WorldWideScience

Sample records for classical cytological landmarks

  1. Virtual landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Bai, Peirui; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Much has been published on finding landmarks on object surfaces in the context of shape modeling. While this is still an open problem, many of the challenges of past approaches can be overcome by removing the restriction that landmarks must be on the object surface. The virtual landmarks we propose may reside inside, on the boundary of, or outside the object and are tethered to the object. Our solution is straightforward, simple, and recursive in nature, proceeding from global features initially to local features in later levels to detect landmarks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as an engine to recursively subdivide the object region. The object itself may be represented in binary or fuzzy form or with gray values. The method is illustrated in 3D space (although it generalizes readily to spaces of any dimensionality) on four objects (liver, trachea and bronchi, and outer boundaries of left and right lungs along pleura) derived from 5 patient computed tomography (CT) image data sets of the thorax and abdomen. The virtual landmark identification approach seems to work well on different structures in different subjects and seems to detect landmarks that are homologously located in different samples of the same object. The approach guarantees that virtual landmarks are invariant to translation, scaling, and rotation of the object/image. Landmarking techniques are fundamental for many computer vision and image processing applications, and we are currently exploring the use virtual landmarks in automatic anatomy recognition and object analytics.

  2. State Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to develop lesson plans to help students become effective researchers using electronic searching tools. Uses a unit developed for Kansas landmarks to discuss information skills, competency standards, inquiry, technology use, information literacy and process skills, finding information, and an example of a research log. (LRW)

  3. Enhancing SAT Based Planning with Landmark Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, J.; Konijnenberg, D.; Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches exist to solve Artificial Intelligence planning problems, but little attention has been given to the combination of using landmark knowledge and satisfiability (SAT). Landmark knowledge has been exploited successfully in the heuristics of classical planning. Recently it was also

  4. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  5. Impression Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Söker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed.

  6. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... Polanyi's classic paper, co-authored by Henry Eyring, reproduced in this ... spatial conf guration of the atoms in terms of the energy function of the diatomic .... The present communication deals with the construction of such .... These three contributions are complemented by a fourth term if one takes into.

  7. Landmarks in Linoleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This printmaking unit will get students excited about geography and history. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created a report and a linoleum print of a famous "landmark."

  8. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  9. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver Aspiration Cytology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-02

    Nov 2, 1974 ... S.A. MEDICAL. JOURNAL .... be the result of either an anatomical obstruction in the biliary system or of ... contour of these droplets indicates their canalicular origin. ..... terminology for cytological changes in the liver has not.

  11. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head and neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  12. Landmark Mixed-Media Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2009-01-01

    For the author, it all began with a summer trip to London and Paris. Inspired by the art and architecture of London and Paris, she was determined to bring her experience back home to her students. To do this, she organized a lesson in world landmarks focusing on structures of importance that fit into three categories: relevance to the world,…

  13. Autonomous Robot Navigation based on Visual Landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    The use of landmarks for robot navigation is a popular alternative to having a geometrical model of the environment through which to navigate and monitor self-localization. If the landmarks are defined as special visual structures already in the environment then we have the possibility of fully a...... automatically learn and store visual landmarks, and later recognize these landmarks from arbitrary positions and thus estimate robot position and heading.......The use of landmarks for robot navigation is a popular alternative to having a geometrical model of the environment through which to navigate and monitor self-localization. If the landmarks are defined as special visual structures already in the environment then we have the possibility of fully...... autonomous navigation and self-localization using automatically selected landmarks. The thesis investigates autonomous robot navigation and proposes a new method which benefits from the potential of the visual sensor to provide accuracy and reliability to the navigation process while relying on naturally...

  14. Finding Home: Landmark Ambiguity in Human Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jetzschke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories of places often include landmark cues, i.e., information provided by the spatial arrangement of distinct objects with respect to the target location. To study how humans combine landmark information for navigation, we conducted two experiments: To this end, participants were either provided with auditory landmarks while walking in a large sports hall or with visual landmarks while walking on a virtual-reality treadmill setup. We found that participants cannot reliably locate their home position due to ambiguities in the spatial arrangement when only one or two uniform landmarks provide cues with respect to the target. With three visual landmarks that look alike, the task is solved without ambiguity, while audio landmarks need to play three unique sounds for a similar performance. This reduction in ambiguity through integration of landmark information from 1, 2, and 3 landmarks is well modeled using a probabilistic approach based on maximum likelihood estimation. Unlike any deterministic model of human navigation (based e.g., on distance or angle information, this probabilistic model predicted both the precision and accuracy of the human homing performance. To further examine how landmark cues are integrated we introduced systematic conflicts in the visual landmark configuration between training of the home position and tests of the homing performance. The participants integrated the spatial information from each landmark near-optimally to reduce spatial variability. When the conflict becomes big, this integration breaks down and precision is sacrificed for accuracy. That is, participants return again closer to the home position, because they start ignoring the deviant third landmark. Relying on two instead of three landmarks, however, goes along with responses that are scattered over a larger area, thus leading to higher variability. To model the breakdown of integration with increasing conflict, the probabilistic model based on a

  15. Landmark Agnosia: Evaluating the Definition of Landmark-based Navigation Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Ineke J M; Martens, Marieke A G; Claessen, Michiel H G; van den Berg, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Landmark agnosia is a rare type of navigation impairment, for which various definitions have been presented. From a clinical as well as theoretical perspective, consensus on the characteristics of landmark agnosia would be valuable. In the current study we review the literature concerning landmark agnosia and present a new case study. Existing literature highlights the importance of examining familiar as well as novel landmark processing and substantial variation in performance patterns of individual patients. We performed a case study with patient KS, a 53-year-old male, suffering from landmark agnosia, making use of elaborate neuropsychological screening and virtual reality-based tests of navigation ability. Our extensive examination of his impairment shows that landmark agnosia can be very narrow; in KS it is restricted to recognition of newly learned landmarks only. Also, he has no trouble recognizing familiar landmarks that are not part of a navigated route. The literature review shows that the right temporal lobe, and the right hippocampus in particular are the main lesion sites for landmark agnosia. Furthermore, our case study substantiates that this disorder can occur for both familiar and novel landmarks, and can affect novel landmarks in isolation from familiar landmarks. Moreover, it can occur in isolation from problems with processing route information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Informatics applied to cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  17. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Jiménez, Jorge Othón; Devy, Michel; Gordillo, José L

    2016-04-07

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks); from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology.

  18. Cytological indicators: Haematopoetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1986-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper, intended more as a general outline than a comprehensive review, to elucidate the most prominent events in the sequence of radiation induced cytological changes in the hemopoietic system taking its functional organisation and the cytokinetics of blood cell production into consideration. As could be shown, there are about ten different categories of quantitative and qualitative parameters based on methods ranging from stem cell determinations to tests for mature blood cell function that in principle are available for assessment of radiation damage to the bone marrow and that have been applied to men exposed to ionizing radiation. Some of these indicator systems have proven for a long period of time to be of essential value and to be quite feasible in practice under routine conditions. Considerable methodological progress, however, is needed for others before decisions about their practical applicability can be made. (orig.)

  19. Landmarks selection in street map design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C J

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan many electrical maps present their landmarks according to the category of the feature, a designer short of knowledge about mental representation of space, can cause the map to lose its communication effects. To resolve this map design problem, in this research through long-term memory recall, navigation and observation, and short-term memory processing 111 participants were asked to select the proper landmark from study area. The results reveal that in Taiwan convenience stores are the most popular local landmark in rural and urban areas. Their commercial signs have a unique design and bright color. Contrasted to their background, this makes the convenience store a salient feature. This study also developed a rule to assess the priority of the landmarks to design them in different scale maps

  20. Landmarks selection in street map design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C. J.

    2014-02-01

    In Taiwan many electrical maps present their landmarks according to the category of the feature, a designer short of knowledge about mental representation of space, can cause the map to lose its communication effects. To resolve this map design problem, in this research through long-term memory recall, navigation and observation, and short-term memory processing 111 participants were asked to select the proper landmark from study area. The results reveal that in Taiwan convenience stores are the most popular local landmark in rural and urban areas. Their commercial signs have a unique design and bright color. Contrasted to their background, this makes the convenience store a salient feature. This study also developed a rule to assess the priority of the landmarks to design them in different scale maps.

  1. Evaluating Users' Satisfaction With Landmark University's Online ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPAC) of Landmark University, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The target population were 200 students, which were purposively selected to participate in the study. Questionnaire were distributed to all the purposively ...

  2. Landmark based localization in urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    A landmark based localization with uncertainty analysis based on cameras and geo-referenced landmarks is presented in this paper. The system is developed to adapt different camera configurations for six degree-of-freedom pose estimation. Local bundle adjustment is applied for optimization and the geo-referenced landmarks are integrated to reduce the drift. In particular, the uncertainty analysis is taken into account. On the one hand, we estimate the uncertainties of poses to predict the precision of localization. On the other hand, uncertainty propagation is considered for matching, tracking and landmark registering. The proposed method is evaluated on both KITTI benchmark and the data acquired by a mobile mapping system. In our experiments, decimeter level accuracy can be reached.

  3. Anatomical landmarks of radical prostatecomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen; Constantinides, Costantinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we review current literature and based on our experience, we present the anatomical landmarks of open and laparoscopic/endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A thorough literature search was performed with the Medline database on the anatomy and the nomenclature of the structures surrounding the prostate gland. The correct handling of puboprostatic ligaments, external urethral sphincter, prostatic fascias and neurovascular bundle is necessary for avoiding malfunction of the urogenital system after radical prostatectomy. When evaluating new prostatectomy techniques, we should always take into account both clinical and final oncological outcomes. The present review adds further knowledge to the existing "postprostatectomy anatomical hazard" debate. It emphasizes upon the role of the puboprostatic ligaments and the course of the external urethral sphincter for urinary continence. When performing an intrafascial nerve sparing prostatectomy most urologists tend to approach as close to the prostatic capsula as possible, even though there is no concurrence regarding the nomenclature of the surrounding fascias and the course of the actual neurovascular bundles. After completion of an intrafascial technique the specimen does not contain any periprostatic tissue and thus the detection of pT3a disease is not feasible. This especially becomes problematic if the tumour reaches the resection margin. Nerve sparing open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy should aim in maintaining sexual function, recuperating early continence after surgery, without hindering the final oncological outcome to the procedure. Despite the different approaches for radical prostatectomy the key for better results is the understanding of the anatomy of the bladder neck and the urethra.

  4. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented.

  5. Cytology of treated cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    The vaginal smear specimens of the patients who received operative therapy, irradiation or chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma were examined. Long-term follow-up vaginal cytology following treatment of cervical carcinoma is effective for the detection of local recurrence in an early stage. Serial cytology is also useful in evaluation of the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Radiosensitive and prognostic significance of vaginal smears before and after radiation therapy was discussed. (author)

  6. Desert ants learn vibration and magnetic landmarks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Buehlmann

    Full Text Available The desert ants Cataglyphis navigate not only by path integration but also by using visual and olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest entrance. Here we show that Cataglyphis noda can additionally use magnetic and vibrational landmarks as nest-defining cues. The magnetic field may typically provide directional rather than positional information, and vibrational signals so far have been shown to be involved in social behavior. Thus it remains questionable if magnetic and vibration landmarks are usually provided by the ants' habitat as nest-defining cues. However, our results point to the flexibility of the ants' navigational system, which even makes use of cues that are probably most often sensed in a different context.

  7. Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D

    2006-05-01

    The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied.

  8. Classical antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)

  9. Automated landmark-guided deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Vasant; Chen, Susie; Gu, Xuejun; Chiu, Tsuicheng; Liu, Honghuan; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Jing; Yordy, John; Nedzi, Lucien; Mao, Weihua

    2015-01-07

    The purpose of this work is to develop an automated landmark-guided deformable image registration (LDIR) algorithm between the planning CT and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) with low image quality. This method uses an automated landmark generation algorithm in conjunction with a local small volume gradient matching search engine to map corresponding landmarks between the CBCT and the planning CT. The landmarks act as stabilizing control points in the following Demons deformable image registration. LDIR is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs) for parallel computation to achieve ultra fast calculation. The accuracy of the LDIR algorithm has been evaluated on a synthetic case in the presence of different noise levels and data of six head and neck cancer patients. The results indicate that LDIR performed better than rigid registration, Demons, and intensity corrected Demons for all similarity metrics used. In conclusion, LDIR achieves high accuracy in the presence of multimodality intensity mismatch and CBCT noise contamination, while simultaneously preserving high computational efficiency.

  10. Automated landmark-guided deformable image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Vasant; Chen, Susie; Gu, Xuejun; Chiu, Tsuicheng; Liu, Honghuan; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Jing; Yordy, John; Nedzi, Lucien; Mao, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an automated landmark-guided deformable image registration (LDIR) algorithm between the planning CT and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) with low image quality. This method uses an automated landmark generation algorithm in conjunction with a local small volume gradient matching search engine to map corresponding landmarks between the CBCT and the planning CT. The landmarks act as stabilizing control points in the following Demons deformable image registration. LDIR is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs) for parallel computation to achieve ultra fast calculation. The accuracy of the LDIR algorithm has been evaluated on a synthetic case in the presence of different noise levels and data of six head and neck cancer patients. The results indicate that LDIR performed better than rigid registration, Demons, and intensity corrected Demons for all similarity metrics used. In conclusion, LDIR achieves high accuracy in the presence of multimodality intensity mismatch and CBCT noise contamination, while simultaneously preserving high computational efficiency. (paper)

  11. Using Local Symmetry for Landmark Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; de Jong, Sjoerd; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.; Fritz, M; Schiele, B; Piater, JH

    2009-01-01

    Most visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) methods use interest points as landmarks in their maps of the environment. Often the interest points are detected using contrast features, for instance those of the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The SIFT interest points, however,

  12. On-Skin Interaction Using Body Landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steimle, Juergen; Bergstrom-Lehtovirta, Joanna; Weigel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The human skin is a promising surface for input to computing devices but differs fundamentally from existing touch-sensitive devices. The authors propose the use of skin landmarks, which offer unique tactile and visual cues, to enhance body-based user interfaces....

  13. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  14. Remembered landmarks enhance the precision of path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon O´Leary

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When navigating by path integration, knowledge of one’s position becomes increasingly uncertain as one walks from a known location. This uncertainty decreases if one perceives a known landmark location nearby. We hypothesized that remembering landmarks might serve a similar purpose for path integration as directly perceiving them. If this is true, walking near a remembered landmark location should enhance response consistency in path integration tasks. To test this, we asked participants to view a target and then attempt to walk to it without vision. Some participants saw the target plus a landmark during the preview. Compared with no-landmark trials, response consistency nearly doubled when participants passed near the remembered landmark location. Similar results were obtained when participants could audibly perceive the landmark while walking. A control experiment ruled out perceptual context effects during the preview. We conclude that remembered landmarks can enhance path integration even though they are not directly perceived.

  15. A cadaveric study of surgical landmarks for retrograde parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that all three landmarks are useful for surgeons to locate the facial nerve branches during retrograde parotidectomy. Since all three landmarks were consistent indicators for the corresponding facial nerve branches, the surgeon has more than one option should one landmark be obscured by tumors. The optimal landmark is the distance from A to MM because it is shortest and most reliable, followed by RMV to MM, and Z to B.

  16. PARATHYROID CYTOLOGY: A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Kishore Bajaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neck nodules are common in clinical practice which are accessible to Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Thyroid being the commonest organ to present as the nodular lesions. Parathyroid lesions can be incidentally encountered during FNA of a thyroid nodule Fine needle aspiration cytology is a safe economical and leading investigation in the diagnosis of neck nodules. Thyroid and parathyroid nodules are indistinguishable clinically. An attempt is made to familiarise the pathologist about the cytomorphological features of parathyroid nodules and simple approach to differentiate from thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective study conducted over a period of 5 years from 2011-2016. Twelve cases of histologically proven parathyroidal lesions are the subjects of study of which 4 cases were diagnosed as parathyroidal cyst and rest as parathyroid adenoma. All the cases underwent fine needle aspiration cytology under ultrasound guidance, Smears were made, stained by H & E and PAP staining method, the slides were reviewed by two cytopathologists. Biochemical and radiological findings were evaluated before giving definitive cytological diagnosis. RESULTS A total number of 12 cases which were histologically proven as parathyroidal lesion. Out of which 4 were cystic lesions which were excluded from the study. Rest of the 8 cases confirmed as parathyroid adenoma which had FNAC were evaluated. 5 cases had positive cytohistological correlation. Three out of 8 cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid, Toxic nodular goitre and Hurthle cell neoplasm due to varied cytomorphology. CONCLUSION Parathyroidal lesions has got low sensitivity and specificity in cytology. The confident diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasm was made in conjunction with biochemical and advanced radiological imaging. In neck nodules which are asymptomatic and at abnormal locations, FNAC through its cytomorphological features has an edge in

  17. A statistical method for 2D facial landmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Many facial-analysis approaches rely on robust and accurate automatic facial landmarking to correctly function. In this paper, we describe a statistical method for automatic facial-landmark localization. Our landmarking relies on a parsimonious mixture model of Gabor wavelet features, computed in

  18. Using local symmetry for landmark selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kootstra, Geert; de Jong, Sjoerd; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Most visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) methods use interest points as landmarks in their maps of the environment. Often the interest points are detected using contrast features, for instance those of the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The SIFT interest points, however, have problems with stability, and noise robustness. Taking our inspiration from human vision, we therefore propose the use of local symmetry to select interest points. Our method, the MUlti-scale Sy...

  19. Vulval schwannoma: A cytological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Subhashish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the frequent sites of involvement being the head and neck, the flexor aspect of the limbs, especially near the elbow, wrist, knee, and trunk. Involvement of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We present one such rare case of a solitary vulval schwannoma which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology in a 48 year-old female, and confirmed by histopathological examination.

  20. Cervical cytology biobanking in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage.

  1. Classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to classical mechanics at a level intermediate between the typical undergraduate and advanced graduate level. This text describes the background and tools for use in the fields of modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics, particle physics, and relativity. Students who have had basic undergraduate classical mechanics or who have a good understanding of the mathematical methods of physics will benefit from this book.

  2. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  3. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  4. Reorienting with terrain slope and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2013-02-01

    Orientation (or reorientation) is the first step in navigation, because establishing a spatial frame of reference is essential for a sense of location and heading direction. Recent research on nonhuman animals has revealed that the vertical component of an environment provides an important source of spatial information, in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. Nonetheless, humans show large individual and sex differences in the ability to use terrain slope for reorientation. To understand why some participants--mainly women--exhibit a difficulty with slope, we tested reorientation in a richer environment than had been used previously, including both a tilted floor and a set of distinct objects that could be used as landmarks. This environment allowed for the use of two different strategies for solving the task, one based on directional cues (slope gradient) and one based on positional cues (landmarks). Overall, rather than using both cues, participants tended to focus on just one. Although men and women did not differ significantly in their encoding of or reliance on the two strategies, men showed greater confidence in solving the reorientation task. These facts suggest that one possible cause of the female difficulty with slope might be a generally lower spatial confidence during reorientation.

  5. The Role of Emotional Landmarks on Topographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory. Participants were instructed to learn and retain an eight-square path encompassing positive, negative or neutral emotional landmarks. Both egocentric and allocentric frames of references were considered. Egocentric representation encompasses the object’s relation to the self and it is generated from sensory data. Allocentric representation expresses a location with respect to an external frame regardless of the self and it is the basis for long-term storage of complex layouts. In particular, three measures of egocentric and allocentric topographical memory were taken into account: (1 the ability to learn the path; (2 the ability to recall by walking the path five minutes later; (3 the ability to reproduce the path on the outline of the WalCT. Results showed that both positive and negative emotional landmarks equally enhanced the learning of the path as compared to neutral emotional landmarks. In addition, positive emotional landmarks improved the reproduction of the path on the map as compared to negative and neutral emotional landmarks. These results generally show that emotional landmarks enhance egocentric-based topographical memory, whereas positive emotional landmarks seem to be more effective for allocentric-based topographical memory.

  6. The Role of Emotional Landmarks on Topographical Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT) was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory. Participants were instructed to learn and retain an eight-square path encompassing positive, negative or neutral emotional landmarks. Both egocentric and allocentric frames of references were considered. Egocentric representation encompasses the object's relation to the self and it is generated from sensory data. Allocentric representation expresses a location with respect to an external frame regardless of the self and it is the basis for long-term storage of complex layouts. In particular, three measures of egocentric and allocentric topographical memory were taken into account: (1) the ability to learn the path; (2) the ability to recall by walking the path five minutes later; (3) the ability to reproduce the path on the outline of the WalCT. Results showed that both positive and negative emotional landmarks equally enhanced the learning of the path as compared to neutral emotional landmarks. In addition, positive emotional landmarks improved the reproduction of the path on the map as compared to negative and neutral emotional landmarks. These results generally show that emotional landmarks enhance egocentric-based topographical memory, whereas positive emotional landmarks seem to be more effective for allocentric-based topographical memory.

  7. Automated human skull landmarking with 2D Gabor wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Markus A.; Gül, Atilla; de Gijt, Jan Pieter; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Kayser, Manfred; Wolvius, Eppo B.; Böhringer, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Landmarking of CT scans is an important step in the alignment of skulls that is key in surgery planning, pre-/post-surgery comparisons, and morphometric studies. We present a novel method for automatically locating anatomical landmarks on the surface of cone beam CT-based image models of human skulls using 2D Gabor wavelets and ensemble learning. The algorithm is validated via human inter- and intra-rater comparisons on a set of 39 scans and a skull superimposition experiment with an established surgery planning software (Maxilim). Automatic landmarking results in an accuracy of 1–2 mm for a subset of landmarks around the nose area as compared to a gold standard derived from human raters. These landmarks are located in eye sockets and lower jaw, which is competitive with or surpasses inter-rater variability. The well-performing landmark subsets allow for the automation of skull superimposition in clinical applications. Our approach delivers accurate results, has modest training requirements (training set size of 30–40 items) and is generic, so that landmark sets can be easily expanded or modified to accommodate shifting landmark interests, which are important requirements for the landmarking of larger cohorts.

  8. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National......" the cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...

  9. Accuracy of Automatic Cephalometric Software on Landmark Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuwongnukroh, N.; Dechkunakorn, S.; Damrongsri, S.; Nilwarat, C.; Pudpong, N.; Radomsutthisarn, W.; Kangern, S.

    2017-11-01

    This study was to assess the accuracy of an automatic cephalometric analysis software in the identification of cephalometric landmarks. Thirty randomly selected digital lateral cephalograms of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were used in this study. Thirteen landmarks (S, N, Or, A-point, U1T, U1A, B-point, Gn, Pog, Me, Go, L1T, and L1A) were identified on the digital image by an automatic cephalometric software and on cephalometric tracing by manual method. Superimposition of printed image and manual tracing was done by registration at the soft tissue profiles. The accuracy of landmarks located by the automatic method was compared with that of the manually identified landmarks by measuring the mean differences of distances of each landmark on the Cartesian plane where X and Y coordination axes passed through the center of ear rod. One-Sample T test was used to evaluate the mean differences. Statistically significant mean differences (pmean differences in both horizontal and vertical directions. Small mean differences (mean differences were found for A-point (3.0 4mm) in vertical direction. Only 5 of 13 landmarks (38.46%; S, N, Gn, Pog, and Go) showed no significant mean difference between the automatic and manual landmarking methods. It is concluded that if this automatic cephalometric analysis software is used for orthodontic diagnosis, the orthodontist must correct or modify the position of landmarks in order to increase the accuracy of cephalometric analysis.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  12. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

  13. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  14. DETEKSI LANDMARK CITRA WAJAH DENGAN EXTRAKSI FITUR GABOR ANALISA FUZZY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmana Lim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method that automatically finds human faces as well as its landmark points in color images based on a fuzzy analysis. The proposed approach first uses color information to detect face candidate regions and then uses a fuzzy analysis of the color, shape, symmetry and interior facial features. A deformable Gabor wavelet graph matching is used to locate the facial landmark points describing the face. The latter allows for size and orientation variation since the search for landmark points allows for affine transformations as well as local deformations of the Gabor wavelet graph. The search is performed using a genetic algorithm that is essential because it effectively searches the solution space. Results based on the proposed method are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini mengusulkan sebuah metode deteksi wajah beserta dengan titik landmarknya pada citra berwarna menggunakan analisa fuzzy. Proses awal menggunakan informasi warna kulit untuk menseleksi calon-calon obyek lantas dilanjukan dengan analisa fuzzy terhadap warna, bentuk, simetri dan fitur/landmark wajah. Proses lokalisasi landmark wajah menggunakan Gabor wavelet graph matching dengan memaksimalkan kemiripan antara landmark wajah model dengan obyek inputan. Proses maksimalisasi kemiripan ini menggunakan algoritma genetika. Hasil-hasil percobaan ditampilkan untuk memberikan gambaran keberhasilan dari metode yang diusulkan. Kata kunci: lokalisasi landmark wajah, analisa fuzzy, graph matching, algoritma genetika, Gabor wavelet.

  15. Extra Facial Landmark Localization via Global Shape Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localizing facial landmarks is a popular topic in the field of face analysis. However, problems arose in practical applications such as handling pose variations and partial occlusions while maintaining moderate training model size and computational efficiency still challenges current solutions. In this paper, we present a global shape reconstruction method for locating extra facial landmarks comparing to facial landmarks used in the training phase. In the proposed method, the reduced configuration of facial landmarks is first decomposed into corresponding sparse coefficients. Then explicit face shape correlations are exploited to regress between sparse coefficients of different facial landmark configurations. Finally extra facial landmarks are reconstructed by combining the pretrained shape dictionary and the approximation of sparse coefficients. By applying the proposed method, both the training time and the model size of a class of methods which stack local evidences as an appearance descriptor can be scaled down with only a minor compromise in detection accuracy. Extensive experiments prove that the proposed method is feasible and is able to reconstruct extra facial landmarks even under very asymmetrical face poses.

  16. Visual EKF-SLAM from Heterogeneous Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Jiménez, Jorge Othón; Devy, Michel; Gordillo, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications require the localization of a moving object, e.g., a robot, using sensory data acquired from embedded devices. Simultaneous localization and mapping from vision performs both the spatial and temporal fusion of these data on a map when a camera moves in an unknown environment. Such a SLAM process executes two interleaved functions: the front-end detects and tracks features from images, while the back-end interprets features as landmark observations and estimates both the landmarks and the robot positions with respect to a selected reference frame. This paper describes a complete visual SLAM solution, combining both point and line landmarks on a single map. The proposed method has an impact on both the back-end and the front-end. The contributions comprehend the use of heterogeneous landmark-based EKF-SLAM (the management of a map composed of both point and line landmarks); from this perspective, the comparison between landmark parametrizations and the evaluation of how the heterogeneity improves the accuracy on the camera localization, the development of a front-end active-search process for linear landmarks integrated into SLAM and the experimentation methodology. PMID:27070602

  17. Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W.F. van Wyk, D Dent, E Anne Hacking, Genevieve Learmonth, R.E. Kottler, C Anne Gudgeon, A Tiltman ...

  18. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  19. Quality-Aware Estimation of Facial Landmarks in Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Face alignment in video is a primitive step for facial image analysis. The accuracy of the alignment greatly depends on the quality of the face image in the video frames and low quality faces are proven to cause erroneous alignment. Thus, this paper proposes a system for quality aware face...... for facial landmark detection. If the face quality is low the proposed system corrects the facial landmarks that are detected by SDM. Depending upon the face velocity in consecutive video frames and face quality measure, two algorithms are proposed for correction of landmarks in low quality faces by using...

  20. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author) [pt

  2. Flow cytometry in diagnostic cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J

    1998-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a useful adjunct to cytologic examination, because the quantitative biochemical information it provides complements the morphologic information gained during visual examination. It aids in the interpretation of bladder washings, and is particularly useful for the assessment of lymphoid lesions, whether they originate from fine-needle aspiration, cerebrospinal fluid, or effusions. Optimal use of FCM frequently requires assessment of more than one parameter; simultaneous use of cell differentiation markers and nuclear DNA quantitation is often significantly more useful than either alone. Despite the utility of FCM, however, the potential for future development appears to be limited. Improvements in image cytometry allow reasonable assessment of ploidy and S-fraction to be made from specimens prepared on glass slides. Multiparameter measurements may also be accomplished with imaging techniques, which allow the further advantage of visual identification of cells with equivocal morphologic changes. The development of artificial intelligence methods for use with imaging technology has also significantly exceeded that of FCM. Finally, image cytometry is often more useful for samples with few cells. Other challenges are posed by immunocytochemical methods which compete with flow cytometry as tools for assessment of proliferation. Given the relatively high cost of FCM instrumentation, survival of FCM as an ancillary technique in cytopathology will require further technical refinements to offset the advantages currently associated with image cytometry and immunocytochemistry.

  3. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with myoepithelial anaplasia: report of a case with cytologic findings of a rare variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Murata, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is usually a low grade malignancy with rare mortality. Rare aggressive variants of EMC, dedifferentiated EMC and EMC with myoepithelial anaplasia have been reported. An 81-year-old man presented with EMC of the parotid gland showing the classical type at the time of initial presentation and a high grade type with myoepithelial anaplasia at recurrence after 10 years. We compared the histologic and cytologic findings of the initial and recurrent tumors. Aspiration cytology of the initial tumor was typical of classical EMC, represented by a biphasic pattern composed of sheetlike and tubular clusters. In contrast, cytologic specimens of the recurrent tumor, which had a focally biphasic pattern similar to that of the initial tumor, also had many isolated or discohesive piled-up clusters of spindle and polygonal cells with nuclear atypia. The cytologic findings of the recurrent tumor were consistent with a rare variant of EMC with myoepithelial anaplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the cytologic finding of an EMC with myoepithelial anaplasia.

  4. Landmark survey tracks decade of changes in India's rural schools ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... These are just a few comments from parents of school-aged children in rural ... Landmark survey tracks decade of changes in India's rural schools ... funded by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

  5. Route and landmark selection tool (RULST) : user's manual.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widing, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Route and Landmark Selection Tool (RULST) is a software program designed to assist military planners in defining geographical objects, such as routes, landmarks, spurs, and yards, at a given facility. Argonne National Laboratory is currently developing a prototype of this tool for use by the Military Traffic Management Command Transportation Engineering Agency (MTMCTEA). The primary objective of RULST is to populate database tables of facility objects for use in MTMCTEA models. RULST defines facility data for use in models such as Port Simulation (PORTSIM) and Transportation System Capability (TRANSCAP), which simulate the transportation of equipment through ports and military installations. The main purpose of RULST is to allow you to specify the relationships between landmarks and routes. The nodes, links, and landmarks that describe a facility are often predefined on the basis of the layout of the physical site

  6. Diagnostic p53 immunostaining of endobiliary brush cytology: preoperative cytology compared with the surgical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tascilar, M.; Sturm, P. D.; Caspers, E.; Smit, M.; Polak, M. M.; Huibregtse, K.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Endobiliary brush cytology is important in the distinction of malignant and benign causes of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. The additional diagnostic value of p53 immunostaining on these cytology specimens was assessed. All patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction who underwent

  7. Dispersion assessment in the location of facial landmarks on photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Cordón, O; Damas, S

    2015-01-01

    The morphological assessment of facial features using photographs has played an important role in forensic anthropology. The analysis of anthropometric landmarks for determining facial dimensions and angles has been considered in diverse forensic areas. Hence, the quantification of the error associated to the location of facial landmarks seems to be necessary when photographs become a key element of the forensic procedure. In this work, we statistically evaluate the inter- and intra-observer dispersions related to the facial landmark identification on photographs. In the inter-observer experiment, a set of 18 facial landmarks was provided to 39 operators. They were requested to mark only those that they could precisely place on 10 photographs with different poses (frontal, oblique, and lateral views). The frequency of landmark location was studied together with their dispersion. Regarding the intra-observer evaluation, three participants identified 13 facial points on five photographs classified in the frontal and oblique views. Each landmark location was repeated five times at intervals of at least 24 h. The frequency results reveal that glabella, nasion, subnasale, labiale superius, and pogonion obtained the highest location frequency in the three image categories. On the contrary, the lowest rate corresponds to labiale inferius and menton. Meanwhile, zygia, gonia, and gnathion were significantly more difficult to locate than other facial landmarks. They produced a significant effect on the dispersion depending on the pose of the image where they were placed, regardless of the type of observer that positioned them. In particular, zygia and gonia presented a statistically greater variation in the three image poses, while the location of gnathion is less precise in oblique view photographs. Hence, our findings suggest that the latter landmarks tend to be highly variable when determining their exact position.

  8. Study of robot landmark recognition with complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Yang, Jia

    2007-12-01

    It's of great importance for assisting robot in path planning, position navigating and task performing by perceiving and recognising environment characteristic. To solve the problem of monocular-vision-oriented landmark recognition for mobile intelligent robot marching with complex background, a kind of nested region growing algorithm which fused with transcendental color information and based on current maximum convergence center is proposed, allowing invariance localization to changes in position, scale, rotation, jitters and weather conditions. Firstly, a novel experiment threshold based on RGB vision model is used for the first image segmentation, which allowing some objects and partial scenes with similar color to landmarks also are detected with landmarks together. Secondly, with current maximum convergence center on segmented image as each growing seed point, the above region growing algorithm accordingly starts to establish several Regions of Interest (ROI) orderly. According to shape characteristics, a quick and effectual contour analysis based on primitive element is applied in deciding whether current ROI could be reserved or deleted after each region growing, then each ROI is judged initially and positioned. When the position information as feedback is conveyed to the gray image, the whole landmarks are extracted accurately with the second segmentation on the local image that exclusive to landmark area. Finally, landmarks are recognised by Hopfield neural network. Results issued from experiments on a great number of images with both campus and urban district as background show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Landmark Detection in Orbital Images Using Salience Histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Panetta, Julian; Schorghofer, Norbert; Greeley, Ronald; PendletonHoffer, Mary; bunte, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's planetary missions have collected, and continue to collect, massive volumes of orbital imagery. The volume is such that it is difficult to manually review all of the data and determine its significance. As a result, images are indexed and searchable by location and date but generally not by their content. A new automated method analyzes images and identifies "landmarks," or visually salient features such as gullies, craters, dust devil tracks, and the like. This technique uses a statistical measure of salience derived from information theory, so it is not associated with any specific landmark type. It identifies regions that are unusual or that stand out from their surroundings, so the resulting landmarks are context-sensitive areas that can be used to recognize the same area when it is encountered again. A machine learning classifier is used to identify the type of each discovered landmark. Using a specified window size, an intensity histogram is computed for each such window within the larger image (sliding the window across the image). Next, a salience map is computed that specifies, for each pixel, the salience of the window centered at that pixel. The salience map is thresholded to identify landmark contours (polygons) using the upper quartile of salience values. Descriptive attributes are extracted for each landmark polygon: size, perimeter, mean intensity, standard deviation of intensity, and shape features derived from an ellipse fit.

  10. Unsatisfactory exfoliative anal cytology samples, 15-year experience with histologic, cytologic, and molecular follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ruba; McMeekin, Emily; Taege, Alan J; Hekman, James M; Brainard, Jennifer A; Underwood, Dawn; Procop, Gary W; Sturgis, Charles D

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of anal carcinoma has risen in recent decades. Exfoliative cytology screening of selected high risk patients is performed in many centers. Unsatisfactory cytology results are frustrating to patients, clinicians, and laboratorians. The aim of this study is to ascertain outcomes of patients with non-diagnostic anal cytology. A retrospective review of anal cytology testing performed at the Cleveland Clinic between 01/01/2001 and 12/31/2015 was performed. All cases were received as liquid-based samples and processed as ThinPreps (Hologic, Marlborough, MA). Co-testing for HR-HPV DNA was performed using Hybrid Capture 2® (Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in the majority of patients. Of 1,276 ThinPrep anal cytology samples, 130 (10%) were deemed unsatisfactory. 77% of patients were HIV positive. 85% were males. Of the unsatisfactory cases, 116 (89%) were co-tested for HR-HPV DNA. Of those, 40 patients (34%) had a simultaneous positive HR-HPV DNA. Adequate follow up cytology within a one year and a two year period revealed that 18/130 (14%) and 26/130 (20%) of patients had ASC or SIL respectively. Histologic follow-up within one and two years showed 3 patients (2%) and 8 patients (6%) with HSIL or worse. High risk patients with unsatisfactory anal cytology are not "negative". At least one-third proved to be concomitantly HR-HPV DNA positive with one-fifth showing subsequent cytologic squamous abnormalities and with more than 5% being diagnosed with a high grade intraepithelial lesion within two years. Prompt repeat cytology and/or HR-HPV DNA is recommended for high risk patients with non-diagnostic cytology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Imprint cytology: A boon in tissue diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusheela Rajesh Gore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The technique of imprint cytology has provided great impetus to cytodiagnosis due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapid results. It plays a significant role in the rapid diagnosis of the lesions. Objectives: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology and thereby to evaluate its diagnostic utility. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. It included 105 cases. Both benign and malignant lesions from different organ systems were included in the study. Various techniques like touch imprints scrape cytology and squash preparations were used according to the nature of tissue sample. The cytodiagnosis was correlated with histopathological (HP diagnosis to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology. Results: Maximum lesions were of central nervous system (25.7% followed by breast, head, and neck. Imprint cytology diagnosis had sensitivity of 95.5% with 100% specificity for detection of benign and malignant lesions. Overall accuracy of detecting type of lesion was 98.1%. Total discordance with HP diagnosis was found in 1.9% of cases. Conclusion: The use of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis provides a rapid and efficient means of pathological assessment which in experienced hand, is capable of obtaining a high degree of accuracy. Its use is highly recommended routinely.

