Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
, one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...
Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel
Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.
2016-10-01
We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.
Simultaneous classical communication and quantum key distribution using continuous variables*
Qi, Bing
2016-10-01
Presently, classical optical communication systems employing strong laser pulses and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems working at single-photon levels are very different communication modalities. Dedicated devices are commonly required to implement QKD. In this paper, we propose a scheme which allows classical communication and QKD to be implemented simultaneously using the same communication infrastructure. More specially, we propose a coherent communication scheme where both the bits for classical communication and the Gaussian distributed random numbers for QKD are encoded on the same weak coherent pulse and decoded by the same coherent receiver. Simulation results based on practical system parameters show that both deterministic classical communication with a bit error rate of 10-9 and secure key distribution could be achieved over tens of kilometers of single-mode fibers. It is conceivable that in the future coherent optical communication network, QKD will be operated in the background of classical communication at a minimal cost.
Noise-enhanced classical and quantum capacities in communication networks.
Caruso, Filippo; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2010-11-05
The unavoidable presence of noise is thought to be one of the major problems to solve in order to pave the way for implementing quantum information technologies in realistic physical platforms. However, here we show a clear example in which noise, in terms of dephasing, may enhance the capability of transmitting not only classical but also quantum information, encoded in quantum systems, through communication networks. In particular, we find analytically and numerically the quantum and classical capacities for a large family of quantum channels and show that these information transmission rates can be strongly enhanced by introducing dephasing noise in the complex network dynamics.
Noise-enhanced classical and quantum capacities in communication networks
Caruso, Filippo; Plenio, Martin B
2010-01-01
The unavoidable presence of noise is thought to be one of the major problems to solve in order to pave the way for implementing quantum information technologies in realistic physical platforms. However, here we show a clear example in which noise, in terms of dephasing, may enhance the capability of transmitting not only classical but also quantum information, encoded in quantum systems, through communication networks. In particular, we find analytically and numerically the quantum and classical capacities for a large family of quantum channels and show that these information transmission rates can be strongly enhanced by introducing dephasing noise in the complex network dynamics.
Implementation of Classical Communication in a Quantum World
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris Fields
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Observations of quantum systems carried out by finite observers who subsequently communicate their results using classical data structures can be described as “local operations, classical communication” (LOCC observations. The implementation of LOCC observations by the Hamiltonian dynamics prescribed by minimal quantum mechanics is investigated. It is shown that LOCC observations cannot be described using decoherence considerations alone, but rather require the a priori stipulation of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM about which communicating observers agree. It is also shown that the transfer of classical information from system to observer can be described in terms of system-observer entanglement, raising the possibility that an apparatus implementing an appropriate POVM can reveal the entangled system-observer states that implement LOCC observations.
Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong [Quantum Communication Technology Co., Ltd., Anhui, Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China); Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun, E-mail: tychen@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2015-02-23
We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.
Performance of polar codes for quantum and private classical communication
Dutton, Zachary; Wilde, Mark M
2012-01-01
We analyze the practical performance of quantum polar codes, by computing rigorous bounds on block error probability and by numerically simulating them. We evaluate our bounds for quantum erasure channels with coding block lengths between 2^10 and 2^20, and we report the results of simulations for quantum erasure channels, quantum depolarizing channels, and "BB84" channels with coding block lengths up to N = 1024. For quantum erasure channels, we observe that high quantum data rates can be achieved for block error rates less than 10^(-4) and that somewhat lower quantum data rates can be achieved for quantum depolarizing and BB84 channels. Our results here also serve as bounds for and simulations of private classical data transmission over these channels, essentially due to Renes' duality bounds for privacy amplification and classical data transmission of complementary observables. Future work might be able to improve upon our numerical results for quantum depolarizing and BB84 channels by employing a polar co...
Quantum proofs for classical theorems
Drucker, A.; de Wolf, R.
2011-01-01
Alongside the development of quantum algorithms and quantum complexity theory in recent years, quantum techniques have also proved instrumental in obtaining results in diverse classical (non-quantum) areas, such as coding theory, communication complexity, and polynomial approximations. In this paper
Quantum computing classical physics.
Meyer, David A
2002-03-15
In the past decade, quantum algorithms have been found which outperform the best classical solutions known for certain classical problems as well as the best classical methods known for simulation of certain quantum systems. This suggests that they may also speed up the simulation of some classical systems. I describe one class of discrete quantum algorithms which do so--quantum lattice-gas automata--and show how to implement them efficiently on standard quantum computers.
Cariolaro, Gianfranco
2015-01-01
This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: · development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; · general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system · particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...
Banaszek, K; Wasilewski, W; Radzewicz, C
2004-01-01
We present an experiment demonstrating entanglement-enhanced classical communication capacity of a quantum channel with correlated noise. The channel is modelled by a fiber optic link exhibiting random birefringence that fluctuates on a time scale much longer than the temporal separation between consecutive uses of the channel. In this setting, introducing entanglement between two photons travelling down the fiber allows one to encode reliably up to one bit of information into their joint polarization degree of freedom. When no quantum correlations between two separate uses of the channel are allowed, this capacity is reduced by a factor of more than three. We demonstrated this effect using a fiber-coupled source of entagled photon pairs based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and a linear-optics Bell state measurement.
General Approach to Quantum Channel Impossibility by Local Operations and Classical Communication
Cohen, Scott M.
2017-01-01
We describe a general approach to proving the impossibility of implementing a quantum channel by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), even with an infinite number of rounds, and find that this can often be demonstrated by solving a set of linear equations. The method also allows one to design a LOCC protocol to implement the channel whenever such a protocol exists in any finite number of rounds. Perhaps surprisingly, the computational expense for analyzing LOCC channels is not much greater than that for LOCC measurements. We apply the method to several examples, two of which provide numerical evidence that the set of quantum channels that are not LOCC is not closed and that there exist channels that can be implemented by LOCC either in one round or in three rounds that are on the boundary of the set of all LOCC channels. Although every LOCC protocol must implement a separable quantum channel, it is a very difficult task to determine whether or not a given channel is separable. Fortunately, prior knowledge that the channel is separable is not required for application of our method.
Randomness: Quantum versus classical
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-05-01
Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory has led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g. quantum random generators. This development had stimulated a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is the elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of a quantum state. Closely related problem is the clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review, we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. We also discuss briefly “digital philosophy”, its role in physics (classical and quantum) and its coupling to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM).
2007-01-01
The relationship between classical and quantum theory is of central importance to the philosophy of physics, and any interpretation of quantum mechanics has to clarify it. Our discussion of this relationship is partly historical and conceptual, but mostly technical and mathematically rigorous, including over 500 references. On the assumption that quantum mechanics is universal and complete, we discuss three ways in which classical physics has so far been believed to emerge from quantum physic...
Advanced quantum communication systems
Jeffrey, Evan Robert
Quantum communication provides several examples of communication protocols which cannot be implemented securely using only classical communication. Currently, the most widely known of these is quantum cryptography, which allows secure key exchange between parties sharing a quantum channel subject to an eavesdropper. This thesis explores and extends the realm of quantum communication. Two new quantum communication protocols are described. The first is a new form of quantum cryptography---relativistic quantum cryptography---which increases communication efficiency by exploiting a relativistic bound on the power of an eavesdropper, in addition to the usual quantum mechanical restrictions intrinsic to quantum cryptography. By doing so, we have observed over 170% improvement in communication efficiency over a similar protocol not utilizing relativity. A second protocol, Quantum Orienteering, allows two cooperating parties to communicate a specific direction in space. This application shows the possibility of using joint measurements, or projections onto an entangled state, in order to extract the maximum useful information from quantum bits. For two-qubit communication, the maximal fidelity of communication using only separable operations is 73.6%, while joint measurements can improve the efficiency to 78.9%. In addition to implementing these protocols, we have improved several resources for quantum communication and quantum computing. Specifically, we have developed improved sources of polarization-entangled photons, a low-loss quantum memory for polarization qubits, and a quantum random number generator. These tools may be applied to a wide variety of future quantum and classical information systems.
