambrus; Hanan, Jay C.; Moreels, Pierre; Assad, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    A low-cost vehicle test-bed system was developed to iteratively test, refine and demonstrate navigation algorithms before attempting to transfer the algorithms to more advanced rover prototypes. The platform used here was a modified radio controlled (RC) car. A microcontroller board and onboard laptop computer allow for either autonomous or remote operation via a computer workstation. The sensors onboard the vehicle represent the types currently used on NASA-JPL rover prototypes. For dead-reckoning navigation, optical wheel encoders, a single axis gyroscope, and 2-axis accelerometer were used. An ultrasound ranger is available to calculate distance as a substitute for the stereo vision systems presently used on rovers. The prototype also carries a small laptop computer with a USB camera and wireless transmitter to send real time video to an off-board computer. A real-time user interface was implemented that combines an automatic image feature selector, tracking parameter controls, streaming video viewer, and user generated or autonomous driving commands. Using the test-bed, real-time landmark tracking was demonstrated by autonomously driving the vehicle through the JPL Mars yard. The algorithms tracked rocks as waypoints. This generated coordinates calculating relative motion and visually servoing to science targets. A limitation for the current system is serial computing-each additional landmark is tracked in order-but since each landmark is tracked independently, if transferred to appropriate parallel hardware, adding targets would not significantly diminish system speed.

  15. Combining Speedup Techniques based on Landmarks and Containers with parallelised preprocessing in Random and Planar Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalpana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dijkstra’s algorithm is applied in many real world problems like mobile routing, road maps,railway networks, etc,. There are many techniques available to speedup the algorithm while guaranteeingthe optimality of the solution. Almost all of the speedup techniques have a substantial amount of parallelism that can be exploited to decrease its running time. By suitably modifying portions of theexisting system various degrees of parallelism can be achieved. The rapidly growing field of multiprocessing systems and multi-core processors provide many opportunities for such improvements. Inthese techniques there’s always a demand for the running time and the time required for pre-processing.Space requirements for the pre-processing also have a major influence on the running time of thealgorithm. The main focus of the work is to implement landmark technique and to identify the segment of the code in landmark pre-processing which can be parallelized to obtain better speedup. The results are applied to the combined speedup technique which is based on landmarks and containers. The experimental results were compared and analysed for determining better performance improvements in random graphs and planar graphs.

  16. A Landmark-Free Method for Three-Dimensional Shape Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Pomidor

    Full Text Available The tools and techniques used in morphometrics have always aimed to transform the physical shape of an object into a concise set of numerical data for mathematical analysis. The advent of landmark-based morphometrics opened new avenues of research, but these methods are not without drawbacks. The time investment required of trained individuals to accurately landmark a data set is significant, and the reliance on readily-identifiable physical features can hamper research efforts. This is especially true of those investigating smooth or featureless surfaces.In this paper, we present a new method to perform this transformation for data obtained from high-resolution scanning technology. This method uses surface scans, instead of landmarks, to calculate a shape difference metric analogous to Procrustes distance and perform superimposition. This is accomplished by building upon and extending the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. We also explore some new ways this data can be used; for example, we can calculate an averaged surface directly and visualize point-wise shape information over this surface. Finally, we briefly demonstrate this method on a set of primate skulls and compare the results of the new methodology with traditional geometric morphometric analysis.

  17. Tools for quantitative form description; an evaluation of different software packages for semi-landmark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton-Divet, Léo; Houssaye, Alexandra; Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The challenging complexity of biological structures has led to the development of several methods for quantitative analyses of form. Bones are shaped by the interaction of historical (phylogenetic), structural, and functional constrains. Consequently, bone shape has been investigated intensively in an evolutionary context. Geometric morphometric approaches allow the description of the shape of an object in all of its biological complexity. However, when biological objects present only few anatomical landmarks, sliding semi-landmarks may provide good descriptors of shape. The sliding procedure, mandatory for sliding semi-landmarks, requires several steps that may be time-consuming. We here compare the time required by two different software packages ('Edgewarp' and 'Morpho') for the same sliding task, and investigate potential differences in the results and biological interpretation. 'Morpho' is much faster than 'Edgewarp,' notably as a result of the greater computational power of the 'Morpho' software routines and the complexity of the 'Edgewarp' workflow. Morphospaces obtained using both software packages are similar and provide a consistent description of the biological variability. The principal differences between the two software packages are observed in areas characterized by abrupt changes in the bone topography. In summary, both software packages perform equally well in terms of the description of biological structures, yet differ in the simplicity of the workflow and time needed to perform the analyses. PMID:26618086

  18. Cytological analysis of the periodontal pocket in patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    E Castro Cecilia; A Koss Myriam; E López María

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral exfoliative cytology includes the study and interpretation of the features cells exfoliated from the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to analyze cytological changes in the periodontal pocket of patients with different clinical stages of aggressive periodontitis (AP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Materials and Methods: Patients aged 24-54 years, of whom 41 were diagnosed with AP, 40 with CP, sub-classified as mild, moderate and severe periodontitis, and 40 healthy indi...

  19. A comparison between cytology and histology to detect anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, A.; Carter, P.; Katz, D. R.; Kocjan, G.; Whatrup, C; Northover, J; Mindel, A

    1994-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), which may be a precursor of anal carcinoma, has been identified on histology following minor anal surgical procedures, in particular the removal of perianal condylomata, in increasing numbers of homosexual and bisexual men. Anal cytology has recently been proposed as a useful method of identifying AIN lesions. OBJECTIVE--To compare anal cytology with histology as a method of detecting AIN. METHODS--215 homosexual and bisexual men attending a...

  20. Biphasic parapharyngeal synovial sarcoma: a cytologic and immunocytologic report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadianpanah Mohammad; Daneshbod Yahya; Negahban Shahrzad; Daneshbod Khosrow; Ashraf Mohammad; Khademi Bijan; Kaviani Massud

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma in the head and neck region and parapharyngeal space. There is no previous cytologic report of synovial sarcoma of parapharynx. The cytologic and immunocytochemical findings of a parapharyngeal biphasic synovial sarcoma together with diagnostic pitfalls are described. Case report A 21-year-old girl presented with a 6-month history of progressive right arm pain, neck mass and upper aerodigestive tract obstruction. On physical e...

  1. Significance of eosinophils in diagnosing Hashimoto′s thyroiditis on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekambaram Maheswari; Kumar Bipin; Chowdhary Nitlotpal; Siddaraju N; Kumar Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT) is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in those areas of the world where iodine levels are sufficient. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can accurately diagnose this lesion in most of the patients. However, a small percentage of cases may be missed due to inherent limitations of this procedure. Therefore, cytologic clues to increase sensitivity of diagnosis need to be searched for. Aims: To assess whether an eosinophilic infiltration of...

  2. Pleomorphic adenoma with squamous and appendageal metaplasia mimicking mucoepidermoid carcinoma on cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Batrani Meenakshi; Kaushal Manju; Sen A; Yadav Rajbala; Chaturvedi N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Histological diversity is the hallmark of pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor. It may cause difficulty in cytological interpretation, due to limited and selective sampling. Case presentation: A 16-year-old female patient presented with right cheek swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed squamous cells, basaloid cells, and foamy cells, along with extracellular keratin and foreign body giant cells. Characteristic metachromatic fibrillary chondromyxoid ...

  3. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    OpenAIRE

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek; Servet Güreşçi; Ural Oğuz; Ali Ünsal

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  4. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  5. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Yosuke Kawakami; Tamaki Toda; Toshinao Nishimura; Junichi Sakane; Kazuya Kuraoka; Kazuhiro Takehara; Tomoya Mizunoe; Kiyomi Taniyama

    2011-01-01

    Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC) that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 ca...

  6. Unsuspected multiples myeloma presenting as bilateral pleural effusion – a cytological diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra Kajal; Singhal Niti; Nigam Sonu; Jain Shayama

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple Myeloma presenting as a pleural effusion is extremely rare. It is usually a late complication and is associated with a poor prognosis. Case Presentation A 40-year-old male presented with dyspnea and fever of six months duration. Clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was considered. X-ray chest showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural cytology revealed numerous plasma cells, some of which were binucleated and atypical. Cytological differential diagnosis in...

  7. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Useful Technique for Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Niti; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Handa, Uma; Punia, R. P. S.; Singhal, Surinder

    2013-01-01

    Mycotic infections are on the rise globally. Patients with invasive fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses often present with destructive mass lesions and mimic malignancy clinically and radiologically. To assess the utility of Fine needle aspiration cytology for early diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed from the maxillary/ethmoid sinus in patients with a destructive mass lesion in the maxilla. Differential diagnoses were malignancy an...

  8. Diagnostic dilemma: Diagnostic algorithm in fine needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Pranab

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mediastinum harbors a mixed bag of tumors, which may create significant diagnostic dilemmas. These tumors have widely variable therapeutic and prognostic implications. Correct pre-operative cytological diagnosis may obviate the need of surgical excision of many of these lesions. A stepwise algorithmic approach such as clinical history, radiological localization, salient cytomorphology and ancillary test helps in correct diagnosis of these tumors. This paper discusses the stepwise diagnostic algorithm for fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of mediastinal tumors.

  9. The Use of Core Biopsy Imprint Cytology in the 'One-Stop' Breast Clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, D.; Irvine, T.; Reyes, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aims The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity; accuracy, usefulness and role of core biopsy imprint cytology (CBIC) in the one-stop breast clinic in a District General Hospital. Methods A retrospective study was made of symptomatic patients attending a district general hospital one-stop clinic over a five year period where a core biopsy had been performed and an imprint of the core had been made for cytological a...

  10. Combined radiology and cytology in the diagnosis of bone lesions : A study of 494 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Veli

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of combining radiology and fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of bone lesions. Patients and Methods Radiological, cytological and histopathologic findings in 494 cases diagnosed 1993 through 1998 were collected from the original reports. The study included four overlapping series: 1) 52 consecutive high grade osteosarcomas, 2) 83 consecutive myelomas/lymphomas, 3) 29 unselected lesions analysed for sam...

  11. Diagnosis of High-Grade Osteosarcoma by Radiology and Cytology: A Retrospective Study of 52 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Andris Kreicbergs; Otte Brosjö; Franco Bertoni; Lambert Skoog; Unni, Krishnan K.; Veli Söderlund

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic value of combined radiology and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was retrospectively assessed in a consecutive series of 52 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. The series was divided into typical and atypical osteosarcomas according to radiological features and site. Thirty-two of 33 radiologically typical osteosarcoma cases were correctly diagnosed by cytology; one lesion was diagnosed as sarcoma NOS. Nineteen osteosarcoma cases were radiographically atypical. Six of ...