  12. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  13. Prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities in women with positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, Edenilson E; Giaccio, Claudia Maria Serafim; Nadal, Sidney R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cytological abnormalities of the anal mucosa in women with positive cervical cytology, but without macroscopic anal lesion. Ultimately we postulated if the anal mucosa may be a reservoir of HPV, which would allow the reinfection of cervix. Forty-nine patients with abnormal cervical cytology were selected for this work. In a period not exceeding one week of collecting cervix cytology, two swab specimens of the anal canal were also collected. Women diagnosed with cervical HSIL by Pap smear were referred for colposcopy with biopsy of the lesions, to confirm the cytologic diagnosis and ablation of the lesion. We demonstrated a high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (29 of the total of 49 patients = 59.2%). Of the 20 cases of cervical LSIL, 11 (55%) had abnormal anal cytology. Of the 26 cases with cervical HSIL, 16 (61.5%) had abnormal anal cytology. So, there was a discrete higher prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in cases of high-grade cervical squamous lesions (cervical HSIL). These results help to support the hypothesis that the anal mucosa is a reservoir of HPV, which can be a source of re-infection for the cervix. However, there was no significant association between the practice of anal sex and the prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities. These facts are epidemiologically important for future programs for population eradication of cervical lesions related to HPV. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2011;39:323-327. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K.; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs.

  15. Evidence for discrete landmark use by pigeons during homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cordula V; Ross, Jeremy D; Gorsevski, Peter V; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Bingman, Verner P

    2012-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to investigate how homing pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) are able to return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites while the mechanisms underlying navigation in familiar territory have received less attention. With the recent advent of global positioning system (GPS) data loggers small enough to be carried by pigeons, the role of visual environmental features in guiding navigation over familiar areas is beginning to be understood, yet, surprisingly, we still know very little about whether homing pigeons can rely on discrete, visual landmarks to guide navigation. To assess a possible role of discrete, visual landmarks in navigation, homing pigeons were first trained to home from a site with four wind turbines as salient landmarks as well as from a control site without any distinctive, discrete landmark features. The GPS-recorded flight paths of the pigeons on the last training release were straighter and more similar among birds from the turbine site compared with those from the control site. The pigeons were then released from both sites following a clock-shift manipulation. Vanishing bearings from the turbine site continued to be homeward oriented as 13 of 14 pigeons returned home. By contrast, at the control site the vanishing bearings were deflected in the expected clock-shift direction and only 5 of 13 pigeons returned home. Taken together, our results offer the first strong evidence that discrete, visual landmarks are one source of spatial information homing pigeons can utilize to navigate when flying over a familiar area.

  16. WIKIPEDIA ENTRIES AS A SOURCE OF CAR NAVIGATION LANDMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Binski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world’s largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries’ categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  17. Colon flattening by landmark-driven optimal quasiconformal mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Yang, Yi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In virtual colonoscopy, colon conformal flattening plays an important role, which unfolds the colon wall surface to a rectangle planar image and preserves local shapes by conformal mapping, so that the cancerous polyps and other abnormalities can be easily and thoroughly recognized and visualized without missing hidden areas. In such maps, the anatomical landmarks (taeniae coli, flexures, and haustral folds) are naturally mapped to convoluted curves on 2D domain, which poses difficulty for comparing shapes from geometric feature details. Understanding the nature of landmark curves to the whole surface structure is meaningful but it remains challenging and open. In this work, we present a novel and effective colon flattening method based on quasiconformal mapping, which straightens the main anatomical landmark curves with least conformality (angle) distortion. It provides a canonical and straightforward view of the long, convoluted and folded tubular colon surface. The computation is based on the holomorphic 1-form method with landmark straightening constraints and quasiconformal optimization, and has linear time complexity due to the linearity of 1-forms in each iteration. Experiments on various colon data demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of our algorithm and its practicability for polyp detection and findings visualization; furthermore, the result reveals the geometric characteristics of anatomical landmarks on colon surfaces.

  18. Progressive data transmission for anatomical landmark detection in a cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofka, M; Ralovich, K; Zhang, J; Zhou, S K; Comaniciu, D

    2012-01-01

    In the concept of cloud-computing-based systems, various authorized users have secure access to patient records from a number of care delivery organizations from any location. This creates a growing need for remote visualization, advanced image processing, state-of-the-art image analysis, and computer aided diagnosis. This paper proposes a system of algorithms for automatic detection of anatomical landmarks in 3D volumes in the cloud computing environment. The system addresses the inherent problem of limited bandwidth between a (thin) client, data center, and data analysis server. The problem of limited bandwidth is solved by a hierarchical sequential detection algorithm that obtains data by progressively transmitting only image regions required for processing. The client sends a request to detect a set of landmarks for region visualization or further analysis. The algorithm running on the data analysis server obtains a coarse level image from the data center and generates landmark location candidates. The candidates are then used to obtain image neighborhood regions at a finer resolution level for further detection. This way, the landmark locations are hierarchically and sequentially detected and refined. Only image regions surrounding landmark location candidates need to be trans- mitted during detection. Furthermore, the image regions are lossy compressed with JPEG 2000. Together, these properties amount to at least 30 times bandwidth reduction while achieving similar accuracy when compared to an algorithm using the original data. The hierarchical sequential algorithm with progressive data transmission considerably reduces bandwidth requirements in cloud-based detection systems.

  19. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears...

  20. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and 20...

  1. Robust facial landmark detection based on initializing multiple poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For robot systems, robust facial landmark detection is the first and critical step for face-based human identification and facial expression recognition. In recent years, the cascaded-regression-based method has achieved excellent performance in facial landmark detection. Nevertheless, it still has certain weakness, such as high sensitivity to the initialization. To address this problem, regression based on multiple initializations is established in a unified model; face shapes are then estimated independently according to these initializations. With a ranking strategy, the best estimate is selected as the final output. Moreover, a face shape model based on restricted Boltzmann machines is built as a constraint to improve the robustness of ranking. Experiments on three challenging datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed facial landmark detection method against state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Adaptive Landmark-Based Navigation System Using Learning Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidan, Bassel; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    The goal-directed navigational ability of animals is an essential prerequisite for them to survive. They can learn to navigate to a distal goal in a complex environment. During this long-distance navigation, they exploit environmental features, like landmarks, to guide them towards their goal. In...... hexapod robots. As a result, it allows the robots to successfully learn to navigate to distal goals in complex environments.......The goal-directed navigational ability of animals is an essential prerequisite for them to survive. They can learn to navigate to a distal goal in a complex environment. During this long-distance navigation, they exploit environmental features, like landmarks, to guide them towards their goal....... Inspired by this, we develop an adaptive landmark-based navigation system based on sequential reinforcement learning. In addition, correlation-based learning is also integrated into the system to improve learning performance. The proposed system has been applied to simulated simple wheeled and more complex...

  3. Multirobot FastSLAM Algorithm Based on Landmark Consistency Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of uncertain map information on multirobot SLAM problem, a multirobot FastSLAM algorithm based on landmark consistency correction is proposed. Firstly, electromagnetism-like mechanism is introduced to the resampling procedure in single-robot FastSLAM, where we assume that each sampling particle is looked at as a charged electron and attraction-repulsion mechanism in electromagnetism field is used to simulate interactive force between the particles to improve the distribution of particles. Secondly, when multiple robots observe the same landmarks, every robot is regarded as one node and Kalman-Consensus Filter is proposed to update landmark information, which further improves the accuracy of localization and mapping. Finally, the simulation results show that the algorithm is suitable and effective.

  4. Cardiac Conduction System: Delineation of Anatomic Landmarks With Multidetector CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood Saremi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Major components of the cardiac conduction system including the sinoatrial node (SAN, atrioventricular node (AVN, the His Bundle, and the right and left bundle branches are too small to be directly visualized by multidetector CT (MDCT given the limited spatial resolution of current scanners. However, the related anatomic landmarks and variants of this system a well as the areas with special interest to electrophysiologists can be reliably demonstrated by MDCT. Some of these structures and landmarks include the right SAN artery, right atrial cavotricuspid isthmus, Koch triangle, AVN artery, interatrial muscle bundles, and pulmonary veins. In addition, MDCT has an imperative role in demarcating potential arrhythmogenic structures. The aim of this review will be to assess the extent at which MDCT can outline the described anatomic landmarks and therefore provide crucial information used in clinical practice.

  5. Face landmark point tracking using LK pyramid optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Tang, Sikan; Li, Jiaquan

    2018-04-01

    LK pyramid optical flow is an effective method to implement object tracking in a video. It is used for face landmark point tracking in a video in the paper. The landmark points, i.e. outer corner of left eye, inner corner of left eye, inner corner of right eye, outer corner of right eye, tip of a nose, left corner of mouth, right corner of mouth, are considered. It is in the first frame that the landmark points are marked by hand. For subsequent frames, performance of tracking is analyzed. Two kinds of conditions are considered, i.e. single factors such as normalized case, pose variation and slowly moving, expression variation, illumination variation, occlusion, front face and rapidly moving, pose face and rapidly moving, and combination of the factors such as pose and illumination variation, pose and expression variation, pose variation and occlusion, illumination and expression variation, expression variation and occlusion. Global measures and local ones are introduced to evaluate performance of tracking under different factors or combination of the factors. The global measures contain the number of images aligned successfully, average alignment error, the number of images aligned before failure, and the local ones contain the number of images aligned successfully for components of a face, average alignment error for the components. To testify performance of tracking for face landmark points under different cases, tests are carried out for image sequences gathered by us. Results show that the LK pyramid optical flow method can implement face landmark point tracking under normalized case, expression variation, illumination variation which does not affect facial details, pose variation, and that different factors or combination of the factors have different effect on performance of alignment for different landmark points.

  6. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.

  7. Galectin-3 Immunostaining in Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIAD, H.A.; KANDIL, M.; ASAAD, N.Y.; EL-GODAY, Sh.F.; EL-KASED, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Ga lectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples. Material and Methods: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multi nodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC). Galectin-3 immunostaining was applied on histological sections from all the cases (retrospective analysis) as well as for the available preoperative FNAC (28 cases) (prospective analysis). Results: Retrospective analysis: The positivity percentage of galectin-3 was 10.5%, 92.3%, 93% for non-malignant, FTC and PTC respectively. According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1±2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5±88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150±83.9) (p>0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p='0.51). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for galectin-3 staining were 93%, 89.5%, 90.5% and 92% respectively. Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases. Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology. Combination of standard cytological evaluation with galectin-3 immunostaining markedly improved sen¬sitivity (71% versus 85%), specificity (75% versus 94%), positive predictive value (83% versus 92%) negative predictive value (60% versus 87.5%) and diagnostic accuracy (72% versus 90%). Conclusion: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign

  8. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  9. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus anatomical landmark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Femoral vein cannulation may be required during major surgery in infants and children and may prove to be life saving under certain conditions. This study compared ultrasound (US)-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in infants with the traditional anatomical landmark-guided technique. Methods Eighty ...

  10. 36 CFR 62.5 - Natural landmark criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be characteristic of a given natural region. Such features include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems... feature is so large as to be impracticable for natural landmark consideration (e.g., a mountain range...: Criterion Description Example Diversity In addition to its primary natural feature, area contains high...

  11. An Adaptive Algorithm for Finding Frequent Sets in Landmark Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Ong, Kok-Leong; Lee, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a CPU constrained environment for finding approximation of frequent sets in data streams using the landmark window. Our algorithm can detect overload situations, i.e., breaching the CPU capacity, and sheds data in the stream to “keep up”. This is done within a controlled error threshold...

  12. Quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular motion using endocardial landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); T.E.H. Hooghoudt (Ton); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); G.T. Meester (Geert); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the hypothesis is tested that the motion pattern of small anatomic landmarks, recognizable at the left ventricular endocardial border in the contrast angiocardiogram, reflects the motion of the endocardial wall. To verify this, minute metal markers were inserted in the

  13. p16/ki-67 dual-stain cytology in the triage of ASCUS and LSIL papanicolaou cytology: results from the European equivocal or mildly abnormal Papanicolaou cytology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Dietmar; Bergeron, Christine; Denton, Karin J; Ridder, Ruediger

    2011-06-25

    The objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of a newly established immunocytochemical dual-stain protocol, which simultaneously detects p16(INK4a) and Ki-67 expression in cervical cytology samples, for identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women with Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology results categorized as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Residual liquid-based cytology material from 776 retrospectively collected ASCUS/LSIL cases that were available from a recent study evaluating p16 cytology and HPV testing were subjected to p16/Ki-67 dual staining. The presence of 1 or more double-immunoreactive cell(s) was regarded as a positive test outcome, irrespective of morphology. Test results were correlated to histology follow-up. Sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology for biopsy-confirmed CIN2+ was 92.2% (ASCUS) and 94.2% (LSIL), while specificity rates were 80.6% (ASCUS) and 68.0% (LSIL), respectively. Similar sensitivity/specificity profiles were found for both age groups of women aged aged ≥30 years. Dual-stain cytology showed comparable sensitivity, but significantly higher specificity, when compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. The results of this study show that p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology provided a high sensitivity for the detection of underlying CIN2+ in women with ASCUS or LSIL Pap cytology results, comparable to the rates previously reported for HPV testing and p16 single-stain cytology. However, the specificity of this morphology-independent interpretation of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology testing was further improved compared with the earlier p16 single-stain cytology approach, which required morphology interpretation, and it is significantly higher when compared with HPV testing. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  14. Sputum cytology of a metastatic postradiation sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Murakami, Itsuko; Awai, Seiji; Ogura, Yasuko; Morishita, Yumiko

    1981-01-01

    A female patient who died of apparent postradiation sarcoma in the inguinal region after irradiating a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the same site was reported. For approximately 20 months, the patient had received a total of 6,600 and 9,600 Roentgen to the right para-aortic and inguinal areas, respectively. About 10 years later, she developed a sarcoma, namely a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Sputum cytology demonstrated numerous giant cells with bizarre nuclei; subsequent chest films also presented apparent metastatic tumor shadows. The cellular characteristics and also rather low incidence of detection of nonepithelial malignant tumor by sputum cytology were briefly discussed, and ways of enhancing cytodiagnostic accuracy were proposed. (author)

  15. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological......-choice treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 767 women had FNAC performed from a total of 783 lesions at the Mammography Clinic, University Hospital Odense. All FNACs were compared with the final histology diagnosis. Nine statistical parameters were calculated according to the European guidelines. RESULTS: A total...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  16. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  18. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  19. Impact of Internet on Cytology Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luić, Ljerka; Molnar, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies and services impose global information standards in the sphere of healthcare as a whole, which are then implied and applied in the domain of cytology laboratories. Web-based operations form a significant operating segment of any contemporary cytology laboratory as they enable operations by the use of technology, which is usually free of the restrictions imposed by the traditional way of business (geographic area and narrow localisation of activities). In their operations, almost all healthcare organisations currently create and use electronic data anddocuments, which can originate both inside and outside the organisation. An enormous amount of information thus used and exchanged may be processed timely and in a high-quality way only by integrated information systems, given three basic safety requirements: data confidentiality, integrity and availability. In the Republic of Croatia, integration of private and public healthcare information systems has been ongoing for several years but the private healthcare does not yet operate as an integrated system. Instead, each office operates using its own separate information system, i.e. This paper elaborates the argument that the sample private cytology laboratory possesses an IT system that meets current market and stakeholder needs of the healthcare sector in Croatia, given that private doctors' offices/polyclinics use IT technologies in their operations but make only partial use of Internet capacities in the segment of communication with their business associates and patients, implying the need to continue the research on a statistically relevant sample of EU countries.

  20. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  1. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  2. [Why is cytology a profession (branch), not a method? Ten rules for success of the cytology profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardum-Skelin, Ika

    2011-09-01

    Clinical cytology is an interdisciplinary medical diagnostic profession that integrates clinical, laboratory and analytical fields along with final cytologist's expert opinion. Cytology involves nonaggressive, minimally invasive and simple for use procedures that are fully acceptable for the patient. Cytology offers rapid orientation, while in combination with additional technologies on cytologic smear analysis (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry for cell marker analysis, computer image analysis) or sophisticated methods on cytologic samples (flow cytometry, molecular and cytogenetic analysis) it plays a major role in the diagnosis, subtyping and prognosis of malignant tumors. Ten rules for successful performance in cytology are as follows: 1) due knowledge of overall cytology (general cytologist); 2) inclusion in all stages of cytologic sample manipulation from sampling through reporting; 3) due knowledge of additional technologies to provide appropriate interpretation and/or rational advice in dubious cases; 4) to preserve dignity of the profession because every profession has its advantages, shortcomings and limitations; 5) to insist on quality control of the performance, individual cytologists and cytology team; 6) knowledge transfer to young professionals; 7) assisting fellow professionals in dubious cases irrespective of the time needed and fee because it implies helping the patient and the profession itself; 8) experience exchange with other related professionals to upgrade mutual understanding; 9) to prefer the interest of the profession over one's own interest; and 10) to love cytology.

  3. Bibliometric analysis of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal. Journal of Cytology (JOC) is the official publication of Indian Academy of Cytologists. This study aimed to audit the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC from 2007 to 2015 over a 9-year period. Bibliometric analysis of issues of JOC from 2007 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral and maxillofacial cytology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Of the total 93 published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology, original articles (43) and case reports (33) contribute the major share. The highest number of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles was published in 2014 with 17 articles and the least published year was 2010 with three articles. Among the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC, diseases of salivary gland (26) followed by oral exfoliated cells (17), soft tissue tumors (7), round cell tumors (6) and spindle cell neoplasms (5) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology were received from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (5), and Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in India.

  4. Cephalometric landmark variability among orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durao, Ana Paula Reis; Ferreira, Afonso P. [Dept.of Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Morosolli, Aline [Dept.of Surgery, Dentistry School, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pittayapat, Pisha [Dept.of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Bolstad, Napat [Dept.of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso (Norway); Jacobs, Reinhilde [Dept.of Oral Imaging Center, OMFS-IMPATH Research Group, Dept. of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    The aim this study was to compare the accuracy of orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists in identifying 17 commonly used cephalometric landmarks, and to determine the extent of variability associated with each of those landmarks. Twenty digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated by two groups of dental specialists, and 17 cephalometric landmarks were identified. The x and y coordinates of each landmark were recorded. The mean value for each landmark was considered the best estimate and used as the standard. Variation in measurements of the distance between landmarks and measurements of the angles associated with certain landmarks was also assessed by a subset of two observers, and intraobserver and interobserver agreement were evaluated. Intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for intraobserver agreement, but only good for interobserver agreement. The least reliable landmark for orthodontists was the gnathion (Gn) point (standard deviation [SD], 5.92 mm), while the orbitale (Or) was the least reliable landmark (SD, 4.41 mm) for dentomaxillofacial radiologists. Furthermore, the condylion (Co)-Gn plane was the least consistent (SD, 4.43 mm). We established that some landmarks were not as reproducible as others, both horizontally and vertically. The most consistently identified landmark in both groups was the lower incisor border, while the least reliable points were Co, Gn, Or, and the anterior nasal spine. Overall, a lower level of reproducibility in the identification of cephalometric landmarks was observed among orthodontists.

  5. Cephalometric landmark variability among orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durao, Ana Paula Reis; Ferreira, Afonso P.; Morosolli, Aline; Pittayapat, Pisha; Bolstad, Napat; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-01-01

    The aim this study was to compare the accuracy of orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists in identifying 17 commonly used cephalometric landmarks, and to determine the extent of variability associated with each of those landmarks. Twenty digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated by two groups of dental specialists, and 17 cephalometric landmarks were identified. The x and y coordinates of each landmark were recorded. The mean value for each landmark was considered the best estimate and used as the standard. Variation in measurements of the distance between landmarks and measurements of the angles associated with certain landmarks was also assessed by a subset of two observers, and intraobserver and interobserver agreement were evaluated. Intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for intraobserver agreement, but only good for interobserver agreement. The least reliable landmark for orthodontists was the gnathion (Gn) point (standard deviation [SD], 5.92 mm), while the orbitale (Or) was the least reliable landmark (SD, 4.41 mm) for dentomaxillofacial radiologists. Furthermore, the condylion (Co)-Gn plane was the least consistent (SD, 4.43 mm). We established that some landmarks were not as reproducible as others, both horizontally and vertically. The most consistently identified landmark in both groups was the lower incisor border, while the least reliable points were Co, Gn, Or, and the anterior nasal spine. Overall, a lower level of reproducibility in the identification of cephalometric landmarks was observed among orthodontists

  6. Navigating Deep Time: Landmarks for Time from the Big Bang to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    People make sense of the world by comparing and relating new information to their existing landmarks. Each individual may have different landmarks, developed through idiosyncratic experiences. Identifying specific events that constitute landmarks for a group of learners may help instructors in gauging students' prior knowledge and in planning…

  7. Cytological Results of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules: Emphasis on Correlation with Sonographic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Hong, Soon Won; Chung, Woung Youn; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Min Jung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. Materials and Methods Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had a conclusive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was based on pathology from surgery, repeated FNA cytology or follow-up of more than one year. Cytological results were divided into five groups: benign, indeterminate (follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm), suspicious for malignancy, malignant, and inadequate. US findings were categorized as benign or suspicious. Cytological results and US categories were analyzed. Results Final diagnosis was concluded upon in 819 nodules based on pathology (n=311), repeated FNA cytology (n=204) and follow-up (n=304), of which 634 were benign and 185 were malignant. There were 560 benign nodules, 141 malignant nodules, 49 nodules with inadequate results, 21 with indeterminate results, and 48 that were suspicious for malignancy. The positive and negative predictive values of the US categories were 59.1% and 97.0%, and those of the cytological results were 93.7% and 98.9%. The US categories were significantly correlated with final diagnosis in the benign (p=0.014) and suspicious for malignancy (pcytological result groups, but not in the inadequate and indeterminate cytological results groups. The false positive and negative rates of cytological results were 1.9% and 3.2%. Conclusion Sonographic findings can be useful when used alongside cytological results, especially in nodules with cytological results that are benign or suspicious for malignancy. PMID:21786450

  8. Is fine needle aspiration cytology a useful diagnostic tool for granular cell tumors? A cytohistological review with emphasis on pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Granular cell tumors (GCT formerly known as Abrikossoff tumor or granular cell myoblastoma, are rare neoplasms encountered in the fine needle aspiration (FNA service. Named because of their highly granular cytoplasm which is invariably positive for the S-100 antibody, the classic GCT is thought to be of neural origin. The cytomorphological features range from highly cellular to scanty cellular smears with dispersed polygonal tumor cells. The cells have abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, eccentric round to oval vesicular nuclei with small inconspicuous nucleoli. The fragility of the cells can result in many stripped nuclei in a granular background. The differential diagnosis occasionally can range from a benign or reactive process to features that are suspicious for malignancy. Some of the concerning cytologic features include necrosis, mitoses and nuclear pleomorphism. Methods: We identified 6 cases of suspected GCT on cytology within the last 10 years and compared them to their final histologic diagnoses. Results: Four had histologic correlation of GCT including one case that was suspicious for GCT on cytology and called atypical with features concerning for a malignant neoplasm. Of the other two cases where GCT was suspected, one showed breast tissue with fibrocystic changes, and the other was a Hurthle cell adenoma of the thyroid. Conclusions: These results imply that FNA has utility in the diagnosis of GCT, and should be included in the differential diagnoses when cells with abundant granular cytoplasm are seen on cytology. Careful attention to cytologic atypia, signs of reactive changes, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical correlation are helpful in arriving at a definite diagnosis on FNA cytology.

  9. [Inferring landmark displacements from changes in cephalometric angles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Baumrind, S

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of using changes in angular measurements to reflect the actually profile changes. The sample consists of 48 growing malocclusion patients, contained 24 Class I and 24 Class II subjects, treated by an experienced orthodontist using Edgewise technique. Landmark and superimpositional data were extracted from the previously prepared numerical database. Three pairs of angular and linear measures were computed by the Craniofacial Software Package. Although the associations between all three angular measures and their corresponding linear measures are statistically significant at the 0.001 level, the disagreement between these three pairs of measures are 10.4%, 22.9% and 37.5% respectively in this sample. The direction of displacement of anterior facial landmarks during growth and treatment cannot reliably be inferred merely from changes in cephalometric Angles.

  10. Uav Visual Autolocalizaton Based on Automatic Landmark Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Filho, P.; Shiguemori, E. H.; Saotome, O.

    2017-08-01

    Deploying an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle in GPS-denied areas is a highly discussed problem in the scientific community. There are several approaches being developed, but the main strategies yet considered are computer vision based navigation systems. This work presents a new real-time computer-vision position estimator for UAV navigation. The estimator uses images captured during flight to recognize specific, well-known, landmarks in order to estimate the latitude and longitude of the aircraft. The method was tested in a simulated environment, using a dataset of real aerial images obtained in previous flights, with synchronized images, GPS and IMU data. The estimated position in each landmark recognition was compatible with the GPS data, stating that the developed method can be used as an alternative navigation system.

  11. UAV VISUAL AUTOLOCALIZATON BASED ON AUTOMATIC LANDMARK RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Silva Filho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deploying an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle in GPS-denied areas is a highly discussed problem in the scientific community. There are several approaches being developed, but the main strategies yet considered are computer vision based navigation systems. This work presents a new real-time computer-vision position estimator for UAV navigation. The estimator uses images captured during flight to recognize specific, well-known, landmarks in order to estimate the latitude and longitude of the aircraft. The method was tested in a simulated environment, using a dataset of real aerial images obtained in previous flights, with synchronized images, GPS and IMU data. The estimated position in each landmark recognition was compatible with the GPS data, stating that the developed method can be used as an alternative navigation system.

  12. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  13. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  14. [Lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks obtained with vector graphics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Giuseppe; Antonica, Filippo; Renna, Maria Antonia; Ferrari, Cristina; Iuele, Francesca; Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato; Losco, Matteo; Niccoli Asabella, Artor

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear medicine images are difficult to interpret because they do not include anatomical details. The aim of this study was to obtain lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks that could be easily interpreted by General Physicians. Traditional lymphoscintigrams were processed with Adobe© Photoshop® CS6 and converted into vector images created by Illustrator®. The combination with a silhouette vector improved image interpretation, without resulting in longer radiation exposure or acquisition times.

  15. Neural Network Based Sensory Fusion for Landmark Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbla, Kishan -K.; Akbarzadeh, Mohammad R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA is planning to send numerous unmanned planetary missions to explore the space. This requires autonomous robotic vehicles which can navigate in an unstructured, unknown, and uncertain environment. Landmark based navigation is a new area of research which differs from the traditional goal-oriented navigation, where a mobile robot starts from an initial point and reaches a destination in accordance with a pre-planned path. The landmark based navigation has the advantage of allowing the robot to find its way without communication with the mission control station and without exact knowledge of its coordinates. Current algorithms based on landmark navigation however pose several constraints. First, they require large memories to store the images. Second, the task of comparing the images using traditional methods is computationally intensive and consequently real-time implementation is difficult. The method proposed here consists of three stages, First stage utilizes a heuristic-based algorithm to identify significant objects. The second stage utilizes a neural network (NN) to efficiently classify images of the identified objects. The third stage combines distance information with the classification results of neural networks for efficient and intelligent navigation.

  16. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF RETINAL VASCULAR LANDMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is introducing a method to distinguish between different landmarks of the retina: bifurcations and crossings. The methodology may help in differentiating between arteries and veins and is useful in identifying diseases and other special pathologies, too. The method does not need any special skills, thus it can be assimilated to an automatic way for pinpointing landmarks; moreover it gives good responses for very small vessels. A skeletonized representation, taken out from the segmented binary image (obtained through a preprocessing step, is used to identify pixels with three or more neighbors. Then, the junction points are classified into bifurcations or crossovers depending on their geometrical and topological properties such as width, direction and connectivity of the surrounding segments. The proposed approach is applied to the public-domain DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with the state-of-the-art methods using proper validation parameters. The method was successful in identifying the majority of the landmarks; the average correctly identified bifurcations in both DRIVE and STARE datasets for the recall and precision values are: 95.4% and 87.1% respectively; also for the crossovers, the recall and precision values are: 87.6% and 90.5% respectively; thus outperforming other studies.

  17. Acute human parvovirus b19 infection: cytologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik

    2014-09-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR.

  18. Landmarks or panoramas: what do navigating ants attend to for guidance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnon Guy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects are known to rely on terrestrial landmarks for navigation. Landmarks are used to chart a route or pinpoint a goal. The distant panorama, however, is often thought not to guide navigation directly during a familiar journey, but to act as a contextual cue that primes the correct memory of the landmarks. Results We provided Melophorus bagoti ants with a huge artificial landmark located right near the nest entrance to find out whether navigating ants focus on such a prominent visual landmark for homing guidance. When the landmark was displaced by small or large distances, ant routes were affected differently. Certain behaviours appeared inconsistent with the hypothesis that guidance was based on the landmark only. Instead, comparisons of panoramic images recorded on the field, encompassing both landmark and distal panorama, could explain most aspects of the ant behaviours. Conclusion Ants navigating along a familiar route do not focus on obvious landmarks or filter out distal panoramic cues, but appear to be guided by cues covering a large area of their panoramic visual field, including both landmarks and distal panorama. Using panoramic views seems an appropriate strategy to cope with the complexity of natural scenes and the poor resolution of insects' eyes. The ability to isolate landmarks from the rest of a scene may be beyond the capacity of animals that do not possess a dedicated object-perception visual stream like primates.

  19. Wild rufous hummingbirds use local landmarks to return to rewarded locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David J; Scott, Renee D; Healy, Susan D; Hurly, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Animals may remember an important location with reference to one or more visual landmarks. In the laboratory, birds and mammals often preferentially use landmarks near a goal ("local landmarks") to return to that location at a later date. Although we know very little about how animals in the wild use landmarks to remember locations, mammals in the wild appear to prefer to use distant landmarks to return to rewarded locations. To examine what cues wild birds use when returning to a goal, we trained free-living hummingbirds to search for a reward at a location that was specified by three nearby visual landmarks. Following training we expanded the landmark array to test the extent that the birds relied on the local landmarks to return to the reward. During the test the hummingbirds' search was best explained by the birds having used the experimental landmarks to remember the reward location. How the birds used the landmarks was not clear and seemed to change over the course of each test. These wild hummingbirds, then, can learn locations in reference to nearby visual landmarks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Landmark Optimization Using Local Curvature for Point-Based Nonlinear Rodent Brain Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a technique to automate landmark selection for point-based interpolating transformations for nonlinear medical image registration. Materials and Methods. Interpolating transformations were calculated from homologous point landmarks on the source (image to be transformed and target (reference image. Point landmarks are placed at regular intervals on contours of anatomical features, and their positions are optimized along the contour surface by a function composed of curvature similarity and displacements of the homologous landmarks. The method was evaluated in two cases (=5 each. In one, MRI was registered to histological sections; in the second, geometric distortions in EPI MRI were corrected. Normalized mutual information and target registration error were calculated to compare the registration accuracy of the automatically and manually generated landmarks. Results. Statistical analyses demonstrated significant improvement (<0.05 in registration accuracy by landmark optimization in most data sets and trends towards improvement (<0.1 in others as compared to manual landmark selection.

  1. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  2. Role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in ulcerated skin neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Babu, Ravindra; Pai, Dinker; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Imprint cytology is a method of studying cells by taking an imprint from the cut surface of a wedge biopsy specimen or from the resected margins of a surgical specimen. It is rapid, simple and fairly accurate. Exfoliative cytology is an offshoot from the imprint cytology where in cells obtained from the surface of ulcers, either by scrape or brush, are analyzed for the presence of malignant cells. We undertook this study to see the role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of ulcerated skin neoplasm and to check the adequacy of resected margins intra-operatively. This was a prospective investigative study conducted from September 2003 to July 2005. All patients presenting to surgical clinic with ulcerated skin and soft tissue tumours were included in the study. A wedge biopsy obtained from the ulcer and imprint smears were taken from the cut surface. Exfoliative cytology was analyzed from the surface smears. Wedge biopsy specimen was sent for histopathological (HPE) examination. The cytology and HPE were analyzed by a separate pathologist. Imprint cytology was also used to check the adequacy of resected margins in case of wide excision. This was compared with final HPE. Total of 107 patients was included in the present study and 474 imprint smears were done, with an average of 4.43 slides per lesion. Out of 59 wide excision samples, 132 imprint smears were prepared for assessing resected margins accounting for an average of 2.24 slides per each excised lesion. On combining imprint cytology with exfoliative cytology the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 90.38 %, 100 % and 90.38 % respectively. Only one out of 59 cases had a positive resected margin which was not picked by imprint cytology. Imprint cytology can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various skin malignancies. It can also be used to check the adequacy of the resected margin intraoperatively.

  3. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  4. Cytologic studies on irradiated gestric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, S; Takeda, T; Amakasu, H; Asakawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    The smears of the biopsy and resected specimens obtained from 74 cases of irradiated gastric cancer were cytologically analyzed for effects of irradiation. Irradiation increased the amount of both necrotic materials and neutrophils in the smears. Cancer cells were decreased in number almost in inverse proportion to irradiation dose. Clusters of cancer cells shrank in size and cells were less stratified after irradiation. Irradiated cytoplasms were swollen, vacuolated and stained abnormally. Irradiation with less than 3,000 rads gave rise to swelling of cytoplasms in almost all cases. Nuclei became enlarged, multiple, pyknotic and/or stained pale after irradiation. Nuclear swelling was more remarkable in cancer cells of differentiated adenocarcinomas.

  5. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  6. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In Tumour Diagnosis | Obaseki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of tissue samples but

  7. Exfoliative liver cytology in Oreochromis mossambicus as a bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of exfoliative cytology as a bio-assessment tool was evaluated to (1) identify and describe different cell types of normal liver cytology of Oreochromis mossambicus, (2) identify and describe changes in the cell types after exposure to cadmium and zinc, and (3) determine if non-imaging-guided fine-needle aspiration ...

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshaa Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  9. Cytologic features of microcystic adnexal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasis Sirikanjanapong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC is an uncommon skin neoplasm with a predilection location around the lips. It is characterized by cords and nests of neoplastic cells forming ductular or glandular structures that are embedded in dense collagenous stroma. An eighty-seven year old Caucasian female patient presented with a painless, slowly enlarging mass measuring 3.3 x 2.7 x 1.0 cm on the lower lip for approximately 6 months. The patient underwent 2 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAs. Smears made from both FNAs demonstrated similar features including low cellular smears, three dimensional cell clusters forming a glandular structure, round to oval cells with high N:C ratio, occasional cytoplasmic lumens, without distinct hyperchromasia, focal inconspicuous nucleoli, smooth regular nuclear membranes, abundant naked nuclei, occasional squamoid cells and focal acellular stromal fragments in the background. The cytologic differential diagnosis included skin adnexal carcinoma and low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the minor salivary gland. The mass was subsequently excised. The diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma was made. We report cytologic features of MAC and also suggest that MAC can possibly be diagnosed by FNA with the appropriate clinical vignette and immunohistochemical profile..

  10. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Palash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33, schwannoma (3, neurofibroma (11, paraganglioma (5, angiofibroma (1 and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1. Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation.

  12. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    of samples with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (≥ASCUS) by age and technology phase. We included 391 140 samples. The proportion of ≥ASCUS increased steadily from 3.8% in phase 1 to 6.0% in phase 5. This pattern varied considerably across age groups. In women aged 23-34 years......Unlike for human papillomavirus screening, little is known about the possible age-dependent variation in the outcomes of cervical cytology screening. The aim of our study was to describe age-related outcomes of five cytological technologies in a population-based screening program targeting women...... aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...