Randomness: quantum versus classical
Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g., quantum random generators. This development stimulates a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of quantum state. Closely related problem is clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. The second part of this review is devoted to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in the spirit of Zeilinger and Brukner (and QBism of Fuchs et al.) and physics in general (e.g., Wheeler's "it from bit") as well as digital philosophy of Chaitin (with historical coupling to ideas of Leibnitz). Finally, w...
Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise
Poor, H; Scully, Marlan
2012-01-01
David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...
Nikolopoulos, G M; Ranade, K S; Alber, Gernot; Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Ranade, Kedar S.
2006-01-01
We investigate the error tolerance of quantum cryptographic protocols using $d$-level systems. In particular, we focus on prepare-and-measure schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases and a key-distillation procedure with two-way classical communication. For arbitrary quantum channels, we obtain a sufficient condition for secret-key distillation which, in the case of isotropic quantum channels, yields an analytic expression for the maximally tolerable error rate of the cryptographic protocols under consideration. The difference between the tolerable error rate and its theoretical upper bound tends slowly to zero for sufficiently large dimensions of the information carriers.
Kisil, Vladimir V.
2000-01-01
We describe an $p$-mechanical (see funct-an/9405002 and quant-ph/9610016) brackets which generate quantum (commutator) and classic (Poisson) brackets in corresponding representations of the Heisenberg group. We \\emph{do not} use any kind of semiclassic approximation or limiting procedures for $\\hbar \\to 0$. Harmonic oscillator considered within the approach. Keywords: Classic and quantum mechanics, Hamilton and Heisenberg equations, Poisson brackets, commutator, Heisenberg group.
Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih
2013-08-01
We point out that our previous work [Optics Communications 284 (2011) 3144] contains a mistake in the key updating equation. We correct the error to avoid an information leakage problem. We revisit our previous work entitled "New arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages against collective amplitude damping noise" [1] and discover a mistake in the key updating equation which could cause a key to reveal to a semi-honest arbitrator.
Classical and Quantum Polyhedra
Schliemann, John
2014-01-01
Quantum polyhedra constructed from angular momentum operators are the building blocks of space in its quantum description as advocated by Loop Quantum Gravity. Here we extend previous results on the semiclassical properties of quantum polyhedra. Regarding tetrahedra, we compare the results from a canonical quantization of the classical system with a recent wave function based approach to the large-volume sector of the quantum system. Both methods agree in the leading order of the resulting effective operator (given by an harmonic oscillator), while minor differences occur in higher corrections. Perturbative inclusion of such corrections improves the approximation to the eigenstates. Moreover, the comparison of both methods leads also to a full wave function description of the eigenstates of the (square of the) volume operator at negative eigenvalues of large modulus. For the case of general quantum polyhedra described by discrete angular momentum quantum numbers we formulate a set of quantum operators fulfill...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Prasanta K Panigrahi; Siddharth Karumanchi; Sreraman Muralidharan
2009-09-01
We investigate the usefulness of the highly entangled five-partite cluster and Brown states for the quantum information splitting (QIS) of a special kind of two-qubit state using remote state preparation. In our schemes, the information that is to be shared is known to the sender. We show that, QIS can be accomplished with just two classical bits, as opposed to four classical bits, when the information that is to be shared is unknown to the sender. The present algorithm, demonstrated through the cluster and Brown states is deterministic as compared to the previous works in which it was probabilistic.
Quantum teleportation without classical channel
Al Amri, M.; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-11-01
For the first time, we show how quantum teleportation can be achieved without the assistance of classical channels. Our protocol does not need any pre-established entangled photon pairs beforehand. Just by utilizing quantum Zeno effect and couterfactual communication idea, we can achieve two goals; entangling a photon and an atom and also disentangling them by non-local interaction. Information is completely transferred from atom to photon with controllable disentanglement processes. More importantly, there is no need to confirm teleportation results via classical channels.
Landsman, N P
2005-01-01
The relationship between classical and quantum theory is of central importance to the philosophy of physics, and any interpretation of quantum mechanics has to clarify it. Our discussion of this relationship is partly historical and conceptual, but mostly technical and mathematically rigorous, including over 500 references. On the assumption that quantum mechanics is universal and complete, we discuss three ways in which classical physics has so far been believed to emerge from quantum physics, namely in the limit h -> 0 of small Planck's constant (in a finite system), in the limit of a large system, and through decoherence and consistent histores. The first limit is closely related to modern quantization theory and microlocal analysis, whereas the second involves methods of C*-algebras and the concepts of superselection sectors and macroscopic observables. In these limits, the classical world does not emerge as a sharply defined objective reality, but rather as an approximate appearance relative to certain "...
Relativistic Quantum Communication
Hosler, Dominic
2013-01-01
In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tend...
Classical and quantum cosmology
Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-01-01
This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...
Mechanics classical and quantum
Taylor, T T
2015-01-01
Mechanics: Classical and Quantum explains the principles of quantum mechanics via the medium of analytical mechanics. The book describes Schrodinger's formulation, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the Lagrangian formulation. The author discusses the Harmonic Oscillator, the generalized coordinates, velocities, as well as the application of the Lagrangian formulation to systems that are partially or entirely electromagnetic in character under certain conditions. The book examines waves on a string under tension, the isothermal cavity radiation, and the Rayleigh-Jeans result pertaining to the e
Quantum Advantage in Communication Networks
De, Aditi Sen
2011-01-01
Quantum channels are known to provide qualitatively better information transfer capacities over their classical counterparts. Examples include quantum cryptography, quantum dense coding, and quantum teleportation. This is a short review on paradigmatic quantum communication protocols in both bipartite as well as multipartite scenarios.
Perspective: Quantum or classical coherence?
Miller, William H
2012-06-07
Some coherence effects in chemical dynamics are described correctly by classical mechanics, while others only appear in a quantum treatment--and when these are observed experimentally it is not always immediately obvious whether their origin is classical or quantum. Semiclassical theory provides a systematic way of adding quantum coherence to classical molecular dynamics and thus provides a useful way to distinguish between classical and quantum coherence. Several examples are discussed which illustrate both cases. Particularly interesting is the situation with electronically non-adiabatic processes, where sometimes whether the coherence effects are classical or quantum depends on what specific aspects of the process are observed.
Aniello, P.; Ciaglia, F. M.; Di Cosmo, F.; Marmo, G.; Pérez-Pardo, J. M.
2016-10-01
We propose a new point of view regarding the problem of time in quantum mechanics, based on the idea of replacing the usual time operator T with a suitable real-valued function T on the space of physical states. The proper characterization of the function T relies on a particular relation with the dynamical evolution of the system rather than with the infinitesimal generator of the dynamics (Hamiltonian). We first consider the case of classical hamiltonian mechanics, where observables are functions on phase space and the tools of differential geometry can be applied. The idea is then extended to the case of the unitary evolution of pure states of finite-level quantum systems by means of the geometric formulation of quantum mechanics. It is found that T is a function on the space of pure states which is not associated with any self-adjoint operator. The link between T and the dynamical evolution is interpreted as defining a simultaneity relation for the states of the system with respect to the dynamical evolution itself. It turns out that different dynamical evolutions lead to different notions of simultaneity, i.e., the notion of simultaneity is a dynamical notion.
Locking classical correlation in quantum states
Di Vincenzo, D P; Leung, D; Smolin, J A; Terhal, B M; Vincenzo, David Di; Horodecki, Michal; Leung, Debbie; Smolin, John; Terhal, Barbara
2003-01-01
We show that there exist bipartite quantum states which contain large hidden classical correlation that can be unlocked by a disproportionately small amount of classical communication. In particular, there are $(2n+1)$-qubit states for which a one bit message doubles the optimal classical mutual information between measurement results on the subsystems, from $n/2$ bits to $n$ bits. States exhibiting this behavior need not be entangled. We study the range of states exhibiting this phenomenon and bound its magnitude.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jian; SONG Dan-Jie; GUO Xiao-Jing; JING Bo
2012-01-01
In order to transmit secure messages,a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented.The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers,and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol.In the security analysis,the entropy theory method is introduced,and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced.If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information,the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50％; the second protocol,using two particles of the Einstein-PodolskyRosen pair as detection particles,is also 50％; while the presented protocol is 89％.Finally,the security of the proposed protocol is discussed,and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two.