  12. Cytological and architectural heterogeneity in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, C M; Ostrowski, J L

    1997-01-01

    AIM: The traditional architecture based classification system of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has been criticised on the grounds that individual lesions often show more than one pattern resulting in a large mixed category. New DCIS classification systems have emphasised the importance of cytological grade, which is reputed to be more uniformly expressed throughout a lesion. This study investigates the hypothesis that cytological heterogeneity is less common than architectural heterogeneity...

  13. Role of peritoneal washing cytology in ovarian malignancies: correlation with histopathological parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Samreen; Hashmi, Atif Ali; Ali, Rabia; Faridi, Naveen; Hussian, Syed Danish; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Khan, Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dissemination of ovarian tumors is a major prognostic parameter in ovarian malignancies. Analysis of peritoneal washing cytology serves as a useful predictor of ovarian surface involvement and peritoneal metastasis even in the absence of clinical omental spread. The aim of the current study is to correlate peritoneal cytology with various histologic features of ovarian cancers in our setup. Methods A total of 60 cases of ovarian tumors were included in the study that und...

  14. Neural Network-Based Landmark Recognition and Navigation with IAMRs. Understanding the Principles of Thought and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    Research on neural networks and hippocampal function demonstrating how mammals construct mental maps and develop navigation strategies is being used to create Intelligent Autonomous Mobile Robots (IAMRs). Such robots are able to recognize landmarks and navigate without "vision." (SK)

  15. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Johanne Cecilie Rask; Lynge, Elsebeth; Franzmann, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in ...... unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.......Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a...... technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6...

  16. The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Güliz A; Wojcik, Eva M; Nayar, Ritu; Savic-Prince, Spasenija; Quek, Marcus L; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma. With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. TPS Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived a standardized platform on which to base cytologic interpretation of urine samples. The widespread dissemination of this approach to cytologic examination and reporting of urologic samples and the scheme's universal acceptance by pathologists and urologists is critical for its success. For urologists, understanding the diagnostic criteria, their clinical implications, and limitations of TPS is essential if they are to utilize urine cytology and noninvasive ancillary tests in a thoughtful and practical manner. This is the first international/inclusive attempt at standardizing urinary cytology. The success of TPS will depend on the pathology and urology communities working collectively to improve this seminal paradigm shift, and optimize the impact on patient care. PMID:27233050

  17. Classicalization of quantum variables and quantum–classical hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of classical degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics is studied in the stochastic variational method. By using this classicalization, a hybrid model constructed from quantum and classical variables (quantum–classical hybrids) is derived. In this procedure, conservation laws such as energy are maintained, and Ehrenfest's theorem is still satisfied with modification. The criterion for the applicability of quantum–classical hybrids is also discussed. - Highlights: • The new derivation of a quantum–classical hybrid (QCH) model is discussed based on a variational principle. • Any conserved quantities are automatically defined as the invariant transforms of a stochastic action. • The quantitative criterion to determine the validity of QCH is proposed. • Ehrenfest's theorem is satisfied in a modified way

  18. Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eMertes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks - salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location - can play an important role in guiding the animal’s homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee’s visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee’s visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing.

  19. Delivering high-resolution landmarks using inkjet micropatterning for spatial monitoring of leaf expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronk Quentin CB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inkjet micropatterning is a versatile deposition technique with broad applications in numerous fields. However, its application in plant science is largely unexplored. Leaf expansion is one of the most important parameters in the field of plant science and many methods have been developed to examine differential expansion rates of different parts of the leaf lamina. Among them, methods based on the tracking of natural landmarks through digital imaging require a complicated setup in which the leaf must remain fixed and under tension. Furthermore, the resolution is limited to that of the natural landmarks, which are often difficult to find, particularly in young leaves. To study the fine scale expansion dynamics of the leaf lamina using artificial landmarks it is necessary to place small, noninvasive marks on a leaf surface and then recover the location of those marks after a period of time. Results To monitor leaf expansion in two dimensions, at very fine scales, we used a custom designed inkjet micropatterning system to print a grid composed of c. 0.19 mm2 cells on small developing leaves of ivy (Hedera helix using 40 μm dots at a spacing of c. 91 μm. The leaves in different growing stages were imaged under magnification to extract the coordinates of the marks which were then used in subsequent computer-assisted leaf expansion analyses. As an example we obtained quantified global and local expansion information and created expansion maps over the entire leaf surface. The results reveal a striking pattern of fine-scale expansion differences over short periods of time. In these experiments, the base of the leaf is a "cold spot" for expansion, while the leaf sinuses are "hot spots" for expansion. We have also measured a strong shading effect on leaf expansion. We discuss the features required to build an inkjet printing apparatus optimized for use in plant science, which will further maximize the range of tissues that can be

  20. Deviation of landmarks in accordance with methods of establishing reference planes in three-dimensional facial CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kaeng Won; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol; Kook, Min Suk; Lee, Jae Seo [School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan Martin [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the deviation of landmarks from horizontal or midsagittal reference planes according to the methods of establishing reference planes. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 18 patients who received orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment were reviewed. Each CT scan was reconstructed by three methods for establishing three orthogonal reference planes (namely, the horizontal, midsagittal, and coronal reference planes). The horizontal (bilateral porions and bilateral orbitales) and midsagittal (crista galli, nasion, prechiasmatic point, opisthion, and anterior nasal spine) landmarks were identified on each CT scan. Vertical deviation of the horizontal landmarks and horizontal deviation of the midsagittal landmarks were measured. The porion and orbitale, which were not involved in establishing the horizontal reference plane, were found to deviate vertically from the horizontal reference plane in the three methods. The midsagittal landmarks, which were not used for the midsagittal reference plane, deviated horizontally from the midsagittal reference plane in the three methods. In a three-dimensional facial analysis, the vertical and horizontal deviations of the landmarks from the horizontal and midsagittal reference planes could vary depending on the methods of establishing reference planes.

  1. Botanical and Cytological Studies of Monodora tenuifolia Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. AZEEZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated branching pattern, ecology of occurrence, palynology, cytology and phenology of Monodora tenuifolia using standard techniques. The branching pattern determines the shape of the canopy, which may be irregular when growing in the shade, or round when growing in the open. The pollens are tetrads, 10.15 µm in diameter, with pollen fertility of 92.24% (determined by using Cotton Blue in Lactophenol and pollen tube germinability of 65.83%. Two simultaneous cytokineses were studied and the events of meiotic cell division were observed to synchronize. The chromosomes were well paired at pachynema as associations of regular bivalents, paired of ring 11 or rod 11, though univalents were occasionally observed. Monodora tenuifolia has the chromosome number equal to 2n = 16, showing a karyotypic formular of 1 acro (large + 2 submet (medium + 2 met (medium + 2 acro (medium + 1 met (small chromosome in the 2B Stebbins category. The results indicate that the tetrad pollen grain of Monodora tenuifolia is an advantage, since up to four pollen tubes could be seen developing from the some pollen grains, while the karyotype is asymmetrical.

  2. Synchronous Ipsilateral Parotid Tumors with Cytologic-Histologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdjan, Kristina; Groth, John V; Patel, Tushar N; Guzman, Grace; David, Odile; Cabay, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Synchronous ipsilateral tumor formation within a major salivary gland is a very rare event. In this case, a 54-year-old female tobacco smoker presented with a slowly enlarging left parotid gland. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a solid mass superficial to a cystic mass in the deep lobe of the gland. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration yielded oncocytic cells, lymphoid cells, and granular debris along with rare cohesive groups of basaloid cells. Parotidectomy was performed, and the resected gland was found to contain two adjacent but distinct masses. One mass, a predominantly solid, well-circumscribed lesion composed of ribbons of double-layered oncocytic cells and a lymphoid stroma with germinal center formation, was a Warthin tumor. The other mass, a predominantly cystic lesion composed of cords and nests of basaloid cells with associated deposits of basement membrane-like material, was a basal cell adenoma of the membranous type. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous Warthin tumor and basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with cytologic-histologic correlation attributable to each tumor. PMID:26440804

  3. Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denice Smith G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation.

  4. ANALYSIS OF CELL BLOCK VS . CONVENTIONAL SMEAR IN FLUID CYTOLOGY

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    Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cytological examination of aspirates of serous effusions is a routinely accepted , simple , safe and minimally invasive technique . Diagnosis in this investigation , especially in malignant effusions , helps in staging , prognosis and management of the patients . AIMS: To assess the utility and sensitivity of cell block method over conventional smear technique in cytodiagnosis of the serous effusions . METHODS: A total of 72 fluid specimens were subjected to simultaneous processing by conventional s mear and cell block technique . Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts and results compared for cellularity , cell architecture , cytoplasmic and nuclear features . Cell blocks were prepared using modified cell block technique using alcohol forma lin fixative . RESULTS: The utility of cell block technique in diagnosing malignant effusions is highly significant as compared to the conventional smear technique . Also , the technique using alcohol formalin fixative is simple , safe and these chemicals are routinely used in laboratory . CONCLUSION: Cell block technique is superior to conventional smear technique , especially for malignant effusions . It gives more information about the architectural arrangement and the likely source of primary . More important is that diagnostic material in cell blocks is available for special studies for . I mmunohistochemistry which can further supplement our knowledge about the primary source of metastasis

  5. Cytological Findings Suggesting Sexuality in Phytomonas davidi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available On few occasions, Phytomonas davidi (McGhee & Postell isolate cultures in LIT (liver infusion-tryptose medium around 27oC presented, as seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a set of peculiar morphological features, among them being noticeable the pairs of apposed cells attached by their posterior ends, where occurred a stained line and/or a dilatation, usually bulb-like in shape; sometimes this dilatation could occupy one of the cells or hold both together. In some pairs, the nucleus of each parasite seemed migrating towards the other, entering into such dilatation; in others, both nuclei were inside it, sometimes in close proximity or seeming fused; peculiar chromatin arrangements involving both nuclei were occasionally observed. Several mono or binucleate round forms bearing one or two flagella, as well as flagellate slender cells without nucleus were concomitantly seen there. In some instances, an intriguing small stained body occurred beside a single large nucleus, either in pairs presenting the bulb-like structure or in round cells. These cytological findings seemed steps of a dynamic process suggesting sexuality, since in several of them nuclear interactions following fusion of two parasites appeared to occur

  6. Cytological and reproductive aspects in the Caespitosa group of Paspalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Toniolo Pozzobon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosome numbers are reported for thirty four germplasm accessions of Paspalum, Caespitosa group, representing five different species. All five species have shown x=10 as the basic chromosome number. The diploid 2n=20 chromosome number was confirmed for P. chacoense and P. indecorum, as well as sexuality for the latter. This is the first report of the chromosome number and cytological behavior for P. ligulare (2n=20 and 40, P. pleostachyum (2n=20, 30 and 40 and P. redondense (2n=20 and 40. The present results document regular meiosis in diploid accessions, with primarily bivalent pairing at diakinesis and metaphase I. Polyploids of these species had irregular meiosis, with univalent, trivalent, and quadrivalent chromosome associations. Diploid accessions of P. pleostachyum and P. ligulare have shown a single meiotic embryo-sac, indicating sexual reproduction, while the triploid and one of the tetraploid accessions of P. pleostachyum have shown aposporic embryo-sacs of nucelar origin, and a few meiotic sacs, suggesting facultative apomixis. Identification of the new diploid accessions may prove useful for phylogenetic studies of Paspalum, as well as for breeding programs focusing on the forage potential of species of the Caespitosa group.