  13. Gender differences in landmark learning for virtual navigation: the role of distance to a goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, V D; Artigas, A A; Sansa, J; Banterla, F

    2011-09-01

    We used a new virtual program in two experiments to prepare subjects to perform the Morris water task (www.nesplora.com). The subjects were Psychology students; they were trained to locate a safe platform amidst the presence of four pinpoint landmarks spaced around the edge of the pool (i.e., two landmarks relatively near the platform and two landmarks relatively distant away from it). At the end of the training phase, we administered one test trial without the platform and recorded the amount of time that the students had spent in the platform quadrant. In Experiment 1, we conducted the test trial in the presence of one or two of the distant landmarks. When only one landmark was present during testing, performance fell to chance. However, the men outperformed the women when the two distant landmarks were both present. Experiment 2 replicated the previous results and extended it by showing that no sex differences exist when the searching process is based on the near landmarks. Both the men and the women had similarly good performances when the landmarks were present both individually and together. When present together, an addition effect was found. Far landmark tests favor configural learning processes, whereas near landmark tests favor elemental learning. Our findings suggest that other factors in addition to the use of directional cues can underlie the sex differences in the spatial learning process. Thus, we expand upon previous research in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The post-birthday world: consequences of temporal landmarks for temporal self-appraisal and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetz, Johanna; Wilson, Anne E

    2013-02-01

    Much as physical landmarks help structure our representation of space, temporal landmarks such as birthdays and significant calendar dates structure our perception of time, such that people may organize or categorize their lives into "chunks" separated by these markers. Categories on the temporal landscape may vary depending on what landmarks are salient at a given time. We suggest these landmarks have implications for identity and motivation. The present research examined consequences of salient temporal landmarks for perceptions of the self across time and motivation to pursue successful future selves. Studies 1 and 2 show that temporally extended selves are perceived as less connected to, and more dissimilar from, the current self when an intervening landmark event has been made salient. Study 3 addresses the proposed mechanism, demonstrating that intervening landmarks lead people to categorize pre- and postlandmark selves into separate categories more often than when the same time period contains no salient landmarks. Finally, we examined whether landmark-induced mental contrasting of present state and future desired state could increase goal-pursuit motivation (in an effort to bridge the gap between inferior present and better future states). Studies 4-6 demonstrate that landmark-induced discrepancies between current health and hoped-for future health increased participants' motivation to exercise and increased the likelihood that they acted in line with their future-oriented goals. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Generalization decrement and not overshadowing by associative competition among pairs of landmarks in a navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Victoria D; Rodríguez, Clara A; Espinet, Alfredo; Mackintosh, N J

    2012-07-01

    When they are trained in a Morris water maze to find a hidden platform, whose location is defined by a number of equally spaced visual landmarks round the circumference of the pool, rats are equally able to find the platform when tested with any two of the landmarks (Prados, & Trobalon, 1998; Rodrigo, Chamizo, McLaren, & Mackintosh, 1997). This suggests that none of the landmarks was completely overshadowed by any of the others. In Experiment 1 one pair of groups was trained with four equally salient visual landmarks spaced at equal intervals around the edge of the pool, while a second pair was trained with two landmarks only, either relatively close to or far from the hidden platform. After extensive training, both male and female rats showed a reciprocal overshadowing effect: on a test with two landmarks only (either close to or far from the platform), rats trained with four landmarks spent less time in the platform quadrant than those trained with only two. Experiment 2 showed that animals trained with two landmarks and then tested with four also performed worse on test than those trained and tested with two landmarks only. This suggests that generalization decrement, rather than associative competition, provides a sufficient explanation for the overshadowing observed in Experiment 1. Experiment 3 provided a within-experiment replication of the results of Experiments 1 and 2. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that rats trained with a configuration of two landmarks learn their identity.

  16. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [New international classification of corneal dystrophies and clinical landmarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, W; Seitz, B

    2008-07-01

    The International Committee on Classification of Corneal Dystrophies, briefly IC (3)D, was founded with the sponsorship of the American Cornea Society and the American Academy of Ophthalmology in July 2005. This committee consists of 17 corneal experts (1) from USA, Asia and Europe. The goal of this group was to develop a new, internationally accepted classification of corneal dystrophies (CD) based on modern clinical, histological and genetical knowledge. The aim of the new classification should be to avoid wrong interpretations and misnomers of the different forms of CD. The IC (3)D extensive manuscript is in press as Supplement publication in the journal "Cornea". The 25 different CD are divided in four categories by clinical and genetical knowledge. Additionally, templates for each type of CD are included. Finally, many typical color slit-lamp photos are presented in the publication together with essential references and current genetical results in tabular form. As members of IC (3)D the authors present a clinical landmark survey of the different corneal dystrophies. The ophthalmologist is the first to examine and to diagnose a new patient with a probable CD at the slit-lamp. Our elaborated table of landmarks is supposed to be a "bridge" for the ophthalmologist to precisely define the corneal opacities of a presumed CD. This "bridge" makes it easier for them to study the IC (3)D Supplement publication and to get more information including adequate differential diagnosis.

  18. Landmarks for Sacral Debridement in Sacral Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Joshua H; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2016-03-01

    Most cases of sacral osteomyelitis arising in the setting of sacral pressure ulcers require minimal cortical debridement. When faced with advanced bony involvement, the surgeon is often unclear about how much can safely be resected. Unfamiliarity with sacral anatomy can lead to concerns of inadvertent entry into the dural space and compromise of future flap options. A cadaveric study (n = 6), in which a wide posterior dissection of the sacrum, was performed. Relationships of the dural sac to bony landmarks of the posterior pelvis were noted. The termination of the dural sac was found in our study to occur at the junction of S2/S3 vertebral bodies, which was located at a mean distance of 0.38 ± 0.16 cm distal to the inferior-most extent of the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). The mean thickness of the posterior table of sacrum at this level was 1.7 cm at the midline and 0.5 cm at the sacral foramina. The PSIS is a reliable landmark for localizing the S2/S3 junction and the termination of the dural sac. Sacral debridement medial to the sacral foramina above the level of PSIS must be conservative whenever possible. If aggressive debridement is necessary above this level, the surgeon must be alert to the possibility of dural involvement.

  19. Stereotaxic cytology of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, S.; Rosselli del Turco, M.; Bravetti, P.; Catarzi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on 791 consecutive cases undergoing stereotaxic cytology for non palpable lesions detected at mammography. Histologic diagnosis (malignant = 179, benign = 107) or mammographic folow-up after at least one year (benign = 275) was available in 561 cases. The overall inadequacy rate of stereotaxic cytology was 0.21, and dependent on lesion type (benign = 0.25, malignant = 0.13 p<0.001) and on sampling operator experience (range 0.17-0.31, p<0.001). Sensitivity (dubious+positive, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.83 and dependent on histologic type (infiltrating = 0.87, intraductal = 0.68). Specificity (negative/benign, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.96. Stereotaxic cytology helped in reducing the number of unnecessary beningn biopsies and the biopsy ratio was 0.6 benign to 1 malignant biopsy. In cases with moderate suspicion at mammography the radiologist felt reassured by negative cytology and advised mammographic control rather than surgical biopsy. Cytology was determinant in advising surgical biopsy in 9 cancer cases whereas the absence of cytologic positivity contributed to diagnostic delay in 2 cancer cases. Overall, stereotaxic cytology allowed a relevant reduction of unnecessary benign biopsies and should be routinely employed in the diagnostic work-up of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

  20. Preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis by clinical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Katsuya Matsuda,1 Hisayoshi Nakajima,2 Khaleque N Khan,1 Terumi Tanigawa,1 Daisuke Hamaguchi,1 Michio Kitajima,1 Koichi Hiraki,1 Shingo Moriyama,3 Hideaki Masuzaki11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Health Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Shimabara Maternity Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Methods: This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD cytology.Results: The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture.Conclusion: The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Keywords: actinomycosis, cytology, pathology, intrauterine contraceptive device, pelvic inflammatory disease

  1. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity

  2. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Olaf [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity.

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervicofacial actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kusuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as a fixed jaw swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, along with a review of the relevant literature. A 60 year-old man presented with a gradually increasing 6 x 5 cm swelling in the left side of his jaw. The swelling was fixed, without any apparent sinus or abscess. Fine needle aspiration was diagnostic as it revealed colonies of actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs and chronic inflammatory cells. The histopathological study of the excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. Fine needle aspiration is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis although its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the fine needle aspiration technique.

  4. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  5. Putting emotions in routes: the influence of emotionally laden landmarks on spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotolo, F; Claessen, M H G; van der Ham, I J M

    2018-04-16

    The aim of this study was to assess how people memorize spatial information of emotionally laden landmarks along a route and if the emotional value of the landmarks affects the way metric and configurational properties of the route itself are represented. Three groups of participants were asked to watch a movie of a virtual walk along a route. The route could contain positive, negative, or neutral landmarks. Afterwards, participants were asked to: (a) recognize the landmarks; (b) imagine to walk distances between landmarks; (c) indicate the position of the landmarks along the route; (d) judge the length of the route; (e) draw the route. Results showed that participants who watched the route with positive landmarks were more accurate in locating the landmarks along the route and drawing the route. On the other hand, participants in the negative condition judged the route as longer than participants in the other two conditions and were less accurate in mentally reproducing distances between landmarks. The data will be interpreted in the light of the "feelings-as-information theory" by Schwarz (2010) and the most recent evidence about the effect of emotions on spatial memory. In brief, the evidence collected in this study supports the idea that spatial cognition emerges from the interaction between an organism and contextual characteristics.

  6. The problem of assessing landmark error in geometric morphometrics: theory, methods, and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Frazier, Brenda C; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2007-09-01

    Geometric morphometric methods rely on the accurate identification and quantification of landmarks on biological specimens. As in any empirical analysis, the assessment of inter- and intra-observer error is desirable. A review of methods currently being employed to assess measurement error in geometric morphometrics was conducted and three general approaches to the problem were identified. One such approach employs Generalized Procrustes Analysis to superimpose repeatedly digitized landmark configurations, thereby establishing whether repeat measures fall within an acceptable range of variation. The potential problem of this error assessment method (the "Pinocchio effect") is demonstrated and its effect on error studies discussed. An alternative approach involves employing Euclidean distances between the configuration centroid and repeat measures of a landmark to assess the relative repeatability of individual landmarks. This method is also potentially problematic as the inherent geometric properties of the specimen can result in misleading estimates of measurement error. A third approach involved the repeated digitization of landmarks with the specimen held in a constant orientation to assess individual landmark precision. This latter approach is an ideal method for assessing individual landmark precision, but is restrictive in that it does not allow for the incorporation of instrumentally defined or Type III landmarks. Hence, a revised method for assessing landmark error is proposed and described with the aid of worked empirical examples. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of pancreas. Cytological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coufal, L.; Heger, L.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits are presented of cytological examination of bioptical material from the pancreas using computerized tomography (CT) or ultrasound. The case is presented of one patient who had repeatedly undergone endoscopy with no results. Only cytological examination of material sampled using fine needle aspiration under CT control helped to immediately diagnose the process. The cytological finding correlated with the histological examination of material later taken during surgery. The problems are discussed of the differential diagnosis of tumors of the pancreas. (author). 5 figs., 9 refs

  8. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  9. Classic-Ada(TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  10. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  11. Preparation of Cytology Samples: Tricks of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell

    2017-01-01

    General principles and techniques for collection, preparation, and staining of cytologic samples in the general practice setting are reviewed. Tips for collection of digital images are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    -based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...... of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology. Follow-up histology showed no increase of false positive tests, whilst the share of tests which were "unsatisfactory for evaluation" decreased significantly. Overall, the liquid-based technique would seem to have several advantages compared...

  13. Conservation landmarks: bureau of biological survey and national biological service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1995-01-01

    A century separates the recent development of the National Biological Service (NBS) and an early predecessor, the Bureau of Biological Survey (BBS). Both organizations were established at critical crossroads for the conservation of the nation's living biological resources and are conservation landmarks of their times. The BBS of the 192()'s was described as 'a government Bureau of the first rank, handling affairs of great scientific, educational, social, and above all, economic importance throughout the United States and its outlying possessions'' (Cameron 1929:144-145). This stature was achieved at a time of great social, economic, and ecological change. BBS had the vision to pioneer new approaches that led to enhanced understanding of the relation between people, other living things, and the environment. The NBS faces similar challenges to address the issues of the 1990's and beyond.

  14. Media Portrayal of a Landmark Neuroscience Experiment on Free Will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Nguyen, Valentin; Saigle, Victoria; Dubljevic, Veljko

    2017-08-01

    The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet's et al.'s (Brain 106(Pt 3):623-642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted as posing a serious challenge to the existence of free will. Media descriptions of Libet et al.'s experiment provided limited details about the original study. Overall, many media articles reported that Libet et al.'s experiments undermined the existence of free will, despite acknowledging that several methodological limitations had been identified in the literature. A propensity to attribute greater credibility than warranted to neurobiological explanations could be at stake.

  15. Elections and landmark policies in Tanzania and Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Much of the relevant literature on Africa downplays the salience of elections for policy-making and implementation. Instead, the importance of factors such as clientelism, ethnicity, organized interest group and donor influence, is emphasized. We argue that, in addition, elections now motivate...... political elites to focus on policies they perceive to be able to gain votes. This is based on analyses of six landmark decisions made during the last fifteen years in the social, productive and public finance sectors in Tanzania and Uganda. Such policies share a number of key characteristics......: they are clearly identifiable with the party in power; citizens country-wide are targeted; and policy implementation aim at immediate, visible results. The influence of elections on policy making and implementation could therefore be more significant in countries where elections are more competitive than...

  16. LANDMARKS REGARDING THE EXTERNAL PUBLIC AUDIT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRINCU-DRĂGUŞIN CRISTINA-PETRINA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper falls within the category of those about the external public audit in Romania and is intended to be an investigative approach through which we propose to bring in the light of the scientific reflectors certain significant landmarks in the field, starting from the premise that it is a subject of considerable interest from multiple directions. In the described context, the coordinates of the article focus on the topical elements of the approached field and include conceptual delimitations regarding the external public audit, normative approaches in our country, aspects regarding the organization, functioning and management of the supreme audit institution, the presentation of competencies, the field of application for the activities of the Romanian Court of Accounts, as well as its specific attributions related to the external public audit. At the end of the paper, the conclusions on the debated topic are outlined.

  17. Macroanatomical Landmarks Featuring Junctions of Major Sulci and Fissures and Scalp Landmarks Based on the International 10–10 System for Analyzing Lateral Cortical Development of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Tsuzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topographic relationships between the macroanatomical structure of the lateral cortex, including sulci and fissures, and anatomical landmarks on the external surface of the head are known to be consistent. This allows the coregistration of EEG electrodes or functional near-infrared spectroscopy over the scalp with underlying cortical regions. However, limited information is available as to whether the topographic relationships are maintained in rapidly developing infants, whose brains and heads exhibit drastic growth. We used MRIs of infants ranging in age from 3 to 22 months old, and identified 20 macroanatomical landmarks, featuring the junctions of major sulci and fissures, as well as cranial landmarks and virtually determined positions of the international 10-20 and 10-10 systems. A Procrustes analysis revealed developmental trends in changes of shape in both the cortex and head. An analysis of Euclidian distances between selected pairs of cortical landmarks at standard stereotactic coordinates showed anterior shifts of the relative positions of the premotor and parietal cortices with age. Finally, cortical landmark positions and their spatial variability were compared with 10-10 landmark positions. The results indicate that variability in the distribution of each macroanatomical landmark was much smaller than the pitch of the 10-10 landmarks. This study demonstrates that the scalp-based 10-10 system serves as a good frame of reference in infants not only for assessing the development of the macroanatomy of the lateral cortical structure, but also for functional studies of cortical development using transcranial modalities such as EEG and fNIRS.

  18. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  19. Nocturnal vision and landmark orientation in a tropical halictid bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Gislén, Anna; Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi; Wcislo, William T

    2004-08-10

    Some bees and wasps have evolved nocturnal behavior, presumably to exploit night-flowering plants or avoid predators. Like their day-active relatives, they have apposition compound eyes, a design usually found in diurnal insects. The insensitive optics of apposition eyes are not well suited for nocturnal vision. How well then do nocturnal bees and wasps see? What optical and neural adaptations have they evolved for nocturnal vision? We studied female tropical nocturnal sweat bees (Megalopta genalis) and discovered that they are able to learn landmarks around their nest entrance prior to nocturnal foraging trips and to use them to locate the nest upon return. The morphology and optics of the eye, and the physiological properties of the photoreceptors, have evolved to give Megalopta's eyes almost 30 times greater sensitivity to light than the eyes of diurnal worker honeybees, but this alone does not explain their nocturnal visual behavior. This implies that sensitivity is improved by a strategy of photon summation in time and in space, the latter of which requires the presence of specialized cells that laterally connect ommatidia into groups. First-order interneurons, with significantly wider lateral branching than those found in diurnal bees, have been identified in the first optic ganglion (the lamina ganglionaris) of Megalopta's optic lobe. We believe that these cells have the potential to mediate spatial summation. Despite the scarcity of photons, Megalopta is able to visually orient to landmarks at night in a dark forest understory, an ability permitted by unusually sensitive apposition eyes and neural photon summation.

  20. Endometrial cytology in the female cat (Felis catus) during diestrus

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Riquelme, Alfonso; Arias Ruiz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and quantify cytological findings in the cat’s endometrium (Felis catus). Twenty genital tracts were obtained by ovariohysterectomy. To establish the status of the estrous cycle, vaginal cytology was evaluated and ovarian structures were recorded, resulting that all females were in the luteal phase. According to the presence of corpora lutea and follicles, a classification of the luteal phase was proposed: early diestrus: corpora lutea and follicles of...

  1. Technical note: Quantification of neurocranial shape variation using the shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Ogihara, Naomichi; Kanai, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromasa

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques have been widely used in quantitative comparisons of craniofacial morphology in humans and nonhuman primates. However, few anatomical landmarks can actually be defined on the neurocranium. In this study, an alternative method is proposed for defining semi-landmarks on neurocranial surfaces for use in detailed analysis of cranial shape. Specifically, midsagittal, nuchal, and temporal lines were approximated using Bezier curves and equally spaced points along each of the curves were defined as semi-landmarks. The shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks as well as semi-landmarks were then calculated in order to represent the surface morphology between landmarks using equally spaced points along the paths. To evaluate the efficacy of this method, the previously outlined technique was used in morphological analysis of sexual dimorphism in modern Japanese crania. The study sample comprised 22 specimens that were used to generate 110 anatomical semi-landmarks, which were used in geometric morphometric analysis. Although variations due to sexual dimorphism in human crania are very small, differences could be identified using the proposed landmark placement, which demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Interactions of visual odometry and landmark guidance during food search in honeybees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T; Hemmi, JM; Srinivasan, MV; Zeil, J

    How do honeybees use visual odometry and goal-defining landmarks to guide food search? In one experiment, bees were trained to forage in an optic-flow-rich tunnel with a landmark positioned directly above the feeder. Subsequent food-search tests indicated that bees searched much more accurately when

  3. Automatic generation of 3D statistical shape models with optimal landmark distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, T; Wolf, I; Meinzer, H-P

    2007-01-01

    To point out the problem of non-uniform landmark placement in statistical shape modeling, to present an improved method for generating landmarks in the 3D case and to propose an unbiased evaluation metric to determine model quality. Our approach minimizes a cost function based on the minimum description length (MDL) of the shape model to optimize landmark correspondences over the training set. In addition to the standard technique, we employ an extended remeshing method to change the landmark distribution without losing correspondences, thus ensuring a uniform distribution over all training samples. To break the dependency of the established evaluation measures generalization and specificity from the landmark distribution, we change the internal metric from landmark distance to volumetric overlap. Redistributing landmarks to an equally spaced distribution during the model construction phase improves the quality of the resulting models significantly if the shapes feature prominent bulges or other complex geometry. The distribution of landmarks on the training shapes is -- beyond the correspondence issue -- a crucial point in model construction.

  4. Design and recognition of artificial landmarks for reliable indoor self-localization of mobile robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a self-localization scheme for indoor mobile robot navigation based on reliable design and recognition of artificial visual landmarks. Each landmark is patterned with a set of concentric circular rings in black and white, which reliably encodes the landmark’s identity under environmental illumination. A mobile robot in navigation uses an onboard camera to capture landmarks in the environment. The landmarks in an image are detected and identified using a bilayer recognition algorithm: A global recognition process initially extracts candidate landmark regions across the whole image and tries to identify enough landmarks; if necessary, a local recognition process locally enhances those unidentified regions of interest influenced by illumination and incompleteness and reidentifies them. The recognized landmarks are used to estimate the position and orientation of the onboard camera in the environment, based on the geometric relationship between the image and environmental frames. The experiments carried out in a real indoor environment show high robustness of the proposed landmark design and recognition scheme to the illumination condition, which leads to reliable and accurate mobile robot localization.

  5. 3D facial landmarks: Inter-operator variability of manual annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Harder, Stine; Rosengren, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background Manual annotation of landmarks is a known source of variance, which exist in all fields of medical imaging, influencing the accuracy and interpretation of the results. However, the variability of human facial landmarks is only sparsely addressed in the current literature as opposed to ...

  6. Looking beyond the Boundaries: Time to Put Landmarks Back on the Cognitive Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Adina R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the proposal of Tolman (1948) that mammals form maplike representations of familiar environments, cognitive map theory has been at the core of debates on the fundamental mechanisms of animal learning and memory. Traditional formulations of cognitive map theory emphasize relations between landmarks and between landmarks and goal locations as…

  7. The British Society for Clinical Cytology Certificate of Competence in Cytology Screening: a report of the first 3 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoogan, E; Chapman, P A

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 the Department of Health (DOH) recognized the cytology screener grade of laboratory staff. Cytology screeners have a 2 year training period after which they must sit a 'competence examination'. The British Society for Clinical Cytology offers an examination to meet the DOH specification. It consists of a written paper, a practical screening test, a spot test and a short viva voce. The screening test is paramount and candidates who miss a dyskaryotic smear cannot be successful. In the first 3 years there have been 22 examinations, 294 candidates and a pass rate of 76%. The majority of candidates were Cytology Screeners of 2-3 years experience but significant numbers of Medical Laboratory Scientific Officers (MLSOs) and senior MLSOs also chose to sit the examination.

  8. Competition between landmarks in spatial learning: the role of proximity to the goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, V D; Manteiga, R D; Rodrigo, T; Mackintosh, N J

    2006-01-10

    In two experiments, rats were trained to find a hidden platform in a Morris pool in the presence of two landmarks. Landmark B was present on all training trials, on half the trials accompanied by landmark A, on the remainder by landmark C. For rats in Group Bn, B was near the location of the platform; for those in Group Bf, B was far from the platform. Group Bn performed better than Group Bf on test trials to B alone, but significantly worse on test trials to a new configuration formed by A and C. Thus, the spatial proximity of B to the platform affected not only how well it could be used to locate the platform, but also its ability to prevent learning about other landmarks.

  9. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  10. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasta, Julian A; Chaitra, V; Simi, Cm; Correa, Marjorie

    2009-04-01

    Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81%) of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  11. Raman exfoliative cytology for oral precancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Gera, Poonam; Pai, Venkatesh; Dubey, Abhishek; Tyagi, Gunjan; Waghmare, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Mahimkar, Manoj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2017-11-01

    Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis, often precede oral cancer. Screening and management of these premalignant conditions can improve prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has previously demonstrated potential in the diagnosis of oral premalignant conditions (in vivo), detected viral infection, and identified cancer in both oral and cervical exfoliated cells (ex vivo). The potential of Raman exfoliative cytology (REC) in identifying premalignant conditions was investigated. Oral exfoliated samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), healthy volunteers with tobacco habits (n=20), and oral premalignant conditions (n=27, OPL) using Cytobrush. Spectra were acquired using Raman microprobe. Spectral acquisition parameters were: λex: 785 nm, laser power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s, and average: 3. Postspectral acquisition, cell pellet was subjected to Pap staining. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal component analysis and principal component-linear discriminant analysis using both spectra- and patient-wise approaches in three- and two-group models. OPLs could be identified with ˜77% (spectra-wise) and ˜70% (patient-wise) sensitivity in the three-group model while with 86% (spectra-wise) and 83% (patient-wise) in the two-group model. Use of histopathologically confirmed premalignant cases and better sampling devices may help in development of improved standard models and also enhance the sensitivity of the method. Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions.

  12. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  13. Supersymmetric classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.N.; Soni, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to construct a supersymmetric Lagrangian within the framework of classical mechanics which would be regarded as a candidate for passage to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. 5 refs. (author)

  14. Mathematical physics classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Knauf, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  16. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for internal jugular vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Kolodziej, Laurentius; Schick, Guido; Smith, Andrew F

    2015-01-09

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) can help with diagnosis and treatment of the critically ill. The catheter may be placed in a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein), upper chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). Whilst this is beneficial overall, inserting the catheter risks arterial puncture and other complications and should be performed with as few attempts as possible. Traditionally, anatomical 'landmarks' on the body surface were used to find the correct place in which to insert catheters, but ultrasound imaging is now available. A Doppler mode is sometimes used to supplement plain 'two-dimensional' ultrasound. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-dimensional (imaging ultrasound (US) or ultrasound Doppler (USD)) guided puncture techniques for insertion of central venous catheters via the internal jugular vein in adults and children. We assessed whether there was a difference in complication rates between traditional landmark-guided and any ultrasound-guided central vein puncture.Our secondary objectives were to assess whether the effect differs between US and USD; whether the effect differs between ultrasound used throughout the puncture ('direct') and ultrasound used only to identify and mark the vein before the start of the puncture procedure (indirect'); and whether the effect differs between different groups of patients or between different levels of experience among those inserting the catheters. We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 15 January 2013), EMBASE (1966 to 15 January 2013), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 15 January 2013 ), reference lists of articles, 'grey literature' and dissertations. An additional handsearch focused on intensive care and anaesthesia journals and abstracts and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies

  17. Landmark-based augmented reality system for paranasal and transnasal endoscopic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoranaghatte, Ramesh; Garcia, Jaime; Caversaccio, Marco; Widmer, Daniel; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A; Nolte, Lutz-P; Zheng, Guoyan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we present a landmark-based augmented reality (AR) endoscope system for endoscopic paranasal and transnasal surgeries along with fast and automatic calibration and registration procedures for the endoscope. Preoperatively the surgeon selects natural landmarks or can define new landmarks in CT volume. These landmarks are overlaid, after proper registration of preoperative CT to the patient, on the endoscopic video stream. The specified name of the landmark, along with selected colour and its distance from the endoscope tip, is also augmented. The endoscope optics are calibrated and registered by fast and automatic methods. Accuracy of the system is evaluated in a metallic grid and cadaver set-up. Root mean square (RMS) error of the system is 0.8 mm in a controlled laboratory set-up (metallic grid) and was 2.25 mm during cadaver studies. A novel landmark-based AR endoscope system is implemented and its accuracy is evaluated. Augmented landmarks will help the surgeon to orientate and navigate the surgical field. Studies prove the capability of the system for the proposed application. Further clinical studies are planned in near future. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. a Landmark Extraction Method Associated with Geometric Features and Location Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, Y.; Liu, P.; Zhang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Landmark plays an important role in spatial cognition and spatial knowledge organization. Significance measuring model is the main method of landmark extraction. It is difficult to take account of the spatial distribution pattern of landmarks because that the significance of landmark is built in one-dimensional space. In this paper, we start with the geometric features of the ground object, an extraction method based on the target height, target gap and field of view is proposed. According to the influence region of Voronoi Diagram, the description of target gap is established to the geometric representation of the distribution of adjacent targets. Then, segmentation process of the visual domain of Voronoi K order adjacent is given to set up target view under the multi view; finally, through three kinds of weighted geometric features, the landmarks are identified. Comparative experiments show that this method has a certain coincidence degree with the results of traditional significance measuring model, which verifies the effectiveness and reliability of the method and reduces the complexity of landmark extraction process without losing the reference value of landmark.

  19. Visual cues for the retrieval of landmark memories by navigating wood ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert A; Graham, Paul; Collett, Thomas S

    2007-01-23

    Even on short routes, ants can be guided by multiple visual memories. We investigate here the cues controlling memory retrieval as wood ants approach a one- or two-edged landmark to collect sucrose at a point along its base. In such tasks, ants store the desired retinal position of landmark edges at several points along their route. They guide subsequent trips by retrieving the appropriate memory and moving to bring the edges in the scene toward the stored positions. The apparent width of the landmark turns out to be a powerful cue for retrieving the desired retinal position of a landmark edge. Two other potential cues, the landmark's apparent height and the distance that the ant walks, have little effect on memory retrieval. A simple model encapsulates these conclusions and reproduces the ants' routes in several conditions. According to this model, the ant stores a look-up table. Each entry contains the apparent width of the landmark and the desired retinal position of vertical edges. The currently perceived width provides an index for retrieving the associated stored edge positions. The model accounts for the population behavior of ants and the idiosyncratic training routes of individual ants. Our results imply binding between the edge of a shape and its width and, further, imply that assessing the width of a shape does not depend on the presence of any particular local feature, such as a landmark edge. This property makes the ant's retrieval and guidance system relatively robust to edge occlusions.

  20. Landmark-based elastic registration using approximating thin-plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, K; Stiehl, H S; Sprengel, R; Buzug, T M; Weese, J; Kuhn, M H

    2001-06-01

    We consider elastic image registration based on a set of corresponding anatomical point landmarks and approximating thin-plate splines. This approach is an extension of the original interpolating thin-plate spline approach and allows to take into account landmark localization errors. The extension is important for clinical applications since landmark extraction is always prone to error. Our approach is based on a minimizing functional and can cope with isotropic as well as anisotropic landmark errors. In particular, in the latter case it is possible to include different types of landmarks, e.g., unique point landmarks as well as arbitrary edge points. Also, the scheme is general with respect to the image dimension and the order of smoothness of the underlying functional. Optimal affine transformations as well as interpolating thin-plate splines are special cases of this scheme. To localize landmarks we use a semi-automatic approach which is based on three-dimensional (3-D) differential operators. Experimental results are presented for two-dimensional as well as 3-D tomographic images of the human brain.

  1. MRI-based anatomical landmarks for the identification of thoracic vertebral levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Shah, A.; Latifoltojar, H.; Lung, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To identify soft-tissue and bony anatomical landmarks on dedicated thoracic spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to assess their detectability, reproducibility, and accuracy in predicting specific thoracic vertebral levels. Materials and methods: One hundred dedicated thoracic MRI studies were retrospectively analysed by two radiologists independently. Ten bone and soft-tissue landmarks were localized to the adjacent vertebral level. The true numerical thoracic vertebral level was subsequently determined and recorded by cross referencing with a sagittal cervico-thoracic “counting scan”. Results: Six landmarks were defined in ≥98% cases; however, there was a low interobserver percentage agreement for the defined vertebral levels (>70% for only one landmark). The most useful landmark for defining a specific vertebral level was the most superior rib (98% detection, 95% interobserver agreement, 98% at a single vertebral level, 0.07 SD). Eight landmarks localized to a specific thoracic segment in only 16–44% of cases, with a standard deviation of >0.5 vertebral levels and with a range which was greater than four vertebral levels. Conclusion: The C2 vertebra must be identified and cross referenced to the dedicated thoracic spine MRI, as other MRI-based anatomical landmarks are unreliable in determining the correct thoracic vertebral level

  2. Landmark navigation and autonomous landing approach with obstacle detection for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Simon; Werner, Stefan; Dickmanns, Dirk; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    A machine perception system for aircraft and helicopters using multiple sensor data for state estimation is presented. By combining conventional aircraft sensor like gyros, accelerometers, artificial horizon, aerodynamic measuring devices and GPS with vision data taken by conventional CCD-cameras mounted on a pan and tilt platform, the position of the craft can be determined as well as the relative position to runways and natural landmarks. The vision data of natural landmarks are used to improve position estimates during autonomous missions. A built-in landmark management module decides which landmark should be focused on by the vision system, depending on the distance to the landmark and the aspect conditions. More complex landmarks like runways are modeled with different levels of detail that are activated dependent on range. A supervisor process compares vision data and GPS data to detect mistracking of the vision system e.g. due to poor visibility and tries to reinitialize the vision system or to set focus on another landmark available. During landing approach obstacles like trucks and airplanes can be detected on the runway. The system has been tested in real-time within a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Simulated aircraft measurements corrupted by noise and other characteristic sensor errors have been fed into the machine perception system; the image processing module for relative state estimation was driven by computer generated imagery. Results from real-time simulation runs are given.

  3. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive cytology exists and may be missed by primary HPV screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:795-805. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Encoding and retrieval of landmark-related spatial cues during navigation: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Joost; Tyborowska, Anna; Janzen, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    To successfully navigate, humans can use different cues from their surroundings. Learning locations in an environment can be supported by parallel subsystems in the hippocampus and the striatum. We used fMRI to look at differences in the use of object-related spatial cues while 47 participants actively navigated in an open-field virtual environment. In each trial, participants navigated toward a target object. During encoding, three positional cues (columns) with directional cues (shadows) were available. During retrieval, the removed target had to be replaced while either two objects without shadows (objects trial) or one object with a shadow (shadow trial) were available. Participants were informed in blocks about which type of retrieval trial was most likely to occur, thereby modulating expectations of having to rely on a single landmark or on a configuration of landmarks. How the spatial learning systems in the hippocampus and caudate nucleus were involved in these landmark-based encoding and retrieval processes were investigated. Landmark configurations can create a geometry similar to boundaries in an environment. It was found that the hippocampus was involved in encoding when relying on configurations of landmarks, whereas the caudate nucleus was involved in encoding when relying on single landmarks. This might suggest that the observed hippocampal activation for configurations of objects is linked to a spatial representation observed with environmental boundaries. Retrieval based on configurations of landmarks activated regions associated with the spatial updation of object locations for reorientation. When only a single landmark was available during retrieval, regions associated with updating the location of oneself were activated. There was also evidence that good between-participant performance was predicted by right hippocampal activation. This study therefore sheds light on how the brain deals with changing demands on spatial processing related purely

  5. Practical landmarks for visual field disability in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Luke J; Russell, Richard A; Crabb, David P

    2012-09-01

    To assess whether mean deviation (MD) from automated perimetry is related to the visual field (VF) component for legal fitness to drive (LFTD) in glaucoma patients. Monocular 24-2 VFs of 2604 patients with bilateral VF damage were retrospectively investigated. Integrated visual fields were calculated and used as a surrogate to assess LFTD according to current UK driving licence criteria. The better eye MD (BEMD), worse eye MD (WEMD) and a measure utilising MD of both eyes were compared, to assess respective diagnostic capabilities to predict LFTD (using the integrated visual field surrogate test as the gold standard) and a 'Probability of Failure' (PoF) for various defect levels was calculated. BEMD appears to be a good predictor of the VF component for a patient's LFTD (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve: 96.2%); MDs from both eyes offered no significant extra diagnostic power (area under the curve: 96.4%). PoF for BEMD thresholds of ≤-10 dB and ≤-14 dB were 70 (95% CI 66% to 74%) and 92% (87% to 95%), respectively. There is a strong relationship between BEMD and a patient's LFTD. PoF values for LFTD associated with readily available MD values provide practical landmarks for VF disability in glaucoma.

  6. Urethroscopy and urethral cytology in men with external genital condyloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, R A; Malek, R S; Goellner, J R; Hyland, K M

    1994-03-01

    To develop guidelines as to which asymptomatic male patients with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection need further evaluation of the urethra, we studied two screening methods: urethroscopy and voided urethral cytology. In a four-year period, 135 asymptomatic men underwent complete screening for HPV infection. They were evaluated because of HPV-related genital disease in their female sex partners or visible genital lesions, or both. Of the 135 patients, 21 (16%) had no clinical, subclinical, cytologic, or urethroscopic evidence of disease, and 114 (84%) had biopsy-proven HPV infection. Of these 114 patients, only 14 (12.3%) had intraurethral condyloma. All of these 14 patients had current or historical evidence of meatal or perimeatal "sentinel" lesions. They constituted 29.8 percent of 47 such patients with sentinel lesions. In 5 patients (4%), results of voided urine cytology were positive for condyloma cells, but only 1 of these had visible intraurethral disease. Of the 14 patients with urethral disease, only 1 (7%) had positive results of urine cytology. These observations suggest that any asymptomatic male patient undergoing screening for condyloma acuminatum who has a history of or demonstrable subclinical or grossly visible perimeatal or meatal HPV infection should undergo urethroscopy and that voided urine cytology is not a reliable or cost-effective test for the detection of visible intraurethral disease.

  7. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour: Cytological and immunocytochemical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Adhemar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA. Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.