Classical Knowledge for Quantum Security
D'Hondt, Ellie
2008-01-01
We propose a decision procedure for analysing security of quantum cryptographic protocols, combining a classical algebraic rewrite system for knowledge with an operational semantics for quantum distributed computing. As a test case, we use our procedure to reason about security properties of a recently developed quantum secret sharing protocol that uses graph states. We analyze three different scenarios based on the safety assumptions of the classical and quantum channels and discover the path of an attack in the presence of an adversary. The epistemic analysis that leads to this and similar types of attacks is purely based on our classical notion of knowledge.
On Classical and Quantum Cryptography
Volovich, I V; Volovich, Ya.I.
2001-01-01
Lectures on classical and quantum cryptography. Contents: Private key cryptosystems. Elements of number theory. Public key cryptography and RSA cryptosystem. Shannon`s entropy and mutual information. Entropic uncertainty relations. The no cloning theorem. The BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. Security proofs. Bell`s theorem. The EPRBE quantum cryptographic protocol.
Quantum manifolds with classical limit
Hohmann, Manuel; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R
2008-01-01
We propose a mathematical model of quantum spacetime as an infinite-dimensional manifold locally homeomorphic to an appropriate Schwartz space. This extends and unifies both the standard function space construction of quantum mechanics and the manifold structure of spacetime. In this picture we demonstrate that classical spacetime emerges as a finite-dimensional manifold through the topological identification of all quantum points with identical position expectation value. We speculate on the possible relevance of this geometry to quantum field theory and gravity.
Can we implement this quantum communication ?
Zeng, T H
2005-01-01
Here I design an experimental way of a quantum communication by quantum CNOT gates and single qubit gates without the help of classical communication. Another conclusion is that GHZ state is not fully fragile.
Classical approach in quantum physics
Solov'ev, Evgeni A
2010-01-01
The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the help of Poincar$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$ section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treating as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semicla...
Quantum Models of Classical World
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Hájíček
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper is a review of our recent work on three notorious problems of non-relativistic quantum mechanics: realist interpretation, quantum theory of classical properties, and the problem of quantum measurement. A considerable progress has been achieved, based on four distinct new ideas. First, objective properties are associated with states rather than with values of observables. Second, all classical properties are selected properties of certain high entropy quantum states of macroscopic systems. Third, registration of a quantum system is strongly disturbed by systems of the same type in the environment. Fourth, detectors must be distinguished from ancillas and the states of registered systems are partially dissipated and lost in the detectors. The paper has two aims: a clear explanation of all new results and a coherent and contradiction-free account of the whole quantum mechanics including all necessary changes of its current textbook version.
On classical and quantum liftings
Accardi, L; Kossakowski, A; Matsuoka, T; Ohya, M
2011-01-01
We analyze the procedure of lifting in classical stochastic and quantum systems. It enables one to `lift' a state of a system into a state of `system+reservoir'. This procedure is important both in quantum information theory and the theory of open systems. We illustrate the general theory of liftings by a particular class related to so called circulant states.
Comparing classical and quantum equilibration
Malabarba, Artur S L; Short, Anthony J
2016-01-01
By using a physically-relevant and theory independent definition of measurement-based equilibration, we show quantitatively that equilibration is easier for quantum systems than for classical systems, in the situation where the initial state of the system is completely known (pure state). This shows that quantum equilibration is a fundamental, nigh unavoidable, aspect of physical systems, while classical equilibration relies on experimental ignorance. When the state is not completely known, a mixed state, this framework also shows quantum equilibration requires weaker conditions.
Quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LONG Gui-lu; DENG Fu-guo; WANG Chuan; LI Xi-han; WEN Kai; WANG Wan-ying
2007-01-01
In this review article,we review the recent development of quantum secure direct communication(QSDC)and deterministic secure quantum communication(DSQC) which both are used to transmit secret message,including the criteria for QSDC,some interesting QSDC protocols,the DSQC protocols and QSDC network,etc.The difference between these two branches of quantum Communication is that DSOC requires the two parties exchange at least one bit of classical information for reading out the message in each qubit,and QSDC does not.They are attractivebecause they are deterministic,in particular,the QSDC protocol is fully quantum mechanical.With sophisticated quantum technology in the future,the QSDC may become more and more popular.For ensuring the safety of QSDC with single photons and quantum information sharing of single qubit in a noisy channel,a quantum privacy amplification protocol has been proposed.It involves very simple CHC operations and reduces the information leakage to a negligible small level.Moreover,with the one-party quantum error correction,a relation has been established between classical linear codes and quantum one-party codes,hence it is convenient to transfer many good classical error correction codes to the quantum world.The one-party quantum error correction codes are especially designed for quantum dense coding and related QSDC protocols based on dense coding.
Practical secure quantum communications
Diamanti, Eleni
2015-05-01
We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.
Quantum localization of Classical Mechanics
Batalin, Igor A
2016-01-01
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
Quantum localization of classical mechanics
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2016-07-01
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
Classical and quantum Coulomb crystals
Bonitz, M; Baumgartner, H; Henning, C; Filinov, A; Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kading, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Fehske, H; Filinov, V
2008-01-01
Strong correlation effects in classical and quantum plasmas are discussed. In particular, Coulomb (Wigner) crystallization phenomena are reviewed focusing on one-component non-neutral plasmas in traps and on macroscopic two-component neutral plasmas. The conditions for crystal formation in terms of critical values of the coupling parameters and the distance fluctuations and the phase diagram of Coulomb crystals are discussed.
From classical to quantum physics
Stehle, Philip
2017-01-01
Suitable for lay readers as well as students, this absorbing survey explores the twentieth-century transition from classical to quantum physics. Author Philip Stehle traces the shift in the scientific worldview from the work of Galileo, Newton, and Darwin to the modern-day achievements of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, and others of their generation. His insightful overview examines not only the history of quantum physics but also the ways that progress in the discipline changed our understanding of the physical world and forces of nature. This chronicle of the second revolution in the physical sciences conveys the excitement and suspense that new developments produced in the scientific community. The narrative ranges from the classical physics of the seventeenth-century to the emergence of quantum mechanics with the entrance of the electron, the rise of relativity theory, the development of atomic theory, and the recognition of wave-particle duality. Relevant mathematical details...
Quantum secret sharing with minimized quantum communication
Fortescue, Ben; Gour, Gilad
2013-03-01
Standard techniques for sharing a quantum secret among multiple players (such that certain subsets of the players can recover the secret while others are denied all knowledge of the secret) require a large amount of quantum communication to distribute the secret, which is likely to be the most costly resource in any practical scheme. Two known methods for reducing this cost are the use of imperfect ``ramp'' secret sharing (in which security is sacrificed for efficiency) and classical encryption (in which certain elements of the players' shares consist of classical information only). We demonstrate how one may combine these methods to reduce the required quantum communication below what has been previously achieved, in some cases to a provable minimum, without any loss of security. The techniques involved are closely-related to the properties of stabilizer codes, and thus have strong potential for being adapted to a wide range of quantum secret sharing schemes.
Classical Dynamics of Quantum Entanglement
Casati, Giulio; Reslen, Jose
2011-01-01
We numerically analyze the dynamical generation of quantum entanglement in a system of 2 interacting particles, started in a coherent separable state, for decreasing values of $\\hbar$. As $\\hbar\\to 0$ the entanglement entropy, computed at any finite time, converges to a finite nonzero value, that can be reproduced by purely classical computations. The limiting classical law which rules the time dependence of entropy is different in the integrable and in the chaotic case, and its general qualitative and quantitative features may be explained by simple heuristic arguments.