  7. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  8. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  9. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  10. Results of bacteriological and cytological examinations of the endometrium of subfertile mares in stud farms in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Miroslav; Lako, Branislav; Milanov, Dubravka; Urosevic, Ivana; Aurich, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Uterine microbiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and endometrial cytology were investigated in a total of 51 mares with fertility problems from 16 different stud farms in Serbia. Uterine cultures were performed after collection with a double guarded uterine swab, and endometrial cytology was evaluated after collection of endometrial cells with a special device (cytology brush). In 21 of 51 mares, at least one bacterial species was isolated from the uterus; the most frequent were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (13 isolates) and E. coli (four isolates). All isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were susceptible to penicillin. Results from endometrial cytology were inconsistent; in 17 animals with positive bacteriological culture, cytology was not altered. It can be concluded that in Serbia, as in many other contries, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the main cause for equine endometritis. It can be easily diagnosed by uterine culture but endometrial cytology does not always prove the existence of an endometrial infection with this agent. PMID:21038807

  11. Classical and quantum effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.

  12. Population in the classic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-01-01

    Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In ad...

  13. Coherent Communication of Classical Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.

    2003-01-01

    We define "coherent communication" in terms of a simple primitive, show it is equivalent to the ability to send a classical message with a unitary or isometric operation, and use it to relate other resources in quantum information theory. Using coherent communication, we are able to generalize super-dense coding to prepare arbitrary quantum states instead of only classical messages. We also derive single-letter formulae for the classical and quantum capacities of a bipartite unitary gate assi...

  14. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

  15. The complex cytological features of synovial sarcoma in fine needle aspirates, an analysis of four illustrative cases

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerman, Måns; Domanski, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The cytological features of conventional monophasic spindle cell and biphasic synovial sarcoma have been defined in detail in several large series. The cytology of rare morphological variants, especially the subtypes of poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma, are insufficiently evaluated and diagnostically difficult to define. The objective of the present study was to call attention to the variable cytology of rare variants of synovial sarcoma. Furthermore, adjunctive diagnostic me...

  16. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  17. [Dyspraxia: landmarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeau, M

    2010-03-01

    Despite its frequency, little is known about dyspraxia. Dyspraxia, which represents disorders in development and learning movements, within the context of a deficiency in the management of spatial information (in children whose verbal intelligence is spared), is often a severe handicap at school and in social life. Dyspraxia must be distinguished from "common" difficulties of unmotivated children at school, with which it is often confused. Hence, the diagnosis must correspond to rigorous methodology. And one should avoid proposing endless training for the deficient action (writing, getting dressed...); indeed such strategies only lead to short-term 'pseudo' progress, without any long term efficacy on the educational success of these intelligent children. To the contrary, the child should be rapidly oriented in two therapeutic directions: (1) a battle between the "double-task" effect stemming from the graphical and spatial difficulties; (2) the use of palliatives (including computing). In conditions of early diagnosis (at 4-8/9 years of age) and well-coordinated management with the school, the prognosis would be excellent in terms of schooling, choice of a profession and social insertion. If not, or if (as is the case in almost a third of cases) dyspraxia is not isolated (associated with dyslexia, hyperactivity, attentional deficit and psychotic traits), the child should be oriented towards a specialised classroom and care. PMID:19942418

  18. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant anal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsigris Christos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma is a rather infrequent neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless its frequency is increasing lately especially in high risk groups of the population infected from HIV or HPV viruses. Squamous cell carcinoma is a slowly and locally growing neoplasm which metastasizes in advanced stages. Its diagnosis must be accomplished by the least traumatic examinations possible. In our study we reviewed our five years experience that included 116 cases. In 89 of them cytological material from ulcerated positions of the anal region was examined. In the rest 27 cytological material was obtained by fine needle aspiration of subcutaneous or submucosal anal lesions. All 116 case reports were retrospectively evaluated. Cytological evaluation revealed 29 cases of normal anal epithelium, 13 granulomas, 12 cases of HPV infection, 28 anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL, 17 post radiation injuries of the anal mucosa and 17 carcinomas. The neoplasms were further sub classified in 12 well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, 4 cloacogenic carcinomas and 1 leiomyosarcoma. Histological examination followed the initial cytological diagnosis in 75 cases. The correlation between cytological and histological reports did not reveal any false negative or any false positive result. The agreement between histological and cytological evaluation was absolute. Cytological examination is proved to be an easily accessible and totally reliable, low cost diagnostic method, not requiring any kind of anesthesia. It is well accepted by the patients and of paramount clinical utility for the initial diagnostic assessment, the long term follow up after treatment of anal cancer patients. It is also valuable for the differential diagnosis among benign, premalignant and malignant anal lesions.

  19. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  20. The importance of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung lancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death. The incidence of lung cancer is increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Mortality is more than 90 % in diagnosed cases and it is directly related to the stage of disease so it is important to diagnose at an early stage. Sputum cytology is a definite way to diagnose lung cancer. It is cost effective, non-invasive, does not need any instrumentation and free of investigating complications. Objective: To study the role of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Study Setting: This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Study Design: Cross sectional evidence based study. Materials and Methods: Ninety seven patients (80 males, 17 females) with radiological suspicion of malignancy were included in the study. Three Consecutive morning sputum samples were collected after deep coughing. Two smears were made of each specimen and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and papanicolaou. All the specimens were examined by a consultant cytohistopathologist. Results: A total of 97 patients (80 males and 17 females) with clinical and radiological suspicion of lung cancer were included in the study. The patient's ages ranged between 50 - 83 years with mean age of 66.5 +- 14.5 years. Sputum cytology was positive in 46 (45.3%) patients. Amongst males 41 (51.25%) have positive cytology, while in females 5 (29.41%) have positive sputum cytology. Out of 46 patients with positive cytology 37 (80.43%) patients (33 males and 04 females) have non small cell carcinomas while 09 (19.56%) patients (08 males and 01 female) have small cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Sputum cytology is a definite way of lung cancer detection. It is cost effective, non invasive and free of investigating complications. (author)

  1. The merits of cytology in the workup for upper tract urothelial carcinoma - a contemporary review of a perplexing issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Sverrisson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The importance of upper tract cytology for evaluating tumors is unclear. We correlated upper tract cytology with histologic findings in patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC at a single tertiary care referral center. Materials and Methods 137 patients underwent nephroureterectomy between 2004 and 2012. 18 patients were excluded (benign tumors, atrophic kidneys with the remaining 119 patients serving as our study population. Upper tract cytology from the renal pelvis and/or ureter were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed with final pathology data in the remaining patients with UTUC. Results 57% (68/119 had preoperative upper tract cytology collected. 73% (50/68 patients had abnormal cytology (positive, suspicious with a sensitivity of 74% (which increased to 90% if atypical included, specificity of 50% and a positive predictive value of 98%. High grade tumors were more common than expected (77% high grade vs. 20% low grade. Abnormal cytology did not predict T stage or tumor grade. Interestingly, positive upper tract cytology was found in all of the UTUC CIS specimen. Conclusions Upper tract cytology has been utilized to support the diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Our data demonstrates that abnormal cytology correlates well with the presence of disease but does not predict staging or grading in these respective patients.

  2. [Health technology assessment report. Use of liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer precursors screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Confortini, Massimo; Maccallini, Vincenzo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: Purpose of this Report is to evaluate the impact of the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer screening in terms of efficacy, undesired effects, costs and implications for organisation. EFFICACY AND UNDESIRED EFFECTS: LBC WITH MANUAL INTERPRETATION: The estimates of cross-sectional accuracy for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or more severe and CIN3 or more severe) obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2008 were used. This review considered only studies in which all women underwent colposcopy or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with complete verification of test positives. A systematic search of RCTs published thereafter was performed. Three RCTs were identified. One of these studies was conducted in 6 Italian regions and was of large size (45,174 women randomised); a second one was conducted in another Italian region (Abruzzo) and was of smaller size (8,654 women randomised); a third RCT was conducted in the Netherlands and was of large size (89,784 women randomised). No longitudinal study was available. There is currently no clear evidence that LBC increases the sensitivity of cytology and even less that its introduction increases the efficacy of cervical screening in preventing invasive cancers. The Italian randomised study NTCC showed a decrease in specificity, which was not observed in the other two RCTs available. In addition, the 2008 meta-analysis observed a reduction - even if minimal - in specificity just at the ASC-US cytological cut-off, but also a remarkable heterogeneity between studies. These results suggest that the effect of LBC on specificity is variable and plausibly related to the local style of cytology interpretation. There is evidence that LBC reduces the proportion of unsatisfactory slides, although the size of this effect varies remarkably. LBC WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED INTERPRETATION: An Australian study, based on double testing, showed a statistically

  3. Classical Music Fan Chen Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The heyday of Beijing’s classical music beganin 1993, when top-quality sound equipment andrecords were imported. Also in that year, BeijingMusic Radio presented a classical music programtitled "Fan’s Club" and founded the "Music and

  4. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  5. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik. Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls. From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00, as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83. Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99, whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00. Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples.

  6. Cytologic Phenotypes of B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramyar Asghar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a malignant disorder of lymphoid precursor cells, which could be classified according to morphological and cytochemical methods as well as immunophenotyping. Twenty patients with ALL, who had been referred to the Children's Medical Center Hospital, during the year 2007, were enrolled in this study in order to evaluate the morphologic and immunophenotypic profile of these patients. Cytologic analysis of blood and bone marrow samples revealed that the frequency of ALL-L1 was 70%, followed by ALL-L2 and ALL-L3. The onset age of the patients with ALL-L1 was significantly lower than the patients with L2/L3. Severe anemia was significantly detected more in L1 group. Flow cytometic study of bone marrow showed that 10 cases had Pre-B1 ALL and 7 cases had Pre-B2 ALL, while three cases had Pro-B ALL. Comparisons of the characteristics and clinical manifestations among these groups did not show any appreciable difference. There were an increase percentage of CD20+ cells and a decrease CD10+ cells in pre-B2 group in comparison with pre-B1 group. Fifteen patients were in standard risk and five were in high risk. Although standard risk patients were more common in the group of pre-B1, this was not significant. Our results confirm the previous reports indicating heterogeneity of ALL. Immunophenotyping is not the only diagnostic test of importance, while morphological assessment still can be used in the diagnosis and classification of the disease.