  8. Role of scrape cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis of tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolte Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rapid diagnosis of surgically removed specimens has created many controversies and a single completely reliable method has not yet been developed. Histopathology of a paraffin section remains the ultimate gold standard in tissue diagnosis. Frozen section is routinely used by the surgical pathology laboratories for intraoperative diagnosis. The use of either frozen section or cytological examination alone has an acceptable rate (93-97% of correct diagnosis, with regard to interpretation of benign versus malignant. Aim : To evaluate the utility of scrape cytology for the rapid diagnosis of surgically removed tumors and its utilisation for learning cytopathology. Materials and Methods : 75 surgically removed specimens from various organs and systems were studied. Scrapings were taken from each specimen before formalin fixation and stained by modified rapid Papanicolaou staining. Results : Of the 75 cases studied, 73 could be correctly differentiated into benign and malignant tumors, with an accuracy rate of 97.3%. Conclusions : Intraoperative scrape cytology is useful for intraoperative diagnosis of tumor, where facilities for frozen section are not available. The skill and expertise developed by routinely practicing intraoperative cytology can be applied to the interpretation of fine needle aspirate smears. Thus, apart from its diagnostic role, intraoperative cytology can become a very useful learning tool in the field of cytopathology.

  9. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  10. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  11. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  12. The CLASSIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Iselin, F Christoph

    1996-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Clas Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty.

  13. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  14. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  15. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  16. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  17. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of neck mass except thyroid mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Cheong Soo; Lee, Gwang Gil

    1988-01-01

    Results of ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of extrathyroidal neck masses of 73 patients were reviewed. Included cases were 23 malignant lesions; 16 metastatic tumors, 4 lymphomas, 3 salivary gland tumors and 50 benign lesions: 24 tuberculous lymphadenites, 15 abscess, 3 benign lymph node hyperplasias, etc. There were one case of false negative and none of false positive result for malignancy. In two cases of malignancy, insufficient cellular material was obtained. In one case of lymphoma, and a benign lymph node hyperplasia, it was difficult to distinguish between benignancy and malignancy on cytologic smear. For the malignant lesions, sensitivity was 83%, specificity was 98%, and overall accuracy was 93%. There were none who had suffered adverse effect from the procedure. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology seems to be simple, accurate and safe diagnostic modality for neck masses especially in condition that malignancy can not be excluded

  18. Incisional endometriosis: diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda, P; Srinivasaiah, M

    2010-07-01

    Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  19. Fine-needle cytology of breast lesions seen on mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Ridlen, M.S.; Dowlatshahi, K.; Jokich, P.M.; Bibbo, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stereotactic fine-needle aspiration of nonpalpable breast lesions is operator dependent. The authors have analyzed 250 biopsies at our institution (comparing aspiration cytology with surgical biopsy) for sensitivity, false-negative, and insufficient-sample rates of three different interpreters. Needle aspiration as an alternative to biopsy or a follow-up for lesions of low mammographic suspicion would have resulted in detection of most, but not all, cancers. Over 40 additional biopsies would have been needed to detect each missed cancer. Eighty percent of surgical biopsies would have been needed to detect each missed cancer. Eighty percent of surgical biopsies for low-suspicion lesions could be avoided. Aspiration cytologic series should report separately insufficient samples and LCIS, and should use a consistent threshold for interpreting cytologic results

  20. Role of cytology in screening, staging and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischnaller, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cytology has become an integral component in the battery of diagnostic tools for a rational diagnosis of tumors. When all materials obtainable with sophisticated methods are utilized, almost every pulmonary lesion can be defined micromorphologically. In urgent cases instant staining techniques will permit a 'stat diagnosis'. The characterization of a tumor cell by cytology with accurate typing and grading offers preliminary information for subsequent staging efforts. Bronchial cancer may be both of the single-cell and of the mixed-cell type with the more aggressive cell elements determining the metastasising potential and prognosis. Sampling for cytology is devoid of risks and does not make any special demands on the patients; it can safely be repeated for follow-up studies; it helps to detect tumor regrowths or secondaries at an early stage during postoperative follow-up programs and to monitor treatment-related cellular changes. (Author)

  1. Sonography and cytology in the evaluation of salivary gland masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, G.; Bazzochi, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Bassini, A.; Bellis, G.B.; Di Bonito, L.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of the combined use of US and cytology is evaluated in the diagnosis of masses in yhe salivary glands and adjacent structures. US had 87.2% sensitivity in locating the mass; its accuracy in defining both phisical structure and benign/malignant nature of the lesion was 91% and 74% respectively. Thus US, after demonstrating a lesion, does not always allow the exact definition of its characteristic. In many of these cases, other imaging modalities do not help either. In our series of cases, cytology allowed an unquestionable diagnosis to be made in 87.2% of cases, and the combined use of US and cytology rose the figure to 97%. The only limitation is the evaluation of the deep extent of large masses: in such cases CT or, if available, MR imaging are recommended

  2. Pilomatrixoma of the Arm: A Rare Case with Cytologic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, a benign skin appendageal tumor, is seen commonly in head and neck. Occurrence of pilomatrixoma in the upper extremities is not common and has been reported infrequently in the available literature. Only a few cases with preoperative aspiration cytology have been reported in the literature. A five-year-old girl underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA of a firm subcutaneous nodule on the lateral aspect of left arm. FNA smears showed scattered and few fragments of round to oval cells along with multinucleated giant cells. Few shadow cells were seen. A cytologic impression of pilomatrixoma was rendered, which was confirmed on histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, a common skin appendageal tumor in head and neck region, should be considered in the cytologic differential diagnoses of subcutaneous masses even in unusual locations like arm. The varied cytomorphology should be remembered to avoid misdiagnosis.

  3. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, Janet C.

    2002-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. Litherland, J.C. (2002)

  4. Contributions of cytology examination and methods in lung cancer diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerse, M.; Tercelj, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer (LC) is still the leading cause of cancer death according to published data worldwide and confirmed also by the data obtained from the central Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Early detection of LC has an important impact on the long-term survival rate of the patients. In spite of a great advance in imaging technology for a better visualization and early detection of the neoplasms and a variety of screening tests, only cytopathology examination finally define the neoplastic lesion. Methods. To evaluate the contribution of cytology examination in the diagnosis of LC we studied the cytology diagnoses, comparing them with histology reports in patients, who underwent the diagnostic procedure under suspicion of the LC during last 2 years. Results. Of a total 772 patients, in 241 patients cancer was microscopically confirmed. The most frequent diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (36.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (26.6%), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) (12.9%). There were 22% of neoplasms classified as non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). From the clinician point of view considering the therapy it is very important to distinguish NSCLC from SCLC. And in our study the cytology-histology correlation between these two major types of carcinoma was almost 100%. Based only on cytology, 68 (28.2%) patients received microscopic diagnosis of malignoma, and the specimens for this group of patients were obtained mostly from transbronchial or transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies. Conclusions. Cytology is of great diagnostic value, a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Cytology specimens should be taken in cases where it is not possible to obtain samples for histology. (author)

  5. Common Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Applications in Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Spasenija; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2016-12-01

    - Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established method for detection of genomic aberrations in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive marker testing. - To review common applications of FISH in cytology. - The published literature was reviewed. - Cytology is particularly well suited for all kinds of FISH applications, which is highlighted in respiratory tract cytology with an increasing demand for predictive FISH testing in lung cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the gold standard for detection of predictive anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangements, and the same evaluation criteria as in histology apply to cytology. Several other gene rearrangements, including ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), are becoming clinically important and share the same underlining cytogenetic mechanisms with ALK. MET amplification is one of the most common mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and can be targeted by crizotinib. As genomic aberrations are a hallmark of malignant cells, FISH is a valuable objective ancillary diagnostic tool. In urinary tract cytology, atypical urothelial cells equivocal for malignancy are a common diagnostic dilemma and multitarget FISH can help clarify such cells. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma remains one of the most challenging fields in effusion cytology, and ancillary FISH is useful in establishing the diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a morphology-based technique, and the prerequisite for reliable FISH results is a targeted evaluation of the cells in question (eg, cancer or atypical cells). Cytopathologists and cytotechnicians should therefore be involved in molecular testing in order to select the best material and to provide their morphologic expertise.

  6. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  7. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  8. Classical solutions in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.

    1977-06-01

    Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed

  9. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  10. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  11. Teaching Tomorrow's Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)

  12. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  13. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  14. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Mei; Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1997-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  15. Clinical and cytological definition of endometrial cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titova, V.A.; Titova, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    The state of primary tumor in 45 patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, stage 1-3, during concomitant radical radio-and hormonotherapy according to the data of hysterocervicography, hysterometry and cytohistology have been studied. Contact irradiation was performed in single fractions of 9.5-10.0 Gy per week. The time course of primary uterine tumor regression was observed with regard to various radiation dose levels in accordance with cytological data. The cytological method is regarded as an important quantitative criterion in the evaluation of radio- and hormonotherapeutic efficacy of inoperable endometrial cancer [ru

  16. Insite: Canada's landmark safe injecting program at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucker Ernest

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InSite is North Americas first supervised injection site and a landmark public heath initiative operating in Vancouver since 2003. The program is a vital component of that cities internationally recognized harm reduction approach to its serious problems with drugs, crime, homelessness and AIDS. InSite currently operates under a waiver of Federal rules that allow it to provide services as a research project. An extensive evaluation has produced very positive results for thousands of users. Normally such strong evidence documenting the successes of such a program, and the medical and public health significance of these positive outcomes, would be the basis for celebration and moves to expand the model and provide similar services elsewhere in Canada. Instead, there is a distinct possibility that InSite will be closed by the newly elected Canadian Prime Minister Paul Harper – a conservative who has traveled to the US to visit George WQ Bush and come back antagonistic to harm reduction in all its forms. Because InSites federal waiver is expiring and up for renewal in September, the fear is that Mr. Harpers will not renew the approval and that the program will be forced to close down. The risks associated with the potential closure of InSite need to be fully understood. This editorial lays out these public health risks and the associated economic impact if InSite were to be closed. In addition to preventable deaths and disease, InSites closure will cost Vancouver and British Columbia between $3.8 and $ 8.8 million in preventable health care expenses over the next two years.

  17. IAEA Director General welcomes landmark convention to combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the adoption of an International convention against nuclear terrorism. 'This is a landmark achievement which will bolster global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism,' Dr. ElBaradei said. 'It will be a key part of international efforts to prevent terrorists from gaining access to nuclear weapons'. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the convention, The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, on 13 April 2005. The Convention strengthens the global legal framework to counter terrorist threats. Based on a proposal by the Russian Federation in 1998, the Convention focuses on criminal offences related to nuclear terrorism and covers a broad range of possible targets, including nuclear reactors as well as nuclear material and radioactive substances. Under its provisions, alleged offenders - for example any individual or group that unlawfully and intentionally possesses or uses radioactive material with the intent to cause harm - must be either extradited or prosecuted. States are also encouraged to cooperate with each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings. The Convention further requires that any seized nuclear or radiological material be held in accordance with IAEA safeguards, and handled in keeping with the IAEA's health, safety and physical protection standards. Dr. ElBaradei also recalled that the Agency is in the process of amending the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, in order to broaden its scope, and in so doing, strengthen the current legal framework for securing nuclear material against illicit uses. A conference will be held from 4 to 8 July in Vienna to consider and adopt the amendments. The Convention opens for signature in September this year. Dr ElBaradei urged all States to 'sign and ratify the Convention without delay so nuclear terrorism will have no chance'. (IAEA)

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of smear cytology and Robinson’s cytological grading of canine mammary tumors with respect to histopathology, cytomorphometry, metastases and overall survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Gruk-Jurka, Anna; Wojtkowska, Agata; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Jurka, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Cytology is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method used for pre-operative diagnosis of canine mammary tumors (CMTs) in veterinary practice. Studies related to human breast cancer showed the Robinson’s grading system—established for invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC, NOS) and used on cytological material—to not only closely correspond to the histopathological grading but also be helpful in assessing prognosis and selecting most suitable treatments before surgery. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the accuracy of cytological diagnosis and cytological Robinson’s grading system compared to the histopathological examination of CMTs; to compare of cytological features and cytomorphometric parameters with tumor behavior, as well as cytological and histological grading; and to determine an association of the Robinson’s grading system and cytological background details with metastases, and patients’ survival. We report substantial diagnostic accuracy in detecting simple types and high grade tumors. Cytological diagnosis of tumor behavior showed relatively low sensitivity and specificity compared to human studies, and this might be caused by the heterogeneous morphology of CMTs. The presence of mucosecretory material and extracellular matrix was not significantly associated with tumor behavior. We report a positive correlation between both grading systems and cytological features (included in Robinson’s grading), the presence of necrotic debris, inflammation, and red blood cells. A negative correlation was determined only for the presence of extracellular matrix. The univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed a significantly higher risk of developing metastasis and shorter overall survival for dogs with tumors of grade 2 or 3 on cytology. In addition, these tumors were the most common cause of CMT-related deaths in dogs. Taken together, our findings suggest that the Robinson’s method of cytological grading applied for

  19. Influence of Landmarks on Wayfinding and Brain Connectivity in Immersive Virtual Reality Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeshma Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation is influenced by landmarks, which are prominent visual features in the environment. Although previous research has focused on finding advantages of landmarks on wayfinding via experimentation; however, less attention has been given to identifying the key attributes of landmarks that facilitate wayfinding, including the study of neural correlates (involving electroencephalogram, EEG analyses. In this paper, we combine behavioral measures, virtual environment, and EEG signal-processing to provide a holistic investigation about the influence of landmarks on performance during navigation in a maze-like environment. In an experiment, participants were randomly divided into two conditions, Landmark-enriched (LM+; N = 17 and Landmark-devoid (LM-; N = 18, and asked to navigate from an initial location to a goal location in a maze. In the LM+ condition, there were landmarks placed at certain locations, which participants could use for wayfinding in the maze. However, in the LM- condition, such landmarks were not present. Beyond behavioral analyses of data, analyses were carried out of the EEG data collected using a 64-channel device. Results revealed that participants took less time and committed fewer errors in navigating the maze in the LM+ condition compared to the LM- condition. EEG analyses of the data revealed that the left-hemispheric activation was more prominent in the LM+ condition compared to the LM- condition. The event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS of the theta frequency band, revealed activation in the left posterior inferior and superior regions in the LM+ condition compared to the LM- condition, suggesting an occurrence of an object-location binding in the LM+ condition along with spatial transformation between representations. Moreover, directed transfer function method, which measures information flow between two regions, showed a higher number of active channels in the LM- condition compared to

  20. Corrective surgery for canine patellar luxation in 75 cases (107 limbs): landmark for block recession

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhiro Isaka; Masahiko Befu; Nami Matsubara; Mayuko Ishikawa; Yurie Arase; Toshiyuki Tsuyama; Akiko Doi; Shinichi Namba

    2014-01-01

    Canine medial patellar luxation (MPL) is a very common orthopedic disease in small animals. Because the pathophysiology of this disease involves various pathways, the surgical techniques and results vary according to the veterinarian. Further, the landmark for block recession is not completely clear. We retrospectively evaluated 75 dogs (107 limbs) with MPL in whom our landmark for block recession was used from July 2008 to May 2013. Information regarding the breed, age, sex, body weight, bod...

  1. Effects of image enhancement on reliability of landmark identification in digital cephalometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although digital cephalometric radiography is gaining popularity in orthodontic practice, the most important source of error in its tracing is uncertainty in landmark identification. Therefore, efforts to improve accuracy in landmark identification were directed primarily toward the improvement in image quality. One of the more useful techniques of this process involves digital image enhancement which can increase overall visual quality of image, but this does not necessarily mean a better identification of landmarks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of digital image enhancements on reliability of landmark identification. Materials and Methods: Fifteen common landmarks including 10 skeletal and 5 soft tissues were selected on the cephalograms of 20 randomly selected patients, prepared in Natural Head Position (NHP. Two observers (orthodontists identified landmarks on the 20 original photostimulable phosphor (PSP digital cephalogram images and 20 enhanced digital images twice with an intervening time interval of at least 4 weeks. The x and y coordinates were further analyzed to evaluate the pattern of recording differences in horizontal and vertical directions. Reliability of landmarks identification was analyzed by paired t test. Results: There was a significant difference between original and enhanced digital images in terms of reliability of points Ar and N in vertical and horizontal dimensions, and enhanced images were significantly more reliable than original images. Identification of A point, Pogonion and Pronasal points, in vertical dimension of enhanced images was significantly more reliable than original ones. Reliability of Menton point identification in horizontal dimension was significantly more in enhanced images than original ones. Conclusion: Direct digital image enhancement by altering brightness and contrast can increase reliability of some landmark identification and this may lead to more

  2. Efficacy of navigation may be influenced by retrosplenial cortex-mediated learning of landmark stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Stephen D; Zeidman, Peter; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2017-09-01

    Human beings differ considerably in their ability to orient and navigate within the environment, but it has been difficult to determine specific causes of these individual differences. Permanent, stable landmarks are thought to be crucial for building a mental representation of an environment. Poor, compared to good, navigators have been shown to have difficulty identifying permanent landmarks, with a concomitant reduction in functional MRI (fMRI) activity in the retrosplenial cortex. However, a clear association between navigation ability and the learning of permanent landmarks has not been established. Here we tested for such a link. We had participants learn a virtual reality environment by repeatedly moving through it during fMRI scanning. The environment contained landmarks of which participants had no prior experience, some of which remained fixed in their locations while others changed position each time they were seen. After the fMRI learning phase, we divided participants into good and poor navigators based on their ability to find their way in the environment. The groups were closely matched on a range of cognitive and structural brain measures. Examination of the learning phase during scanning revealed that, while good and poor navigators learned to recognise the environment's landmarks at a similar rate, poor navigators were impaired at registering whether landmarks were stable or transient, and this was associated with reduced engagement of the retrosplenial cortex. Moreover, a mediation analysis showed that there was a significant effect of landmark permanence learning on navigation performance mediated through retrosplenial cortex activity. We conclude that a diminished ability to process landmark permanence may be a contributory factor to sub-optimal navigation, and could be related to the level of retrosplenial cortex engagement. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Cálculo distribuido de landmarks para sistemas de planificación multiagente

    OpenAIRE

    Oropesa Física, Ana

    2013-01-01

    En este Proyecto Final de Carrera se verá la motivación por la que hacer una heurística multiagente utilizando landmarks, la construcción de ésta y unos posteriores resultados y comparativas con la heurística monoagente entre otras. Oropesa Física, A. (2013). Cálculo distribuido de landmarks para sistemas de planificación multiagente. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/32520. Archivo delegado

  4. Sequential egocentric navigation and reliance on landmarks in Williams syndrome and typical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah eBroadbent

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial difficulties in Williams syndrome (WS are well documented. Recently, research has shown that spatial difficulties in WS extend to large-scale space, particularly in coding space using an allocentric frame of reference. Typically developing (TD children and adults predominantly rely on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate a large-scale route (retracing a sequence of left-right body turns. The aim of this study was to examine whether individuals with WS are able to employ a sequential egocentric strategy to guide learning and the retracing of a route. Forty-eight TD children, aged 5, 7 and 9 years and 18 participants with WS were examined on their ability to learn and retrace routes in two (6-turn virtual environment mazes (with and without landmarks. The ability to successfully retrace a route following the removal of landmarks (use of sequential egocentric coding was also examined.Although in line with TD 5 year-olds when learning a route with landmarks, individuals with WS showed significantly greater detriment when these landmarks were removed, relative to all TD groups. Moreover, the WS group made significantly more errors than all TD groups when learning a route that never contained landmarks. On a perceptual view-matching task, results revealed a high level of performance across groups, indicative of an ability to use this visual information to potentially aid navigation. These findings suggest that individuals with WS rely on landmarks to a greater extent than TD children, both for learning a route and for retracing a recently learned route. TD children, but not individuals with WS, were able to fall back on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy to navigate when landmarks were not present. Only TD children therefore coded sequential route information simultaneously with landmark information. The results are discussed in relation to known atypical cortical development and perceptual-matching abilities

  5. ExpNet: Landmark-Free, Deep, 3D Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Feng-Ju; Tran, Anh Tuan; Hassner, Tal; Masi, Iacopo; Nevatia, Ram; Medioni, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    We describe a deep learning based method for estimating 3D facial expression coefficients. Unlike previous work, our process does not relay on facial landmark detection methods as a proxy step. Recent methods have shown that a CNN can be trained to regress accurate and discriminative 3D morphable model (3DMM) representations, directly from image intensities. By foregoing facial landmark detection, these methods were able to estimate shapes for occluded faces appearing in unprecedented in-the-...

  6. Digital analysis of facial landmarks in determining facial midline among Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kurian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prosthodontic rehabilitation aims to achieve the best possible facial esthetic appearance for a patient. Attaining facial symmetry forms the basic element for esthetics, and knowledge of the midline of face will result in a better understanding of dentofacial esthetics. Currently, there are no guidelines that direct the choice of specific anatomic landmarks to determine the midline of the face or mouth. Most clinicians choose one specific anatomic landmark and an imaginary line passing through it. Thus, the clinician is left with no established guidelines to determine facial midline. Objective: The purpose of the study is to digitally determine the relationship of facial landmarks with midline of face and formulate a guideline for choosing anatomic landmark among Punjabi population. Materials and Methods: Three commonly used anatomic landmarks, namely nasion, tip of the nose, and tip of the philtrum, were marked clinically on 100 participants (age range: 21–45 years. Frontal full-face digital images of the participants in smile were then made under standardized conditions. Midline analysis was carried out digitally using an image analyzing software. The entire process of midline analysis was done by a single observer and repeated twice. Reliability analysis and one-sample t-tests were conducted. Results: The results indicated that each of the four landmarks deviated uniquely and significantly (P < 0.001 from the midlines of the face as well as the mouth. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, the hierarchy of anatomic landmarks closest to the midline of the face in smile was as follows: (1 Intercommissural midlines, (2 Tip of philtrum, (3 Nasion, (4 Tip of the nose, and (5 Dental midlines. The hierarchy of anatomical landmarks closest to the intercommissural/mouth midline was: (1 Tip of philtrum, (2 Tip of the nose, (3 Nasion, and (4 dental midline.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  8. Diagnostic performance of dual-staining cytology for cervical cancer screening: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A A

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening saves lives. Secondary prevention in cervical cancer screening relies on the results of primary cytology and/or HPV testing. However, primary screening with cytology has a low sensitivity, and HPV screening has a low specificity. This means that either cancers are missed, or women are over-treated. To improve performance outcomes, the concept of dual-stain cytology (CINtec ® PLUS Cytology test) has been introduced. In this approach, additional staining with p16/Ki-67 is performed in cases where cytology results are abnormal (LSIL or ASCUS) and/or HPV-positive. Another way to describe this approach might be "diagnostic" cytology. In order to assess the value of this "diagnostic cytology", a systematic literature review was conducted of dual-stain cytology performance across multiple studies until May 2016. In a Belgian screening population (women age 25-65 years), dual-stain cytology was significantly more sensitive (66%) and slightly less specific (-1.0%) than cytology. In the population referred to colposcopy or with abnormal cytology (ASCUS, LSIL), dual-staining showed a significantly higher increase in specificity, and a slightly lower sensitivity than HPV testing. Specificity gains resulted in fewer false positives and an increase in the number of correct referrals to colposcopy. Dual-staining with p16/Ki-67 cytology is an attractive biomarker approach for triage in cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  10. Influence of Landmarks on Spatial Memory in Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Wen; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Gong, Yan-Yan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Li-Biao

    2010-04-01

    In order to study the relationship between landmarks and spatial memory in short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae), we simulated a foraging environment in the laboratory. Different landmarks were placed to gauge the spatial memory of C. sphinx. We changed the number of landmarks every day with 0 landmarks again on the fifth day (from 0, 2, 4, 8 to 0). Individuals from the control group were exposed to the identical artificial foraging environment, but without landmarks. The results indicated that there was significant correlation between the time of the first foraging and the experimental days in both groups (Pearson Correlation: experimental group: r=-0.593, P0.05), but there was significant correlation between the success rates of foraging and the experimental days in the control groups (Pearson Correlation: r=0.445, P0.05); also, there was no significant difference in success rates of foraging between these two groups (GLM: F(0.05,1 )=0.849, P>0.05). The results of our experiment suggest that spatial memory in C. sphinx was formed gradually and that the placed landmarks appeared to have no discernable effects on the memory of the foraging space.

  11. Cephalometric landmark detection in dental x-ray images using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Park, Minseok; Kim, Junmo

    2017-03-01

    In dental X-ray images, an accurate detection of cephalometric landmarks plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgical decisions for dental problems. In this work, we propose an end-to-end deep learning system for cephalometric landmark detection in dental X-ray images, using convolutional neural networks (CNN). For detecting 19 cephalometric landmarks in dental X-ray images, we develop a detection system using CNN-based coordinate-wise regression systems. By viewing x- and y-coordinates of all landmarks as 38 independent variables, multiple CNN-based regression systems are constructed to predict the coordinate variables from input X-ray images. First, each coordinate variable is normalized by the length of either height or width of an image. For each normalized coordinate variable, a CNN-based regression system is trained on training images and corresponding coordinate variable, which is a variable to be regressed. We train 38 regression systems with the same CNN structure on coordinate variables, respectively. Finally, we compute 38 coordinate variables with these trained systems from unseen images and extract 19 landmarks by pairing the regressed coordinates. In experiments, the public database from the Grand Challenges in Dental X-ray Image Analysis in ISBI 2015 was used and the proposed system showed promising performance by successfully locating the cephalometric landmarks within considerable margins from the ground truths.

  12. Multiobjective optimization framework for landmark measurement error correction in three-dimensional cephalometric tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, A; Secanell, M; Lagravère, M O; Carey, J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to minimize errors that occur when using a four vs six landmark superimpositioning method in the cranial base to define the co-ordinate system. Cone beam CT volumetric data from ten patients were used for this study. Co-ordinate system transformations were performed. A co-ordinate system was constructed using two planes defined by four anatomical landmarks located by an orthodontist. A second co-ordinate system was constructed using four anatomical landmarks that are corrected using a numerical optimization algorithm for any landmark location operator error using information from six landmarks. The optimization algorithm minimizes the relative distance and angle between the known fixed points in the two images to find the correction. Measurement errors and co-ordinates in all axes were obtained for each co-ordinate system. Significant improvement is observed after using the landmark correction algorithm to position the final co-ordinate system. The errors found in a previous study are significantly reduced. Errors found were between 1 mm and 2 mm. When analysing real patient data, it was found that the 6-point correction algorithm reduced errors between images and increased intrapoint reliability. A novel method of optimizing the overlay of three-dimensional images using a 6-point correction algorithm was introduced and examined. This method demonstrated greater reliability and reproducibility than the previous 4-point correction algorithm.

  13. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  14. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  15. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, F. Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  16. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  17. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  18. Invitation to classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ

  19. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  20. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  1. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Malukani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed.

  3. Cytological Determination Of The Estrus Cycle In Guinea Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...

  4. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses - Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Early pathological classification of retroperitoneal masses is important for pin-point diagnosis and timely management. Aims : This study was done to evaluate the usefulness and drawbacks of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of retroperitoneal masses covering a period of two years with an intention to distinguish between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and to correlate with histologic findings. Materials and Methods : FNAC was done under radiological guidance in all cases using long needle fitted with disposable syringe. Appropriate staining was done and cytology was correlated with histology which was taken as the gold standard for comparison. Results : Fifty-one patients who presented with retroperitoneal masses were studied. Forty-four lesions were malignant cytologically and 7 were inflammatory (tuberculous. According to radiological and cytologic findings, we classified our cases into four groups: renal tumors, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, germ cell tumors, soft tissue tumors. Except for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and metastatic lesions, we had sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In NHL the sensitivity and specificity were both 50%. In cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusions : Ignoring the pitfalls, guided FNAC is still an inexpensive and reliable method of early diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions.

  5. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF CYTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PLEURAL FLUID IN TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Jamal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem with highest incidence in developing countries like India. It involves a large number of organs including lungs, pleural lymph nodes, genital sytem, gastrointestinal tract, etc. In resource poor countries, cytological examination of pleural fluid serves as a rapid, effective, economical and easy method of diagnosing tubercuolus pleural effusions, which can be correlated with other newer ancillary techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 100 patients coming to Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, over a period of two years from August 2012 to September 2014 with clinical complaints of cough, fever and chest pain with a clinical diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. RESULTS Pleural tapping was done and detailed cytological examination of pleural fluid was done and its findings were correlated with gross, biochemical and microbiological findings. Both wet fixed (Giemsa stained and air-dried slides (Papanicolaou stained were prepared and microscopic examination was done. Special stains like Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN stain for acid-fast bacilli was also performed for confirmation. CONCLUSION Cytological smears revealed predominance of lymphocytes. Mesothelial cells were absent or nearly absent. Eosinophils followed mesothelial cell pattern and were absent in a relatively large number of cases. This technique is safe, reliable, cost-effective and can be used for diagnostic purposes. It is also less traumatic as compared to pleural biopsy. Cytological examination when combined with other newer diagnostic test increases the chances of accurate diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion.

  6. Value of urine cytology in screening patients with prostatitis syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Hubregtse, M. R.; Wiersma, A. M.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed the results of urine cytology examination of 206 patients with a diagnosis of prostatitis syndromes in the period 1985-1991. The urine samples showed an incidence of 20.4% for slight to moderate atypia and 6.3% for severe atypia. In these patients, cystoscopy, bladder biopsies and

  7. Cost effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology for breast masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total cost for FNAC and histopathology as well as cost saving between FNAC and histopathology for the 110 patients were calculated. Result: The total cost for FNAC procedure and cytological evaluation of each smear was one thousand, seven hundred naira (N1,700.00 = US$11). The total cost for open surgical ...

  8. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in detecting malignancy for thyroid disease using histopathology ... thyroid carcinoma being the most predominant type and colloid goiter was the most predominant benign thyroid disease. The sensitivity ..... tic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid.

  10. Prostate cancer detection: Fusion of cytological and textural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-assisted system for histological prostate cancer diagnosis can assist pathologists in two stages: (i to locate cancer regions in a large digitized tissue biopsy, and (ii to assign Gleason grades to the regions detected in stage 1. Most previous studies on this topic have primarily addressed the second stage by classifying the preselected tissue regions. In this paper, we address the first stage by presenting a cancer detection approach for the whole slide tissue image. We propose a novel method to extract a cytological feature, namely the presence of cancer nuclei (nuclei with prominent nucleoli in the tissue, and apply this feature to detect the cancer regions. Additionally, conventional image texture features which have been widely used in the literature are also considered. The performance comparison among the proposed cytological textural feature combination method, the texture-based method and the cytological feature-based method demonstrates the robustness of the extracted cytological feature. At a false positive rate of 6%, the proposed method is able to achieve a sensitivity of 78% on a dataset including six training images (each of which has approximately 4,000x7,000 pixels and 1 1 whole-slide test images (each of which has approximately 5,000x23,000 pixels. All images are at 20X magnification.

  11. Prostate cancer detection: Fusion of cytological and textural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien; Jain, Anil K; Sabata, Bikash

    2011-01-01

    A computer-assisted system for histological prostate cancer diagnosis can assist pathologists in two stages: (i) to locate cancer regions in a large digitized tissue biopsy, and (ii) to assign Gleason grades to the regions detected in stage 1. Most previous studies on this topic have primarily addressed the second stage by classifying the preselected tissue regions. In this paper, we address the first stage by presenting a cancer detection approach for the whole slide tissue image. We propose a novel method to extract a cytological feature, namely the presence of cancer nuclei (nuclei with prominent nucleoli) in the tissue, and apply this feature to detect the cancer regions. Additionally, conventional image texture features which have been widely used in the literature are also considered. The performance comparison among the proposed cytological textural feature combination method, the texture-based method and the cytological feature-based method demonstrates the robustness of the extracted cytological feature. At a false positive rate of 6%, the proposed method is able to achieve a sensitivity of 78% on a dataset including six training images (each of which has approximately 4,000×7,000 pixels) and 1 1 whole-slide test images (each of which has approximately 5,000×23,000 pixels). All images are at 20X magnification.

  12. Addressing the challenges of practicing breast cytology in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-08

    Jan 8, 2011 ... Breast cancer accounted for 23.3% of all cancers in women in Kenya during the ... for an early and rapid diagnosis (2). Facilities for doing .... yse the cause/s which could have led to diagnostic error. (pitfall) in cytology with ...

  13. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  14. A Cross Section Study to Correlate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Background: Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is cheap, simple, quick, minimally invasive procedure that is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of Parotid tumours. Methods: Twenty five patients were prospectively studied over a two-year period at four major hospitals in Zambia. FNAC was done using a 10cc syringe ...

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast lumps with histopathologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosis of palpable breast lesions, in recent years two types of minimally invasive .... negative predictive value of FNAC as a diagnostic pro- cedure for the entire ... The earliest large scale use of Fine Needle aspiration. Cytology FNAC as a ...

  16. Biochemical and cytological analysis of five cultivars of Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... variability and relatedness, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative to ... Indian Institute of Pulse Research, Kanpur (U.P.) India. During the present study, five accessions were used for biochemical and cytological analysis. The details of five ... using pestle and mortar. 500 ml of protein ...

  17. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli

    Full Text Available Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  18. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Giarnieri, Enrico; Carico, Elisabetta; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist) has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  19. Cytological diagnostic of lymphadenitis tuberculosis by eosinophilic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    AFB sputum and chest X-ray are used to identify patients with pulmonary TB. For extrapulmonary TB, fine needle aspiration cytology is needed, even though occasionally found not atypical feature in the form of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles, suspected as TB. This research was to show that eosinophilic material with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria for the cytological diagnosis of TB. By performing fine needle aspiration biopsy stained with Giemsa, if an eosinophilic material with dark brown particles was encountered, we continued with Ziehl-Neelsen AFB stain and confirmed with PCR. To assess accuracy, we used a diagnostic test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles by using AFB and PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in tuberculosis of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles were 93.65% and 70.99%, respectively if confirmed with AFB. On the other hand, if confirmed with PCR using Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.95% and 96.79%, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic masses with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria of TB diagnostic cytology with high sensitivity and specificity confirmed with AFB and PCR test.

  20. Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Histopathologic Diagnosis. Wondwossen Ergete, Daniel Abebe. Abstract. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is a low cost procedure, which can give an accurate diagnosis promptly. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic ...

  1. Comparison of the spatial landmark scatter of various 3D digitalization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Florian; Weinzierl, Christian; Hertrich, Klaus; Hirschfelder, Ursula

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare four different three-dimensional digitalization methods on the basis of the complex anatomical surface of a cleft lip and palate plaster cast, and to ascertain their accuracy when positioning 3D landmarks. A cleft lip and palate plaster cast was digitalized with the SCAN3D photo-optical scanner, the OPTIX 400S laser-optical scanner, the Somatom Sensation 64 computed tomography system and the MicroScribe MLX 3-axis articulated-arm digitizer. First, four examiners appraised by individual visual inspection the surface detail reproduction of the three non-tactile digitalization methods in comparison to the reference plaster cast. The four examiners then localized the landmarks five times at intervals of 2 weeks. This involved simply copying, or spatially tracing, the landmarks from a reference plaster cast to each model digitally reproduced by each digitalization method. Statistical analysis of the landmark distribution specific to each method was performed based on the 3D coordinates of the positioned landmarks. Visual evaluation of surface detail conformity assigned the photo-optical digitalization method an average score of 1.5, the highest subjectively-determined conformity (surpassing computer tomographic and laser-optical methods). The tactile scanning method revealed the lowest degree of 3D landmark scatter, 0.12 mm, and at 1.01 mm the lowest maximum 3D landmark scatter; this was followed by the computer tomographic, photo-optical and laser-optical methods (in that order). This study demonstrates that the landmarks' precision and reproducibility are determined by the complexity of the reference-model surface as well as the digital surface quality and individual ability of each evaluator to capture 3D spatial relationships. The differences in the 3D-landmark scatter values and lowest maximum 3D-landmark scatter between the best and the worst methods showed minor differences. The measurement results in this study reveal that it

  2. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  3. Classical algebraic chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    I develop an extension of the usual equations of SU(n) chromodynamics which permits the consistent introduction of classical, noncommuting quark source charges. The extension involves adding a singlet gluon, giving a U(n) -based theory with outer product P/sup a/(u,v) = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc)(u/sup b/v/sup c/ - v/sup b/u/sup c/) which obeys the Jacobi identity, inner product S (u,v) = (1/2)(u/sup a/v/sup a/ + v/sup a/u/sup a/), and with the n 2 gluon fields elevated to algebraic fields over the quark color charge C* algebra. I show that provided the color charge algebra satisfies the condition S (P (u,v),w) = S (u,P (v,w)) for all elements u,v,w of the algebra, all the standard derivations of Lagrangian chromodynamics continue to hold in the algebraic chromodynamics case. I analyze in detail the color charge algebra in the two-particle (qq, qq-bar, q-barq-bar) case and show that the above consistency condition is satisfied for the following unique (and, interestingly, asymmetric) choice of quark and antiquark charges: Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi/sup a/, Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi-bar/sup a/ + delta/sup a/0(n/2)/sup 3/2/1, with xi/sup a/xi/sup b/ = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc) xi/sup c/, xi-bar/sup a/xi-bar/sup b/ = -(1/2)(d/sup a/bc - if/sup a/bc) xi-bar/sup c/. The algebraic structure of the two-particle U(n) force problem, when expressed on an appropriately diagonalized basis, leads for all n to a classical dynamics problem involving an ordinary SU(2) Yang-Mills field with uniquely specified classical source charges which are nonparallel in the color-singlet state. An explicit calculation shows that local algebraic U(n) gauge transformations lead only to a rigid global rotation of axes in the overlying classical SU(2) problem, which implies that the relative orientations of the classical source charges have physical significance

  4. Localization of skeletal and aortic landmarks in trauma CT data based on the discriminative generalized Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Hansis, Eberhard; Weese, Jürgen; Carolus, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography is the modality of choice for poly-trauma patients to assess rapidly skeletal and vascular integrity of the whole body. Often several scans with and without contrast medium or with different spatial resolution are acquired. Efficient reading of the resulting extensive set of image data is vital, since it is often time critical to initiate the necessary therapeutic actions. A set of automatically found landmarks can facilitate navigation in the data and enables anatomy oriented viewing. Following this intention, we selected a comprehensive set of 17 skeletal and 5 aortic landmarks. Landmark localization models for the Discriminative Generalized Hough Transform (DGHT) were automatically created based on a set of about 20 training images with ground truth landmark positions. A hierarchical setup with 4 resolution levels was used. Localization results were evaluated on a separate test set, consisting of 50 to 128 images (depending on the landmark) with available ground truth landmark locations. The image data covers a large amount of variability caused by differences of field-of-view, resolution, contrast agent, patient gender and pathologies. The median localization error for the set of aortic landmarks was 14.4 mm and for the set of skeleton landmarks 5.5 mm. Median localization errors for individual landmarks ranged from 3.0 mm to 31.0 mm. The runtime performance for the whole landmark set is about 5s on a typical PC.