Quantum-classical hybrid dynamics - a summary
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2013-01-01
A summary of a recently proposed description of quantum-classical hybrids is presented, which concerns quantum and classical degrees of freedom of a composite object that interact directly with each other. This is based on notions of classical Hamiltonian mechanics suitably extended to quantum mechanics.
Classical topology and quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A P Balachandran
2001-02-01
Any two inﬁnite-dimensional (separable) Hilbert spaces are unitarily isomorphic. The sets of all their self-adjoint operators are also therefore unitarily equivalent. Thus if all self-adjoint operators can be observed, and if there is no further major axiom in quantum physics than those formulated for example in Dirac’s ‘quantum mechanics’, then a quantum physicist would not be able to tell a torus from a hole in the ground. We argue that there are indeed such axioms involving observables with smooth time evolution: they contain commutative subalgebras from which the spatial slice of spacetime with its topology (and with further reﬁnements of the axiom, its - and ∞ - structures) can be reconstructed using Gel’fand–Naimark theory and its extensions. Classical topology is an attribute of only certain quantum observables for these axioms, the spatial slice emergent from quantum physics getting progressively less differentiable with increasingly higher excitations of energy and eventually altogether ceasing to exist. After formulating these axioms, we apply them to show the possibility of topology change and to discuss quantized fuzzy topologies. Fundamental issues concerning the role of time in quantum physics are also addressed.
Quantum Transitions Between Classical Histories: Bouncing Cosmologies
Hartle, James
2015-01-01
In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications: (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)-(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitter like throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the no-boundary quantu...
Absolutely covert quantum communication
Bradler, Kamil; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian
2016-01-01
We present truly ultimate limits on covert quantum communication by exploiting quantum-mechanical properties of the Minkowski vacuum in the quantum field theory framework. Our main results are the following: We show how two parties equipped with Unruh-DeWitt detectors can covertly communicate at large distances without the need of hiding in a thermal background or relying on various technological tricks. We reinstate the information-theoretic security standards for reliability of asymptotic quantum communication and show that the rate of covert communication is strictly positive. Therefore, contrary to the previous conclusions, covert and reliable quantum communication is possible.
Classical equations for quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gell-Mann, M. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group (T-6), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545) (United States) (Santa Fe Institute, 1660 Old Pecos Trail, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501); Hartle, J.B. (Department of Physics, University of California enSanta Barbara, Santa Barbara, (California) 93106)
1993-04-15
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that [ital decohere], which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models.
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...
The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Bacelar Valente
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.
The classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble
Zhu, Xuanmin; Wu, Shengjun; Liu, Quanhui
2010-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble. We define a quantity called classicality to characterize how classical a quantum ensemble is. An ensemble of commuting states that can be manipulated classically has a unit classicality, while a general ensemble has a classicality less than 1. We also study how quantum an ensemble is by defining a related quantity called quantumness. We find that the classicality of an ensemble is closely related to how perfectly the ensemble can be cloned, and that the quantumness of an ensemble is essentially responsible for the security of quantum key distribution(QKD) protocols using that ensemble. Furthermore, we show that the quantumness of an ensemble used in a QKD protocol is exactly the attainable lower bound of the error rate in the sifted key.
Experimental device-independent tests of classical and quantum dimensions
Ahrens, Johan; Badziag, Piotr; Cabello, Adán; Bourennane, Mohamed
2012-08-01
A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. The classical information encoded in a set of states is limited by the number of distinguishable states or classical dimension dc of the set. The sets used in quantum communication and information processing contain states that are neither identical nor distinguishable, and the quantum dimension dq of the set is the dimension of the Hilbert space spanned by these states. An important challenge is to assess the (classical or quantum) dimension of a set of states in a device-independent way, that is, without referring to the internal working of the device generating the states. Here we experimentally test dimension witnesses designed to efficiently determine the minimum dimension of sets of (three or four) photonic states from the correlations originated from measurements on them, and distinguish between classical and quantum sets of states.
Quantum locking of classical correlations and quantum discord of classical-quantum states
Boixo, S; Cavalcanti, D; Modi, K; Winter, A
2011-01-01
A locking protocol between two parties is as follows: Alice gives an encrypted classical message to Bob which she does not want Bob to be able to read until she gives him the key. If Alice is using classical resources, and she wants to approach unconditional security, then the key and the message must have comparable sizes. But if Alice prepares a quantum state, the size of the key can be comparatively negligible. This effect is called quantum locking. Entanglement does not play a role in this quantum advantage. We show that, in this scenario, the quantum discord quantifies the advantage of the quantum protocol over the corresponding classical one for any classical-quantum state.
Classical codes for quantum broadcast channels
Savov, Ivan
2011-01-01
We discuss two techniques for transmitting classical information over quantum broadcast channels. The first technique is a quantum generalization of the superposition coding scheme for the classical broadcast channel. We use a quantum simultaneous nonunique decoder and obtain a simpler proof of the rate region recently published by Yard et al. in independent work. Our second result is a quantum Marton coding scheme, which gives the best known achievable rate region for quantum broadcast channels. Both results exploit recent advances in quantum simultaneous decoding developed in the context of quantum interference channels.
Quantum cryptography communication technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Hong, Seok Boong; Koo, In Soo
2007-09-15
Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant.
Observation of Quantum Fingerprinting Beating the Classical Limit.
Guan, Jian-Yu; Xu, Feihu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Li; You, Li-Xing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-06-17
Quantum communication has historically been at the forefront of advancements, from fundamental tests of quantum physics to utilizing the quantum-mechanical properties of physical systems for practical applications. In the field of communication complexity, quantum communication allows the advantage of an exponential reduction in the transmitted information over classical communication to accomplish distributed computational tasks. However, to date, demonstrating this advantage in a practical setting continues to be a central challenge. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting protocol that for the first time surpasses the ultimate classical limit to transmitted information. Ultralow noise superconducting single-photon detectors and a stable fiber-based Sagnac interferometer are used to implement a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the classical proven lower bound over 20 km standard telecom fiber for input sizes of up to 2 Gbits. The results pave the way for experimentally exploring the advanced features of quantum communication and open a new window of opportunity for research in communication complexity and testing the foundations of physics.
Observation of Quantum Fingerprinting Beating the Classical Limit
Guan, Jian-Yu; Xu, Feihu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Li; You, Li-Xing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-06-01
Quantum communication has historically been at the forefront of advancements, from fundamental tests of quantum physics to utilizing the quantum-mechanical properties of physical systems for practical applications. In the field of communication complexity, quantum communication allows the advantage of an exponential reduction in the transmitted information over classical communication to accomplish distributed computational tasks. However, to date, demonstrating this advantage in a practical setting continues to be a central challenge. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting protocol that for the first time surpasses the ultimate classical limit to transmitted information. Ultralow noise superconducting single-photon detectors and a stable fiber-based Sagnac interferometer are used to implement a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the classical proven lower bound over 20 km standard telecom fiber for input sizes of up to 2 Gbits. The results pave the way for experimentally exploring the advanced features of quantum communication and open a new window of opportunity for research in communication complexity and testing the foundations of physics.
From classical to quantum fields
Baulieu, Laurent; Sénéor, Roland
2017-01-01
Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate the correct mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unified theories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a re...
Classical and Quantum Limits in Bohmian Quantum Cosmology
Shojai, F.; Shirinifard, A.
2005-01-01
In this paper we have investigated the classical limit in Bohmian quantum cosmology. It is observed that in the quantum regime where the quantum potential is greater than the classical one, one has an expansion in terms of negative powers of the Planck constant. But in the classical limit there are regions having positive powers of the Planck constant, and regions having negative powers and also regions having both. The conclusion is that the Bohmian classical limit cannot be obtained by lett...
Enhanced sensing and communication via quantum networks
Smith, James F.