  7. Efficacy and costs comparison of anatomical landmarks and ultrasonic guidance during brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and costs of brachial plexus block (BPB) guided by ultrasound with that used anatomical landmarks. Methods: Eighty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients scheduled for upper extremity operation were prospectively randomized into 2 groups: Group A (n=40, BPB using anatomical landmarks) and group U (n=40, BPB guided in real time by a two-dimensional ultrasonic image). The time spent on performing the block, the onset time and duration of analgesia were measured. The proportion of successful and excellent blocks and the incidence of complications were assessed. The cost of anesthetic and the total cost of anesthesia were recorded. Results: Compared with group A, in group U the time spent on performing the block and the onset time of analgesia were significantly shorter, the duration of analgesia was significantly longer, the excellence rate of block was significantly higher (all P<0.05). 95.0% of patients in group A and 97.5% of patients in group U had a successful block (P >0.05). Four patients in group A and two patients in group U had occurred complications (P>0.05). The cost of anesthetic in group U was significantly less than in group A (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the total cost of anesthesia between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: BPB guided by ultrasound provides better block with more rapid performance and longer duration of analgesia as compared with that used anatomical landmarks. Ultrasound-guided BPB is suitable for upper extremity operation and lowers the anesthetic cost. (authors)

  8. "Direct DICOM Slice Landmarking" A Novel Research Technique to Quantify Skeletal Changes in Orthognathic Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Almukhtar

    Full Text Available The limitations of the current methods of quantifying the surgical movements of facial bones inspired this study. The aim of this study was the assessment of the accuracy and reproducibility of directly landmarking of 3D DICOM images (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine to quantify the changes in the jaw bones following surgery. The study was carried out on plastic skull to simulate the surgical movements of the jaw bones. Cone beam CT scans were taken at 3mm, 6mm, and 9mm maxillary advancement; together with a 2mm, 4mm, 6mm and 8mm "down graft" which in total generated 12 different positions of the maxilla for the analysis. The movements of the maxilla were calculated using two methods, the standard approach where distances between surface landmarks on the jaw bones were measured and the novel approach where measurements were taken directly from the internal structures of the corresponding 3D DICOME slices. A one sample t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods of measurements for the y and z directions, however, the x direction showed a significant difference. The mean difference between the two absolute measurements were 0.34±0.20mm, 0.22±0.16mm, 0.18±0.13mm in the y, z and x directions respectively. In conclusion, the direct landmarking of 3D DICOM image slices is a reliable, reproducible and informative method for assessment of the 3D skeletal changes. The method has a clear clinical application which includes the analysis of the jaw movements "orthognathic surgery" for the correction of facial deformities.

  9. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  10. A New 2D Corner Detector for Extracting Landmarks from Brain MR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Gelareh; Fatemizadeh, Emad

    2007-01-01

    Point-based registration of images strongly depends on the extraction of suitable landmarks. Recently, various 2D operators have been proposed for the detection of corner points but most of them are not effective for medical images that need a high accuracy. In this paper we have proposed a new automatic corner detector based on the covariance between the small region of support around a central pixel and its rotated one. The main goal of this paper is medical images so we especially focus on...

  11. UAV Control on the Basis of 3D Landmark Bearing-Only Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an approach to the control of a UAV on the basis of 3D landmark observations. The novelty of the work is the usage of the 3D RANSAC algorithm developed on the basis of the landmarks’ position prediction with the aid of a modified Kalman-type filter. Modification of the filter based on the pseudo-measurements approach permits obtaining unbiased UAV position estimation with quadratic error characteristics. Modeling of UAV flight on the basis of the suggested algorithm shows good performance, even under significant external perturbations. PMID:26633394

  12. Performance Characterization of a Landmark Measurement System for ARRM Terrain Relative Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Michael; Wright, Cinnamon; Liounis, Andrew; Getzandanner, Kenneth; Van Eepoel, John; Deweese, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the landmark measurement system being developed for terrain relative navigation on NASAs Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM),and the results of a performance characterization study given realistic navigational and model errors. The system is called Retina, and is derived from the stereophotoclinometry methods widely used on other small-body missions. The system is simulated using synthetic imagery of the asteroid surface and discussion is given on various algorithmic design choices. Unlike other missions, ARRMs Retina is the first planned autonomous use of these methods during the close-proximity and descent phase of the mission.

  13. A Stochastic Approach to Diffeomorphic Point Set Registration with Landmark Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesov, Ivan; Lee, Jehoon; Sharp, Gregory; Vela, Patricio; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2016-02-01

    This work presents a deformable point set registration algorithm that seeks an optimal set of radial basis functions to describe the registration. A novel, global optimization approach is introduced composed of simulated annealing with a particle filter based generator function to perform the registration. It is shown how constraints can be incorporated into this framework. A constraint on the deformation is enforced whose role is to ensure physically meaningful fields (i.e., invertible). Further, examples in which landmark constraints serve to guide the registration are shown. Results on 2D and 3D data demonstrate the algorithm's robustness to noise and missing information. PMID:26761731

  14. The relationship of maxillary canines to the facial anatomical landmarks in a group of Thai people

    OpenAIRE

    Sinavarat, Potchaman; Anunmana, Chuchai; Hossain, Sharafat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective was to evaluate canine positions, intercanine tip width (ICTW) and width of distal surface of canine (WDC), related to facial landmarks including interalar width (IAW), intercommissural width (ICoW), and distance between left and right projection lines drawn from inner canthus of eyes to alae of the nose (DPICa) in a group of Thai. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred Thai subjects aged 18-35 years were selected. IAW and ICoW were measured on subject's face using digital ve...

  15. Undecidability and temporal logic: some landmarks from Turing to the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    This is a selective survey and discussion of some of the landmark undecidability results in temporal logic, beginning with Turing's undecidability of the Halting problem which, in retrospect, can be regarded as the historically first undecidability result for a suitable temporal logic over...... configuration graphs of Turing machines. I will discuss some of the natural habitats of undecidable temporal logics, such as first-order, interval-based and real time temporal logics, as well as some extensions that often lead to undecidability, such as two-dimensional temporal logics and temporal...

  16. Detection of telornerase activity and cytology in diagnosis of cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Qing Ming Wu; Sheng Bao Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic significance of cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells ofcardia obtained from endoscopic brushing in the cardiac cancer.METHODS The techniques of the qualitative TRAP-silver staining and quantitative TRAP-PCR-ELISAwere employed to detect telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells of cardia obtained from endoscopicbrushing in 72 cases with cardial lesions, cytological diagnosis was made at the same time.RESULTS Telomerase activity with cardiac cancer group (1.521 ± 0. 192) was significantly higher than thatwith cardialitis group (0.065± 0.014). Positive rate of telomerase activity detected in cardiac cancer group(88.89%) was significantly higher than that with cardialitis group (11.11%), the former was significantlyhiger than cytological examination (77.78%). The diagnostic rate of cardiac cancer reached 93.33% iftelomerase activity and cytology were examined at the same time.CONCLUSION Cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cardiac cells may be an effective andsensitive methods in the diagnosis of cardiac cancer. This research can be a basis for the mass screening ofcardiac cancer.

  17. Anxiety and depression in COPD patients and correlation with sputum and BAL cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetikkurt Cuneyt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Anxiety and depression are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The degree of lung function may not explain anxiety and depression. The aim of our study was to assess the psychological aspects of COPD, to test the BODE index (a composite score of body mass, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise capacity, and to evaluate the association between atypical cytologic findings of sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and the pyschological components of the disease. Methods COPD was classsified according to the GOLD stages based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 in 60 stable patients. The BODE index was calculated for grading COPD. The Hospital anxiety and depression (HAD scale was used to appraise the anxiety and depression symptoms. Cytologic examination of sputum and BAL samples were performed in each patient. The cytologic findings were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe atypia. Results The overall prevalance of anxiety and depression symptoms was 41.7% and 46.7% respectively. The prevalance of these symptoms increased with increasing BODE stages and correlated well with the severity of atypical BAL cytology results (p Conclusions We conclude that the BODE index is superior to GOLD stratification for explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in COPD. BAL cytologic findings, which reflect the distal parenchymal lung structure, correlated significantly with the presence of the anxiety and depression symptoms.

  18. Anal cytology in women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancer: interobserver agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Heráclio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Incidence rates of anal cancer have been rising worldwide in the last 20 years. Due to embryological, histological and immunohistochemical similarities between the anal canal and the cervix, routine screening with anal cytology for precursor lesions in high-risk groups has been adopted. Objective: To determine interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of anal neoplasia by anal cytology.Material and methods:A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 324 women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancers, for screening of anal cancer, from December 2008 to June 2009. Three hundred twenty-four cytological samples were analyzed by three cytopathologists. Cytological evaluation was based on the revised Bethesda terminology; samples were also classified into negative and positive for atypical cells. We calculated the kappa statistic with 95% confidence interval (95% CI to assess agreement among the three cytopathologists.Results:Interobserver agreement in the five categories of the Bethesda terminology was moderate (kappa for multiple raters: 0.6. Agreement among cytopathologists 1, 2 and 3 with a consensus diagnosis was strong (kappa: 0.71, 0.85 and 0.82, respectively.Conclusion:Interobserver agreement in anal cytology was moderate to strong, indicating that cervical cytomorphological criteria are reproducible also in anal samples.