  5. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  6. Cytological features of myxomatous fibroadenoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rin; Tanaka, Maki; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Nonaka, Yasuhide; Mizushima, Yasuko; Kawahara, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Ito, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Miki; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2012-04-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is a benign tumor that must be differentiated from carcinomas. FAs often exhibit myxedematous changes (myxomatous FA, M-FA). We previously reported on the clinical significance of M-FA. M-FA and (mucinous) carcinoma share clinical findings, rapid growth and a relatively large size, a high-depth/width (D/W) ratio, a relatively round shape, and posterior echo enhancement with internal hyperechogenicity on ultrasonography (US). Next, a biopsy is required for differential diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic significance of the cytological findings of M-FA with US findings. Among 13 FAs that were diagnosed by cytology, we compared (i) a group of six mucinous carcinomas with acellular mucin and a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (a suspicious factor for malignancy) with a group with a D/W ratio of <0.7, and (ii) the frequency of metachromasia on Giemsa stain between M-FAs and non-M-FAs among eight FA cases confirmed by histology. (i) FA lesions (7 of 13) showed metachromasia with Giemsa staining significantly more frequently than did mucinous carcinoma (0/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.044). FA lesions with a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (6/7) showed metachromasia significantly more frequently than did FA with a D/W ratio <0.7 (1/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.029). Among eight FA cases confirmed by histology, M-FA cases (6/6) demonstrated metachromasia significantly more frequently than non-M-FA cases (0/2) (P < 0.036). M-FA cytologically exhibits marked metachromasia on Giemsa staining. Combining cytological examination and understanding the clinical features of M-FA may allow us to choose cytological examination as a first-line diagnostic method for tumor-forming lesions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Thyroid Cytology in India: Contemporary Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shipra; Jain, Deepali

    2017-11-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a screening test for triaging thyroid nodules, aiding in subsequent clinical management. However, the advantages have been overshadowed by the multiplicity of reporting systems and a wide range of nomenclature used. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was formulated in 2007, to give the world a uniform thyroid cytology reporting system, facilitating easy interpretation by the clinicians. Here, we review the status of thyroid FNAC in India in terms of various reporting systems used including a meta-analysis of the previously published data. An extensive literature search was performed using internet search engines. The reports with detailed classification system used in thyroid cytology were included. The meta-analysis of published data was compared with the implied risk of malignancy by TBSRTC. More than 50 studies were retrieved and evaluated. TBSRTC is currently the most widely used reporting system with different studies showing good efficacy and interobserver concordance. Ancillary techniques have, as of now, limited applicability and acceptability in thyroid cytology in India. Twenty-eight published articles met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. When compared with TBSRTC recommendations, the meta-analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for categories I and III. Thyroid FNAC is practiced all over India. TBSRTC has found widespread acceptance, with most institutions using this system for routine thyroid cytology reporting. However, reasons for a high malignancy risk for categories I and III need to be looked into. Various possible contributing factors are discussed in the review.

  8. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κ w ) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κ w = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κ w = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κ w = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κ w = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κ w = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  9. Correlations of External Landmarks With Internal Structures of the Temporal Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromchai, Patorn; Wijewickrema, Sudanthi; Smeds, Henrik; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    The internal anatomy of a temporal bone could be inferred from external landmarks. Mastoid surgery is an important skill that ENT surgeons need to acquire. Surgeons commonly use CT scans as a guide to understanding anatomical variations before surgery. Conversely, in cases where CT scans are not available, or in the temporal bone laboratory where residents are usually not provided with CT scans, it would be beneficial if the internal anatomy of a temporal bone could be inferred from external landmarks. We explored correlations between internal anatomical variations and metrics established to quantify the position of external landmarks that are commonly exposed in the operating room, or the temporal bone laboratory, before commencement of drilling. Mathematical models were developed to predict internal anatomy based on external structures. From an operating room view, the distances between the following external landmarks were observed to have statistically significant correlations with the internal anatomy of a temporal bone: temporal line, external auditory canal, mastoid tip, occipitomastoid suture, and Henle's spine. These structures can be used to infer a low lying dura mater (p = 0.002), an anteriorly located sigmoid sinus (p = 0.006), and a more lateral course of the facial nerve (p external landmarks. The distances between these two landmarks and the operating view external structures were able to further infer the laterality of the facial nerve (p internal structures with a high level of accuracy: the distance from the sigmoid sinus to the posterior external auditory canal (p external landmarks found on the temporal bone. These relationships could be used as a guideline to predict challenges during drilling and choosing appropriate temporal bones for dissection.

  10. Accuracy of intraoral digital impressions using an artificial landmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Amelya, Ami; Shin, Yooseok; Shim, June-Sung

    2017-06-01

    Intraoral scanners have been reported to have limited accuracy in edentulous areas. Large amounts of mobile tissue and the lack of obvious anatomic landmarks make it difficult to acquire a precise digital impression of an edentulous area with an intraoral scanner. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of an artificial landmark on a long edentulous space on the accuracy outcomes of intraoral digital impressions. A mandibular model containing 4 prepared teeth and an edentulous space of 26 mm in length was used. A blue-light light-emitting diode tabletop scanner was used as a control scanner, and 3 intraoral scanners were used as experimental groups. Five scans were made using each intraoral scanner without an artificial landmark, and another 5 scans were performed after application of an artificial landmark (a 4×3 mm alumina material) on the edentulous area. The obtained datasets were used to evaluate trueness and precision. Without an artificial landmark on the edentulous area, the mean trueness for the intraoral scanner ranged from 36.1 to 38.8 μm and the mean precision ranged from 13.0 to 43.6 μm. With an artificial landmark on the edentulous area, accuracy was improved significantly: the mean trueness was 26.7 to 31.8 μm, and the mean precision was 9.2 to 12.4 μm. The use of an alumina artificial landmark in an edentulous space improved the trueness and precision of the intraoral scanners tested. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Soltanimehr, Elham; Zamani, Ali; Oshagh, Morteza; Moattari, Marzieh; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods

  12. UroVysion compared with cytology and quantitative cytology in the surveillance of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.M.J.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Peelen, P.; Karthaus, H.F.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization probe set Vysis UroVysion, consisting of probes for chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and for the 9p21 band, was studied to evaluate its value in the follow-up of patients with bladder cancer. The results were compared with conventional cytology

  13. Cervical cancer incidence after normal cytological sample in routine screening using SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Naber, Steffie K; Penning, Corine

    2017-01-01

    of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands (PALGA), January 2000 to March 2013.Population Women with 5 924 474 normal screening samples (23 833 123 person years).Exposure Use of SurePath or ThinPrep versus conventional cytology as screening test.Main outcome measure 72 month cumulative incidence...

  14. Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Kala

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same.

  15. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  16. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  17. Landmark memories are more robust when acquired at the nest site than en route: experiments in desert ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2003-03-01

    Foraging desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, encounter different sequences of visual landmarks while navigating by path integration. This paper explores the question whether the storage of landmark information depends on the context in which the landmarks are learned during an ant's foraging journey. Two experimental set-ups were designed in which the ants experienced an artificial landmark panorama that was placed either around the nest entrance (nest marks) or along the vector route leading straight towards the feeder (route marks). The two training paradigms resulted in pronounced differences in the storage characteristics of the acquired landmark information: memory traces of nest marks were much more robust against extinction and/or suppression than those of route marks. In functional terms, this result is in accord with the observation that desert ants encounter new route marks during every foraging run but always pass the same landmarks when approaching the nest entrance.

  18. Online updating of context-aware landmark detectors for prostate localization in daily treatment CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xiubin [College of Geographic and Biologic Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210015, China and IDEA Lab, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 (United States); Gao, Yaozong [IDEA Lab, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 (United States); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [IDEA Lab, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27510 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In image guided radiation therapy, it is crucial to fast and accurately localize the prostate in the daily treatment images. To this end, the authors propose an online update scheme for landmark-guided prostate segmentation, which can fully exploit valuable patient-specific information contained in the previous treatment images and can achieve improved performance in landmark detection and prostate segmentation. Methods: To localize the prostate in the daily treatment images, the authors first automatically detect six anatomical landmarks on the prostate boundary by adopting a context-aware landmark detection method. Specifically, in this method, a two-layer regression forest is trained as a detector for each target landmark. Once all the newly detected landmarks from new treatment images are reviewed or adjusted (if necessary) by clinicians, they are further included into the training pool as new patient-specific information to update all the two-layer regression forests for the next treatment day. As more and more treatment images of the current patient are acquired, the two-layer regression forests can be continually updated by incorporating the patient-specific information into the training procedure. After all target landmarks are detected, a multiatlas random sample consensus (multiatlas RANSAC) method is used to segment the entire prostate by fusing multiple previously segmented prostates of the current patient after they are aligned to the current treatment image. Subsequently, the segmented prostate of the current treatment image is again reviewed (or even adjusted if needed) by clinicians before including it as a new shape example into the prostate shape dataset for helping localize the entire prostate in the next treatment image. Results: The experimental results on 330 images of 24 patients show the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed online update scheme in improving the accuracies of both landmark detection and prostate segmentation

  19. Online updating of context-aware landmark detectors for prostate localization in daily treatment CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xiubin; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In image guided radiation therapy, it is crucial to fast and accurately localize the prostate in the daily treatment images. To this end, the authors propose an online update scheme for landmark-guided prostate segmentation, which can fully exploit valuable patient-specific information contained in the previous treatment images and can achieve improved performance in landmark detection and prostate segmentation. Methods: To localize the prostate in the daily treatment images, the authors first automatically detect six anatomical landmarks on the prostate boundary by adopting a context-aware landmark detection method. Specifically, in this method, a two-layer regression forest is trained as a detector for each target landmark. Once all the newly detected landmarks from new treatment images are reviewed or adjusted (if necessary) by clinicians, they are further included into the training pool as new patient-specific information to update all the two-layer regression forests for the next treatment day. As more and more treatment images of the current patient are acquired, the two-layer regression forests can be continually updated by incorporating the patient-specific information into the training procedure. After all target landmarks are detected, a multiatlas random sample consensus (multiatlas RANSAC) method is used to segment the entire prostate by fusing multiple previously segmented prostates of the current patient after they are aligned to the current treatment image. Subsequently, the segmented prostate of the current treatment image is again reviewed (or even adjusted if needed) by clinicians before including it as a new shape example into the prostate shape dataset for helping localize the entire prostate in the next treatment image. Results: The experimental results on 330 images of 24 patients show the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed online update scheme in improving the accuracies of both landmark detection and prostate segmentation

  20. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  1. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  2. Classical dynamics on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes

  3. Gender differences in the use of external landmarks versus spatial representations updated by self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrey, Simon; Berthoz, Alain

    2007-09-01

    Numerous data in the literature provide evidence for gender differences in spatial orientation. In particular, it has been suggested that spatial representations of large-scale environments are more accurate in terms of metric information in men than in women but are richer in landmark information in women than in men. One explanatory hypothesis is that men and women differ in terms of navigational processes they used in daily life. The present study investigated this hypothesis by distinguishing two navigational processes: spatial updating by self-motion and landmark-based orientation. Subjects were asked to perform a pointing task in three experimental conditions, which differed in terms of reliability of the external landmarks that could be used. Two groups of subjects were distinguished, a mobile group and an immobile group, in which spatial updating of environmental locations did not have the same degree of importance for the correct performance of the pointing task. We found that men readily relied on an internal egocentric representation of where landmarks were expected to be in order to perform the pointing task, a representation that could be updated during self-motion (spatial updating). In contrast, women seemed to take their bearings more readily on the basis of the stable landmarks of the external world. We suggest that this gender difference in spatial orientation is not due to differences in information processing abilities but rather due to the differences in higher level strategies.

  4. A multi-subject evaluation of uncertainty in anatomical landmark location on shoulder kinematic description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer, Joseph E; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Mell, Amy G; Laz, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    An accurate assessment of shoulder kinematics is useful for understanding healthy normal and pathological mechanics. Small variability in identifying and locating anatomical landmarks (ALs) has potential to affect reported shoulder kinematics. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of landmark location variability on scapular and humeral kinematic descriptions for multiple subjects using probabilistic analysis methods, and to evaluate the consistency in results across multiple subjects. Data from 11 healthy subjects performing humeral elevation in the scapular plane were used to calculate Euler angles describing humeral and scapular kinematics. Probabilistic analyses were performed for each subject to simulate uncertainty in the locations of 13 upper-extremity ALs. For standard deviations of 4 mm in landmark location, the analysis predicted Euler angle envelopes between the 1 and 99 percentile bounds of up to 16.6 degrees . While absolute kinematics varied with the subject, the average 1-99% kinematic ranges for the motion were consistent across subjects and sensitivity factors showed no statistically significant differences between subjects. The description of humeral kinematics was most sensitive to the location of landmarks on the thorax, while landmarks on the scapula had the greatest effect on the description of scapular elevation. The findings of this study can provide a better understanding of kinematic variability, which can aid in making accurate clinical diagnoses and refining kinematic measurement techniques.

  5. Automated landmark extraction for orthodontic measurement of faces using the 3-camera photogrammetry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Roberto; Di Gioia, Eliana; Galantucci, Luigi Maria; Percoco, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    To set up a three-dimensional photogrammetric scanning system for precise landmark measurements, without any physical contact, using a low-cost and noninvasive digital photogrammetric solution, for supporting several necessity in clinical orthodontics and/or surgery diagnosis. Thirty coded targets were directly applied onto the subject's face on the soft tissue landmarks, and then, 3 simultaneous photos were acquired using photogrammetry, at room light conditions. For comparison, a dummy head was digitized both with a photogrammetric technique and with the laser scanner Minolta Vivid 910i (Konica Minolta, Tokyo, Japan). The precise measurement of the landmarks is ranged between 0.017 and 0.029 mm. The system automatically measures spatial position of face landmarks, from which distances and angles can be obtained. The facial measurements were compared with those done using laser scanning and manual caliper. The adopted method gives higher precision than the others (0.022-mm mean value on points and 0.038-mm mean value on linear distances on a dummy head), is simple, and can be used easily as a standard routine. The study demonstrated the validity of photogrammetry for accurate digitization of human face landmarks. This research points out the potential of this low-cost photogrammetry approach for medical digitization.

  6. Differential Diagnosis of Nodular Goiter by Aspiration Cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Suk Man; Lee, Houn Young; Han, Bong Heon; Kim, Sam Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1982-01-01

    113 patients with nodular goiter were studied cytologically by needle aspiration for differential diagnosis at the department of internal medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital since October 1980 till July 1981, and the final diagnosis taken from biopsies were compared with the cytologic method on the 44 cases who received operation. The results were obtained as follows: 1. Among the 113 cases of total patients, male were 15 cases (13.3%) and female were 98 cases (86.7%) and the sex ratio (M : F) was 1 : 6.5. The peak age incidence was in the third decade followed by forth and second decades. 2. The findings of cytological diagnosis in 113 cases showed benign adenoma in 69 cases (61.1%), subacute and chronic thyroiditis in 22 cases (19.5%), papillary carcinoma in 15 cases (13.3%) and follicular carcinoma in 7 cases (6.2%), respectively, and 48 cases (69.6%) of the adenomas and 2 cases (9.1%) of papillary carcinomas showed combined cystic degeneration of the nodules. 3. The diameter of the nodules by palpation revealed within 2-5 cm in 88 cases (77.9%) out of 113 cases, below 2 cm in 17 cases and over 5 cm in 8 cases and there were no significant relationship between the size of the nodule and disease entity. 4. The findings of thyroid scintigram using 131 I in 113 cases of nodular goiter showed 'cold nodule' in 111 cases (98.2%) and normal scan (radioactivity) in 2 cases (1.8%) which showed adenoma in cytology and there was no cases with h ot nodule'. 5. The thyroid functions of the 113 cases revealed as euthyroidism in 108 cases (95.6%), hypothyroidism in 2 cases (2.7%) in adenomas but there was no evidence that the nodules of the above 3 cases were the reason of hyperthyroidism. 6. In 44 operated cases, the histological diagnosis revealed 23 cases of adenoma out of 27 cases (85.2%) who were diagnosed as adenoma by cytology and 15 cases of malignancy out of 17 cases (88.2%), and the overall diagnostic accuracy of aspiration cytology was 86.4%.

  7. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  8. Automatic Craniomaxillofacial Landmark Digitization via Segmentation-guided Partially-joint Regression Forest Model and Multi-scale Statistical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Gao, Yaozong; Wang, Li; Tang, Zhen; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this paper is to automatically digitize craniomaxillofacial (CMF) landmarks efficiently and accurately from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, by addressing the challenge caused by large morphological variations across patients and image artifacts of CBCT images. Methods We propose a Segmentation-guided Partially-joint Regression Forest (S-PRF) model to automatically digitize CMF landmarks. In this model, a regression voting strategy is first adopted to localize each landmark by aggregating evidences from context locations, thus potentially relieving the problem caused by image artifacts near the landmark. Second, CBCT image segmentation is utilized to remove uninformative voxels caused by morphological variations across patients. Third, a partially-joint model is further proposed to separately localize landmarks based on the coherence of landmark positions to improve the digitization reliability. In addition, we propose a fast vector quantization (VQ) method to extract high-level multi-scale statistical features to describe a voxel's appearance, which has low dimensionality, high efficiency, and is also invariant to the local inhomogeneity caused by artifacts. Results Mean digitization errors for 15 landmarks, in comparison to the ground truth, are all less than 2mm. Conclusion Our model has addressed challenges of both inter-patient morphological variations and imaging artifacts. Experiments on a CBCT dataset show that our approach achieves clinically acceptable accuracy for landmark digitalization. Significance Our automatic landmark digitization method can be used clinically to reduce the labor cost and also improve digitalization consistency. PMID:26625402

  9. Landmark matching based retinal image alignment by enforcing sparsity in correspondence matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Daniel, Ebenezer; Hunter, Allan A; Xiao, Rui; Gao, Jianbin; Li, Hongsheng; Maguire, Maureen G; Brainard, David H; Gee, James C

    2014-08-01

    Retinal image alignment is fundamental to many applications in diagnosis of eye diseases. In this paper, we address the problem of landmark matching based retinal image alignment. We propose a novel landmark matching formulation by enforcing sparsity in the correspondence matrix and offer its solutions based on linear programming. The proposed formulation not only enables a joint estimation of the landmark correspondences and a predefined transformation model but also combines the benefits of the softassign strategy (Chui and Rangarajan, 2003) and the combinatorial optimization of linear programming. We also introduced a set of reinforced self-similarities descriptors which can better characterize local photometric and geometric properties of the retinal image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results with both fundus color images and angiogram images show the superior performances of our algorithms to several state-of-the-art techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor 'simultaneous localization and mapping‘ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  11. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  12. Classical and quantum ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously. (paper)

  13. Classical mechanics with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This textbook takes a broad yet thorough approach to mechanics, aimed at bridging the gap between classical analytic and modern differential geometric approaches to the subject. Developed by the authors from over 30 years of teaching experience, the presentation is designed to give students an overview of the many different models used through the history of the field—from Newton to Hamilton—while also painting a clear picture of the most modern developments. The text is organized into two parts. The first focuses on developing the mathematical framework of linear algebra and differential geometry necessary for the remainder of the book. Topics covered include tensor algebra, Euclidean and symplectic vector spaces, differential manifolds, and absolute differential calculus. The second part of the book applies these topics to kinematics, rigid body dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, Hamilton–Jacobi theory, completely integrable systems, statistical mechanics of equilibrium, and impulsive dyna...

  14. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  15. Quantum models of classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájíček, P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)

  16. Cytology-based treatment decision in primary lung cancer: is it accurate enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Lama; Roll, Patrice; Payan, Marie-José; Liprandi, Agnès; Dutau, Hervé; Astoul, Philippe; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Loundou, Anderson; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2012-03-01

    Accurate distinction of lung cancer types has become increasingly important as recent trials have shown differential response to chemotherapy among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) subtypes. Cytological procedures are frequently used but their diagnostic accuracy has been previously questioned. However, new endoscopic and cytological techniques might have improved cytological accuracy in comparison with prior findings. The aim of this study was to reassess cytological accuracy for diagnosis of lung cancer subtypes. A retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) for suspicion of lung cancer in 2007-2008, was undertaken. Reports of bronchoscopically derived cytological specimens were compared to those of histological material. Endoscopic findings and specific investigational techniques were taken into account. A total of 467 FOB with both cytological and histological diagnostic techniques were performed in 449 subjects. Patients consisted of 345 men and 104 women (median age, 65 yrs). Cytology proved malignancy in 157 patients. Cytologically diagnosed carcinomas were classified into squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 56, adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 6, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) in 12, non-small cell lung carcinoma not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) in 71, and unclassified carcinoma in 12. Cytology correlated fairly with biopsy specimens, as agreement was observed in 83% of SCLC, 100% of ADC, 74% of SqCC and 8% of NSCLC-NOS. Interestingly, 61% of cytologically identified NSCLC-NOS were classified as ADC by histology. Cytological accuracy improved in case of an endobronchial lesion, mainly for SqCC. These results indicate that cytological accuracy remains fair with regard to diagnosis of squamous and non-squamous lung cancer subtypes. Improvement of cytological accuracy is expected however with novel diagnostic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  18. Progress and problems in the cytology of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedo, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years of cytological work with Ceratitis capitata has expanded rapidly in concert with increased interest in the application of genetics and molecular biology in the control of this species. Previous studies using mitotic chromosomes produced essential basic karyotypic data but resulted in a confused situation in which several chromosome nomenclature systems were in use. The need for better cytological methods and a standardization of nomenclature was recognised by the IAEA which recommended a system based on that used for Drosophila melanogaster. Polytene chromosome analysis was soon available with the development of techniques for preparing chromosome squashes from male pupal orbital trichogen cells and larval salivary glands. The application of chromosome banding techniques quickly provided detailed morphological information on mitotic chromosomes, particularly the sex chromosomes, and mapping of chromosome rearrangement break-points on newly prepared polytene chromosome maps commenced. This report describes recent unpublished results and offers comments on the still unresolved nomenclature problems in C. capitata

  19. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated quantitative cytological analysis using portable microfluidic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Murthy, Rashmi Sreeramachandra; Srinivasan, Rajesh; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a portable microfluidic microscopy based approach for automated cytological investigations is presented. Inexpensive optical and electronic components have been used to construct a simple microfluidic microscopy system. In contrast to the conventional slide-based methods, the presented method employs microfluidics to enable automated sample handling and image acquisition. The approach involves the use of simple in-suspension staining and automated image acquisition to enable quantitative cytological analysis of samples. The applicability of the presented approach to research in cellular biology is shown by performing an automated cell viability assessment on a given population of yeast cells. Further, the relevance of the presented approach to clinical diagnosis and prognosis has been demonstrated by performing detection and differential assessment of malaria infection in a given sample. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cytological investigations in populations of D. melanogaster exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study described was carried out to investigate structural changes in the chromosomes of irradiated populations of D.melanogaster that can be analysed on the basis of cytological methods. It mainly dealt with two particular aspects of this subject: I. Different types of chromosomes (polytene chromosomes, mitotic and meiotic chromosomes) were used to examine whether and to which extent chromosomal variability would alter or remain unchanged under the influence of mutation. II. The prophase of the first division of female cells was analysed with respect to the role of resistance factor rar-2. In this connection, it was of interest whether the prophase of meiosis would show visible cytological changes in the interchromosomal structure that are caused by factor rar-2. (orig./MG) [de

  2. When do objects become landmarks? A VR study of the effect of task relevance on spatial memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    Full Text Available We investigated how objects come to serve as landmarks in spatial memory, and more specifically how they form part of an allocentric cognitive map. Participants performing a virtual driving task incidentally learned the layout of a virtual town and locations of objects in that town. They were subsequently tested on their spatial and recognition memory for the objects. To assess whether the objects were encoded allocentrically we examined pointing consistency across tested viewpoints. In three experiments, we found that spatial memory for objects at navigationally relevant locations was more consistent across tested viewpoints, particularly when participants had more limited experience of the environment. When participants' attention was focused on the appearance of objects, the navigational relevance effect was eliminated, whereas when their attention was focused on objects' locations, this effect was enhanced, supporting the hypothesis that when objects are processed in the service of navigation, rather than merely being viewed as objects, they engage qualitatively distinct attentional systems and are incorporated into an allocentric spatial representation. The results are consistent with evidence from the neuroimaging literature that when objects are relevant to navigation, they not only engage the ventral "object processing stream", but also the dorsal stream and medial temporal lobe memory system classically associated with allocentric spatial memory.

  3. Comparison of joint modeling and landmarking for dynamic prediction under an illness-death model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Krithika; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Spratt, Daniel E; Daignault, Stephanie; Tsodikov, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic prediction incorporates time-dependent marker information accrued during follow-up to improve personalized survival prediction probabilities. At any follow-up, or "landmark", time, the residual time distribution for an individual, conditional on their updated marker values, can be used to produce a dynamic prediction. To satisfy a consistency condition that links dynamic predictions at different time points, the residual time distribution must follow from a prediction function that models the joint distribution of the marker process and time to failure, such as a joint model. To circumvent the assumptions and computational burden associated with a joint model, approximate methods for dynamic prediction have been proposed. One such method is landmarking, which fits a Cox model at a sequence of landmark times, and thus is not a comprehensive probability model of the marker process and the event time. Considering an illness-death model, we derive the residual time distribution and demonstrate that the structure of the Cox model baseline hazard and covariate effects under the landmarking approach do not have simple form. We suggest some extensions of the landmark Cox model that should provide a better approximation. We compare the performance of the landmark models with joint models using simulation studies and cognitive aging data from the PAQUID study. We examine the predicted probabilities produced under both methods using data from a prostate cancer study, where metastatic clinical failure is a time-dependent covariate for predicting death following radiation therapy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Towards Real-Time Facial Landmark Detection in Depth Data Using Auxiliary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connah Kendrick

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern facial motion capture systems employ a two-pronged approach for capturing and rendering facial motion. Visual data (2D is used for tracking the facial features and predicting facial expression, whereas Depth (3D data is used to build a series of expressions on 3D face models. An issue with modern research approaches is the use of a single data stream that provides little indication of the 3D facial structure. We compare and analyse the performance of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN using visual, Depth and merged data to identify facial features in real-time using a Depth sensor. First, we review the facial landmarking algorithms and its datasets for Depth data. We address the limitation of the current datasets by introducing the Kinect One Expression Dataset (KOED. Then, we propose the use of CNNs for the single data stream and merged data streams for facial landmark detection. We contribute to existing work by performing a full evaluation on which streams are the most effective for the field of facial landmarking. Furthermore, we improve upon the existing work by extending neural networks to predict into 3D landmarks in real-time with additional observations on the impact of using 2D landmarks as auxiliary information. We evaluate the performance by using Mean Square Error (MSE and Mean Average Error (MAE. We observe that the single data stream predicts accurate facial landmarks on Depth data when auxiliary information is used to train the network. The codes and dataset used in this paper will be made available.

  5. Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Practice in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the current status of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in Korea. Thyroid aspiration biopsy was first introduced in Korea in 1977. Currently, radiologists aspirate the thyroid nodule under the guidance of ultrasonography, and cytologic interpretation is only legally approved when a cytopathologist makes the diagnosis. In 2008, eight thyroid-related societies came together to form the Korean Thyroid Association. The Korean Society for Cytopathology and the endocrine pathology study group of the Korean Society for Pathologists have been updating the cytologic diagnostic guidelines. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology was first introduced in 2009, and has been used by up to 94% of institutions by 2016. The average diagnosis rates are as follows for each category: I (12.4%, II (57.9%, III (10.4%, IV (2.9%, V (3.7%, and VI (12.7%. The malignancy rates in surgical cases are as follows for each category: I (28.7%, II (27.8%, III (50.6%, IV (52.3%, V (90.7%, and VI (100.0%. Liquid-based cytology has been used since 2010, and it was utilized by 68% of institutions in 2016. The categorization of thyroid lesions into “atypia of undetermined significance” or “follicular lesion of undetermined significance” is necessary to draw consensus in our society. Immunocytochemistry for galectin-3 and BRAF is used. Additionally, a molecular test for BRAF in thyroid FNACs is actively used. Core biopsies were performed in only 44% of institutions. Even the institutions that perform core biopsies only perform them for less than 3% of all FNACs. However, only 5% of institutions performed core biopsies up to three times more than FNAC.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in hepatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, R.T.; Sharif, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Amin, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in liver masses to isolate malignant from benign tumours and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumours. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, from June 2004 to June 2005. Methodology: All the patients with liver masses confirmed by ultrasonography, irrespective of age and gender, were included. Patients with inflammatory lesions were excluded from the study. Selected patients underwent fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance followed by needle biopsy. The cytological slides were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, while Papanicolaou's stain was employed in selective cases. Needle biopsy fragments were fixed in formalin followed by paraffin embedding and staining with H and E stain. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in the diagnosis of liver masses was determined using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Results: There were one hundred subjects. The mean age at presentation was 55 +- 12 years with male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Cytological diagnosis in 19 cases was benign/non-neoplastic and 81 was malignant. Out of the latter, 49 (60.49%) were HCC and 32 (39.51%) were metastatic tumours on cytology. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of malignant lesions was 95.2%, 100% and 96% respectively using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Sensitivity of FNAC to differentiate HCC from metastatic tumours in liver was 96% while specificity was 100% having a diagnostic accuracy of 97.5%. The discrepancy in cyto-histological comparison was mainly seen in well differentiated and poorly-differentiated HCCs. Conclusion: FNAC of the liver masses is a simple, safe, accurate, economical screening test without significant morbidity that can be used to identify the vast majority of

  7. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  8. US Diagnosis for Thyroid Nodules with an Indeterminate Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Geun; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Woo [Saegyaero Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to assess the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) for evaluating thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Among 1865 nodules in 1278 patients who received a prospective US diagnosis of their thyroid nodule(s) and who subsequently underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration, 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology were enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'probably benign', 'indeterminate', 'suspicious for malignancy' and 'malignant.' The solid nodules were classified using all 5 categories and the partially cystic nodules classified using 4 categories ('indeterminate' was omitted). We calculated the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid US by comparing the US diagnoses with the pathology results. Of 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology (130/1865, 7.0%), 62 nodules were surgically removed. Nineteen nodules were assigned to the indeterminate category on US. The malignantly rate of the US-indeterminate category was 56.5% (35/62). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 81.0%, 81.8%, 81.0%, 81.8% and 81.4%, respectively, when US-indeterminate nodules were excluded. There was no significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as malignant, but there was a significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as benign. Our US classification may be a feasible method for managing thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

  9. Role of FNA cytology in the management of carcinoma breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, G.R.; Haleem, A.; Zaidi, A.H.; Afzal, M.; Abbasi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility and role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in essential surgical management of carcinoma breast. Patients and Methods: The study included one hundred cases of carcinoma of breast-97 females and 3 males, confirmed on histopathological examination and surgically treated at PNS Shifa, CMH Pano Aqil and PNS Rahat. FNA cytology was the primary tool of investigation in all. The benefit of the procedure was evaluated considering the ease of the procedure, cost, safety, reliability as screening procedure and its effect on sparing the patients from excision or incision biopsy and thus additional anesthesia. Results: Sensitivity of the procedure was 78%, specificity 100%, predictive value 100% and overall diagnostic accuracy 72%. Out of 78 cases, diagnosed as positive for malignancy on FNAC and later confirmed by histopathological examination, 58 underwent frozen section examination followed by definitive surgery (modified radical mastectomy). Remaining 20 cases underwent additional core biopsy. Out of these, 12 cases underwent definitive surgery without frozen section and 8 patients underwent frozen section examination followed by definitive surgery. A single case required general anesthesia (GA) while the patients undergoing core biopsy required a local anesthesia (LA) as well. Cases remaining undiagnosed by FNA-cytology (22 cases) required either an excision biopsy (17 cases) or incision biopsy (5 cases) under GA followed by definitive surgery, thus requiring general anesthesia twice during the management. Conclusion: FNA-cytology can positively affect the surgical management of carcinoma breast. It can be utilized to select the patients for frozen selection examination and can thus spare the patients from additional procedure of excision or incision biopsy under separate anesthesia. It may be adopted as a routine procedure in surgical outpatient. (author)

  10. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  11. Technical note: Correlation of respiratory motion between external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Hadi; Pan, Tinsu; Clément, Jean-François; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Current respiratory motion monitoring devices used for motion synchronization in medical imaging and radiotherapy provide either 1D respiratory signals over a specific region or 3D information based on few external or internal markers. On the other hand, newer technology may offer the potential to monitor the entire patient external surface in real time. The main objective of this study was to assess the motion correlation between such an external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks motion. Methods Four dimensional Computed Tomography (4D CT) volumes for ten patients were used in this study. Anatomical landmarks were manually selected in the thoracic region across the 4D CT datasets by two experts. The landmarks included normal structures as well as the tumour location. In addition, a distance map representing the entire external patient surface, which corresponds to surfaces acquired by a Time of Flight (ToF) camera or similar devices, was created by segmenting the skin of all 4D CT volumes using a thresholding algorithm. Finally, the correlation between the internal landmarks and external surface motion was evaluated for different regions (placement and size) throughout a patient’s surface. Results Significant variability was observed in the motion of the different parts of the external patient surface. The larger motion magnitude was consistently measured in the central regions of the abdominal and the thoracic areas for the different patient datasets considered. The highest correlation coefficients were observed between the motion of these external surface areas and internal landmarks such as the diaphragm and mediastinum structures as well as the tumour location landmarks (0.8 ± 0.18 and 0.72 ± 0.12 for the abdominal and the thoracic regions respectively). Worse correlation was observed when one considered landmarks not significantly influenced by respiratory motion such as the apex and the sternum. Discussion and conclusions There

  12. UAV Control on the Basis of 3D Landmark Bearing-Only Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-11-27

    The article presents an approach to the control of a UAV on the basis of 3D landmark observations. The novelty of the work is the usage of the 3D RANSAC algorithm developed on the basis of the landmarks' position prediction with the aid of a modified Kalman-type filter. Modification of the filter based on the pseudo-measurements approach permits obtaining unbiased UAV position estimation with quadratic error characteristics. Modeling of UAV flight on the basis of the suggested algorithm shows good performance, even under significant external perturbations.