2017-05-01
A network based on quantum information has been developed to improve sensing and communications capabilities. Quantum teleportation offers features for communicating information not found in classical procedures. It is fundamental to the quantum network approach. A version of quantum teleportation based on hyper-entanglement is used to bring about these improvements. Recently invented methods of improving sensing and communication via quantum information based on hyper-entanglement are discussed. These techniques offer huge improvements in the SNR, signal to interference ratio, and time-on-target of various sensors including RADAR and LADAR. Hyper-entanglement refers to quantum entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum (OAM), etc. The quantum network makes use of quantum memory located in each node of the network, thus the network forms a quantum repeater. The quantum repeater facilitates the use of quantum teleportation, and superdense coding. Superdense coding refers to the ability to incorporate more than one classical bit into each transmitted qubit. The network of sensors and/or communication devices has an enhanced resistance to interference sources. The repeater has the potential for greatly reducing loss in communications and sensor systems related to the effect of the atmosphere on fragile quantum states. Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are discussed that show the utility of the network for improving sensing and communications in the presence of loss and noise. The quantum repeater will reduce overall size, weight, power and cost (SWAPC) of fielded components of systems.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-05-18
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Coalitions in the quantum Minority game: classical cheats and quantum bullies
Flitney, A P; Flitney, Adrian P.; Greentree, Andrew D.
2006-01-01
In a one-off Minority game, when a group of players agree to collaborate they gain an advantage over the remaining players. We consider the advantage obtained in a quantum Minority game by a coalition sharing an initially entangled state versus that obtained by a coalition that uses classical communication to arrive at an optimal group strategy. In a model of the quantum Minority game where the final measurement basis is randomized, quantum coalitions outperform classical ones when carried out by up to four players, but an unrestricted amount of classical communication is better for larger coalition sizes.
Multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical and quantum messages
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Pan; DENG Fuguo; LONG Guilu
2007-01-01
A scheme for multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical and quantum messages is proposed by using entanglement swapping. This scheme can distribute not only the classical information but also the quantum information between N agents. The security of our scheme is also confirmed.
Probabilistic direct counterfactual quantum communication
Zhang, Sheng
2017-02-01
It is striking that the quantum Zeno effect can be used to launch a direct counterfactual communication between two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob. So far, existing protocols of this type only provide a deterministic counterfactual communication service. However, this counterfactuality should be payed at a price. Firstly, the transmission time is much longer than a classical transmission costs. Secondly, the chained-cycle structure makes them more sensitive to channel noises. Here, we extend the idea of counterfactual communication, and present a probabilistic-counterfactual quantum communication protocol, which is proved to have advantages over the deterministic ones. Moreover, the presented protocol could evolve to a deterministic one solely by adjusting the parameters of the beam splitters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61300203).
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2017-01-01
Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.
Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.
Kapral, Raymond
2015-02-25
Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics.
The Many Classical Faces of Quantum Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris Heunen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Interpretational problems with quantum mechanics can be phrased precisely by only talking about empirically accessible information. This prompts a mathematical reformulation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical mechanics. We survey this programme in terms of algebraic quantum theory.
Quantum Communication Technology
Gisin, Nicolas
2010-01-01
Quantum communication is built on a set of disruptive concepts and technologies. It is driven by fascinating physics and by promising applications. It requires a new mix of competencies, from telecom engineering to theoretical physics, from theoretical computer science to mechanical and electronic engineering. First applications have already found their way to niche markets and university labs are working on futuristic quantum networks, but most of the surprises are still ahead of us. Quantum communication, and more generally quantum information science and technologies, are here to stay and will have a profound impact on the XXI century.
Classical enhancement of quantum vacuum fluctuations
De Lorenci, V A
2016-01-01
We propose a mechanism for the enhancement of vacuum fluctuations by means of a classical field. The basic idea is that if an observable quantity depends quadratically upon a quantum field, such as the electric field, then the application of a classical field produces a cross term between the classical and quantum fields. This cross term may be significantly larger than the purely quantum part, but also undergoes fluctuations driven by the quantum field. We illustrate this effect in a model for lightcone fluctuations involving pulses in a nonlinear dielectric. Vacuum electric field fluctuations produce fluctuations in the speed of a probe pulse, and form an analog model for quantum gravity effects. If the material has a nonzero third-order susceptibility, then the fractional light speed fluctuations are proportional to the square of the fluctuating electric field. Hence the application of a classical electric field can enhance the speed fluctuations. We give an example where this enhancement can be an increas...
Chaos in effective classical and quantum dynamics
Casetti, L; Modugno, M; Casetti, Lapo; Gatto, Raoul; Modugno, Michele
1998-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of classical and quantum N-component phi^4 oscillators in presence of an external field. In the large N limit the effective dynamics is described by two-degree-of-freedom classical Hamiltonian systems. In the classical model we observe chaotic orbits for any value of the external field, while in the quantum case chaos is strongly suppressed. A simple explanation of this behaviour is found in the change in the structure of the orbits induced by quantum corrections. Consistently with Heisenberg's principle, quantum fluctuations are forced away from zero, removing in the effective quantum dynamics a hyperbolic fixed point that is a major source of chaos in the classical model.
Quantum broadcast communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chao-Jing
2007-01-01
Broadcast encryption allows the sender to securely distribute his/her secret to a dynamically changing group of users over a broadcast channel. In this paper, we just take account of a simple broadcast communication task in quantum scenario, in which the central party broadcasts his secret to multi-receiver via quantum channel. We present three quantum broadcast communication schemes. The first scheme utilizes entanglement swapping and GreenbergerHorne-Zeilinger state to fulfil a task that the central party broadcasts the secret to a group of receivers who share a group key with him. In the second scheme, based on dense coding, the central party broadcasts the secret to multi-receiver,each of which shares an authentication key with him. The third scheme is a quantum broadcast communication scheme with quantum encryption, in which the central party can broadcast the secret to any subset of the legal receivers.
Quantum network communication -- the butterfly and beyond
Leung, D; Winter, A; Leung, Debbie; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Winter, Andreas
2006-01-01
We study the communication of quantum information in networks of (directed) quantum channels. We consider the asymptotic rates of high fidelity quantum communication between specific sender-receiver pairs, and obtain outer and inner bounds of the achievable rate regions. All four scenarios of classical communication assistance (none, forward, backward, and two-way) are considered. For networks in which (1) the receivers are information sinks, (2) the maximum distance from senders to receivers is small, and without further constraints on the networks (such as the number of intermediate parties), we prove that rerouting of quantum information is optimal. Furthermore, the optimal use of the free assisting classical communication is simply to modify the directions of quantum channels in the network. Consequently, the achievable rate regions are given by counting edge avoiding paths, and precise achievable rate regions in all four assisting scenarios can be obtained. These complete solutions apply to many networks...
Quantum field theory from classical statistics
Wetterich, C
2011-01-01
An Ising-type classical statistical model is shown to describe quantum fermions. For a suitable time-evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins our model describes a quantum field theory for Dirac spinors in external electromagnetic fields, corresponding to a mean field approximation to quantum electrodynamics. All quantum features for the motion of an arbitrary number of electrons and positrons, including the characteristic interference effects for two-fermion states, are described by the classical statistical model. For one-particle states in the non-relativistic approximation we derive the Schr\\"odinger equation for a particle in a potential from the time evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins. Thus all characteristic quantum features, as interference in a double slit experiment, tunneling or discrete energy levels for stationary states, are derived from a classical statistical ensemble. Concerning the particle-wave-duality of quantum mechanics, the discret...
On the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics
Allori, V; Allori, Valia; Zangh\\`{\\i}, Nino
2001-01-01
Contrary to the widespread belief, the problem of the emergence of classical mechanics from quantum mechanics is still open. In spite of many results on the $\\h \\to 0$ asymptotics, it is not yet clear how to explain within standard quantum mechanics the classical motion of macroscopic bodies. In this paper we shall analyze special cases of classical behavior in the framework of a precise formulation of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, which contains in its own structure the possibility of describing real objects in an observer-independent way.