  19. Intranuclear Pseudo-inclusions and Grooves in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2016-02-01

    Cytologic findings of pulmonary carcinoid have been well described. We report new cytological findings in a case of carcinoid tumor. The patient is a 36-year-old man presenting with hemoptysis of about six months in duration. Chest CT scans showed a well-defined round polypoid lesion measuring 1 × 1 cm within the right upper lobe of the bronchus with hyperinflation of the right upper lobe. Trans-bronchial fine needle aspiration and biopsy were done. Cytologic smears showed isolated and loose clusters of uniform round to spindle shape cells with round centrally located nuclei, fine granular (salt and pepper) chromatin and pale cytoplasm. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves were seen in some tumor cells. No mitotic figures or necrosis were evident. A cytological diagnosis of carcinoid tumor was made and histopathologic examination and subsequent immunohistochemical study confirmed the diagnosis. Carcinoid tumor may be reliably diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology smears. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves may be evident in tumor cells. PMID:26838088

  20. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  1. Cytological study of palpable breast lumps presenting in an Indian rural setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Balwantrao Sankaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benign as well as malignant breast lesions are quite common in Indian population. It is the second most common cancer site after cancer cervix. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is safe, reliable, and time saving outdoor procedure with little discomfort to the patient. FNAC is useful in diagnosis and further planning of treatment without need for biopsy. The current study was carried out with aims of studying the frequency of various breast lesions on FNAC in a rural area in India and its histopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: This was 2 years prospective study carried out from May 2010 to April 2012. Physical examination of breast mass by palpation was done. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain. Results: Of the 225 cases, 131 were in the benign category and 65 belonged to the malignant category, while the cytology study of 13 cases was unsatisfactory. Seventy-six cases were available for histological correlation. Of 29 cytological benign cases, 26 were confirmed as benign, but 3 turned out to be malignant. Out of 36 cytological malignant cases, 35 were confirmed as malignant. FNAC was 88.37% sensitive and 96.42% specific in diagnosing malignant lesions. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a rapid and effective method for the primary categorization of palpable breast lumps into benign, malignant, atypical, suspicious, and unsatisfactory categories. Benign breast lesions are common than malignant lesions. Histological correlation indicated FNAC to be a good diagnostic tool.

  2. Detection and typing of human papillomaviruses by restriction fragment length polymorphism in women with different cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tripković,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim The aim of this study was to determine a percentage of high risk genotypes which are included in the current vaccines in women with different cytology and on the basis of obtained results to evaluatethe protective activity of the current vaccines. Methods Endocervical swabs were taken from 70 women with different cervical cytology (25 women with CIN 1, 25 women with CIN 2/3 and 20 women with negative cytology. The samples were tested by PCR method using MY09/MY11 primers to determinate the HPV status, especially the percentage of high risk genotypes which are not included in the current vaccines. Genotyping was done by RFLP method. Results In as much as 38.8% of all samples high risk genotypes (hrHPV, not included in the current vaccine, were detected; in a group of women with normal cytology hrHPV genotypes were found in 29.9% samples. HrHPV were found in 47%, and 64% of samples taken from women with normal cytology and CIN 1, respectively, while in women with CIN 2 /3 hrHPV were found in 94%. Conclusion These results indicate that in more than in one third of tested women the current available vaccines would be of minimal protective activity, but further studies which should include more women are needed.

  3. A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic and histopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dilip K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Alansary, Taiba A; Amir, Thasneem; Al-Rabiy, Fatma N; Junaid, Thamradeen A

    2016-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms, the most common being malignant lymphoma, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). In this report, we describe the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features of a case with concurrent LCH and HL in a lymph node. A 20-year-old man presented with an enlarged left upper cervical lymph node. FNA smears from the swelling revealed numerous CD1a+ and S-100+ Langerhans-type cells (LCs) along with many eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; there were also large atypical cells with enlarged nuclei having prominent nucleoli. The cytodiagnosis was LCH and the possibility of association with or trans-differentiation into a lymphoma was suggested. The histopathological diagnosis of the excised left cervical lymph node was classical HL-nodular sclerosis type (CHL-NS) with LCH. The lacunar type Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells were positive for CD30 and CD15, and the LCs were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein. PET/CT imaging demonstrated hypermetabolic lymph nodes in neck, abdomen, thorax and pelvis as well as pulmonary nodules and a splenic mass. The patient received 13 courses of chemotherapy and two years later, the enhanced CT revealed regressive course of the disease. PMID:26608102

  4. Integration of tomato reproductive developmental landmarks and expression profiles, and the effect of SUN on fruit shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Radovich, Cheryll; Welty, Nicholas; Hsu, Jason; Li, Dongmei; Meulia, Tea; van der Knaap, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Background Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted. Results We provide a description of floral and fruit development in a red-fruited closely related wild relative of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589. We use established and propose new floral and fruit landmarks to present a framework for tomato developmental studies. In addition, gene expression profiles of three key stages in floral and fruit development are presented, namely floral buds 10 days before anthesis (floral landmark 7), anthesis-stage flowers (floral landmark 10 and fruit landmark 1), and 5 days post anthesis fruit (fruit landmark 3). To demonstrate the utility of the landmarks, we characterize the tomato shape gene SUN in fruit development. SUN controls fruit shape predominantly after fertilization and its effect reaches a maximum at 8 days post-anthesis coinciding with fruit landmark 4 representing the globular embryo stage of seed development. The expression profiles of the NILs that differ at sun show that only 34 genes were differentially expressed and most of them at a less than 2-fold difference. Conclusion The landmarks for flower and fruit development in tomato were outlined and integrated with the effect of SUN on fruit shape. Although we did not identify many genes differentially expressed in the NILs that differ at

  5. Integration of tomato reproductive developmental landmarks and expression profiles, and the effect of SUN on fruit shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dongmei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted. Results We provide a description of floral and fruit development in a red-fruited closely related wild relative of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589. We use established and propose new floral and fruit landmarks to present a framework for tomato developmental studies. In addition, gene expression profiles of three key stages in floral and fruit development are presented, namely floral buds 10 days before anthesis (floral landmark 7, anthesis-stage flowers (floral landmark 10 and fruit landmark 1, and 5 days post anthesis fruit (fruit landmark 3. To demonstrate the utility of the landmarks, we characterize the tomato shape gene SUN in fruit development. SUN controls fruit shape predominantly after fertilization and its effect reaches a maximum at 8 days post-anthesis coinciding with fruit landmark 4 representing the globular embryo stage of seed development. The expression profiles of the NILs that differ at sun show that only 34 genes were differentially expressed and most of them at a less than 2-fold difference. Conclusion The landmarks for flower and fruit development in tomato were outlined and integrated with the effect of SUN on fruit shape. Although we did not identify many genes differentially expressed in

  6. Flexible learning and use of multiple-landmark information by pigeons (Columba livia) in a touch screen-based goal searching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Jitsumori, Masako

    2011-08-01

    Three touch screen-based experiments were conducted to investigate whether pigeons would learn to use configural information about a goal's location in relation to a multiple-landmark array. In Experiment 1, 4 pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to peck a computer monitor at a location that constituted the third vertex of a hypothetical triangle defined by 2 different landmarks. The landmarks appeared in 3 orientations during the training, and the pigeons' goal-searching ability easily transferred to the landmarks presented in 3 novel orientations. Each landmark was asymmetric, so we next examined whether the pigeons used (a) the small-scale, local orientation information that could be inferred from each landmark individually, or (b) the large-scale, configural information that could be inferred from the spatial arrangement of multiple landmarks taken as a whole. Even when each single landmark appeared by itself, the pigeons were able to locate the goal accurately, suggesting that the large-scale, configural information was not essential. However, when 1 landmark locally pointed to a location that was consistent with the triangular configuration and the other landmark locally pointed to a different location, the pigeons predominantly pecked at the configurally array-consistent location. These results suggest that the pigeons redundantly learned both the large-scale, configural strategy and the local, single-landmark strategy, but they mainly used the latter information, and used the former information solely to disambiguate conflicts when the 2 landmarks pointed toward different targets. Such flexible learning and use of redundant information may reflect the pigeons' adaptation to unstable wild environments during their evolutionary history. PMID:21574692

  7. Simultaneous detection of landmarks and key-frame in cardiac perfusion MRI using a joint spatial-temporal context model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Xue, Hui; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Guetter, Christoph; Kellman, Peter; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Arai, Andrew; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Littmann, Arne; Georgescu, Bogdan; Guehring, Jens

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven clinical significance in diagnosis of heart diseases. However, analysis of perfusion data is time-consuming, where automatic detection of anatomic landmarks and key-frames from perfusion MR sequences is helpful for anchoring structures and functional analysis of the heart, leading toward fully automated perfusion analysis. Learning-based object detection methods have demonstrated their capabilities to handle large variations of the object by exploring a local region, i.e., context. Conventional 2D approaches take into account spatial context only. Temporal signals in perfusion data present a strong cue for anchoring. We propose a joint context model to encode both spatial and temporal evidence. In addition, our spatial context is constructed not only based on the landmark of interest, but also the landmarks that are correlated in the neighboring anatomies. A discriminative model is learned through a probabilistic boosting tree. A marginal space learning strategy is applied to efficiently learn and search in a high dimensional parameter space. A fully automatic system is developed to simultaneously detect anatomic landmarks and key frames in both RV and LV from perfusion sequences. The proposed approach was evaluated on a database of 373 cardiac perfusion MRI sequences from 77 patients. Experimental results of a 4-fold cross validation show superior landmark detection accuracies of the proposed joint spatial-temporal approach to the 2D approach that is based on spatial context only. The key-frame identification results are promising.

  8. Entanglement assisted classical communication simulates "classical communication" without causal order

    OpenAIRE

    Akibue, Seiseki; Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Murao, Mio

    2016-01-01

    Phenomena induced by the existence of entanglement, such as nonlocal correlations, exhibit characteristic properties of quantum mechanics distinguishing from classical theories. When entanglement is accompanied by classical communication, it enhances the power of quantum operations jointly performed by two spatially separated parties. Such a power has been analyzed by the gap between the performances of joint quantum operations implementable by local operations at each party connected by clas...

  9. Quantum localization of Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Batalin, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  10. Quantum localization of classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  11. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  12. Influence of short distance transportation on tracheal bacterial content and lower airway cytology in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allano, Marion; Labrecque, Olivia; Rodriguez Batista, Edisleidy; Beauchamp, Guy; Bédard, Christian; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Leclere, Mathilde

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short distance transportation on airway mucus, cytology and bacterial culture to identify potential biases in the diagnosis of airway diseases in referral centres. Eight healthy adult horses were studied using a prospective cross-over design. Mucus scores, tracheal wash (cytology, bacterial culture) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; cytology) were obtained while stabled and following 2.5 h transportation (with and without hay). Neutrophil counts, percentages and BALF neutrophilia frequency increased following transport without hay (P  0.05). BALF neutrophilia could develop solely as a result of transportation or due to interactions between repeated transports, ambient temperature, head position or other environmental factors. PMID:27387726

  13. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  14. Role of cytology, colposcopy and biopsy in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja H. Khakhla

    2013-08-01

    Results: Colposcopy was well-correlated with histology in 69.70% cases. Cytology was well-correlated with histology in 65.15% of cases & with major discrepancy in 18.18% cases. Conclusion: The incidence of cervical cancer will continue to be very high in our population because of the constant high incidence of early marriage, multiparity, poor nutrition, poor hygiene, and low living standards. Thus there is a need for screening of these patients for cervical cancer and till date exfoliative Cytology has been found to be the Gold Standard for detection of early malignancy. Universal cytologic screening of all sexually active women should be done, especially in cases of parous women in lower socio-economic groups. Treatment & follow-up of dysplasia could prevent malignancies in future. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 550-554

  15. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To adapt a method enabling utilization of most of the harvest from a fine needle aspirate in an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of a renal tumor in a single histologic slide. Study Design In a series of 43 renal tumors, 2 fine needle aspirations were performed, 4...... smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain...