  13. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  14. Cytological observation of solanum pimpinellifolium l. microspore development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H.; Rylosona, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops worldwide, and has also been adapted as a model plant in a wide range of research disciplines. However, stamen development in tomato is less known than other model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa L. (rice). In order to understand tomato flower development in more detail, the key goal of this study was to establish a precise correlation between visual morphological features and cytological events. To this end, we characterized a wild tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium (accession LA1585), to define stamen developmental stages using semi-thin sectioning. Based on distinct stages of flower development, S. pimpinellifolium anther/stamen development was divided into ten stages, and characteristic morphological and cytological features in stamens at each developmental stage were identified. In this way, flower characteristics and microspore development were correlated. In addition, specific cytological key events in S. pimpinellifolium were compared with those in A. thaliana and rice at corresponding stages, as well as with those in domesticated tomato (S. lycopersicum L.), and the differences are discussed. (author)

  15. Update on Molecular Testing for Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Michiya; Nikiforova, Marina

    2018-04-01

    - Approximately 15% to 30% of thyroid nodules that undergo fine-needle aspiration are classified as cytologically indeterminate, presenting management challenges for patients and clinicians alike. During the past several years, several molecular tests have been developed to reduce the diagnostic uncertainty of indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspirations. - To review the methodology, clinical validation, and recent peer-reviewed literature for 4 molecular tests that are currently marketed for cytologically indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens: Afirma, ThyroSeq, ThyGenX/ThyraMIR, and RosettaGX Reveal. - Peer-reviewed literature retrieved from PubMed search, data provided by company websites and representatives, and authors' personal experiences. - The 4 commercially available molecular tests for thyroid cytology offer unique approaches to improve the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. Familiarity with data from the validation studies as well as the emerging literature about test performance in the postvalidation setting can help users to select and interpret these tests in a clinically meaningful way.

  16. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  17. [Sequential monitoring of renal transplant with aspiration cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfro, R C; Gonçalves, L F; de Moura, L A

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of kidney aspiration cytology in the sequential monitorization of acute rejection in renal transplant patients. Thirty patients were submitted to 376 aspirations. The clinical diagnoses were independently established. The representativity of the samples reached 82.7%. The total corrected increment index and the number of immunoactivated cells were higher during acute rejection as compared to normal allograft function, acute tubular necrosis, and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. The parameters to the diagnosis of acute rejection were sensitivity: 71.8%, specificity: 87.3%, positive predictive value: 50.9%, negative predictive value: 94.9% and accuracy 84.9%. The false positive results were mainly related to cytomegalovirus infection or to the administration of OKT3. In 10 out of 11 false negative results incipient immunoactivation was present alerting to the possibility of acute rejection. Kidney aspiration cytology is a useful tool for the sequential monitorization of acute rejection in renal transplant patients. The best results are reached when the results of aspiration cytology are analyzed with the clinical data.

  18. Cortical Activation during Landmark-Centered vs. Gaze-Centered Memory of Saccade Targets in the Human: An FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered. In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified. The paradigm included three tasks with identical display of visual stimuli but different auditory instructions: Landmark Saccade (remember target location relative to a visual landmark, independent of gaze, Control Saccade (remember original target location relative to gaze fixation, independent of the landmark, and a non-spatial control, Color Report (report target color. During the Delay phase, the Control and Landmark Saccade tasks activated overlapping areas in posterior parietal cortex (PPC and frontal cortex as compared to the color control, but with higher activation in PPC for target coding in the Control Saccade task and higher activation in temporal and occipital cortex for target coding in Landmark Saccade task. Gaze-centered directional selectivity was observed in superior occipital gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, whereas landmark-centered directional selectivity was observed in precuneus and midposterior intraparietal sulcus. During the Response phase after saccade direction was specified, the parietofrontal network in the left hemisphere showed higher activation for rightward than leftward saccades. Our results suggest that cortical activation for coding saccade target direction relative to a visual landmark differs from gaze-centered directional selectivity for target memory, from the mechanisms for other types of allocentric tasks, and from the directionally

  19. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  20. Assessment of the Utility of Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anna S; Giorgadze, Tamara; Tam, Wayne; Chadburn, Amy

    2018-01-01

    We sought to assess the utility and limitations of both flow cytometry (FC) and cytology for the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a practical clinical setting. A total of 393 consecutive CSF samples from 171 patients submitted for both cytomorphologic and FC assessments were analyzed. Both FC and cytology findings were negative for malignancy in 315/393 samples (80%), and either positive (POS) or suspicious/atypical (SUSP/AT) in 7% of samples. This resulted in high agreement between FC and cytology (87%). Minor discrepancies were present in 4% of the cases. In 28 samples, an abnormal population was detected by FC but not by cytology. FC and cytology are important complementary methods for analyzing CSF samples. In cases where cytology is SUSP/AT and FC is inconclusive or negative, additional specimens should be submitted for immunostaining, cytogenetics, and/or molecular studies. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M

    2014-01-01

    in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age......Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends...... and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6...

  2. Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity

  3. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  4. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  5. Classical tokamak transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Aldo

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative treatment of the classical transport theory of a magnetically confined, toroidal, axisymmetric, two-species plasma is presented. The 'weakly collisional' ('banana' and 'plateau') and 'collision dominated' ('Pfirsch-Schlueter' and 'highly collisional') regimes, as well as the Ware effect are discussed. The method used to evaluate the diffusion coffieicnts of particles and heat in the weakly collisional regime is based on stochastic argument, that requires an analysis of the characteristic collision frequencies and lengths for particles moving in a tokamak-like magnetic field. The same method is used to evaluate the Ware effect. In the collision dominated regime on the other hand, the particle and heat fluxes across the magnetic field lines are dominated by macroscopic effects so that, although it is possible to present them as diffusion (in fact, the fluxes turn out to be proportional to the density and temperature gradients), a macroscopic treatment is more appropriate. Hence, fluid equations are used to inveatigate the collision dominated regime, to which particular attention is devoted, having been shown relatively recently that it is more complicated than the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The whole analysis presented here is qualitative, aiming to point out the relevant physical mechanisms involved in the various regimes more than to develop a rigorous mathematical derivation of the diffusion coefficients, for which appropriate references are given. (author)

  6. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  7. Indication and Usefulness of Bile Juice Cytology for Diagnosis of Gallbladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Itsuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We examined the effectiveness of bile juice cytology for distinguishing between benign and malignant gallbladder lesions of the protruding type with various sampling points, sampling methods, and macroscopic forms in order to discuss the effectiveness of the endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage (ETGD cytology. Methods. We studied 162 cases of patients with a lesion localized within the gallbladder. At first, we examined the effectiveness for diagnosis of ETBD cytology using ERC and then that of the first ETGD cytology after placing the ETGD. Next, we examined the diagnostic effectiveness of the washed ETGD cytology by using the ETGD. Finally, we examined complications. Results. In the final diagnoses, we identified 33 cases of adenocarcinoma, 10 cases of adenoma, 63 cases of ADM, 35 cases of nonneoplastic polyp, and 21 cases of chronic cholecystitis. It was found that the sensitivity of ETBD cytology was 3.6% and that of ETGD cytology was 59.1%. In the comparison of diagnostic effectiveness of cytologic diagnosis using samples of bile juice from the gallbladder collected by different methods, the sensitivities were 38.9% and 73.3% for the first and washed ETGD cytologies, respectively. In the comparison of the diagnostic effectiveness of gallbladder bile juice cytology using samples collected for different forms of lesion and by different methods, the sensitivities were 38.9% and 73.3%, respectively, for the first and washed ETGD cytologies for flat gallbladder wall thickening, while it was impossible to diagnose for lesions of GB polyp. Conclusion. For diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, we consider that the ETGD cytology should be taken into consideration for lesions of flat gallbladder wall thickening, for which it is difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions.

  8. The combined application of radiology, nuclear medicine and fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.L.; Ruis, I.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of diagnostic cytology and diagnostic radiology, including intervention radiology, is a logical one. Radiology can visualize lesions which cannot be found otherwise and under its guidance cytology can obtain a direct and usually diagnostic proof of the true nature of the process with minimal inconvenience and risk for the patient. A survey of the combination of cytology and radiological procedures in the diagnosis work-up is outlined. (Auth.)

  9. The diagnostic significance of endoscopic cytology in evaluating pancreatic and biliary lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer ONAK KANDEMİR; Banu DOĞAN GÜN; Sibel BEKTAŞ; Figen BARUT1; Burak BAHADIR; Gamze YURDAKAN; Şükrü Oğuz ÖZDAMAR; Gamze MOCAN KUZEY

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a widely performed technique in evaluating biliary and pancreatic ductal lesions. The contribution of cytological methods to the diagnosis of the disorders causing biliary stricture, and biopsy diagnoses of the cases were evaluated together with clinical follow-up outcomes and the results presented in this study.From January 2005 to December 2006, in Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 20 biliary endoscopic brush cytology and 2 exfo...

  10. Informed cytology for triaging HPV-positive women: substudy nested in the NTCC randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients' HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status-informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status-informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Route-external and route-internal landmarks in route descriptions : Effects of route length and map design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, Hans; Maes, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Landmarks are basic ingredients in route descriptions. They often mark choice points: locations where travellers choose from different options how to continue the route. This study focuses on one of the loose ends in the taxonomy of landmarks. In a memory-based production experiment in which

  12. Route-Learning Strategies in Typical and Atypical Development; Eye Tracking Reveals Atypical Landmark Selection in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, E. K.; Formby, S.; Daniyal, F.; Holmes, T.; Van Herwegen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful navigation is crucial to everyday life. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have impaired spatial abilities. This includes a deficit in spatial navigation abilities such as learning the route from A to B. To-date, to determine whether participants attend to landmarks when learning a route, landmark recall tasks have been…

  13. Quantum symmetries of classical spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Jyotishman; Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Subrata Shyam

    2009-01-01

    We give a general scheme for constructing faithful actions of genuine (noncommutative as $C^*$ algebra) compact quantum groups on classical topological spaces. Using this, we show that: (i) a compact connected classical space can have a faithful action by a genuine compact quantum group, and (ii) there exists a spectral triple on a classical connected compact space for which the quantum group of orientation and volume preserving isometries (in the sense of \\cite{qorient}) is a genuine quantum...

  14. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  15. Role of imprint cytology in intra operative diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, K R; Krishna, G

    2014-07-01

    Intra-operative imprint cytology is an important diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. A correct intra-operative diagnosis helps eliminate the need for second surgery. To study diagnostic accuracy of imprint cytology and to compare the imprint cytology results with that of the corresponding paraffin section diagnosis in thyroidectomy cases. This is a prospective study of 84 patients who have undergone thyroidectomies over a period of one year at the Department of Surgery, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The intraoperative imprint cytology smears were stained by Papanicolaou method. The imprint cytology interpretation was later compared with the paraffin section diagnosis. Of the 84 patients using haematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology sections as the gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity of imprint cytology was 75% and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was 100%. Negative predictive value was 98.74%. Imprint cytology has high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing lesions of the thyroid. The problems faced were in diagnosing follicular carcinomas and differentiating low grade lymphoma from lymphocytic thyroiditis. Imprint cytology is a simple, reliable diagnostic technique. It has high sensitivity and specificity in intra-operative diagnosis of lesions of thyroid. In spite of the advent of newer diagnostic modalities like frozen sections, imprint cytology still holds its unique position in the current perspective.

  16. Keratosis reduces sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Adam C; Santoso, Joseph T; Xie, Huiwen Bill

    2012-02-01

    To identify factors that may contribute to poor sensitivity of anal cytology in contrast to the sensitivity of anoscopy in heterosexual women. We analyzed 324 patients with biopsy confirmed diagnosis of genital intraepithelial neoplasia (either vulva, vaginal, or cervical) from 2006 to 2011 who underwent both anal cytology and anoscopy. Cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy results were recorded. Biopsy specimens underwent independent analysis for quality of specimen. Also, biopsy specimens were analyzed for characteristics that may contribute to correlation, or lack thereof, between anal cytology and anoscopic directed biopsy. 133 (41%) patients had abnormal anoscopy and underwent directed biopsy. 120 patients with normal anal cytology had anoscopy directed biopsies, resulting in 58 cases of AIN (sensitivity 9.4%; 0.039-0.199). This cohort was noted to have extensive keratosis covering the entire dysplastic anal lesion. 18 patients yielded abnormal anal cytology. Of these patients, 13 had anoscopic directed biopsies revealing 6 with AIN and absent keratosis (specificity 88.6%; 0.78-0.95). The κ statistic for anal cytology and anoscopy was -0.0213 (95% CI=-0.128-0.086). Keratosis reduces the sensitivity of anal cytology. Furthermore, anal cytology poorly correlates with anoscopy in the detection of AIN (κ statistic=-0.0213). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Global Polity in Adult Education and UNESCO: Landmarking, Brokering and Framing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Aknowledging the complexity of local-global interconnections, the author argues for the adoption of a global polity perspective in adult education, here applied to study mobilisation processes that occur through UNESCO. The findings point to three processes that cross geopolitical borders and professional interests: "landmarking," by…

  18. 3D ultrasound-CT registration of the liver using combined landmark-intensity information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Thomas; Schlag, Peter M.; Papenberg, Nils; Heldmann, Stefan; Modersitzki, Jan; Fischer, Bernd; Lamecker, Hans

    2009-01-01

    An important issue in computer-assisted surgery of the liver is a fast and reliable transfer of preoperative resection plans to the intraoperative situation. One problem is to match the planning data, derived from preoperative CT or MR images, with 3D ultrasound images of the liver, acquired during surgery. As the liver deforms significantly in the intraoperative situation non-rigid registration is necessary. This is a particularly challenging task because pre- and intraoperative image data stem from different modalities and ultrasound images are generally very noisy. One way to overcome these problems is to incorporate prior knowledge into the registration process. We propose a method of combining anatomical landmark information with a fast non-parametric intensity registration approach. Mathematically, this leads to a constrained optimization problem. As distance measure we use the normalized gradient field which allows for multimodal image registration. A qualitative and quantitative validation on clinical liver data sets of three different patients has been performed. We used the distance of dense corresponding points on vessel center lines for quantitative validation. The combined landmark and intensity approach improves the mean and percentage of point distances above 3 mm compared to rigid and thin-plate spline registration based only on landmarks. The proposed algorithm offers the possibility to incorporate additional a priori knowledge - in terms of few landmarks - provided by a human expert into a non-rigid registration process. (orig.)

  19. Landmark-based morphometric analysis of two sibling species of the genus Asida (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-01-01

    The case described here analyses morphological change at the boundary between ecological and evolutionary scales. The size and shape of 8 populations of two sibling species of tenebrionid beetles (Asida planipennis and A. moraguesi) are analysed using landmark-based methods. The two species differ

  20. Landmark-based deep multi-instance learning for brain disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Jun; Adeli, Ehsan; Shen, Dinggang

    2018-01-01

    In conventional Magnetic Resonance (MR) image based methods, two stages are often involved to capture brain structural information for disease diagnosis, i.e., 1) manually partitioning each MR image into a number of regions-of-interest (ROIs), and 2) extracting pre-defined features from each ROI for diagnosis with a certain classifier. However, these pre-defined features often limit the performance of the diagnosis, due to challenges in 1) defining the ROIs and 2) extracting effective disease-related features. In this paper, we propose a landmark-based deep multi-instance learning (LDMIL) framework for brain disease diagnosis. Specifically, we first adopt a data-driven learning approach to discover disease-related anatomical landmarks in the brain MR images, along with their nearby image patches. Then, our LDMIL framework learns an end-to-end MR image classifier for capturing both the local structural information conveyed by image patches located by landmarks and the global structural information derived from all detected landmarks. We have evaluated our proposed framework on 1526 subjects from three public datasets (i.e., ADNI-1, ADNI-2, and MIRIAD), and the experimental results show that our framework can achieve superior performance over state-of-the-art approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Student acceptance of e-books: A case study of landmark university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student acceptance of e-books was tested using UTAUT model. Performance expectancy Effort expectancy and Facilitating conditions were seen to significantly influence the acceptance of e-books by students in Landmark University, while Social Influence did not influence acceptance of e-books. Key Words: E-books, ...

  2. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bakri Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their programs to determine the obstacles facing promoting cultural tourism in Islamic landmarks' areas. Additionally, the study would identify positive results in the case of developing heritage tourism in Egypt. To achieve a high result, a survey approach was employed to collect data from 100 tour operators, using a completed questionnaire technique as well as a Likert Scale and statistical models in order to test and interpret the research outcomes. The research findings indicated that although tour operators in Egypt are convinced of the significance of the Islamic landmarks, there is no contradiction between creating global understanding and at the same time achieving benefit to the local community. However, there is a range of obstacles facing promoting such type of tourism in Egypt. Keywords: Culture heritage tourism, community, Egypt, Islamic civilization.

  3. Robust 3D face landmark localization based on local coordinate coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Shengpeng; Chen, Chun; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In the 3D facial animation and synthesis community, input faces are usually required to be labeled by a set of landmarks for parameterization. Because of the variations in pose, expression and resolution, automatic 3D face landmark localization remains a challenge. In this paper, a novel landmark localization approach is presented. The approach is based on local coordinate coding (LCC) and consists of two stages. In the first stage, we perform nose detection, relying on the fact that the nose shape is usually invariant under the variations in the pose, expression, and resolution. Then, we use the iterative closest points algorithm to find a 3D affine transformation that aligns the input face to a reference face. In the second stage, we perform resampling to build correspondences between the input 3D face and the training faces. Then, an LCC-based localization algorithm is proposed to obtain the positions of the landmarks in the input face. Experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to state of the art methods in terms of its robustness, flexibility, and accuracy.

  4. 77 FR 44670 - Information Collection Activities: National Historic Landmarks (NHL) Condition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... information regarding the condition of designated landmarks. A questionnaire will be designed and used to... the design of the questionnaire that is the subject of this request. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1024... address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying information in your comment, you...

  5. Benchmarking recent national practice in rectal cancer treatment with landmark randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borstlap, Waa; Deijen, C. L.; den Dulk, M.; Bonjer, H. J.; van de Velde, C. J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Aalbers, A.; Acherman, Y.; Algie, G. D.; Alting von Geusau, B.; Amelung, F.; Aukema, T. S.; Bakker, I. S.; Basha, S.; Bastiaansen, A. J. N. M.; Belgers, E.; Bleeker, W.; Blok, J.; Bosker, R. J. I.; Bosmans, J. W.; Boute, M. C.; Bouvy, N. D.; Bouwman, H.; Brandt-Kerkhof, A.; Brinkman, D. J.; Bruin, S.; Bruns, E. R. J.; Burbach, J. P. M.; Burger, J. W. A.; Buskens, C. J.; Clermonts, S.; Coenen, P. P. L. O.; Compaan, C.; Consten, E. C. J.; Darbyshire, T.; de Mik, S. M. L.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; de Groot, I.; de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, R. J. L.; de Wilt, J. H. W.; van der Wolde, J.; den Boer, F. C.; Dekker, J. W. T.; Demirkiran, A.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Musters, G. D.; van Rossem, C. C.; Schreuder, A. M.; Swank, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim A Snapshot study design eliminates changes in treatment and outcome over time. This population based Snapshot study aimed to determine current practice and outcome of rectal cancer treatment with published landmark randomized controlled trials as a benchmark. Method In this collaborative

  6. Benchmarking recent national practice in rectal cancer treatment with landmark randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borstlap, W. A. A.; Deijen, C. L.; den Dulk, M.; Bonjer, H. J.; van de Velde, C. J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Aalbers, A.; Acherman, Y.; Algie, G. D.; von Geu-sau, B. Alting; Amelung, F.; Aukema, T. S.; Bakker, I. S.; Bartels, S. A.; Basha, S.; Bastiaansen, A. J. N. M.; Belgers, E.; Bleeker, W.; Blok, J.; Bosker, R. J. I.; Bosmans, J. W.; Boute, M. C.; Bouvy, N. D.; Bouwman, H.; Brandt-Kerkhof, A.; Brinkman, D. J.; Bruin, S.; Bruns, E. R. J.; Burbach, J. P. M.; Burger, J. W. A.; Buskens, C. J.; Clermonts, S.; Coene, P. P. L. O.; Compaan, C.; Consten, E. C. J.; Darbyshire, T.; de Mik, S. M. L.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; de Groot, I.; Cappel, R. J. L. de Vos Tot Nederveen; de Wilt, J. H. W.; van der Wolde, J.; den Boer, F. C.; Furnee, E. J. B.; Havenga, K.; Klaase, J.; Holzik, M. F. Lutke; Meerdink, M.; Wevers, K.

    Aim A Snapshot study design eliminates changes in treatment and outcome over time. This population based Snapshot study aimed to determine current practice and outcome of rectal cancer treatment with published landmark randomized controlled trials as a benchmark. Method In this collaborative

  7. 78 FR 79643 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... consumer behavior; and questions about why comments on the Draft National Climate Assessment were not... Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of... Energy Consumers of America (IECA), American Gas Association (AGA), Cato Institute Center for Study of...

  8. Wild hummingbirds rely on landmarks not geometry when learning an array of flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurly, T Andrew; Fox, Thomas A O; Zwueste, Danielle M; Healy, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Rats, birds or fish trained to find a reward in one corner of a small enclosure tend to learn the location of the reward using both nearby visual features and the geometric relationships of corners and walls. Because these studies are conducted under laboratory and thereby unnatural conditions, we sought to determine whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) learning a single reward location within a rectangular array of flowers would similarly employ both nearby visual landmarks and the geometric relationships of the array. Once subjects had learned the location of the reward, we used test probes in which one or two experimental landmarks were moved or removed in order to reveal how the birds remembered the reward location. The hummingbirds showed no evidence that they used the geometry of the rectangular array of flowers to remember the reward. Rather, they used our experimental landmarks, and possibly nearby, natural landmarks, to orient and navigate to the reward. We believe this to be the first test of the use of rectangular geometry by wild animals, and we recommend further studies be conducted in ecologically relevant conditions in order to help determine how and when animals form complex geometric representations of their local environments.

  9. Illusionary Inclusion--What Went Wrong with New Labour's Landmark Educational Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence and evolution of New Labour's landmark educational policy; namely that of inclusion. The author, Alan Hodkinson, associate professor at the Centre for Cultural and Disability Studies at Liverpool Hope University, illuminates his conceptual difficulties in attempting to define what inclusion was and what…

  10. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  11. Effect of Ultrasonography on Student Learning of Shoulder Anatomy and Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Kristen D; Brown, Rebecca; Mazzie, Joseph; Jung, Min-Kyung; Yao, Sheldon C; Terzella, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonography is becoming more common in clinical use, and it has been shown to have promising results when introduced into medical school curricula. To determine whether the use of ultrasonography as an educational supplement can improve osteopathic medical students' confidence and ability to locate 4 specific shoulder anatomical landmarks: the coracoid process, the transverse process of T1, the long head of the biceps within the bicipital groove, and the supraspinatus tendon. In this randomized controlled study, first-year osteopathic medical students aged 18 years or older were recruited and randomly assigned to a group with exposure (ultrasonography group) or without exposure (control group) to an ultrasonography machine. First, a survey was administered to measure students' baseline knowledge of shoulder anatomy, confidence in palpation skills, and opinion on anatomical landmark identification teaching methods. Next, students were shown presentations on shoulder anatomy and allowed to practice locating and palpating the specified landmarks. Students in the ultrasonography group were also given instruction on the use of ultrasonography. All students were asked to locate each of the 4 specified anatomical landmarks and then given a follow-up survey. A Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the confidence of the students before and after the intervention. A secondary analysis was performed to compare the degree of deviance from the correct position of the specified anatomical landmark between the ultrasonography and control groups. P values less than .05 were considered statistically significant. Sixty-four students participated. Compared with the control group, students in the ultrasonography group had a greater increase in confidence after the session in their ability to locate the coracoid process, bicipital tendon, and supraspinatus tendon (P=.022, P=.029, P=.44, respectively). Students in the ultrasonography group were also able to more accurately palpate

  12. Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Cervical Lymphadenopathy: Comparative Study of the Cytological Adequacy Using of 21- and 23- Gauge Needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beak, Jin Wook; KIm, Dong Wook; Kim, Bo Mi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the difference in the cytological adequacy of ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) for cervical lymphadenopathy using 21 and 23 gauge needles. US-FNACs were separately performed on two cervical lymph nodes and in each patient using 21 gauge (group A) and 23 gauge (group B) needles, respectively. We used 4 grade classifications for the cytological analysis of each slide and compared the cytological adequacy of US-FNAC for cervical lymphadenopathy in the two groups. We performed US-FNACs on 58 cervical lymph nodes from 29 patients, with a cytological adequacy of 69.0%. The number of adequate cytological results was 19 (65.5%) in group A and 21 (72.4%) in group B, and the diagnostic adequacy did not differ significantly between the two groups (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.574). There was no statistically significant difference in the cytological adequacy of US-FNAC for cervical lymphadenopathy according using of 21 and 23 gauge needles.

  13. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  15. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  16. Distinction of neurons, glia and endothelial cells in the cerebral cortex: an algorithm based on cytological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic, and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope. We describe systematically and in detail the cytological features of neurons and glial cell types in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey and the human using semithin and thick sections stained for Nissl. We used this classical staining technique because it labels all cells in the brain in distinct ways. In addition, we corroborate key distinguishing characteristics of different cell types in sections immunolabeled for specific markers counterstained for Nissl and in ultrathin sections processed for electron microscopy. Finally, we summarize the core features that distinguish each cell type in easy-to-use tables and sketches, and structure these key features in an algorithm that can be used to systematically distinguish cellular types in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we report high inter-observer algorithm reliability, which is a crucial test for obtaining consistent and reproducible cell counts in unbiased stereological studies. This protocol establishes a consistent framework that can be used to reliably identify and quantify cells in the cerebral cortex of primates as well as other mammalian species in health and disease.

  17. Distinction of Neurons, Glia and Endothelial Cells in the Cerebral Cortex: An Algorithm Based on Cytological Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabezas, Miguel Á.; John, Yohan J.; Barbas, Helen; Zikopoulos, Basilis

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following an extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope. We describe systematically and in detail the cytological features of neurons and glial cell types in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey and the human using semithin and thick sections stained for Nissl. We used this classical staining technique because it labels all cells in the brain in distinct ways. In addition, we corroborate key distinguishing characteristics of different cell types in sections immunolabeled for specific markers counterstained for Nissl and in ultrathin sections processed for electron microscopy. Finally, we summarize the core features that distinguish each cell type in easy-to-use tables and sketches, and structure these key features in an algorithm that can be used to systematically distinguish cellular types in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we report high inter-observer algorithm reliability, which is a crucial test for obtaining consistent and reproducible cell counts in unbiased stereological studies. This protocol establishes a consistent framework that can be used to reliably identify and quantify cells in the cerebral cortex of primates as well as other mammalian species in health and disease. PMID:27847469

  18. Toward a model for lexical access based on acoustic landmarks and distinctive features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes a model in which the acoustic speech signal is processed to yield a discrete representation of the speech stream in terms of a sequence of segments, each of which is described by a set (or bundle) of binary distinctive features. These distinctive features specify the phonemic contrasts that are used in the language, such that a change in the value of a feature can potentially generate a new word. This model is a part of a more general model that derives a word sequence from this feature representation, the words being represented in a lexicon by sequences of feature bundles. The processing of the signal proceeds in three steps: (1) Detection of peaks, valleys, and discontinuities in particular frequency ranges of the signal leads to identification of acoustic landmarks. The type of landmark provides evidence for a subset of distinctive features called articulator-free features (e.g., [vowel], [consonant], [continuant]). (2) Acoustic parameters are derived from the signal near the landmarks to provide evidence for the actions of particular articulators, and acoustic cues are extracted by sampling selected attributes of these parameters in these regions. The selection of cues that are extracted depends on the type of landmark and on the environment in which it occurs. (3) The cues obtained in step (2) are combined, taking context into account, to provide estimates of ``articulator-bound'' features associated with each landmark (e.g., [lips], [high], [nasal]). These articulator-bound features, combined with the articulator-free features in (1), constitute the sequence of feature bundles that forms the output of the model. Examples of cues that are used, and justification for this selection, are given, as well as examples of the process of inferring the underlying features for a segment when there is variability in the signal due to enhancement gestures (recruited by a speaker to make a contrast more salient) or due to overlap of gestures from

  19. Reproducibility of the sella turcica landmark in three dimensions using a sella turcica-specific reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittayapat, Pisha; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Odri, Guillaume A.; De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Willems, Guy; Olszewski, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the reproducibility of identifying the sella turcica landmark in a three-dimensional (3D) model by using a new sella-specific landmark reference system. Thirty-two cone-beam computed tomographic scans (3D Accuitomo 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) were retrospectively collected. The 3D data were exported into the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard and then imported into the Maxilim software (Medicim NV, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium) to create 3D surface models. Five observers identified four osseous landmarks in order to create the reference frame and then identified two sella landmarks. The x, y, and z coordinates of each landmark were exported. The observations were repeated after four weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the multiple paired t-test with Bonferroni correction (intraobserver precision: p<0.005, interobserver precision: p<0.0011). The intraobserver mean precision of all landmarks was <1 mm. Significant differences were found when comparing the intraobserver precision of each observer (p<0.005). For the sella landmarks, the intraobserver mean precision ranged from 0.43±0.34 mm to 0.51±0.46 mm. The intraobserver reproducibility was generally good. The overall interobserver mean precision was <1 mm. Significant differences between each pair of observers for all anatomical landmarks were found (p<0.0011). The interobserver reproducibility of sella landmarks was good, with >50% precision in locating the landmark within 1 mm. A newly developed reference system offers high precision and reproducibility for sella turcica identification in a 3D model without being based on two-dimensional images derived from 3D data.

  20. Reproducibility of the sella turcica landmark in three dimensions using a sella turcica-specific reference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittayapat, Pisha; Jacobs, Reinhilde [University Hospitals Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odri, Guillaume A. [Service de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Centre Hospitalier Regional d' Orleans, Orleans Cedex2 (France); De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Willems, Guy [Dept. of Oral Health Sciences, Orthodontics, KU Leuven and Dentistry, University Hospitals Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Olszewski, Raphael [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    This study was performed to assess the reproducibility of identifying the sella turcica landmark in a three-dimensional (3D) model by using a new sella-specific landmark reference system. Thirty-two cone-beam computed tomographic scans (3D Accuitomo 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) were retrospectively collected. The 3D data were exported into the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard and then imported into the Maxilim software (Medicim NV, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium) to create 3D surface models. Five observers identified four osseous landmarks in order to create the reference frame and then identified two sella landmarks. The x, y, and z coordinates of each landmark were exported. The observations were repeated after four weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the multiple paired t-test with Bonferroni correction (intraobserver precision: p<0.005, interobserver precision: p<0.0011). The intraobserver mean precision of all landmarks was <1 mm. Significant differences were found when comparing the intraobserver precision of each observer (p<0.005). For the sella landmarks, the intraobserver mean precision ranged from 0.43±0.34 mm to 0.51±0.46 mm. The intraobserver reproducibility was generally good. The overall interobserver mean precision was <1 mm. Significant differences between each pair of observers for all anatomical landmarks were found (p<0.0011). The interobserver reproducibility of sella landmarks was good, with >50% precision in locating the landmark within 1 mm. A newly developed reference system offers high precision and reproducibility for sella turcica identification in a 3D model without being based on two-dimensional images derived from 3D data.

  1. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  2. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired by ...

  3. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  4. Classical models for Regge trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Van Dam, H.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Samuel, J.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two classical models for particles with internal structure and which describe Regge trajectories are developed. The remarkable geometric and other properties of the two internal spaces are highlighted. It is shown that the conditions of positive time-like four-velocity and energy momentum for the classical system imply strong and physically reasonable conditions on the Regge mass-spin relationship

  5. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  6. 'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona

    2002-01-01

    Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)

  7. Quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.

  8. Classicalization of Gravitons and Goldstones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We establish a close parallel between classicalization of gravitons and derivatively-coupled Nambu-Goldstone-type scalars. We show, that black hole formation in high energy scattering process represents classicalization with the classicalization radius given by Schwarzschild radius of center of mass energy, and with the precursor of black hole entropy being given by number of soft quanta composing this classical configuration. Such an entropy-equivalent is defined for scalar classicalons also and is responsible for exponential suppression of their decay into small number of final particles. This parallel works in both ways. For optimists that are willing to hypothesize that gravity may indeed self-unitarize at high energies via black hole formation, it illustrates that the Goldstones may not be much different in this respect, and they classicalize essentially by similar dynamics as gravitons. In the other direction, it may serve as an useful de-mystifier of via-black-hole-unitarization process and of the role...

  9. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  10. The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannelly, Grainne

    2010-02-01

    The management of women with abnormal cytology in pregnancy represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for colposcopists. The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer). Following an initial assessment, careful follow-up is essential. This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.

  11. Role of cytology in early diagnosis of cerebrotendinous xanthomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreosee Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by widespread tissue deposition of two neutral sterols, cholestenol and cholesterol, resulting in tendinous xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, progressive neurological defects, and premature death from arteriosclerosis. Because it is a treatable cause of cerebellar ataxia and dementia, its early diagnosis is desirable. Here, we have reported the case of an 11-year-old boy with this disorder who was diagnosed based on the cytological findings of fine needle aspiration and clinical features.

  12. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Tirumalasetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%, reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%, suppurative (n=16, 12.4% lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%, and Hodgkin′s lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%. Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of

  13. Comparison of digital surface displacements of maxillary dentures based on noninvasive anatomic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Nicholas G; Korioth, Tom V; Cagna, David R; Versluis, Antheunis

    2018-02-08

    Artificial markers called fiducials are commonly used to orient digitized surfaces for analysis. However, when these markers are tangible and placed in the region of interest, they may alter surface topography and influence data analysis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to apply a modified digital surface fitting method based on anatomic landmarks to evaluate denture accuracy and to use 2 different denture processing techniques to evaluate the method. The goal was to noninvasively measure and describe any surface differences in denture processing techniques at the intaglio and denture tooth levels. Twenty standardized maxillary complete dentures were waxed on standardized edentulous casts and processed by using acrylic resin compression (COM, n=10) and injection molding (INJ, n=10) methods. Digital scans were recorded of the anatomic surface of the cast, the intaglio and cameo surfaces of the acrylic resin dentures, and the cameo surface of the wax dentures. Three anatomic fiducials were identified on denture intaglio and cast scans and 4 on the cameo surfaces of waxed and acrylic resin denture scans. These fiducials were then used to digitally align the anatomic with the processed intaglio surfaces and the waxed with the processed cameo surfaces. Surface displacements were compared among processed dentures expressed at specific points (9 tissue landmarks and 8 tooth landmarks). The accuracy of surface displacements was assessed by changes in the number and location of anatomic fiducials. The scanning precision and the intraobserver repeatability in the selection of dental landmarks were also determined. For each landmark, the spatial (x, y, and z) mean differences between the 2 processing techniques were calculated for the intaglio and the cameo surfaces and presented on each orthogonal plane. Statistical nonparametric comparison of these means was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Benjamini-Hochberg corrections for multiple comparisons were

  14. Sex differences on the judgment of line orientation task: a function of landmark presence and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Sharon Ramos; McCoy, John G; Kennedy, Ashley; Sullivan, Meghan

    2012-02-28

    It has been well-established that men outperform women on some spatial tasks. The tools commonly used to demonstrate this difference (e.g. The Mental Rotations Task) typically involve problems and solutions that are presented in a context devoid of referents. The study presented here assessed whether the addition of referents (or "landmarks") would attenuate the well-established sex difference on the judgment of line orientation task (JLOT). Three versions of the JLOT were presented in a within design. The first iteration contained the original JLOT (JLOT 1). JLOT 2 contained three "landmarks" or referents and JLOT 3 contained only one landmark. The sex difference on JLOT 1 was completely negated by the addition of three landmarks on JLOT 2 or the addition of one landmark on JLOT3. In addition, salivary testosterone was measured. In men, gains in performance on the JLOT due to the addition of landmarks were positively correlated with testosterone levels. This suggests that men with the highest testosterone levels benefited the most from the addition of landmarks. These data help to highlight different strategies used by men and women to solve spatial tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new method for automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D motion captured images (4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, T; Khambay, B; Peng, M J; O'Leary, E; Ju, X; Ayoub, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D image sequences. 32 subjects (16 males and 16 females) aged 18-35 years were recruited. 23 anthropometric landmarks were marked on the face of each subject with non-permanent ink using a 0.5mm pen. The subjects were asked to perform three facial animations (maximal smile, lip purse and cheek puff) from rest position. Each animation was captured by the 3D imaging system. A single operator manually digitised the landmarks on the 3D facial models and their locations were compared with those of the automatically tracked ones. To investigate the accuracy of manual digitisation, the operator re-digitised the same set of 3D images of 10 subjects (5 male and 5 female) at 1 month interval. The discrepancies in x, y and z coordinates between the 3D position of the manual digitised landmarks and that of the automatic tracked facial landmarks were within 0.17mm. The mean distance between the manually digitised and the automatically tracked landmarks using the tracking software was within 0.55 mm. The automatic tracking of facial landmarks demonstrated satisfactory accuracy which would facilitate the analysis of the dynamic motion during facial animations. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Seema N; Panchal, Nirav S

    2015-01-01

    Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques.