Hybrid Quantum-Classical Approach to Quantum Optimal Control.
Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xinhua; Sun, Chang-Pu
2017-04-14
A central challenge in quantum computing is to identify more computational problems for which utilization of quantum resources can offer significant speedup. Here, we propose a hybrid quantum-classical scheme to tackle the quantum optimal control problem. We show that the most computationally demanding part of gradient-based algorithms, namely, computing the fitness function and its gradient for a control input, can be accomplished by the process of evolution and measurement on a quantum simulator. By posing queries to and receiving answers from the quantum simulator, classical computing devices update the control parameters until an optimal control solution is found. To demonstrate the quantum-classical scheme in experiment, we use a seven-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance system, on which we have succeeded in optimizing state preparation without involving classical computation of the large Hilbert space evolution.
Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Cosmology and Classical-Quantum Correlation
Fathi, M.; Jalalzadeh, S.
2017-07-01
How the time evolution which is typical for classical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology? The answer is not trivial because the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is time independent. A framework associating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi to the minisuperspace cosmological models has been introduced in Fathi et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 76, 527 2016). In this paper we show that time dependence and quantum-classical correspondence both arise naturally in the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism of quantum mechanics, applied to quantum cosmology. We study the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi cosmology of spatially flat homogeneous and isotropic early universe whose matter content is a perfect fluid. The classical cosmology emerge around one Planck time where its linear size is around a few millimeter, without needing any classical inflationary phase afterwards to make it grow to its present size.
Quantum remnants in the classical limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Científicas (CIC) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); SThAR, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2016-09-16
We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.
Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra
Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.
1996-01-01
A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurek, W.H.; Paz, J.P.
1994-04-01
The key ideas of the environment-induced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan ``No information without representation.``
Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics.
Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E
2011-12-14
We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.
Secure Communication via a Recycling of Attenuated Classical Signals
Smith, A. Matthew
2017-01-01
We describe a simple method of interleaving a classical and quantum signal in a secure communication system at a single wavelength. The system transmits data encrypted via a one-time pad on a classical signal and produces a single-photon reflection of the encrypted signal. This attenuated signal can be used to observe eavesdroppers and produce fresh secret bits. The system can be secured against eavesdroppers, detect simple tampering or classical bit errors, produces more secret bits than it consumes, and does not require any entanglement or complex wavelength division multiplexing, thus, making continuous secure two-way communication via one-time pads practical.
Classical and quantum resonances for hyperbolic surfaces
Guillarmou, Colin; Hilgert, Joachim; Weich, Tobias
2016-01-01
For compact and for convex co-compact oriented hyperbolic surfaces, we prove an explicit correspondence between classical Ruelle resonant states and quantum resonant states, except at negative integers where the correspondence involves holomorphic sections of line bundles.
Classical and quantum wormholes with tachyon field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高长军; 沈有根
2003-01-01
The wormhole equations are presented in the presence of tachyon field. Specializing at some values of ω (the ratio of pressure to energy density), we find a family of classical and quantum wormhole solutions.
Fisher Information of Wavefunctions: Classical and Quantum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Shun-Long
2006-01-01
A parametric quantum mechanical wavefunction naturally induces parametric probability distributions by taking absolute square, and we can consider its classical Fisher information. On the other hand, it also induces parametric rank-one projections which may be viewed as density operators, and we can talk about its quantum Fisher information. Among many versions of quantum Fisher information, there are two prominent ones. The first,deiined via a quantum score function, was introduced by Helstrom in 1967 and is well known. The second,defined via the square root of the density operator, has its origin in the skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase in 1963 and remains relatively unnoticed. This study is devoted to investigating the relationships between the classical Fisher information and these two versions of quantum Fisher information for wavefunctions.It is shown that the two versions of quantum Fisher information differ by a factor 2 and that they dominate the classical Fisher information. The non-coincidence of these two versions of quantum Fisher information may be interpreted as a manifestation of quantum discord. We further calculate the difference between the Helstrom quantum Fisher information and the classical Fisher information, and show that it is precisely the instantaneous phase fluctuation of the wavefunctions.
Quantum communication between remote mechanical resonators
Felicetti, S.; Fedortchenko, S.; Rossi, R.; Ducci, S.; Favero, I.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.
2017-02-01
Mechanical resonators represent one of the most promising candidates to mediate the interaction between different quantum technologies, bridging the gap between efficient quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. Here, we introduce an interferometric scheme where the interaction of a mechanical resonator with input-output quantum pulses is controlled by an independent classical drive. We design protocols for state teleportation and direct quantum state transfer, between distant mechanical resonators. The proposed device, feasible with state-of-the-art technology, can serve as a building block for the implementation of long-distance quantum networks of mechanical resonators.
Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials
Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.
2017-06-01
The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.
Quantum approach to classical statistical mechanics.
Somma, R D; Batista, C D; Ortiz, G
2007-07-20
We present a new approach to study the thermodynamic properties of d-dimensional classical systems by reducing the problem to the computation of ground state properties of a d-dimensional quantum model. This classical-to-quantum mapping allows us to extend the scope of standard optimization methods by unifying them under a general framework. The quantum annealing method is naturally extended to simulate classical systems at finite temperatures. We derive the rates to assure convergence to the optimal thermodynamic state using the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics. For simulated and quantum annealing, we obtain the asymptotic rates of T(t) approximately (pN)/(k(B)logt) and gamma(t) approximately (Nt)(-c/N), for the temperature and magnetic field, respectively. Other annealing strategies are also discussed.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-01
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-02
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Classical and quantum anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Selke
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study classical and quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with exchange anisotropy of XXZ-type and crystal field single-ion terms of quadratic and quartic form in a field. The magnets display a variety of phases, including the spin-flop (or, in the quantum case, spin-liquid and biconical (corresponding, in the quantum lattice gas description, to supersolid phases. Applying ground-state considerations, Monte Carlo and density matrix renormalization group methods, the impact of quantum effects and lattice dimension is analysed. Interesting critical and multicritical behaviour may occur at quantum and thermal phase transitions.
Unification of quantum and classical correlations and quantumness measures
Modi, Kavan
2011-01-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to quantum discord. We the discuss the problem of separation of total correlations in a given quantum state into entanglement, dissonance, and classical correlations using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations. This allows us to put all correlations on an equal footing. Entanglement and dissonance, whose definition is introduced here, jointly belong to what is known as quantum discord. Our methods are completely applicable for multipartite systems of arbitrary dimensions. We finally show, using relative entropy, how different notions of quantum correlations are related to each other. This gives a single theory that incorporates all correlations, quantum, classical, etc.
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
"Scars" connect classical and quantum theory
Monteiro, T
1990-01-01
Chaotic systems are unstable and extremely sensitive to initial condititions. So far, scientists have been unable to demonstrate that the same kind of behaviour exists in quantum or microscopic systems. New connections have been discovered though between classical and quantum theory. One is the phenomena of 'scars' which cut through the wave function of a particle (1 page).
Dynamics of Coupled Quantum-Classical Oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Wei-Zhong; XU Liu-Su; ZOU Feng-Wu
2004-01-01
@@ The dynamics of systems consisting of coupled quantum-classical oscillators is numerically investigated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the quantum oscillator exhibits chaos. When the mass of the classical oscillator increases, the chaos will be suppressed; if the energy of the system and/or the coupling strength between the two oscillators increases, chaotic behaviour of the system appears. This result will be helpful to understand the probability of the emergence of quantum chaos and may be applied to explain the spectra of complex atoms qualitatively.
Exact Classical Correspondence in Quantum Cosmology
John, Moncy V
2014-01-01
We find a Friedmann model with appropriate matter/energy density such that the solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation exactly corresponds to the classical evolution. The well-known problems in quantum cosmology disappear in the resulting coasting evolution. The exact quantum-classical correspondence is demonstrated with the help of the de Broglie-Bohm and modified de Broglie-Bohm approaches to quantum mechanics. It is reassuring that such a solution leads to a robust model for the universe, which agrees well with cosmological expansion indicated by SNe Ia data.