  16. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amoolya; Rao, Madhuri; Geethamani, V; Shetty, Archana C

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment. PMID:26097318

  17. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoolya Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma (BCA is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment.

  18. Efficacy of cytology for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição de Mesquita Cornetta

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of Papanicolaou staining for the initial diagnosis of Chlamydial infection in pregnant women. A hundred thirteen patients were examined with a Papanicolaou test, independent of gestational age, parity or maternal age. Three endocervical samples were collected; the first two were collected with a brush (Cytobrush plus, Mediscand, Sweden and the third with Ayre's spatula. The first specimen was used for McCoy cell culture and the other two were examined cytologically. Chlamydial infection was detected in 9 (7.9% patients. Only one (0.8% was diagnosed by cytological exam. The sensitivity and specificity of the cytological examination were 10 and 98%, respectively. The estimated positive predictive value was 33.3% and the negative predictive value was 92.7%. When Papanicolaou stain diagnosis suggests Chlamydia, a more specific complementary exam should be added to confirm infection; subsequently adequate treatment can be implemented, thereby preventing the frequent complications of untreated subclinical infections.

  19. Fusion of WiFi, smartphone sensors and landmarks using the Kalman filter for indoor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenghua; Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Qingchang; Soh, Yeng Chai; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS) have attracted a great deal of attention recently. Outdoor localization can be solved by the GPS technique, but how to accurately and efficiently localize pedestrians in indoor environments is still a challenging problem. Recent techniques based on WiFi or pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) have several limiting problems, such as the variation of WiFi signals and the drift of PDR. An auxiliary tool for indoor localization is landmarks, which can be easily identified based on specific sensor patterns in the environment, and this will be exploited in our proposed approach. In this work, we propose a sensor fusion framework for combining WiFi, PDR and landmarks. Since the whole system is running on a smartphone, which is resource limited, we formulate the sensor fusion problem in a linear perspective, then a Kalman filter is applied instead of a particle filter, which is widely used in the literature. Furthermore, novel techniques to enhance the accuracy of individual approaches are adopted. In the experiments, an Android app is developed for real-time indoor localization and navigation. A comparison has been made between our proposed approach and individual approaches. The results show significant improvement using our proposed framework. Our proposed system can provide an average localization accuracy of 1 m. PMID:25569750

  20. Continuous Indoor Positioning Fusing WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Qin, Danyang; Na, Zhenyu; Cui, Yang; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the complementary strengths of WiFi positioning, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), and landmarks, we propose a novel fusion approach based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). For WiFi positioning, unlike previous fusion approaches setting measurement noise parameters empirically, we deploy a kernel density estimation-based model to adaptively measure the related measurement noise statistics. Furthermore, a trusted area of WiFi positioning defined by fusion results of previous step and WiFi signal outlier detection are exploited to reduce computational cost and improve WiFi positioning accuracy. For PDR, we integrate a gyroscope, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer to determine the user heading based on another EKF model. To reduce accumulation error of PDR and enable continuous indoor positioning, not only the positioning results but also the heading estimations are recalibrated by indoor landmarks. Experimental results in a realistic indoor environment show that the proposed fusion approach achieves substantial positioning accuracy improvement than individual positioning approaches including PDR and WiFi positioning. PMID:27608019

  1. Continuous Indoor Positioning Fusing WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To exploit the complementary strengths of WiFi positioning, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR, and landmarks, we propose a novel fusion approach based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF. For WiFi positioning, unlike previous fusion approaches setting measurement noise parameters empirically, we deploy a kernel density estimation-based model to adaptively measure the related measurement noise statistics. Furthermore, a trusted area of WiFi positioning defined by fusion results of previous step and WiFi signal outlier detection are exploited to reduce computational cost and improve WiFi positioning accuracy. For PDR, we integrate a gyroscope, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer to determine the user heading based on another EKF model. To reduce accumulation error of PDR and enable continuous indoor positioning, not only the positioning results but also the heading estimations are recalibrated by indoor landmarks. Experimental results in a realistic indoor environment show that the proposed fusion approach achieves substantial positioning accuracy improvement than individual positioning approaches including PDR and WiFi positioning.

  2. Gene Expression Data to Mouse Atlas Registration Using a Nonlinear Elasticity Smoother and Landmark Points Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tungyou; Guyader, Carole Le; Dinov, Ivo; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur; Vese, Luminita

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a numerical algorithm for image registration using energy minimization and nonlinear elasticity regularization. Application to the registration of gene expression data to a neuroanatomical mouse atlas in two dimensions is shown. We apply a nonlinear elasticity regularization to allow larger and smoother deformations, and further enforce optimality constraints on the landmark points distance for better feature matching. To overcome the difficulty of minimizing the nonlinear elasticity functional due to the nonlinearity in the derivatives of the displacement vector field, we introduce a matrix variable to approximate the Jacobian matrix and solve for the simplified Euler-Lagrange equations. By comparison with image registration using linear regularization, experimental results show that the proposed nonlinear elasticity model also needs fewer numerical corrections such as regridding steps for binary image registration, it renders better ground truth, and produces larger mutual information; most importantly, the landmark points distance and L2 dissimilarity measure between the gene expression data and corresponding mouse atlas are smaller compared with the registration model with biharmonic regularization. PMID:24273381

  3. Landmark based shape analysis for cerebellar ataxia classification and cerebellar atrophy pattern visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Abulnaga, S. Mazdak; Carass, Aaron; Kansal, Kalyani; Jedynak, Bruno M.; Onyike, Chiadi; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebellar dysfunction can lead to a wide range of movement disorders. Studying the cerebellar atrophy pattern associated with different cerebellar disease types can potentially help in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. In this paper, we present a landmark based shape analysis pipeline to classify healthy control and different ataxia types and to visualize the characteristic cerebellar atrophy patterns associated with different types. A highly informative feature representation of the cerebellar structure is constructed by extracting dense homologous landmarks on the boundary surfaces of cerebellar sub-structures. A diagnosis group classifier based on this representation is built using partial least square dimension reduction and regularized linear discriminant analysis. The characteristic atrophy pattern for an ataxia type is visualized by sampling along the discriminant direction between healthy controls and the ataxia type. Experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully classify healthy controls and different ataxia types. The visualized cerebellar atrophy patterns were consistent with the regional volume decreases observed in previous studies, but the proposed method provides intuitive and detailed understanding about changes of overall size and shape of the cerebellum, as well as that of individual lobules.

  4. Management of neovascular Age-related macular degeneration: A review on landmark randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of prospective clinical trials with carefully designed study protocols have been conducted for the treatment of neovascular age.related macular degeneration (AMD. These landmark clinical trials such as ANCHOR and MARINA and, more recently, the Comparison of AMD Treatment Trials and VIEW studies have revolutionized the management of neovascular AMD. While AMD continues to remain a leading cause of severe visual loss worldwide, advances in pharmacotherapeutics have led to substantial improvements in the outcome of these patients. The introduction of anti.vascular endothelial growth factor agents has resulted in improvement of visual outcomes and has had a positive impact on the quality of life among elderly population. While the contemporary management of neovascular AMD has been successful in tremendously reducing the visual morbidity, the financial burden of therapy has increased exponentially. To overcome these challenges, newer pharmacologic agents are evaluated for their efficacy and safety in AMD. Ground.breaking advances in bench to bedside research have led to discovery of new pathways that appear to be viable targets for preventing visual loss in AMD. In this review, study designs and results of landmark clinical trials in AMD from the past decade have been summarized.

  5. Visual navigation of the UAVs on the basis of 3D natural landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) on the basis of onboard observations of natural landmarks including azimuth and elevation angles. It is assumed that UAV's cameras are able to capture the angular position of reference points and to measure the angles of the sight line. Such measurements involve the real position of UAV in implicit form, and therefore some of nonlinear filters such as Extended Kalman filter (EKF) or others must be used in order to implement these measurements for UAV control. Recently it was shown that modified pseudomeasurement method may be used to control UAV on the basis of the observation of reference points assigned along the UAV path in advance. However, the use of such set of points needs the cumbersome recognition procedure with the huge volume of on-board memory. The natural landmarks serving as such reference points which may be determined on-line can significantly reduce the on-board memory and the computational difficulties. The principal difference of this work is the usage of the 3D reference points coordinates which permits to determine the position of the UAV more precisely and thereby to guide along the path with higher accuracy which is extremely important for successful performance of the autonomous missions. The article suggests the new RANSAC for ISOMETRY algorithm and the use of recently developed estimation and control algorithms for tracking of given reference path under external perturbation and noised angular measurements.

  6. Fusion of WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks Using the Kalman Filter for Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghua Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-based services (LBS have attracted a great deal of attention recently. Outdoor localization can be solved by the GPS technique, but how to accurately and efficiently localize pedestrians in indoor environments is still a challenging problem. Recent techniques based on WiFi or pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR have several limiting problems, such as the variation of WiFi signals and the drift of PDR. An auxiliary tool for indoor localization is landmarks, which can be easily identified based on specific sensor patterns in the environment, and this will be exploited in our proposed approach. In this work, we propose a sensor fusion framework for combining WiFi, PDR and landmarks. Since the whole system is running on a smartphone, which is resource limited, we formulate the sensor fusion problem in a linear perspective, then a Kalman filter is applied instead of a particle filter, which is widely used in the literature. Furthermore, novel techniques to enhance the accuracy of individual approaches are adopted. In the experiments, an Android app is developed for real-time indoor localization and navigation. A comparison has been made between our proposed approach and individual approaches. The results show significant improvement using our proposed framework. Our proposed system can provide an average localization accuracy of 1 m.

  7. Cytological changes in oral epithelium due to Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awdah M. Al-hazimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the cytological changes in oral epithelium that might be induced by Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages. Material and methods: Oral Exfoliative Cytology (OEFC was applied to a case control study to assess the presence and severity of oral epithelial atypia (ET in 300 subjects (150 alcohol abuse individuals (cases; 150 non-alcohol abuse individuals (controls. All cases were using homemade alcoholic drinks, locally known as, Aragee, Marisa and others. Five patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCs were included as internal controls. Results: ET was detected in 7 subjects and was not observed in the remaining 293. All the 7 subjects with cytological atypia were cases. Cytological atypia were identified among those using Aragee, Marisa, and Aragee & Marisa together, representing 53%, 28.6%, 18%.4, respectively. Cytological atypia was found in all the 5 control cases with OSCCs. For the cytological atypia among alcohol abuse individuals, the adjusted OR and the 95% CI were found to be 5 (4.34-5.84 and P = 0.008. Inflammatory cells infiltrates were identified among 21 (14% of the cases and only 12 (8% of the controls and the adjusted OR and the 95% CI were found to be 5 (2.51-11.21 and P = 0.009. Conclusion: In view of these findings, Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages cause oral epithelial atypical changes, which lead to oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. OEFC is a useful procedure for detection and assessment of oral ET.