  17. Cytologic follow-up of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muram, D.; Curry, R.H.; Drouin, P.

    1982-01-01

    In an 11-year study done at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, cytologic assessment of 323 patients treated by radiotherapy for invasive cervical carcinoma was reviewed. The value and limitations of gynecologic cytology in the follow-up of these patients are discussed

  18. Urine cytology in the evaluation of urological malignancy revisited: is it still necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falebita, Opeyemi Adegboyega

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. METHODS: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000-2005) were retrieved from our institution\\'s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for age, sex, flexible cystoscopy and radiological imaging results. The cost of urine cytology was retrieved from the pathology department. RESULTS: There were a total of 2,568 urine cytological examinations. Of these, 25 were positive for malignant cells. There were 19 male (76%) and 6 female (24%) patients with a mean age of 72 years (range: 49-97). In 21 patients with positive cytology, a bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy and\\/or imaging studies. For a positive cytology yield of 1%, EUR 210,000 was spent. CONCLUSIONS: Routine urine cytology was not cost effective and did not add to the diagnostic yield beyond cystoscopy and diagnostic imaging. It may be omitted in the initial evaluation of urological malignancy.

  19. New diagnostic reporting format for endometrial cytology based on cytoarchitectural criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoh, K; Norimatsu, Y; Hirai, Y; Takeshima, N; Kamimori, A; Nakamura, Y; Shimizu, K; Kobayashi, T K; Murata, T; Shiraishi, T

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a new reporting format for endometrial cytology that would standardize the diagnostic criteria and the terminology used for reporting. Methods: In previous studies, cytoarchitectural criteria were found to be useful for the cytological assessment of endometrial lesions. To apply these criteria, an appropriate cytological specimen is imperative. In this article, the requirements of an adequate endometrial cytological specimen for the new diagnostic criteria are first discussed. Then, the diagnostic criteria, standardized on a combination of conventional and cytoarchitectural criteria, are presented. Third, terminology that could be used, not only for reporting the histopathological diagnosis, but also for providing better guidance for the gynaecologist to determine further clinical action, is introduced. The proposed reporting format was investigated using endometrial cytology of 58 cases that were cytologically underestimated or overestimated compared to the histopathological diagnosis made on the subsequent endometrial biopsy or surgical specimens. Results: Of the 58 cases, 12 were reassessed as being unsatisfactory for evaluation. Among the remaining 46 cases, 25 of the 27 cases, which had been underestimated and subsequently diagnosed as having endometrial carcinoma or a precursor stage on histopathological examination,were reassessed as recommended for endometrial biopsy. On the other hand, 19 cases overestimated by cytology were all reassessed as not requiring biopsy. Conclusions: The reporting format for endometrial cytology proposed in this article may improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the number of patients managed inappropriately. PMID:18657157

  20. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, F.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Ruitenberg, H. M.

    1995-01-01

    FNA cytology of 112 patients with thyroid nodules seen in a 5-year period in a general hospital setting, and the histology obtained from the 53 operated patients, were retrospectively analysed. The inadequacy rate of FNA cytology was 11%, sensitivity was 84% (16/19), specificity was 52% (15/29),

  1. Role of biliary tract cytology in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity. PMID:24130407

  2. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  3. Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Verbaal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.

  4. Software Designation to Assess the Proximity of Different Facial Anatomic Landmarks to Midlines of the Mouth and Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recognition and determination of facial and dental midline is important in dentistry. Currently, there are no verifiable guidelines that direct the choice of specific anatomic landmarks to determine the midline of the face or mouth. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine which of facial anatomic landmarks is closest to the midline of the face as well as that of the mouth. Materials and Methods: Frontal full-face digital images of 92 subjects (men and women age range: 20-30 years in smile were taken under standardized conditions; commonly used anatomic landmarks, nasion, tip of the nose, and tip of the philtrum were digitized on the images of subjects and aesthetic analyzer software used for midline analysis using Esthetic Frame. Deviations from the midlines of the face and mouth were measured for the 3 clinical landmarks; the existing dental midline was considered as the fourth landmark. The entire process of midline analysis was done by a single observer and repeated twice. Reliability analysis and 1-sample t- tests were conducted. Results: The Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs for reliability analysis of RFV and RCV measures made two times revealed that the reliabilities were all acceptable. The results indicated that each of the 4 landmarks deviated uniquely and significantly (P<.001 from the midlines of the face as well as mouth in both males and females. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between the mean ratios of the chosen anatomic landmarks and the midlines of the face and mouth. The hierarchy of anatomic landmarks closest to the midline of the face is: (1 midline of the commissures, (2 nasion , (3 tip of philtrum,(4 dental midline, and (5 tip ofthe nose. The closest anatomic landmarks to the mouth midline are: (1 tip of philtrum, (2 dental midline, (3 tip of nose, and (4 nasion.

  5. Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meter, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classica...

  6. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko [Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  7. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. © 2013 Ghent University. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Histopathological and cytological correlation of tumors of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Yalavarthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :0 With the advent of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, the approach to diagnosis and management of breast lesions has been revolutionized. Its accuracy in many situations can approach that of histopathology in providing an unequivocal diagnosis. Aim :0 The aim of this study is to examine the cytological details in aspirated smears from lumps in the breast and to evaluate the role of FNAC in improving the quality of diagnosis by comparing with histopathological features. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 2 years, 334 aspirations, including 16 bilateral were performed. Suppurative and inflammatory lesions and gynecomastia were excluded from the total aspirates. A total of 56 cases were followed-up by histopathologic examination. Results: Cytohistologic correlation was 73.68%, 42.85%, 94.44% for fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and duct cell carcinoma respectively. False positives were observed in proliferative lesions. No false negative cases observed. The sensitivity of the fine needle aspiration (FNA procedure was 100%, specificity, 88.5% and the predictive value of a positive result was 84%. Conclusion: Proliferative lesions may be misinterpreted as malignancy in FNA without complete clinical and mammographic details.

  9. Computational model for squamous cells characterization during cervical smear cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Eduardo Martínez Abaunza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the work done by the Biomedical Engineering Research Group (GIIB, and the Structural, Functional and Clinical Pathology Research Group of the Industrial University of Santander (UIS, with Autonomous University of Bucaramanga (UNAB, was to construct a computational model allowing squamous cells characterization of cervical smear cytology to classify them as being either normal or abnormal cells. Slides containing the cell samples were colleted by the pathologist and the images were digitalized by a video-camera coupled to a microscope and connected to a frame acquisition device. Three thresholding algorithms were used, in image segmentation, allowing cell nuclei detection; manual thresholding was used when these algorithms failed to detect cytoplasm. Cell texture was described by the distribution of histogram in each color level, and the borders using Fourier descriptors. The results of the first phase are presented, implementing them in classifying and identifying normal cells. Later stages will involve characterizing each cells stage initially classified as presenting some reactive change or due to infection, to distinguish the reactive cells of intraepithelial lesion cells. Key words: image processing, mathematical morphology, cervical smear cytology, dysplasia, cancer of cervix.

  10. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  11. [Quality assurance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the organized mammography screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Mihály; Konyár, Eva; Schneider, Ferenc; Bidlek, Mária; Szabó, Eva; Nyári, Tibor; Godény, Mária; Kásler, Miklós

    2010-08-08

    The National Public Health Program has established the organized mammography screening in Hungary. The aim of our study was to determine the quality assurance of breast aspiration cytology. Cytology results were rated to 5 categories (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5). All cytology reports were compared with the final histology diagnosis. 1361 women had aspiration cytology diagnosis performed from a total of 47718 mammography non-negative lesions. There were 805 (59.1%) benign and 187 (13.7%) malignant alterations. Sensitivity was 91%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 96.6% and negative predictive value turned to be 71% (pauditing values of fine needle aspiration cytology in our laboratory meet, or in certain aspects exceed the proposed minimum threshold values.

  12. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, A.O.

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  13. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, A.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2{pi} {yields} 0. (author)

  14. Mathematical methods of classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    This short primer, geared towards students with a strong interest in mathematically rigorous approaches, introduces the essentials of classical physics, briefly points out its place in the history of physics and its relation to modern physics, and explains what benefits can be gained from a mathematical perspective. As a starting point, Newtonian mechanics is introduced and its limitations are discussed. This leads to and motivates the study of different formulations of classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which are the subjects of later chapters. In the second part, a chapter on classical field theories introduces more advanced material. Numerous exercises are collected in the appendix.

  15. Classicality of quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, David

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the classicality program is to quantify the amount of quantumness of certain processes. Here, classicality is studied for a restricted type of process: quantum information processing (QIP). Under special conditions, one can force some qubits of a quantum computer into a classical state without affecting the outcome of the computation. The minimal set of conditions is described and its structure is studied. Some implications of this formalism are the increase of noise robustness, a proof of the quantumness of mixed state quantum computing, and a step forward in understanding the very foundation of QIP

  16. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both

  17. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Accuracy of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of oral amelanotic melanomas in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeździecki, Rafał; Czopowicz, Michał; Sapierzyński, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    Amelanotic melanomas are one of the most common oral malignancies. The cytologic and histopathologic differentiation between amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma is often difficult or even impossible. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanoma. Cytologic preparations from undifferentiated canine oral tumors were stained with Giemsa and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies. The final cytologic diagnosis (including ICC) was compared to the final diagnosis based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, and sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination were determined. Final cytologic diagnoses of 38 cases agreed well with the histopathologic/immunohistochemical diagnoses, thus both specificity and sensitivity of combined routine cytology and ICC were 100% (95% confidence interval 90.8-100%). Of 32 oral tumors, diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma was made using routine cytology and ICC. In 4 of 6 aspirates taken from lymph nodes, a preliminary diagnosis of metastatic amelanotic melanoma corresponded with the final diagnosis. Both sensitivity and specificity of routine cytology in diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas were considered moderate (66.7% and 85.7%, respectively). In conclusion, routine cytology is a reliable diagnostic method for canine oral amelanotic melanoma and metastatic amelanotic melanoma, and ICC, using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies, is an excellent supporting method for presurgical diagnosis of poorly differentiated oral malignancies in dogs. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Sex differences in a landmark environmental re-orientation task only during the learning phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Iasevoli, Luigi; Giannone, Gianluca; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2011-10-10

    Sex differences are consistently reported in human navigation. Indeed, to orient themselves during navigation women are more likely to use landmark-based strategies and men Euclidean-based strategies. The difference could be due to selective social pressure, which fosters greater spatial ability in men, or biological factors. And the great variability of the results reported in the literature could be due to the experimental setting more than real differences in ability. In this study, navigational behaviour was assessed by means of a place-learning task in which a modified version of the Morris water maze for humans was used to evaluate sex differences. In using landmarks, sex differences emerged only during the learning phase. Although the men were faster than the women in locating the target position, the differences between the sexes disappeared in delayed recall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Anatomical key points and operative principle of "two planes and four landmarks" in extralevator abdominoperineal excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingjiang; Shen, Zhanlong; Wang, Shan

    2014-11-01

    Abominoperineal resection (APR) is the main approach of lower rectal cancer treatment. Recently, it was found that conventional APR had higher incidence rate of positive circumferential resection margin(CRM) and intraoperative perforation (IOP), which was the crucial reason of local recurrence and worse prognosis. Extralevator abdominoperineal excision(ELAPE) procedure was proposed by European panels including surgeons, radiologist and pathologists, and considered to lower the positive rates of CRM and IOP. Definitive surgical planes and anatomic landmarks are the cores of this procedure, which are the prerequisite for the guarantee of safety and smoothness of surgery. To realize the anatomy of muscles, fascias, blood vessels and nervous of perineal region is the base of carrying out ELAPE procedure. In this paper, we introduce the key anatomy related to ELAPE procedure and summarize the principle of ELAPE procedure as "two planes and four landmarks", which will be beneficial to the popularization and application.

  1. Fully automatic detection of corresponding anatomical landmarks in volume scans of different respiratory state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlinger, Kajetan; Roth, Michael; Sauer, Otto; Vences, Lucia; Schweikard, Achim

    2006-01-01

    A method is described which provides fully automatic detection of corresponding anatomical landmarks in volume scans taken at different respiratory states. The resulting control points are needed for creating a volumetric deformation model for motion compensation in radiotherapy. Prior to treatment two CT volumes are taken, one scan during inhalation, one during exhalation. These scans and the detected control point pairs are taken as input for creating the four-dimensional model by using thin-plate splines

  2. Cloud-Based Evaluation of Anatomical Structure Segmentation and Landmark Detection Algorithms : VISCERAL Anatomy Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-del-Toro, Oscar; Muller, Henning; Krenn, Markus; Gruenberg, Katharina; Taha, Abdel Aziz; Winterstein, Marianne; Eggel, Ivan; Foncubierta-Rodriguez, Antonio; Goksel, Orcun; Jakab, Andres; Kontokotsios, Georgios; Langs, Georg; Menze, Bjoern H.; Fernandez, Tomas Salas; Schaer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the shape and appearance of anatomical structures in medical images are often relevant radiological signs of disease. Automatic tools can help automate parts of this manual process. A cloud-based evaluation framework is presented in this paper including results of benchmarking current state-of-the-art medical imaging algorithms for anatomical structure segmentation and landmark detection: the VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks. The algorithms are implemented in virtual machines in the ...

  3. Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmook, Maria T.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor; Nemec, Stefan; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Krampl-Bettelheim, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27. MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average ±sd: gw 22 ± 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below. The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p=0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p<0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases. This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided. (orig.)

  4. Forebrain development in fetal MRI: evaluation of anatomical landmarks before gestational week 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmook, Maria T.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor; Nemec, Stefan; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology/Division of Neuro- and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Integrative Morphology Group, Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Krampl-Bettelheim, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology / Division of Obstetrics and Feto-maternal Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    Forebrain malformations include some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27. MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average {+-}sd: gw 22 {+-} 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below. The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%, 95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p=0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week 21 (p<0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases. This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided. (orig.)

  5. Influence of anatomic landmarks in the virtual environment on simulated angled laparoscope navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Buzink, S.N.; Christie, L.S.; Goossens, R.H.M.; De Ridder, H.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the presence of anatomic landmarks on the performance of angled laparoscope navigation on the SimSurgery SEP simulator. Methods - Twenty-eight experienced laparoscopic surgeons (familiar with 30º angled laparoscope, >100 basic laparoscopic procedures, >5 advanced laparoscopic procedures) and 23 novices (no laparoscopy experience) performed the Camera Navigation task in an abstract virtual environment (CN-box) and in a virtu...

  6. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  7. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  8. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  9. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  10. Teaching Classical Mechanics using Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Using a personal computer and a smartphone, iMecaProf is a software that provides a complete teaching environment for practicals associated to a Classical Mechanics course. iMecaProf proposes a visual, real time and interactive representation of data transmitted by a smartphone using the formalism of Classical Mechanics. Using smartphones is more than using a set of sensors. iMecaProf shows students that important concepts of physics they here learn, are necessary to control daily life smartp...

  11. Dynamical systems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V V

    1995-01-01

    This book shows that the phenomenon of integrability is related not only to Hamiltonian systems, but also to a wider variety of systems having invariant measures that often arise in nonholonomic mechanics. Each paper presents unique ideas and original approaches to various mathematical problems related to integrability, stability, and chaos in classical dynamics. Topics include… the inverse Lyapunov theorem on stability of equilibria geometrical aspects of Hamiltonian mechanics from a hydrodynamic perspective current unsolved problems in the dynamical systems approach to classical mechanics

  12. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  13. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  14. MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery-comparison of fiducial-based and anatomical landmark transformation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsche, S; Sauner, D; Maarouf, M; Hoevels, M; Luyken, K; Schulte, O; Lackner, K; Sturm, V; Treuer, H

    2004-01-01

    For application in magnetic resonance (MR) guided stereotactic neurosurgery, two methods for transformation of MR-image coordinates in stereotactic, frame-based coordinates exist: the direct stereotactic fiducial-based transformation method and the indirect anatomical landmark method. In contrast to direct stereotactic MR transformation, indirect transformation is based on anatomical landmark coregistration of stereotactic computerized tomography and non-stereotactic MR images. In a patient study, both transformation methods have been investigated with visual inspection and mutual information analysis. Comparison was done for our standard imaging protocol, including t2-weighted spin-echo as well as contrast enhanced t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. For t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, both methods showed almost similar and satisfying performance with a small, but significant advantage for fiducial-based transformation. In contrast, for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with more geometric distortions due to field inhomogenities and gradient nonlinearity than t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, mainly caused by a reduced bandwidth per pixel, anatomical landmark transformation delivered markedly better results. Here, fiducial-based transformation yielded results which are intolerable for stereotactic neurosurgery. Mean Euclidian distances between both transformation methods were 0.96 mm for t2-weighted spin-echo and 1.67 mm for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. Maximum deviations were 1.72 mm and 3.06 mm, respectively

  15. Arterial tree tracking from anatomical landmarks in magnetic resonance angiography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Alison; Beveridge, Erin; Houston, Graeme; McCormick, Lynne; Poole, Ian

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on arterial tree tracking in fourteen Contrast Enhanced MRA volumetric scans, given the positions of a predefined set of vascular landmarks, by using the A* algorithm to find the optimal path for each vessel based on voxel intensity and a learnt vascular probability atlas. The algorithm is intended for use in conjunction with an automatic landmark detection step, to enable fully automatic arterial tree tracking. The scan is filtered to give two further images using the top-hat transform with 4mm and 8mm cubic structuring elements. Vessels are then tracked independently on the scan in which the vessel of interest is best enhanced, as determined from knowledge of typical vessel diameter and surrounding structures. A vascular probability atlas modelling expected vessel location and orientation is constructed by non-rigidly registering the training scans to the test scan using a 3D thin plate spline to match landmark correspondences, and employing kernel density estimation with the ground truth center line points to form a probability density distribution. Threshold estimation by histogram analysis is used to segment background from vessel intensities. The A* algorithm is run using a linear cost function constructed from the threshold and the vascular atlas prior. Tracking results are presented for all major arteries excluding those in the upper limbs. An improvement was observed when tracking was informed by contextual information, with particular benefit for peripheral vessels.

  16. Reproducibility of lateral cephalometric landmarks on conventional radiographs and spatial frequency-processed digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Won; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon

    2002-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) has been used in cephalometric radiography and many studies have been carried out to improve image quality using various digital enhancement and filtering techniques. During CR image acquisition, the frequency rank and type affect to the image quality. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs to those of computed radiography. The diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs (M0) and their digital image counterparts were compared, and at the same time, six modalities (M1-M6) of spatial frequency-processed digital images were compared by evaluating the reproducibility of 23 cephalometric landmark locations. Reproducibility was defined as an observer's deviation (in mm) from the mean between all observers. In comparison with the conventional cephalometric radiograph (M0), M1 showed statistically significant differences in 8 locations, M2 in 9, M3 12, M4 in 7, M5 in 12, and M6 showed significant differences in 14 of 23 landmark locations (p<0.05). The number of reproducible landmarks that each modality possesses were 7 in M6, 6 in M5, 5 in M3, 4 in M4, 3 in M2, 2 in M1, and 1 location in M0. The image modality that observers selected as having the best image quality was M5.

  17. A low-cost test-bed for real-time landmark tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Ambrus; Hanan, Jay C.; Moreels, Pierre; Assad, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    A low-cost vehicle test-bed system was developed to iteratively test, refine and demonstrate navigation algorithms before attempting to transfer the algorithms to more advanced rover prototypes. The platform used here was a modified radio controlled (RC) car. A microcontroller board and onboard laptop computer allow for either autonomous or remote operation via a computer workstation. The sensors onboard the vehicle represent the types currently used on NASA-JPL rover prototypes. For dead-reckoning navigation, optical wheel encoders, a single axis gyroscope, and 2-axis accelerometer were used. An ultrasound ranger is available to calculate distance as a substitute for the stereo vision systems presently used on rovers. The prototype also carries a small laptop computer with a USB camera and wireless transmitter to send real time video to an off-board computer. A real-time user interface was implemented that combines an automatic image feature selector, tracking parameter controls, streaming video viewer, and user generated or autonomous driving commands. Using the test-bed, real-time landmark tracking was demonstrated by autonomously driving the vehicle through the JPL Mars yard. The algorithms tracked rocks as waypoints. This generated coordinates calculating relative motion and visually servoing to science targets. A limitation for the current system is serial computing-each additional landmark is tracked in order-but since each landmark is tracked independently, if transferred to appropriate parallel hardware, adding targets would not significantly diminish system speed.

  18. MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery-comparison of fiducial-based and anatomical landmark transformation approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsche, S [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Sauner, D [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Jena (Germany); Maarouf, M [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Hoevels, M [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Luyken, K [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Schulte, O [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Lackner, K [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, V [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Treuer, H [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2004-06-21

    For application in magnetic resonance (MR) guided stereotactic neurosurgery, two methods for transformation of MR-image coordinates in stereotactic, frame-based coordinates exist: the direct stereotactic fiducial-based transformation method and the indirect anatomical landmark method. In contrast to direct stereotactic MR transformation, indirect transformation is based on anatomical landmark coregistration of stereotactic computerized tomography and non-stereotactic MR images. In a patient study, both transformation methods have been investigated with visual inspection and mutual information analysis. Comparison was done for our standard imaging protocol, including t2-weighted spin-echo as well as contrast enhanced t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. For t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, both methods showed almost similar and satisfying performance with a small, but significant advantage for fiducial-based transformation. In contrast, for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with more geometric distortions due to field inhomogenities and gradient nonlinearity than t2-weighted spin-echo imaging, mainly caused by a reduced bandwidth per pixel, anatomical landmark transformation delivered markedly better results. Here, fiducial-based transformation yielded results which are intolerable for stereotactic neurosurgery. Mean Euclidian distances between both transformation methods were 0.96 mm for t2-weighted spin-echo and 1.67 mm for t1-weighted gradient-echo imaging. Maximum deviations were 1.72 mm and 3.06 mm, respectively.

  19. Quantum formalism for classical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    In static classical statistical systems the problem of information transport from a boundary to the bulk finds a simple description in terms of wave functions or density matrices. While the transfer matrix formalism is a type of Heisenberg picture for this problem, we develop here the associated Schrödinger picture that keeps track of the local probabilistic information. The transport of the probabilistic information between neighboring hypersurfaces obeys a linear evolution equation, and therefore the superposition principle for the possible solutions. Operators are associated to local observables, with rules for the computation of expectation values similar to quantum mechanics. We discuss how non-commutativity naturally arises in this setting. Also other features characteristic of quantum mechanics, such as complex structure, change of basis or symmetry transformations, can be found in classical statistics once formulated in terms of wave functions or density matrices. We construct for every quantum system an equivalent classical statistical system, such that time in quantum mechanics corresponds to the location of hypersurfaces in the classical probabilistic ensemble. For suitable choices of local observables in the classical statistical system one can, in principle, compute all expectation values and correlations of observables in the quantum system from the local probabilistic information of the associated classical statistical system. Realizing a static memory material as a quantum simulator for a given quantum system is not a matter of principle, but rather of practical simplicity.

  20. Assessment and feasibility of the four landmarks of the aortic root in a cohort of very preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion : We present reliability and reference values for all four anatomic landmarks of the aortic root in very preterm infants and demonstrated the importance of standardizing and reporting cardiac output measurements in preterm infants.

  1. Virtual skeletal complex model- and landmark-guided orthognathic surgery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jeong; Woo, Sang-Yoon; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Han, Jeong Joon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung; Yi, Won-Jin

    2016-05-01

    In this study, correction of the maxillofacial deformities was performed by repositioning bone segments to an appropriate location according to the preoperative planning in orthognathic surgery. The surgery was planned using the patient's virtual skeletal models fused with optically scanned three-dimensional dentition. The virtual maxillomandibular complex (MMC) model of the patient's final occlusal relationship was generated by fusion of the maxillary and mandibular models with scanned occlusion. The final position of the MMC was simulated preoperatively by planning and was used as a goal model for guidance. During surgery, the intraoperative registration was finished immediately using only software processing. For accurate repositioning, the intraoperative MMC model was visualized on the monitor with respect to the simulated MMC model, and the intraoperative positions of multiple landmarks were also visualized on the MMC surface model. The deviation errors between the intraoperative and the final positions of each landmark were visualized quantitatively. As a result, the surgeon could easily recognize the three-dimensional deviation of the intraoperative MMC state from the final goal model without manually applying a pointing tool, and could also quickly determine the amount and direction of further MMC movements needed to reach the goal position. The surgeon could also perform various osteotomies and remove bone interference conveniently, as the maxillary tracking tool could be separated from the MMC. The root mean square (RMS) difference between the preoperative planning and the intraoperative guidance was 1.16 ± 0.34 mm immediately after repositioning. After surgery, the RMS differences between the planning and the postoperative computed tomographic model were 1.31 ± 0.28 mm and 1.74 ± 0.73 mm for the maxillary and mandibular landmarks, respectively. Our method provides accurate and flexible guidance for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery based on

  2. Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eMertes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks - salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location - can play an important role in guiding the animal’s homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee’s visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee’s visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing.

  3. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  4. Correlation of MRI and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma spinal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.K.; Ditchfield, M.R.; Waters, K.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Medulloblastoma frequently spreads to involve the spinal cord, which significantly reduces patient survival and determines whether chemotherapy is utilised and the dose of irradiation to the neuraxis. Staging is usually achieved by MRI of the spine and/or cytology of CSF, both methods having their limitations. Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between CSF cytology and the demonstration of spinal metastases by MRI and whether CSF cytology is useful when spinal MRI is equivocal. Materials and methods. All cases of medulloblastoma diagnosed at our hospital between 1992 and 1997 were identified. Of 26 cases, 11 presentations (age range 4 months to 12 years) had both CSF cytology (either from the cisterna magna or lumbar puncture) and spinal MRI. The MR studies were reviewed for the presence of metastases and the CSF cytology for the presence of tumour cells. Results. We found 100 % correlation between MRI and CSF cytology for samples taken by lumbar puncture (four negative and three positive on both investigations). No correlation was demonstrated when CSF samples were taken from the cisterna magna. Conclusions. Our data suggest that lumbar CSF cytology may be useful when the MRI is equivocal for the presence of metastatic involvement of the spine by medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  5. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  6. Awareness on cytology procedure in oral cancer detection among undergraduates: An institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Pathak, Rajeev; Pathak, Sunita; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Anuradha

    2017-11-01

    The screening and the early detection of the premalignant and malignant lesions are the only means for controlling the oral cancer which is known to be one of the leading causes for mortality worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology though not a substitute for biopsy can be a powerful tool for its early detection. Dental Surgeons can play a great role in this direction. The present study was undertaken to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the early detection of oral cancer and exfoliative cytology among the undergraduates of Rama Dental College, Kanpur. A pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study consisting of twenty four questions was conducted among hundred randomly selected students from third year, final year and intern's batch. According to 73% of students biopsy was the special test done in oral cancer detection and only 59% had heard regarding oral cytology technique. Formalin was the fixative known for cytology smears among 61%. Significance of toluidine blue staining was not known by 62%. Seventy seven percent of students were not aware about classes of cytology reporting. Eighty six percent of students felt that the adequacy of training in cytology was lagging. This survey identified an existing gap in the knowledge among the dental students regarding cytology as a diagnostic aid in oral cancer detection. This emphasizes the need to provide training for undergraduates at clinical level on regular basis and also through CDE and oral can-cer detection workshops.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of lymphoma established by fine-needle aspiration cytological biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Suryadi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Based on Globocan data in 2012, it is estimated that about 14,495 Indonesians suffer from lymphoma, both Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Some areas of specialization still doubt the accuracy of cytology diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsy.This study is a diagnostic test with a cross sectional analytic design to see how the cytology diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration aspirate in lymphoma. It was in Department of Anatomical Pathology Faculty of Medicine USU, Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Dr.Pirngadi hospital, or private clinic in Medan. Peripheral cytology technique biopsy of fine needle aspiration on lymph node subsequently stained with Giemsa, when the cytology of lymphoma is obtained and confirmed by histopathologic examination. Cytology and histopathologic examination will be tested by Diagnostic Test and assessed for its sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic of lymphoma cytology provides 93.33% sensitivity and 92.31% specificity when confirmed by histopathological examination. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 96.55% and 85.71% respectively. In conclusion, the cytology of fine needle aspiration biopsy is accurate enough to be used as a diagnostic tool, so it is advisable to establish a lymphoma diagnosis to perform a needle aspiration biopsy examination.

  8. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  9. [Correlation of hybrid II capture cytologic exam in diagnosis of cervical lesions related to HPV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceição Ribeiro Dantas; Diniz, Veruska Cassandra; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; de Souza, Eroisa Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Paiva, Magnus Sérgio Martins; de Brito, Maria Helena Marques Fonseca; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was confront the results of the cytological examination with hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of induced cervical intraepithelial lesion-HPV, correlating the cytological findings with biomoleculares. The research was carried through in a group of 160 sexually active women who had espontaneamente looked its gynecologists for consultation of routine, having been submitted to the collection of cervicovaginal material for cytology and for examination of hybrid capture II in the Centro de Patologia Clínica and the Hospital e Maternidade Promater, in the city of the Natal-RN. The results had shown to relatively high numbers of positive cases for HPV using hybrid capture II (41.87%) and the cytology (23.75%). The agreement between the two studied methods relatively was raised (59.38%). It was evident also that the viruses with high oncogênico potential had presented found in the compatible cytology with Lesion of low risk (11.88%), followed of Lesion of high risk (NIC II and III); already the viruses with low oncogênico potential were more associates the Lesion of low risk (6.25%), followed of Lesion of high risk. The cytology, exactly with its limitations, is an important method in the detention of attributable patologias to the HPV, emphasizing that the molecular method comes to complement it and to consolidate the cytological findings.

  10. Deviation of landmarks in accordance with methods of establishing reference planes in three-dimensional facial CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kaeng Won; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Young-Hee; Kook, Min Suk; Lee, Jae-Seo; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the deviation of landmarks from horizontal or midsagittal reference planes according to the methods of establishing reference planes. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 18 patients who received orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment were reviewed. Each CT scan was reconstructed by three methods for establishing three orthogonal reference planes (namely, the horizontal, midsagittal, and coronal reference planes). The horizontal (bilateral porions and bilateral orbitales) and midsagittal (crista galli, nasion, prechiasmatic point, opisthion, and anterior nasal spine) landmarks were identified on each CT scan. Vertical deviation of the horizontal landmarks and horizontal deviation of the midsagittal landmarks were measured. The porion and orbitale, which were not involved in establishing the horizontal reference plane, were found to deviate vertically from the horizontal reference plane in the three methods. The midsagittal landmarks, which were not used for the midsagittal reference plane, deviated horizontally from the midsagittal reference plane in the three methods. In a three-dimensional facial analysis, the vertical and horizontal deviations of the landmarks from the horizontal and midsagittal reference planes could vary depending on the methods of establishing reference planes.

  11. Deviation of landmarks in accordance with methods of establishing reference planes in three-dimensional facial CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kaeng Won; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol; Kook, Min Suk; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the deviation of landmarks from horizontal or midsagittal reference planes according to the methods of establishing reference planes. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 18 patients who received orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment were reviewed. Each CT scan was reconstructed by three methods for establishing three orthogonal reference planes (namely, the horizontal, midsagittal, and coronal reference planes). The horizontal (bilateral porions and bilateral orbitales) and midsagittal (crista galli, nasion, prechiasmatic point, opisthion, and anterior nasal spine) landmarks were identified on each CT scan. Vertical deviation of the horizontal landmarks and horizontal deviation of the midsagittal landmarks were measured. The porion and orbitale, which were not involved in establishing the horizontal reference plane, were found to deviate vertically from the horizontal reference plane in the three methods. The midsagittal landmarks, which were not used for the midsagittal reference plane, deviated horizontally from the midsagittal reference plane in the three methods. In a three-dimensional facial analysis, the vertical and horizontal deviations of the landmarks from the horizontal and midsagittal reference planes could vary depending on the methods of establishing reference planes.

  12. Deviation of landmarks in accordance with methods of establishing reference planes in three-dimensional facial CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kaeng Won; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol; Kook, Min Suk; Lee, Jae Seo [School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan Martin [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the deviation of landmarks from horizontal or midsagittal reference planes according to the methods of establishing reference planes. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 18 patients who received orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment were reviewed. Each CT scan was reconstructed by three methods for establishing three orthogonal reference planes (namely, the horizontal, midsagittal, and coronal reference planes). The horizontal (bilateral porions and bilateral orbitales) and midsagittal (crista galli, nasion, prechiasmatic point, opisthion, and anterior nasal spine) landmarks were identified on each CT scan. Vertical deviation of the horizontal landmarks and horizontal deviation of the midsagittal landmarks were measured. The porion and orbitale, which were not involved in establishing the horizontal reference plane, were found to deviate vertically from the horizontal reference plane in the three methods. The midsagittal landmarks, which were not used for the midsagittal reference plane, deviated horizontally from the midsagittal reference plane in the three methods. In a three-dimensional facial analysis, the vertical and horizontal deviations of the landmarks from the horizontal and midsagittal reference planes could vary depending on the methods of establishing reference planes.

  13. Cytological effects of some new mutagens on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2002-01-01

    Air-dried seeds of five rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite (RS) for space mutation and were irradiated by synchronous irradiation (soft X-rays), protons and nitrogen ions. The cytological effects were compared with that of γ-irradiation. The results indicated that all the mutagens were able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The space environment had a stimulating mitotic effect on root tip cells. Other mutagens had inhibiting mitotic actions. The rates of micronuclei induced by synchronous irradiation and other mutagens were higher than that by γ-rays; and the rates of chromosomal bridge were lower. Furthermore, the radiosensitivity of five varieties varied with different mutagens

  14. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  15. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  16. Cytological assay of micronucleus induction by radiation in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattathiri, V.N.; Bindu, L.; Remani, P.; Chandralekha, B.; Davis, C.A.; Krishnan Nair, M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the dose-response relationship of micronucleus (MN) induction by radiation in eighty-three patients with oral cancers. Serial scrape smears were taken before treatment and after delivery of various fractions of a course of radical radiotherapy. The smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) evaluated. Before treatment 70.5% of tumours showed MNC, the mean value being 4.18 MNC/1000 cells. The frequency of MNC, increased with increasing dose of radiation. As regards relation to treatment duration, there was initially a slight increase, followed by rapid increase and then a plateauing. Radiosensitive and resistant tumours showed differing pattern of change. The MN test by serial cytological assay has potential as a tool to understand the dynamics of radiation induced cell death and predict radiosensitivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  17. Does imprint cytology improve the accuracy of transrectal prostate needle biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Hamide; Bulut, Burak Besir; Bahar, Abdulkadir Yasir; Bahar, Mustafa Remzi; Seringec, Nurten; Resim, Sefa; Çıralık, Harun

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of imprint cytology of core needle biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Between December 24, 2011 and May 9, 2013, patients with an abnormal DRE and/or serum PSA level of >2.5 ng/mL underwent transrectal prostate needle biopsy. Samples with positive imprint cytology but negative initial histologic exam underwent repeat sectioning and histological examination. 1,262 transrectal prostate needle biopsy specimens were evaluated from 100 patients. Malignant imprint cytology was found in 236 specimens (18.7%), 197 (15.6%) of which were confirmed by histologic examination, giving an initial 3.1% (n = 39) rate of discrepant results by imprint cytology. Upon repeat sectioning and histologic examination of these 39 biopsy samples, 14 (1.1% of the original specimens) were then diagnosed as malignant, 3 (0.2%) as atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP), and 5 (0.4%) as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). Overall, 964 (76.4%) specimens were negative for malignancy by imprint cytology. Seven (0.6%) specimens were benign by cytology but malignant cells were found on histological evaluation. On imprint cytology examination, nonmalignant but abnormal findings were seen in 62 specimens (4.9%). These were all due to benign processes. After reexamination, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rate, false-negative rate of imprint preparations were 98.1, 96.9, 98.4, 92.8, 99.3, 1.6, 3.1%, respectively. Imprint cytology is valuable tool for evaluating TRUS-guided core needle biopsy specimens from the prostate. Use of imprint cytology in combination with histopathology increases diagnostic accuracy when compared with histopathologic assessment alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Voided urine versus bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: which is better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2017-08-01

    Cytology is recommended as part of the follow-up of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, currently there are no solid guideline recommendations regarding the use of voided urine versus bladder washing for cytology as part of the diagnosis or follow-up of NMIBC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytological outcome was equal regarding the two techniques. The authors reviewed all outpatient flexible cystoscopies carried out in their department in 2013. Patient records in the registry of pathology were examined and those with simultaneous urine and bladder washing cytology were included. Previous urothelial disease and positive histology within 3 months after the cystoscopy were registered. A total of 1458 patients had both voided urine and bladder washing cytology and were included in the study, of whom 643 (44%) had a history of urothelial disease. An equal outcome of urine and bladder washing cytology was found in 1447 patients (99.2%). For the remaining 11 patients, only four patients underwent further examinations based on cytology findings in addition to what had already been planned after cystoscopy. Of the included patients, 100 (6.9%) had a positive histological outcome within 3 months. In most patients, no relevant difference between voided urine and bladder washing cytology was observed. Therefore, if cytology is indicated, it is recommended to use the test that is most readily available locally. The additional gain in using both urine and bladder wash is minimal, and can therefore be discarded.