  8. A multistep approach in the cytologic evaluation of liver biopsy samples of dogs with hepatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhaus, C; Van Den Ingh, T; Rothuizen, J; Teske, E

    2004-09-01

    Cytologic criteria were evaluated for their diagnostic value in liver disease in dogs. Therefore, histopathologic and cytologic examination was performed on liver biopsy samples of 73 dogs with liver diseases and 28 healthy dogs. Logistic regression analysis was used to select the measured parameters to be included in a multistep approach. With the logistic regression method, different characteristic cytologic parameters could be defined for each histopathologic diagnosis. In malignant lymphoma of the liver, the presence of large numbers of lymphoblasts with a minimum of 5% of all cells was found. Clusters of epithelial cells with several cytologic characteristics of malignancy intermixed with normal hepatocytes were indicative of metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Liver cells in hepatocellular carcinoma were characterized by a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, large cell diameters, increased numbers of nucleoli per nuclei, small numbers of cytoplasmic vacuoles, and frequently, small numbers of lymphocytes. Extrahepatic cholestasis was characterized by excessive extracellular bile pigment in the form of biliary casts, an increased number of nucleoli within hepatocytes, decreased hepatic cell size, and low numbers of lymphocytes. In destructive cholangiolitis, increased numbers of neutrophils and a small mean nuclear size within hepatocytes were seen. Acute and nonspecific reactive hepatitis are diagnosed based on the presence of moderate reactive nuclear patterns, including more pronounced chromatin, prominent nucleoli, increased numbers of inflammatory cells, excluding lymphocytes, and the absence of increased numbers of bile duct cell clusters. Increased number of mast cells also was indicative of nonspecific reactive hepatitis. Important cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, in addition to chronic hepatitis, are intracellular bile accumulation and increased numbers of bile duct cell clusters. In summary, the stepwise approach

  9. SPECTRUM OF BENIGN BREAST LESIONS : A CYTOLOGIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Open biopsy is widely considered to be the procedure of choice for diagnostic tissue sampling of bone tumors. However, associated disadvantages include in - patient procedure requiring hospitalization, risk of infection, hematoma formation and pathological fractures. As an alternative FNA cytology is increasingly used as a diagnostic modality. It is a challenging technique due to difficulties in approaching bone lesions and obtaining adequate material. AIMS: 1. To study the prevalence and distribution of various breast lesions in women of various age groups. 2. To classify the smears into C1 - C5 category . 3. To enumerate the difficulties encountered in this study. 4. To emphasize the role of FNAC in diagnostic workup in breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FNAC was done on 208 cases of breast lesions from September 2011 to July 2012 in department of Pathology, Bowring hospital, BMC&RI, Bangalore. Cases presenting to the OPD with b r east lumps were subjected for FNAC. Aspirations were carried out with 10ml disposable syringe with a 22guage needle, materi al was obtained. Aspirates were smeared and few of them were immediately fixed with methanol and stained with H&E, rest of the smears were air dried for MGG staining. The diagnostic criteria C1 - C5 as recommended by NHS breast screening program has been inc orporated for reporting the slides along with pathological diagnosis wherever possible. RESULTS : 1. In countries with limited resources like India, FNAC may be used as the first line of diagnostic tool for evaluating breast lesions. 2. Breast FNA continues its monopoly over core biopsy and open excision biopsy. Benign conditions of breast can be diagnosed easily on FNA if done accurately. The current usage of C1 - C5 categories in typing the breast lesions gives a wide scope for pathologist to place the doubt ful lesions freely in the categories. However a disease specific diagnosis was preferred by the clinicians. 3. In

  10. Effectiveness of combined use of imprint cytological and histological examination in CT-guided tissue-core biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu [Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan); Kakizawa, Hideaki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Naka-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Toyoda, Naoyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); National Hospital Organisation Kure Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combination of imprint cytology and histology in tissue-core percutaneous biopsy under real-time computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Between October 2009 and June 2013, 156 percutaneous needle biopsies were performed in our institution. Those obtained by tissue-core biopsy underwent both imprint cytological and histological examinations routinely after touch imprint cytology was performed on site to evaluate the samples' sufficiency for cytological and pathological examination. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Rates of adequate specimens and precise diagnosis, by combined cytological and histological examination were 100 % (156/156) and 96.2 % (150/156), by cytology 94.4 % (152/156) and 83.3 % (130/156) and by histology 99.3 % (155/156) and 92.3 % (144/156). Precise diagnosis was achieved by combined examinations in 94.7 % (89/94) of thoracic lesions, 97.6 % (40/41) of musculoskeletal lesions, and 100 % (21/21) of abdominal, pelvic and retroperitoneal lesions. In all 104 lesions diagnosed as malignant by CT-guided biopsy and in 30 of 52 diagnosed as benign, specific cell types could be proved by combined examinations. Combined imprint cytology and histology performed after on-site touch imprint cytological evaluation improved the diagnostic ability of CT fluoroscopically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  11. Polymerase chain reaction and conventional DNA tests in detection of HPV DNA in cytologically normal and abnormal cervical scrapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, A.; Jalava, T.; Nieminen, P.;

    1992-01-01

    Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test......Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test...

  12. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  13. Classical and stochastic Laplacian growth

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Björn; Vasil’ev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This monograph covers a multitude of concepts, results, and research topics originating from a classical moving-boundary problem in two dimensions (idealized Hele-Shaw flows, or classical Laplacian growth), which has strong connections to many exciting modern developments in mathematics and theoretical physics. Of particular interest are the relations between Laplacian growth and the infinite-size limit of ensembles of random matrices with complex eigenvalues; integrable hierarchies of differential equations and their spectral curves; classical and stochastic Löwner evolution and critical phenomena in two-dimensional statistical models; weak solutions of hyperbolic partial differential equations of singular-perturbation type; and resolution of singularities for compact Riemann surfaces with anti-holomorphic involution. The book also provides an abundance of exact classical solutions, many explicit examples of dynamics by conformal mapping as well as a solid foundation of potential theory. An extensive biblio...

  14. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  15. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  16. Fano interference in classical oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the splitting of normal-mode frequencies of a coupled oscillator. Using this analogy, we simulate and experimentally demonstrate Fano interference and the associated phenomena in three-level atoms in a coupled electrical resonator circuit. This work aims to highlight analogies between classical and quantum systems for students at the postgraduate and graduate levels. Also, the reported technique can be easily realized in undergraduate laboratories. (paper)

  17. Elementary charges in classical electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    KAPU'{S}CIK, Edward

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of classical electrodynamics elementary particles are treated as capacitors. The electrostatic potentials satisfy equations of the Schrödinger type. An interesting "quantization condition" for elementary charges is derived.

  18. Probabilities for classically forbidden transitions using classical and classical path methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits are established for the applicability of purely classical methods for calculating nonreactive, inelastic transition probabilities in collinear collisions of a structureless atom and a harmonic oscillator. These limits, obtained by comparison with previous exact quantum mechanical results, indicate that such methods are inappropriate not only for ''classically forbidden'' but for many ''classically allowed'' transitions (in spite of the fact that they are widely used to calculate probabilities for such processes). A classical path method in the context of infinite-order time-dependent perturbation theory is described which yields extremely accurate transition probabilities even for the most classically forbidden transitions in the collinear atom--harmonic oscillator system. The essential features of this method are: (1) the use of the expectation value of the total interaction potential in determining the atom--oscillator (central force) trajectory, and (2) the use of the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocities of relative motion in the (elastic) central force trajectory. This choice of interaction potential allows the relative motion to be coupled to changes in the internal state of the oscillator. The present classical method is further applied to three-dimensional atom-breathing sphere collisions, and exact quantum mechanical calculations are also carried out. Comparison of the classical path and exact quantum results shows excellent agreement both in the specific inelastic cross section and in the individual partial-wave contributions

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of subcutaneous cysticercosis of the breast. Case report and pathogenic discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, P N

    1989-01-01

    A case of subcutaneous cysticercosis of the breast diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology is reported. The cytologic preparations showed the presence of many inflammatory cells mixed with spiked spherules resembling the rambutan tropical fruit. These spherules arose from the degenerated integument of the parasite found in the histologically excised cyst. They are suggestive of the presence of an encysted flat worm, but are not specific for cysticercosis, whose identification is based on the study of the cephalic extremity of the parasite. PMID:2781970

  20. ROLE OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF INTRA ABDOMINAL LUMPS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar; Umesh; Nitu

    2014-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has gained recognition in the last decade as valuable diagnostic technique. Its benefits have been demonstrated in large series of patients and in almost all tumor types. Aim of this study was to establish role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal lumps. Most commonly involved organ in our study was liver (30.4%) followed by G.I.T (21.7%) and Gall Bladder (17.4%). Maximum numbers of cases were in sixth decade followed by fifth ...

  1. Cytologic Findings of Thyroid Carcinoma Showing Thymus-like Differentiation: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sunhee; Joo, Mee; Kim, Hanseong

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare carcinoma of the thyroid or adjacent soft tissue of the neck with a histologic resemblance to thymic epithelial tumors. Although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a central role in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, few reports about the cytologic findings of CASTLE have been found according to a review of literatures. We report cytologic findings of a case of CASTLE. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-month his...

  2. Diagnosing a parotid lump: fine needle aspiration cytology or core biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, D C

    2006-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been widely adopted for the cytological diagnosis of parotid lumps. FNAC does have drawbacks, even under optimum conditions and may be associated with poor levels of diagnostic accuracy, particularly outside the specialized clinic environment. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy (USCB) is a relatively recently described technique in the parotid gland which has been well tolerated and has demonstrated a high degree of diagnostic accuracy in several studies. This article discusses the merits and pitfalls of FNAC, together with the technique of USCB and also highlights the potential advantages benefit provided by USCB in parotid diagnosis. PMID:16585720

  3. Assessment of vitamin A deficiency in Republic of Malawi by impression cytology method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoute, A J; Chirambo, M C; Luzeau, R; Amedée-Manesme, O

    1991-01-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency by impression cytology method with transfer in a randomized sample of 650 representative of the children's population of the Republic of Malawi. A vitamin A deficiency was indicated by the results of the ophthalmic examination (XN = 1,4%; X2 = 0,2%) and the ICT test (22% with deficient cytology). Results of ICT were related to age. Vitamin A deficiency seems to be a public health problem in the Republic of Malawi. PMID:1856038

  4. Study of intraoperative squash cytology of intracranial and spinal cord tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karn Bhardwaj

    2015-11-01

    Results: A positive predictive value for intraoperative squash cytology for diagnosis of intracranial and spinal cord tumors was seen to be 100% and a negative predictive value of 97.22% were established by this study. The sensitivity was found to be 97.22% and the specificity was 100%. Thus, the accuracy of the study was 98.57%. Conclusions: Squash smear cytology of the brain and spinal cord tumors performed intraoperatively for diagnostic consultation fulfills all the determinants of an excellent diagnostic modality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3101-3108

  5. Anderson localization from classical trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively descri...

  6. Gaussian Dynamics is Classical Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Salman

    2004-01-01

    A direct comparison of quantum and classical dynamical systems can be accomplished through the use of distribution functions. This is useful for both fundamental investigations such as the nature of the quantum-classical transition as well as for applications such as quantum feedback control. By affording a clear separation between kinematical and dynamical quantum effects, the Wigner distribution is particularly valuable in this regard. Here we discuss some consequences of the fact that when...

  7. Quantum systems as classical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cassa, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    A characteristical property of a classical physical theory is that the observables are real functions taking an exact outcome on every (pure) state; in a quantum theory, at the contrary, a given observable on a given state can take several values with only a predictable probability. However, even in the classical case, when an observer is intrinsically unable to distinguish between some distinct states he can convince himself that the measure of its ''observables'' can have several values in ...

  8. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  9. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  10. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  11. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  12. Splenic and hepatic ultrasound and cytology in canine lymphoma: effects of findings on stage migration and assessment of prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerschbach, V; Eberle, N; Joetzke, A E; Hoeinghaus, R; Hungerbuehler, S; Mischke, R; Nolte, I; Betz, D

    2014-12-01

    Stage migration is described in humans and dogs as a sequel of using more sensitive diagnostic methods. One hundred eighty-six dogs with multicentric lymphoma were enrolled with results of conventional staging as well as ultrasonographic and cytological examination of liver and spleen being available. The addition of splenic respective hepatic ultrasound and cytology findings resulted in slightly lower number of dogs classified as having liver and spleen involvement. In dogs with multicentric lymphoma, addition of cytology led to a significant shift of individuals from stage IV to stage III. Findings of hepatic and splenic ultrasound and cytology exerted no significant influence on complete remission and survival durations in dogs with combination chemotherapy. Staging methodology in canine lymphoma should be redefined, considering that the prognostic significance of splenic and hepatic ultrasound and cytology warrants further investigation. PMID:25470748

  13. Corrective surgery for canine patellar luxation in 75 cases (107 limbs: landmark for block recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Isaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine medial patellar luxation (MPL is a very common orthopedic disease in small animals. Because the pathophysiology of this disease involves various pathways, the surgical techniques and results vary according to the veterinarian. Further, the landmark for block recession is not completely clear. We retrospectively evaluated 75 dogs (107 limbs with MPL in whom our landmark for block recession was used from July 2008 to May 2013. Information regarding the breed, age, sex, body weight, body condition score (BCS, lateral vs bilateral, pre-operative grading, surgical techniques, removal of implants, concomitance with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture, re-luxation, re-operation, and rehabilitation was obtained from the medical records. The breeds were as follows: Chihuahua (n=23, Pomeranian (n=12, Yorkshire Terrier (n=9, and so on. The study group consisted of 33 males (castrated n=13 and 42 females (spayed n=21. The median age was 53.3±35.9 months (32-146 months; 13 cases were less than 12 months of age (17.3%. The pre-surgical BCSs were as follows: 1 (n=0, 2 (n=20, 3 (n=24, 4 (n=24 and 5 (n=7. The body weight was 4.51±3.48 kg (1.34-23.0 kg; 71 cases (94.7% were less than 10 kg. The MPL grades (each limb were G1 (n=1, G2 (n=18, G3 (n=78, and G4 (n=10; 32 cases were bilateral and 43 cases were unilateral (right n=27; left n=16. The specific surgical procedure (distal femoral osteotomy was 3 stifles in Chihuahuas. Concurrent with ACL rupture was 16/107 stifles (15.0% corrected with the over-the-top method or the extracapsular method in Papillons (5/6, Chihuahuas (5/23, and so on. The occurrences of re-luxation and re-operation were 3 out of 107 stifles (2.8% and 0%, respectively. In this retrospective study, we present a potentially good surgical landmark for block recession of MPL in dogs.

  14. A landmark-based method for the geometrical 3D calibration of scanning microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, M.

    2007-04-27

    This thesis presents a new strategy and a spatial method for the geometric calibration of 3D measurement devices at the micro-range, based on spatial reference structures with nanometersized landmarks (nanomarkers). The new method was successfully applied for the 3D calibration of scanning probe microscopes (SPM) and confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). Moreover, the spatial method was also used for the photogrammetric self-calibration of scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In order to implement the calibration strategy to all scanning microscopes used, the landmark-based principle of reference points often applied at land survey or at close-range applications has been transferred to the nano- and micro-range in the form of nanomarker. In order to function as a support to the nanomarkers, slope-shaped step pyramids have been developed and fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) induced metal deposition. These FIB produced 3D microstructures have been sized to embrace most of the measurement volume of the scanning microscopes. Additionally, their special design allows the homogenous distribution of the nanomarkers. The nanomarkers were applied onto the support and the plateaus of the slope-step pyramids by FIB etching (milling) as landmarks with as little as several hundreds of nanometers in diameter. The nanomarkers are either of point-, or ring-shaped design. They are optimized so that they can be spatially measured by SPM and CLSM, and, imaged and photogrammetrically analyzed on the basis of SEM data. The centre of the each nanomarker serves as reference point in the measurement data or images. By applying image processing routines, the image (2D) or object (3D) coordinates of each nanomarker has been determined with subpixel accuracy. The correlative analysis of the SPM, CLSM and photogrammetric SEM measurement data after 3D calibration resulted in mean residues in the measured coordinates of as little as 13 nm. Without the coupling factors the mean

  15. 100 classic papers of interventional radiology: A citation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Matthew T; Browne, Ronan FJ; MacMahon, Peter J; Lawler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To define the 100 citation classic papers of interventional radiology. METHODS: Using the database of Journal Citation Reports the 40 highest impact factor radiology journals were chosen. From these journals the 100 most cited interventional radiology papers were chosen and analysed. RESULTS: The top paper received 2497 citations and the 100th paper 200 citations. The average number of citations was 320. Dates of publication ranged from 1953 - 2005. Most papers originated in the United States (n = 67) followed by Italy (n = 20) and France (n = 10). Harvard University (n = 18) and Osped Civile (n = 11) were the most prolific institutions. Ten journals produced all of the top 100 papers with “Radiology” and “AJR” making up the majority. SN Goldberg and T Livraghi were the most prolific authors. Nearly two thirds of the papers (n = 61) were published after 1990. CONCLUSION: This analysis identifies many of the landmark interventional radiology papers and provides a fascinating insight into the changing discourse within the field. It also identifies topics, authors and institutions which have impacted greatly on the specialty. PMID:25918585

  16. A novel cytologic sampling technique to diagnose subclinical endometritis and comparison of staining methods for endometrial cytology samples in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascottini, O B; Dini, P; Hostens, M; Ducatelle, R; Opsomer, G

    2015-11-01

    The present article describes a study of the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows having two principal aims: first, to validate a novel technique for taking endometrial cytology samples to diagnose subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Second, to compare the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in cytology samples stained with Diff-Quik versus a specific staining method for PMNs, naphthol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase (CIAE). In the first experiment, Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 204) were used to take two cytology samples at the same time using the conventional cytobrush (CB) and the new cytotape (CT). Both devices were assembled within the same catheter allowing sampling at the same time, and approximately at the same location. Cytotape consisted of a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape rolled on the top of an insemination catheter covered with a double guard sheet. Parameters used to evaluate both methods were: PMNs percentage, total cellularity, quality of the smears, and red blood cell contamination. The concordance correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess agreement between continuous and Pearson chi-square tests for categorical variables. Agreement between the percentage of PMNs in both methods was good ρ = 0.84 (0.79, 0.87) with a minor standard error of 2%. Both methods yielded similar total cellularity (P = 0.62). Cytotape yielded better quality smears with more intact cells (P < 0.01) while samples that were taken by CB were more likely to be bloody (P < 0.01). Hence, CT and CB methods yielded smears with a similar PMNs percentage and a total number of cells, but CT provided smears with higher quality and significantly less blood contamination. For the second experiment, 114 duplicate cytology slides were stained using both Diff-Quik and CIAE. Agreement between PMNs percentage in both staining techniques was good ρc = 0.84 (0.78, 0.89) with a standard error of only 2%. Hence, Diff-Quik was confirmed as an easy, fast

  17. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

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    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  18. No Return to Classical Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Jennings, David

    2015-01-01

    At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of Nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, noncommutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem, and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understandi...

  19. Cytological analysis of the periodontal pocket in patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis

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    E Castro Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral exfoliative cytology includes the study and interpretation of the features cells exfoliated from the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to analyze cytological changes in the periodontal pocket of patients with different clinical stages of aggressive periodontitis (AP and chronic periodontitis (CP. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 24-54 years, of whom 41 were diagnosed with AP, 40 with CP, sub-classified as mild, moderate and severe periodontitis, and 40 healthy individuals who were the control group. Samples of the epithelium of the periodontal pocket were taken for the cytological study. Results: Superficial and intermediate cell values were significantly greater in patients with AP than in patients with CP or the control group. Histiocyte number was higher in patients with CP than in those with AP, and differed significantly in both types of periodontitis compared to the control group. There were significant differences in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes when both types of periodontitis were compared to the control group. Microbial flora was statistically higher in patients with CP, and there were differences between patients with periodontitis and the control group. Conclusions: The cytological study demonstrated that patients with AP had greater tissue damage, shown by the increase in intermediate and superficial cells of the epithelium of the periodontal pocket compared to the group of healthy subjects and to a lesser extent, to patients with CP. Only superficial cells made it possible to differentiate the sub-stages of the disease.

  20. Microfilaria in Association with Adrenal Lymphoma Diagnosed on Cytology: An Extremely Rare Case Report

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    Sushila JAISWAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a common public health problem in Asian countries. In this report, the authors have described detection of microfilaria in the cytological specimen of adrenal lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature where microfilaria was seen in an adrenal gland involved by lymphoma. The literature is briefly reviewed.