  19. Current Cytology Practices in Korea: A Nationwide Survey by the Korean Society for Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. Results Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%. The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%. Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7% and 2,094,426 (25.3% cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%, category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%, and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%. The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. Conclusions This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.

  20. Cytologic diagnosis: expression of probability by clinical pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M; Hotz, Christine S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical pathologists use descriptive terms or modifiers to express the probability or likelihood of a cytologic diagnosis. Words are imprecise in meaning, however, and may be used and interpreted differently by pathologists and clinicians. The goals of this study were to 1) assess the frequency of use of 18 modifiers, 2) determine the probability of a positive diagnosis implied by the modifiers, 3) identify preferred modifiers for different levels of probability, 4) ascertain the importance of factors that affect expression of diagnostic certainty, and 5) evaluate differences based on gender, employment, and experience. We surveyed 202 clinical pathologists who were board-certified by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (Clinical Pathology). Surveys were distributed in October 2001 and returned by e-mail, fax, or surface mail over a 2-month period. Results were analyzed by parametric and nonparametric tests. Survey response rate was 47.5% (n = 96) and primarily included clinical pathologists at veterinary schools (n = 58) and diagnostic laboratories (n = 31). Eleven of 18 terms were used "often" or "sometimes" by >/= 50% of respondents. Broad variability was found in the probability assigned to each term, especially those with median values of 75 to 90%. Preferred modifiers for 7 numerical probabilities ranging from 0 to 100% included 68 unique terms; however, a set of 10 terms was used by >/= 50% of respondents. Cellularity and quality of the sample, experience of the pathologist, and implications of the diagnosis were the most important factors affecting the expression of probability. Because of wide discrepancy in the implied likelihood of a diagnosis using words, defined terminology and controlled vocabulary may be useful in improving communication and the quality of data in cytology reporting.

  1. Interobserver reproducibility of the Paris system for reporting urinary cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology represents a significant improvement in classification of urinary specimens. The system acknowledges the difficulty in cytologically diagnosing low-grade urothelial carcinomas and has developed categories to deal with this issue. The system uses six categories: unsatisfactory, negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC, atypical urothelial cells, suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma, high-grade urothelial carcinoma, other malignancies and a seventh subcategory (low-grade urothelial neoplasm. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-seven urine specimens were independently reviewed by four cytopathologists unaware of the previous diagnoses. Each cytopathologist rendered a diagnosis according to the Paris System categories. Agreement was assessed using absolute agreement and weighted chance-corrected agreement (kappa. Disagreements were classified as low impact and high impact based on the potential impact of a misclassification on clinical management. Results: The average absolute agreement was 65% with an average expected agreement of 44%. The average chance-corrected agreement (kappa was 0.32. Nine hundred and ninety-nine of 1902 comparisons between rater pairs were in agreement, but 12% of comparisons differed by two or more categories for the category NHGUC. Approximately 15% of the disagreements were classified as high clinical impact. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the scheme recommended by the Paris System shows adequate precision for the category NHGUC, but the other categories demonstrated unacceptable interobserver variability. This low level of diagnostic precision may negatively impact the applicability of the Paris System for widespread clinical application.

  2. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  3. Doing classical theology in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Neven

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about doing classical theology in context. The weight of my argument is that classical text of Karl Barth’s theology is great intellectual text means: being addressed by this text in the context in which one lives. The basic keywords that constitute a rule for reading those texts are “equality”, “event” and “re-contextualisation”. The article contains two sections: The first section elaborates statements about the challenge of the event and the project of rereading classics by way of recontextualisation. The word “event” refers to true and innovating moments in history which one can share, or which one can betray. Classical texts always share in those liberative moments. The question then is in what sense do they present a challenge to the contemporary reader. The second section elaborates the position of man as central and all decisive for doing theology in context now. In this section, the author appeals for a renewal of the classical anthropology as an anthropology of hope. This anthropology contradicts postmodern concepts of otherness.

  4. Classical approach in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  5. Cytological and histological correlation of granular cell tumor in a series of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soutrik Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor (GCT is an uncommon soft tissue tumor characterized by proliferation of cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. We came across three such tumors, one in the tongue, one in the chest wall, and one in the right deltoid region, which were referred for fine-needle aspiration cytology. On cytological examination, the first two cases were diagnosed as GCT, and the mass in deltoid region was suggestive of proliferative myositis. The cytological details of these cases are discussed. The excision biopsies of the first two cases and Tru-cut biopsy of the deltoid mass confirmed the diagnosis of GCT.

  6. Galactography paper in the handling of patient with secretion for the nipple: Comparison with cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez C, Aurelio; Ortiz U, Jaime Eduardo; Patino P, Jairo Hernando; Diaz G, Constanza

    1993-01-01

    It was done galactography and cytology in 30 patients with spontaneous secretion through the nipple. The haematic secretion was the most frequent (43.3%). the fibrocystic changes were the most common case of diagnosed telorrea by the two methods (60% by galactography and 56.7% by cytology), which coincide in the papilloma diagnose in 50% of the cases and in the 70,6% in the non-tumoral benign pathology diagnose. The galactography continues being the elected method to evaluate the patients with haematic secretion, keeping the cytology as a complementary exam

  7. Subtyping of nonsmall cell lung cancer on cytology specimens: Reproducibility of cytopathologic diagnoses on sparse material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukali, O. S.; Henrik, H.; Olsen, Karen Ege

    2014-01-01

    Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspiration (material is increasingly used in diagnosing lung cancer. High interobserver agreement in distinguishing small-cell lung cancer from nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on cytologic material has been demonstrated. Because of new treatment......, cytoscrape (CS) can convert cytologic material into tissue fragments useful for IHC. The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of pulmonary malignant diagnoses, in particular distinction between subgroups of NSCLC, based on smeared material and IHC on CS. A consecutive series of May...

  8. Significance of chest CT for localization of lung cancer detected by sputum cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Naoto; Shibuya, Hiroko

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of localization of cancer detected by sputum cytology. Of the malignancies detected by sputum cytology, about 40% consisted of cancers in upper respiratory tract and lung cancers located peripherally beyond the range of optimal bronchoscopic visibility. Thus, in cases with positive sputum cytology, the otorhinolaryngeal examination and chest CT are necessary. And, it is often difficult to localize cancers by bronchofiberscopy and these examinations, so careful follow-up is necessary in cases, in which localization is not confirmed. (author)

  9. Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle in squash cytology smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Radhakrishnan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT is a recently recognized and extremely rare glioneuronal tumor occurring in the fourth ventricle. It is crucial for the cytopathologist to be aware of this entity as it can be easily mistaken for more common neoplasms occurring at this site. We present here the cytology of such a rare case of RGNT that was misdiagnosed as ependymoma. The varying cytological features of this entity, as well as the common diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology, are highlighted in this report.

  10. The Diversity of Classical Archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , settlement patterns, landscape archaeology, historiography, and urban archaeology. Additionally, essays on topics such as the early Islamic period and portraiture in the Near East serve to broaden the themes encompassed by this work, and demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary knowledge in the field......This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Classical Archaeology, founded and edited by professors of classical archaeology, Achim Lichtenberger and Rubina Raja. This volume sets out the agenda for this series. It achieves this by familiarizing readers with a wide range of themes...... and material groups, and highlighting them as core areas of traditional classical archaeology, despite the fact that some have hitherto been neglected. Themes presented in this volume include Greek and Roman portraiture and sculpture, iconography, epigraphy, archaeology, numismatics, the Mediterranean...

  11. Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.

  12. Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)

  13. Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…

  14. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  15. The potential of liquid-based cytology in lymph node cytological evaluation: the role of morphology and the aid of ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E D; Martini, M; Straccia, P; Bizzarro, T; Fadda, G; Larocca, L M

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) on lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA may fulfil a challenging role in the evaluation of the majority of primary (benign and malignant) diagnoses as well as metastatic lymph node lesions. Although the morphological features may be quite easily recognized, cytological samples with a scant cellular component may raise some issues. We appraised 263 cytological lymph nodes from different body regions analysed between January and December 2013, including 137 male and 126 female patients, and processed with LBC. The cytological diagnoses included 160 benign and 103 malignant lesions. We reported 35 benign and 73 malignant lesions from 108 with surgical follow-up. The latter malignant series included 68 metastatic lesions, four suspicious for malignancy and one inadequate sample. The cytological diagnoses were supported by 62 conclusive immunocytochemical and 28 molecular analyses. Of the 108 cases, we documented 35 true negatives, 72 true positives, one false negative and no false positives, resulting in 98.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 99% diagnostic accuracy, 97.2% negative predictive value and 100% positive predictive value. FNA represents the first diagnostic tool in lymph node management and a reliable approach in order to avoid an excision biopsy. Furthermore, LBC is a feasible method for ancillary tests for which methanol-fixed samples are suitable, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  17. Resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Mine; Aikawa, Toshiki

    1981-01-01

    To investigate resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids, the non-linear radial oscillation of stars is studied based on the assumption that the non-adiabatic perturbation is expressed in terms of van der Pol's type damping. Two- and three-wave resonance in this system is applied to classical cepheids to describe their bump and double-mode behavior. The phase of bump and the depression of amplitude are explained for bump cepheids. The double-periodicity is shown by the enhancement of the third overtone in three-wave resonance. Non-linear effect on resonant period is also discussed briefly. (author)

  18. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  19. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  20. Classical resonances and quantum scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderfeld, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    We study the correspondence between phase-space localization of quantum (quasi-)energy eigenstates and classical correlation decay, given by Ruelle-Pollicott resonances of the Frobenius-Perron operator. It will be shown that scarred (quasi-)energy eigenstates are correlated: pairs of eigenstates strongly overlap in phase space (scar in same phase-space regions) if the difference of their eigenenergies is close to the phase of a leading classical resonance. Phase-space localization of quantum states will be measured by L 2 norms of their Husimi functions

  1. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired...... by the Higher-Order Π-calculus. The key to our calculus is that sequents are asymmetric: one side types sessions as in CP and the other types process variables, which can be instantiated with process values. The controlled interaction between the two sides ensures that process variables can be used at will......, but always respecting the linear usage of sessions expected by the environment....

  2. Classical solutions and extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alfaro, V.; Fubini, S.; Furlan, G.

    1980-03-01

    The existence and properties of classical solutions for gravity coupled to matter fields have been investigated previously with the limitation to conformally flat solutions. In the search for a guiding criterion to determine the form of the coupling among the fields, one is led to consider supersymmetric theories, and the question arises whether classical solutions persist in these models. It is found that a discrepancy persists between supergravity and standard meron solutions. Owing to the appearance of the scalar field, a new set of meron solutions exists for particular Lagrangian models. In conclusion, the form of solutions in Minkowski space is discussed

  3. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our primary source of information on Prof. Ruchi Ram Sahni is his typed autobiography, copies of which have been available with his descendants. Because of typing errors, illegibility, and other disabilities, their use had so far been limited. Now, his great-granddaughter, Neera Burra (whose article appears elsewhere.

  4. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    gravitational acceleration, the physical properties of air and water, and so forth. ... system, I will consider aspects of the physical world and ask what organisms, ..... speed should have little or no direct effect on water loss by transpiration.

  5. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    words, the origin (0;0) of the (x; y)-plane blows-up into the line x0 = 0 of the (x0 ... This is where I entered the picture. .... Especially I remember the tasty salads made with .... vacation cottage that I must do a better job in my introduction, because.

  6. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would say various things to make me give up insisting upon my request. But as I was .... I then asked him not to leave the observatory till further orders, ... I have yet to mention another incident when under very strange circumstances, luck.

  7. "Direct DICOM Slice Landmarking" A Novel Research Technique to Quantify Skeletal Changes in Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, Anas; Khambay, Balvinder; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ju, Xiangyang; Al-Hiyali, Ali; Macdonald, James; Jabar, Norhayati; Goto, Tazuko

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of the current methods of quantifying the surgical movements of facial bones inspired this study. The aim of this study was the assessment of the accuracy and reproducibility of directly landmarking of 3D DICOM images (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) to quantify the changes in the jaw bones following surgery. The study was carried out on plastic skull to simulate the surgical movements of the jaw bones. Cone beam CT scans were taken at 3mm, 6mm, and 9mm maxillary advancement; together with a 2mm, 4mm, 6mm and 8mm "down graft" which in total generated 12 different positions of the maxilla for the analysis. The movements of the maxilla were calculated using two methods, the standard approach where distances between surface landmarks on the jaw bones were measured and the novel approach where measurements were taken directly from the internal structures of the corresponding 3D DICOME slices. A one sample t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods of measurements for the y and z directions, however, the x direction showed a significant difference. The mean difference between the two absolute measurements were 0.34±0.20mm, 0.22±0.16mm, 0.18±0.13mm in the y, z and x directions respectively. In conclusion, the direct landmarking of 3D DICOM image slices is a reliable, reproducible and informative method for assessment of the 3D skeletal changes. The method has a clear clinical application which includes the analysis of the jaw movements "orthognathic surgery" for the correction of facial deformities.

  8. "Direct DICOM Slice Landmarking" A Novel Research Technique to Quantify Skeletal Changes in Orthognathic Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Almukhtar

    Full Text Available The limitations of the current methods of quantifying the surgical movements of facial bones inspired this study. The aim of this study was the assessment of the accuracy and reproducibility of directly landmarking of 3D DICOM images (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine to quantify the changes in the jaw bones following surgery. The study was carried out on plastic skull to simulate the surgical movements of the jaw bones. Cone beam CT scans were taken at 3mm, 6mm, and 9mm maxillary advancement; together with a 2mm, 4mm, 6mm and 8mm "down graft" which in total generated 12 different positions of the maxilla for the analysis. The movements of the maxilla were calculated using two methods, the standard approach where distances between surface landmarks on the jaw bones were measured and the novel approach where measurements were taken directly from the internal structures of the corresponding 3D DICOME slices. A one sample t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods of measurements for the y and z directions, however, the x direction showed a significant difference. The mean difference between the two absolute measurements were 0.34±0.20mm, 0.22±0.16mm, 0.18±0.13mm in the y, z and x directions respectively. In conclusion, the direct landmarking of 3D DICOM image slices is a reliable, reproducible and informative method for assessment of the 3D skeletal changes. The method has a clear clinical application which includes the analysis of the jaw movements "orthognathic surgery" for the correction of facial deformities.

  9. Landmark reading alterations in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms undergoing diagnostic gastroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Sakin, Yusuf Serdar; Akyol, Taner; Oncu, Kemal; Kara, Muammer; Yazgan, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    There is still a debate about the exact measurement of the oesophagogastric junction and the diaphragmatic hiatus among clinicians. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between landmark readings of gastroscopy on intubation and extubation, and to correlate these readings with a gastro-oesophageal reflux questionnaire. 116 cases who underwent diagnostic gastroscopy between January 2013 and June 2013 were included in this study. Landmark measurements were noted while withdrawing the endoscope and were also evaluated after the gastric air was fully emptied. We first used a frequency scale for the gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms (FSSG) questionnaire in order to investigate dysmotility and acid reflux symptoms in the study population and correlated the FSSG questionnaire with intubation and extubation measurements at endoscopic examination. Mean age of included subjects was 49.41±17.7 (19-82) years. Males and females were equally represented. On FSSG scores, the total dysmotility score was 7.99±5.06 and the total score was 15.18±10.11. The difference between intubation and extubation measurements ranged from -3cm to +2cm (mean: -0.4). When an FSSG score of 30 was accepted as a cut-off value, we detected a significant difference between the measurements (p<0.05; t: 0.048). Accuracy of landmark measurements during gastroscopy is clearly affected from insertion or withdrawal of the endoscope. When differences in measurements between insertion and withdrawal were evident, comparable with the FSSG scores, the results became significantly different. In conclusion, according to FSSG scores, these measurements should be performed at the end of the endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Topographic anatomy of the great auricular point: landmarks for its localization and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; English, Thomas; Yousif, Omar Khalid; Sandhu, Mandeep; Stirling, Allan

    2017-05-01

    The great auricular point (GAP) marks the exit of the great auricular nerve at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It is a key landmark for the identification of the spinal accessory nerve, and its intraoperative localization is vital to avoid neurological sequelae. This study delineates the topography and surface anatomy landmarks that used to localize the GAP. Thirty cadaveric heminecks were dissected on a layer-by-layer approach. The topography of the GAP was examined relative to the insertion point of the SCM at the clavicle, tip of the mastoid process, and angle of the mandible. The GAP and its relation to the SCM were determined as a ratio of the total length of the SCM. The GAP was demonstrated to be in a predictable location. The mean length of the SCM was 131.4 ± 22 mm, and the mean distance between the GAP and the mastoid process was found to be 60.4 ± 13.76 mm. The ratio of the GAP location to the total SCM length ranged between 0.33-0.57. The mean distance between the angle of the mandible and the GAP was determined to be 57 ± 22.2 mm. Based on the midpoint of the SCM, the GAP was above it in 66.7 % of subjects and classified to Type A, and below it in 33.3 % of subjects appointed to Type B. The anatomical landmarks utilized in this study are helpful in predicting the location of the GAP relative to the midpoint of the SCM and can reduce neural injuries within the posterior triangle of the neck.

  11. Automated detection of retinal landmarks for the identification of clinically relevant regions in fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Calivá, Francesco; Al-Diri, Bashir; Bek, Toke; Hunter, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Automatic, quick and reliable identification of retinal landmarks from fundus photography is key for measurements used in research, diagnosis, screening and treating of common diseases affecting the eyes. This study presents a fast method for the detection of the centre of mass of the vascular arcades, optic nerve head (ONH) and fovea, used in the definition of five clinically relevant areas in use for screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Thirty-eight fundus photographs showing 7203 DR lesions were analysed to find the landmarks manually by two retina-experts and automatically by the proposed method. The automatic identification of the ONH and fovea were performed using template matching based on normalised cross correlation. The centre of mass of the arcades was obtained by fitting an ellipse on sample coordinates of the main vessels. The coordinates were obtained by processing the image with hessian filtering followed by shape analyses and finally sampling the results. The regions obtained manually and automatically were used to count the retinal lesions falling within, and to evaluate the method. 92.7% of the lesions were falling within the same regions based on the landmarks selected by the two experts. 91.7% and 89.0% were counted in the same areas identified by the method and the first and second expert respectively. The inter-repeatability of the proposed method and the experts is comparable, while the 100% intra-repeatability makes the algorithm a valuable tool in tasks like analyses in real-time, of large datasets and of intra-patient variability.

  12. Matricial theory in classical photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, D.

    1980-01-01

    The matrix calculus in classical photoelasticity is used. Transfer functions for different polariscope arrangements are calculated. Linear polariscopes, circular polariscopes, double-exposure method to obtain isochromatics and Tardy and Senarmont method of measuring fractional relative retardations are analysed using coherency matrix formalism. (author)

  13. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  14. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  15. Doing classical theology in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    It is a critical concept, because it involves a break with ... question of the sense in which our context and culture have been interrupted by acts of ... challenge of reading a classical text is not only intellectual but also moral or existential. ..... and an opponent of pragmatic and relativistic conceptions8 I want to stress the.

  16. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  17. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza]. E-mail: rafael@cfp.ufpb.br; Almeida, W. Pires de [Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; Fonseca Neto, I. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-06-01

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, {phi}(t;{theta}). (author)

  18. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  19. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Cré peau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum

  20. Classical databases and knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...

  1. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  2. The value of fine needle aspiration and cytologic examination of impalpable complicated breast cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tez, Selda; Dener, Cenap; Köktener, Aslý; Caydere, Muzaffer; Tez, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration--FNA and cytologic analysis of impalpable complicated breast cysts. We rewieved the imaging findings, aspiration, cytology and biopsy results and followup imaging findings of 246 complicated cysts in 166 women retrospectively. FNA was performed in 169 out of the 246 complicated cysts. Thirtyone lesions were followed-up with US. Surgical biopsy was performed from five lesions. No malignant cells (137 cysts), insufficient cellular material (17 cysts), atypical cells (4 cysts) were seen in cytological examination of the aspirates. None of these lesions were found to represent malignancy at the time of surgical excision and during follow-up. Impalpable complicated breast cysts may be classified as probably benign and can be managed with follow-up imaging studies instead of intervention. Routine cytologic examination is unnecessary if the fluid is not bloody (Tab. 2, Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  3. Exfoliative cytology in study of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yoshiharu; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tomita, Kazuhiko; Kotani, Toshio; Nakayama, Akiko

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of cytological judgment of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer by comparison between pre- and post-irradiation smears given 1,000 rads by telecobalt external test irradiation. The estimation of radiation effects on nuclei and the cytological presumption of histological typing in pre-irradiation smears have brought about satisfactory results; agreement between histological and cytological judgements of radiosensitivity was about 96.8%. Cytological criteria of good sensitivity are as follows; Disparity in size of chromatin particles and irregular distribution. Irregularity of nuclear membrane with nuclear wrinkling with diminution of thickness of nuclear membrane. Mature squamous cell carcinoma without pearl formation. Those of poor sensitivity are as follows; Existence of many unchanged viable cells and less disturbances of chromatines. Existence of cells exibiting adenocarcinoma and carcinoma of intermediate type. Clusters of cyanophilic cells having lacy, indistinct cell borders. (auth.)

  4. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.

    2010-01-01

    smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared....... Immunohistochemistry was performed as required on the AM sections. Surgical specimens served as the gold standard. Results In 53% of conventional cytologic smears, the cellular yield was sufficient to render a correct diagnosis. In 12% the diagnosis was incorrect, in 21% only a differential diagnosis could be fin......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain too few...

  5. Endobiliary brush biopsy: Intra- and interobserver variation in cytological evaluation of brushings from bile duct strictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, S; Olsen, M; Jendresen, MB

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study...... was designed to assess the reproducibility of the cytological examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from 55 consecutive patients with biliary duct strictures that eventually turned out to be caused by malignant disease in 41 patients (73%). The cytology specimens were evaluated twice...... in different random order with an interval of at least 4 months by two pathologists blinded to the final diagnoses. Suitability for diagnosis (suitable, suboptimal or unsuitable) and cytologic diagnosis (benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy and malignant cells) were registered. Kappa analysis...

  6. Significance of cytology in the evaluation of radiation therapy for cancer of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Junzo; Nakayama, Akiko; Fukamatsu, Yoshito; Shiozawa, Isao; Tomita, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Fukuta, Toru.

    1986-01-01

    Cytologic and histologic diagnoses were made on 184 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix treated with radiation therapy. In 125 patients examined at the 8th day after completion of external irradiation, 73 and 52 patients were cytologically positive and negative, respectively, for persistent cancer. Histologically, 74 and 51 patients were positive and negative, respectively. Fifty-eight and 36 patients showed an agreement between the two procedures for positive and negative findings, respectively. In 159 patients examined at the 8th day after both external and intracavitary irradiation, 17 were cytologically diagnosed as positive and 142 as negative: histologically, 53 were positive and 106 were negative. Thirteen and 102 patients showed an agreement between the procedures for positive and negative findings, respectively. Using histological findings as the standard, false negative cases of cytology increased after doing intracavitary irradiation than after external irradiation (25 % vs 13 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Radiological and cytological detection of renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeivaensalo, M.; Merikanto, J.; Myllylae, V.; Hellstroem, P.; Kallionen, M.; Jalovaara, P.; Oulu Univ.; Oulu Univ.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated US, CT, intraveneous urography, arteriography, retrograde pyelography and urine cytology results in a series of 23 patients with renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinomas, 14 of whom underwent US, 17 i.v. urography, 8 CT, 15 arteriography, 9 retrograde pyelography, and 17 patients urine cytology. A tumour was identified in 5 patients (36%) at US, in 11 patients (61%) at urography, in 7 (88%) at CT, in 10 patients (67%) at arteriography, and in 8 (89%) at retrograde pyelography. Urine cytology was assessed as showing changes consistent with Papanicolaou class III-V in 15 (88%) of 17 patients. When renal pelvic cancer is suspected, intravenous urography should be performed as the initial radiological examination and followed by CT, which may also identify tumour spread. Arteriography and retrograde pyelography are sometimes complementary investigations. Repeated urinary cytology is mandatory. Our results show that US alone is unreliable in detecting renal pelvic cancer. (orig.) [de

  8. 100 years of Epilepsia: landmark papers and their influence in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Bruce

    2010-07-01

    As part of the 2009 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Centenary Celebration, a special symposium was dedicated to Epilepsia (100 Years of Epilepsia: Landmark Papers and Their Influence). The Associate Editors were asked to identify a particularly salient and meaningful paper in their areas of expertise. From the content areas of neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry two very interesting papers were identified using quite different ascertainment techniques. One paper addressed the problem of psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the other represents the first paper to appear in Epilepsia presenting quantitative assessment of cognitive status in epilepsy. These two papers are reviewed in detail and placed in historical context.

  9. Registration of cortical surfaces using sulcal landmarks for group analysis of MEG data☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand A.; Shattuck, David W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Leahy, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to register individual cortical surfaces to a surface-based brain atlas or canonical template using labeled sulcal curves as landmark constraints. To map one cortex smoothly onto another, we minimize a thin-plate spline energy defined on the surface by solving the associated partial differential equations (PDEs). By using covariant derivatives in solving these PDEs, we compute the bending energy with respect to the intrinsic geometry of the 3D surface rather than evaluating it in the flattened metric of the 2D parameter space. This covariant approach greatly reduces the confounding effects of the surface parameterization on the resulting registration. PMID:20824115

  10. Method of mobile robot indoor navigation by artificial landmarks with use of computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibin, E. S.; Shevtsov, A. A.; Enik, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes an algorithm of the mobile robot indoor navigation based on the use of visual odometry. The results of the experiment identifying calculation errors in the distance traveled on a slip are presented. It is shown that the use of computer vision allows one to correct erroneous coordinates of the robot with the help of artificial landmarks. The control system utilizing the proposed method has been realized on the basis of Arduino Mego 2560 controller and a single-board computer Raspberry Pi 3. The results of the experiment on the mobile robot navigation with the use of this control system are presented.

  11. A Bony Landmark 'RAI Triangle' to Prevent 'Misplaced and Misdirected' Medial Cut in SSRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Arakeri, Gururaj; Khaji, Shahanavaj I

    2011-03-01

    'Rai triangle', a new anatomic landmark on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible which when identified and taken into consideration, may have a definite advantage. This is especially in terms of performing the medial horizontal cut which is an important and integral part of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy so as to avoid a bad split. The objective of this article is to propose an easily identifiable bony land mark, which is closely related to lingula of mandible that may ease the procedure of osteotomy and avoid bad splits.

  12. 100 classic papers of interventional radiology: A citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Matthew T; Browne, Ronan Fj; MacMahon, Peter J; Lawler, Leo

    2015-04-28

    To define the 100 citation classic papers of interventional radiology. Using the database of Journal Citation Reports the 40 highest impact factor radiology journals were chosen. From these journals the 100 most cited interventional radiology papers were chosen and analysed. The top paper received 2497 citations and the 100(th) paper 200 citations. The average number of citations was 320. Dates of publication ranged from 1953 - 2005. Most papers originated in the United States (n = 67) followed by Italy (n = 20) and France (n = 10). Harvard University (n = 18) and Osped Civile (n = 11) were the most prolific institutions. Ten journals produced all of the top 100 papers with "Radiology" and "AJR" making up the majority. SN Goldberg and T Livraghi were the most prolific authors. Nearly two thirds of the papers (n = 61) were published after 1990. This analysis identifies many of the landmark interventional radiology papers and provides a fascinating insight into the changing discourse within the field. It also identifies topics, authors and institutions which have impacted greatly on the specialty.

  13. 100 classic papers of interventional radiology: A citation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Matthew T; Browne, Ronan FJ; MacMahon, Peter J; Lawler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To define the 100 citation classic papers of interventional radiology. METHODS: Using the database of Journal Citation Reports the 40 highest impact factor radiology journals were chosen. From these journals the 100 most cited interventional radiology papers were chosen and analysed. RESULTS: The top paper received 2497 citations and the 100th paper 200 citations. The average number of citations was 320. Dates of publication ranged from 1953 - 2005. Most papers originated in the United States (n = 67) followed by Italy (n = 20) and France (n = 10). Harvard University (n = 18) and Osped Civile (n = 11) were the most prolific institutions. Ten journals produced all of the top 100 papers with “Radiology” and “AJR” making up the majority. SN Goldberg and T Livraghi were the most prolific authors. Nearly two thirds of the papers (n = 61) were published after 1990. CONCLUSION: This analysis identifies many of the landmark interventional radiology papers and provides a fascinating insight into the changing discourse within the field. It also identifies topics, authors and institutions which have impacted greatly on the specialty. PMID:25918585

  14. Differentials in Turnout Among Professional Classical Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Isobel; Mayes, Susan; Ganderton, Charlotte; Pizzari, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Screening and training of professional dancers is commonly based around beliefs that a large range of turnout is more advantageous in the ballet industry. This belief leads dancers who have limited hip external rotation to compensate by forcing turnout at the knee and ankle, which has been linked to injury. To examine if there is a difference in degree of turnout between three levels of dancers (corps, soloist, principal) in a professional classical ballet company. An additional aim was to establish average values for the range of turnout and hip rotation present in the dancers. Forty-five professional dancers from The Australian Ballet (25 female, 20 male) participated in the study. Active and passive hip external rotation (hip ER) was measured in supine using inclinometers, and functional turnout in ballet first position (lower limb external rotation, LLER) was measured using foot traces utilising bony landmarks. Below-hip external rotation (BHER) was also calculated. No relationship was found among level of dancer and passive hip ER, active hip ER, LLER, and BHER. Professional dancers had on average 50.2° of passive hip ER range, 35.2° of active hip ER, and 133.6° of functional turnout position. In addition, no correlation was found between LLER and hip ER, but significant correlations were found between LLER and BHER. Hip rotation range of motion is similar across all levels of professional dancers. Average values for passive and active hip ER and functional turnout were established.

  15. Comparison of human papillomavirus DNA tests, liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for the early detection of cervix uteri cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girianelli, Vania R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio S; Szklo, Moyses; Donato, Alexandre; Zardo, Lucilia M G; Lozana, José A; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Matos, Jorge H; Figueiredo, Valeska

    2006-12-01

    To compare the performance of human papillomavirus DNA tests (samples collected by a healthcare professional and self-collected) and liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology in the detection of cervix uteri cancer and its precursor lesions. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1777 women living in poor communities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Eligibility criteria included ages 25-59 years and not having had a Papanicolau test within at least 3 years prior to the study. Cytology (conventional or liquid-based) and human papillomavirus DNA (collected by a healthcare professional or self-collected) tests were performed using samples collected in a single visit. Women with abnormalities in at least one test and a systematic sample of 70 women with negative test results were referred to a colposcopic examination. Test readings were double-masked, and the outcome of interest was high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse. The pathology report was used as the gold standard. The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse was 2.0%. Human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a health professional alone or combined with conventional cytology had the highest sensitivity (91.4 and 97.1%, respectively). The highest specificity was found for conventional cytology (91.6%) and for a human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a healthcare professional (90.2%). On the basis of only test performance, the use of human papillomavirus DNA tests, alone or combined with cytology, would seem to be recommended. Its population-wide implementation, however, is conditional on a cost-effectiveness analysis.

  16. [Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and distinction from basal cell adenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y P; Zhang, Y; Tian, C; Xing, L; Liu, H G

    2018-04-08

    Objective: To describe the cytologic features of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADCC) of salivary glands, and to identify distinguishing cytologic features of ADCC and basal cell adenoma (BCA). Methods: A retrospective review of cytology smears of 30 cases of ADCC and 12 cases of BCA of salivary glands were performed. All cases were collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2010 to January 2017. Except for 2 aspirate smears of ADCC, all were touch imprint smears. All cases had further histological confirmation. Results: Neoplastic ductal cells of ADCC were arranged in three-dimensional clusters, sheets and singles. Hyaline globules were found in most cases (20/30, 66.7%). The nuclei were round to oval, showing varying degrees of nuclear atypia. These included (1) the nuclei were hyperchromatic, demonstrating coarse or slightly coarse, irregularly distributed chromatin; (2) the nuclei were slightly large and vary in size; (3) appearance of the nuclei had a different degree of irregularity (often mild). Nucleoli were common seen (21/30, 70.0%), and were prominent in some cases. Mitosis and necrosis were rare. Cytologically, BCA showed cell arrangements and nuclear features overlapped with those of ADCC. The cytologic difference between these two tumors included: (1) the tumor cells presented rarely in singles; (2) hyaline globules were very uncommon (1/12) in BCA; (3) nuclei of BCA were hypochromatic or slightly hyperchromatic, homogeneous and uniform in appearance and size, overall without nuclear atypia and they were smaller and slender then those of ADCC and (4) individual cells of BCA showed relatively abundant cytoplasm. Conclusions: The cytologic features of ADCC and BCA both overlap and different from each other. Most cases can be diagnosed by cytologic examination. The presence of hyaline globules is an important diagnostic clue of ADCC, although not pathognomonic. Nuclear atypia of neoplastic ductal cells is an essential

  17. Integration of tablet technologies in the e-laboratory of cytology: a health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Pochini, Marco; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-10-01

    Although tablet systems are becoming a powerful technology, particularly useful in every application of medical imaging, to date no one has investigated the acceptance and performance of this technology in digital cytology. The specific aims of the work were (1) to design a health technology assessment (HTA) tool to assess, in terms of performance and acceptance, the introduction of tablet technologies (wearable, portable, and non portable) in the e-laboratories of cytology and (2) to test the tool in a first significant application of digital cytology. An HTA tool was proposed operating on a domain of five dimensions of investigation comprising the basic information of the product of digital cytology, the perceived subjective quality of images, the assessment of the virtual navigation on the e-slide, the assessment of the information and communication technologies features, and the diagnostic power. Six e-slides regarding studies of cervicovaginal cytology digitalized by means of an Aperio ( www.aperio.com ) scanner and uploaded onto the www.digitalslide.it Web site were used for testing the methodology on three different network connections. Three experts of cytology successfully tested the methodology on seven tablets found suitable for the study in their own standard configuration. Specific indexes furnished by the tool indicated both a high degree of performance and subjective acceptance of the investigated technology. The HTA tool thus could be useful to investigate new tablet technologies in digital cytology and furnish stakeholders with useful information that may help them make decisions involving the healthcare system. From a global point of view the study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tablet technology in digital cytology.

  18. Yield of Cytology Surveillance After High-Grade Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Lindsay M; Frolova, Antonina I; Wu, Ningying; Liu, Jingxia; Powell, Matthew; Thaker, Premal H; Massad, L Stewart

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of high-grade cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/VAIN 2+) and cancer among women treated surgically for high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (HGVIN) and vulvar cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent surgery for HGVIN/vulvar cancer between 2006 and 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using stepwise selection were used to identify correlates of abnormal cytology after treatment for VIN and vulvar cancer. Among 191 women under surveillance for a median of 3.7 years who underwent treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer, primary vulvar lesions included VIN 2 (10, 5%), VIN 3 (102, 53%), and carcinoma (79, 41%). During follow-up, 71 (37%) had abnormal cytology, including 47 (25%) low grade, 23 (12%) high grade, and 1 (0.5%) carcinoma. Subsequent risk for VAIN 2+ was 11% (6/57) after previous hysterectomy and 8% for CIN 2+ (10/124) with intact cervix. Overall risk for CIN 3+ was 5%. Correlates of high-grade cytology after treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer included nonwhite race (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.50-7.36), immunodeficiency (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.76-9.94), and previous abnormal cytology (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.29-5.78). Stepwise multivariate analysis revealed immunosuppression as the only significant correlate of high-grade cytology after vulvar treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.26-10.83). Women with HGVIN/cancer should have cervical/vaginal cytology before vulvar surgery. Those with a negative cervical or vaginal cytology result should undergo cytology testing at 1- to 3-year intervals, based on the threshold for CIN 3+ set forth by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.

  19. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  20. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups. © 2013 UICC.