On the Classical and Quantum Momentum Map
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esposito, Chiara
In this thesis we study the classical and quantum momentum maps and the theory of reduction. We focus on the notion of momentum map in Poisson geometry and we discuss the classification of the momentum map in this framework. Furthermore, we describe the so-called Poisson Reduction, a technique...... that allows us to reduce the dimension of a manifold in presence of symmetries implemented by Poisson actions. Using techniques of deformation quantization and quantum groups, we introduce the quantum momentum map as a deformation of the classical momentum map, constructed in such a way that it factorizes...
Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.
Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2015-07-24
Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.
Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication
Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel
2006-01-01
We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...
From Classical to Quantum Transistor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjeev Kumar
2009-05-01
Full Text Available In this article the classical transistor and the basic physics underlying the operation of single electron transistor are presented; a brief history of transistor and current technological issues are discussed.
From Classical to Quantum Transistor
Sanjeev Kumar
2009-01-01
In this article the classical transistor and the basic physics underlying the operation of single electron transistor are presented; a brief history of transistor and current technological issues are discussed.
Quantum-classical crossover in electrodynamics
Polonyi, J
2006-01-01
A classical field theory is proposed for the electric current and the electromagnetic field interpolating between microscopic and macroscopic domains. It represents a generalization of the density functional for the dynamics of the current and the electromagnetic field in the quantum side of the crossover and reproduces standard classical electrodynamics on the other side. The effective action derived in the closed time path formalism and the equations of motion follow from the variational principle. The polarization of the Dirac-see can be taken into account in the quadratic approximation of the action by the introduction of the deplacement field strengths as in conventional classical electrodynamics. Decoherence appears naturally as a simple one-loop effect in this formalism. It is argued that the radiation time arrow is generated from the quantum boundary conditions in time by decoherence at the quantum-classical crossover and the Abraham-Lorentz force arises from the accelerating charge or from other char...
Probing the quantum-classical connection with open quantum dots
Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R.; Brunner, R.
2015-10-01
Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. As a closed test bed, they provide a natural system with a very rich set of eigen-states. When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, each of which passes several modes, the original quantum environment evolves into a set of decoherent and coherent states, which eventually couple to the classical states discussed above. The manner of this connection is governed strongly by decoherence theory. The remaining coherent states possess all the properties of pointer states. Here, we discuss the quantum-classical connection and how it appears within the experimental world.
Macroscopic quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime.
Yang, Huan; Miao, Haixing; Lee, Da-Shin; Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei
2013-04-26
We apply the many-particle Schrödinger-Newton equation, which describes the coevolution of a many-particle quantum wave function and a classical space-time geometry, to macroscopic mechanical objects. By averaging over motions of the objects' internal degrees of freedom, we obtain an effective Schrödinger-Newton equation for their centers of mass, which can be monitored and manipulated at quantum levels by state-of-the-art optomechanics experiments. For a single macroscopic object moving quantum mechanically within a harmonic potential well, its quantum uncertainty is found to evolve at a frequency different from its classical eigenfrequency-with a difference that depends on the internal structure of the object-and can be observable using current technology. For several objects, the Schrödinger-Newton equation predicts semiclassical motions just like Newtonian physics, yet quantum uncertainty cannot be transferred from one object to another.
Nonperturbative approach to relativistic quantum communication channels
Landulfo, André G. S.
2016-05-01
We investigate the transmission of both classical and quantum information between two arbitrary observers in globally hyperbolic spacetimes using a quantum field as a communication channel. The field is supposed to be in some arbitrary quasifree state and no choice of representation of its canonical commutation relations is made. Both sender and receiver possess some localized two-level quantum system with which they can interact with the quantum field to prepare the input and receive the output of the channel, respectively. The interaction between the two-level systems and the quantum field is such that one can trace out the field degrees of freedom exactly and thus obtain the quantum channel in a nonperturbative way. We end the paper determining the unassisted as well as the entanglement-assisted classical and quantum channel capacities.
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2016-01-01
Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.
Classical Fields and the Quantum Concept
De Souza, M M
1996-01-01
We do a critical review of the Faraday-Maxwell concept of classical field and of its quantization process. With the hindsight knowledge of the essentially quantum character of the interactions, we use a naive classical model of field, based on exchange of classical massless particles, for a comparative and qualitative analysis of the physical content of the Coulomb's and Gauss's laws. It enlightens the physical meaning of a field singularity and of a static field. One can understand the problems on quantizing a classical field but not the hope of quantizing the gravitational field right from General Relativity.
Quantum cryptography: a view from classical cryptography
Buchmann, Johannes; Braun, Johannes; Demirel, Denise; Geihs, Matthias
2017-06-01
Much of digital data requires long-term protection of confidentiality, for example, medical health records. Cryptography provides such protection. However, currently used cryptographic techniques such as Diffe-Hellman key exchange may not provide long-term security. Such techniques rely on certain computational assumptions, such as the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem that may turn out to be incorrect. On the other hand, quantum cryptography---in particular quantum random number generation and quantum key distribution---offers information theoretic protection. In this paper, we explore the challenge of providing long-term confidentiality and we argue that a combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography can provide such protection.
Classical and Quantum Thermal Physics
Prasad, R.
2016-11-01
List of figures; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgement; Dedication; 1. The kinetic theory of gases; 2. Ideal to real gas, viscosity, conductivity and diffusion; 3. Thermodynamics: definitions and Zeroth law; 4. First Law of Thermodynamics and some of its applications; 5. Second Law of Thermodynamics and some of its applications; 6. TdS equations and their applications; 7. Thermodynamic functions, potentials, Maxwell equations, the Third Law and equilibrium; 8. Some applications of thermodynamics to problems of physics and engineering; 9. Application of thermodynamics to chemical reactions; 10. Quantum thermodynamics; 11. Some applications of quantum thermodynamics; 12. Introduction to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; Index.
Entanglement in Quantum-Classical Hybrid
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
It is noted that the phenomenon of entanglement is not a prerogative of quantum systems, but also occurs in other, non-classical systems such as quantum-classical hybrids, and covers the concept of entanglement as a special type of global constraint imposed upon a broad class of dynamical systems. Application of hybrid systems for physics of life, as well as for quantum-inspired computing, has been outlined. In representing the Schroedinger equation in the Madelung form, there is feedback from the Liouville equation to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the form of the quantum potential. Preserving the same topology, the innovators replaced the quantum potential with other types of feedback, and investigated the property of these hybrid systems. A function of probability density has been introduced. Non-locality associated with a global geometrical constraint that leads to an entanglement effect was demonstrated. Despite such a quantum like characteristic, the hybrid can be of classical scale and all the measurements can be performed classically. This new emergence of entanglement sheds light on the concept of non-locality in physics.
Leung, Debbie; Matthews, William; Ozols, Maris; Roy, Aidan
2010-01-01
It is known that the number of different classical messages which can be communicated with a single use of a classical channel with zero probability of decoding error can sometimes be increased by using entanglement shared between sender and receiver. It has been an open question to determine whether entanglement can ever offer an advantage in terms of the zero-error communication rates achievable in the limit of many channel uses. In this paper we show, by explicit examples, that entanglement can indeed increase asymptotic zero-error capacity. Interestingly, in our examples the quantum protocols are based on the root systems of the exceptional Lie groups E7 and E8.
General linear dynamics - quantum, classical or hybrid
Elze, H-T; Vallone, F
2011-01-01
We describe our recent proposal of a path integral formulation of classical Hamiltonian dynamics. Which leads us here to a new attempt at hybrid dynamics, which concerns the direct coupling of classical and quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. This is of practical as well as of foundational interest and no fully satisfactory solution of this problem has been established to date. Related aspects will be observed in a general linear ensemble theory, which comprises classical and quantum dynamics in the form of Liouville and von Neumann equations, respectively, as special cases. Considering the simplest object characterized by a two-dimensional state-space, we illustrate how quantum mechanics is special in several respects among possible linear generalizations.
Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits
Geraci, Joseph; Lidar, Daniel A.
2010-07-01
We exploit a recently constructed mapping between quantum circuits and graphs in order to prove that circuits corresponding to certain planar graphs can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof uses an expression for the Ising model partition function in terms of quadratically signed weight enumerators (QWGTs), which are polynomials that arise naturally in an expansion of quantum circuits in terms of rotations involving Pauli matrices. We combine this expression with a known efficient classical algorithm for the Ising partition function of any planar graph in the absence of an external magnetic field, and the Robertson-Seymour theorem from graph theory. We give as an example a set of quantum circuits with a small number of non-nearest-neighbor gates which admit an efficient classical simulation.
Classical to quantum in large number limit
Modi, Kavan; Pascazio, Saverio; Vedral, Vlatko; Yuasa, Kazuya
2011-01-01
We construct a quantumness witness following the work of Alicki and van Ryn (AvR) in "A simple test of quantumness for a single system" [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 41, 062001 (2008)]. The AvR test is designed to detect quantumness. We reformulate the AvR test by defining it for quantum states rather than for observables. This allows us to identify the necessary quantities and resources to detect quantumness for any given system. The first quantity turns out to be the purity of the system. When applying the witness to a system with even moderate mixedness the protocol is unable to reveal any quantumness. We then show that having many copies of the system leads the witness to reveal quantumness. This seems contrary to the Bohr correspondence, which asserts that in the large number limit quantum systems become classical, while the witness shows quantumness when several non-quantum systems, as determined by the witness, are considered together. However, the resources required to detect the quantumness increase dra...
Quantum Reading of a Classical Memory
Pirandola, Stefano
2009-01-01
We consider a digital memory where each memory cell is a mirror with two possible reflectivities (used to encode a bit of information). Adopting this model, we show that a non-classical source of light, possessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, can retrieve the stored information more efficiently than every classical source. The improvement brought by this quantum reading of the memory can be dramatic for high reflectivities and can be tested with current technology.
Quantum-to-classical transition in cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Fink, J M; Steffen, L; Studer, P; Bishop, Lev S; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Bozyigit, D; Lang, C; Filipp, S; Leek, P J; Wallraff, A
2010-10-15
The quantum properties of electromagnetic, mechanical or other harmonic oscillators can be revealed by investigating their strong coherent coupling to a single quantum two level system in an approach known as cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). At temperatures much lower than the characteristic energy level spacing the observation of vacuum Rabi oscillations or mode splittings with one or a few quanta asserts the quantum nature of the oscillator. Here, we study how the classical response of a cavity QED system emerges from the quantum one when its thermal occupation-or effective temperature-is raised gradually over 5 orders of magnitude. In this way we explore in detail the continuous quantum-to-classical crossover and demonstrate how to extract effective cavity field temperatures from both spectroscopic and time-resolved vacuum Rabi measurements.
Tuned Transition from Quantum to Classical for Macroscopic Quantum States
Fedorov, A.; Macha, P.; Feofanov, A.K.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.
2011-01-01
The boundary between the classical and quantum worlds has been intensely studied. It remains fascinating to explore how far the quantum concept can reach with use of specially fabricated elements. Here we employ a tunable flux qubit with basis states having persistent currents of 1 μA carried by a
From Quantum to Classical in the Sky
Singh, Suprit
2016-01-01
Inflation has by-far set itself as one of the prime ideas in the current cosmological models that seemingly has an answer for every observed phenomenon in cosmology. More importantly, it serves as a bridge between the early quantum fluctuations and the present-day classical structures. Although the transition from quantum to classical is still not completely understood till date, there are two assumptions made in the inflationary paradigm in this regard: (i) the modes (metric perturbations or fluctuations) behave classically once they are well outside the Hubble radius and, (ii) once they become classical they stay classical and hence can be described by standard perturbation theory after they re-enter the Hubble radius. We critically examine these assumptions for the tensor modes of (linear) metric perturbations in a toy three stage universe with (i) inflation, (ii) radiation-dominated and (iii) late-time accelerated phases. The quantum-to-classical transition for these modes is evident from the evolution of...
Classical trajectories and quantum tunneling
Ivlev, B I
2003-01-01
The problem of inter-band tunneling in a semiconductor (Zener breakdown) in a nonstationary and homogeneous electric field is solved exactly. Using the exact analytical solution, the approximation based on classical trajectories is studied. A new mechanism of enhanced tunneling through static non-one-dimensional barriers is proposed in addition to well known normal tunneling solely described by a trajectory in imaginary time. Under certain conditions on the barrier shape and the particle energy, the probability of enhanced tunneling is not exponentially small even for non-transparent barriers, in contrast to the case of normal tunneling.
Experimental Device-independent Tests of Classical and Quantum Dimensions
Badziag, Johan Ahrens Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed
2011-01-01
A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. Information encoded in a classical system is limited by the dimension d_c of the system, i.e., the number of distinguishable states. A system with d_c=2^n classical states can carry n bits of classical information. Information encoded in a quantum system is limited by the dimension d_q of the Hilbert space of the system, i.e., the number of perfectly distinguishable quantum states. A system with d_q=2^n perfectly distinguishable quantum states can carry n qubits of quantum information. Physical systems of higher dimensions may enable more efficient and powerful information processing protocols. The dimension is fundamental in quantum cryptography and random number generation, where the security of many schemes [1,2,3] crucially relies on the system's dimension. From a fundamental perspective, the dimension can be used to quantify the non-classicality of correlations, since class...
Applying classical geometry intuition to quantum spin
Durfee, Dallin S.; Archibald, James L.
2016-09-01
Using concepts of geometric orthogonality and linear independence, we logically deduce the form of the Pauli spin matrices and the relationships between the three spatially orthogonal basis sets of the spin-1/2 system. Rather than a mathematically rigorous derivation, the relationships are found by forcing expectation values of the different basis states to have the properties we expect of a classical, geometric coordinate system. The process highlights the correspondence of quantum angular momentum with classical notions of geometric orthogonality, even for the inherently non-classical spin-1/2 system. In the process, differences in and connections between geometrical space and Hilbert space are illustrated.
Quantum Estimation of Parameters of Classical Spacetimes
Downes, T G; Knill, E; Milburn, G J; Caves, C M
2016-01-01
We describe a quantum limit to measurement of classical spacetimes. Specifically, we formulate a quantum Cramer-Rao lower bound for estimating the single parameter in any one-parameter family of spacetime metrics. We employ the locally covariant formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, which allows for a manifestly background-independent derivation. The result is an uncertainty relation that applies to all globally hyperbolic spacetimes. Among other examples, we apply our method to detection of gravitational waves using the electromagnetic field as a probe, as in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Other applications are discussed, from terrestrial gravimetry to cosmology.
Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point.
Vasin, M; Ryzhov, V; Vinokur, V M
2015-12-21
A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d + zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T) ∈ [0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T = 0) = 1 and Λ(T → ∞) = 0. Our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.
Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?
Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer
2011-01-01
Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…
Purifying Quantum States: Quantum and Classical Algorithms
Dennis, E
2005-01-01
I give analytical estimates and numerical simulation results for the performance of Kitaev's 2d topological error-correcting codes. By providing methods for the execution of an encoded three-qubit Toffoli gate, I complete a universal gate set for these codes. I also examine the utility of Bohm's and Bohm-inspired interpretations of quantum mechanics for numerical solution of many-body dynamics and ``mechanism identification'' heuristics in discrete systems. Further, I show an unexpected quantitative correspondence between the previously known continuum of stochastic-Bohm trajectory theories on the one hand and extant path integral Monte Carlo methods on the other hand.
Noisy Quantum Cellular Automata for Quantum versus Classical Excitation Transfer
Avalle, Michele; Serafini, Alessio
2014-05-01
We introduce a class of noisy quantum cellular automata on a qubit lattice that includes all classical Markov chains, as well as maps where quantum coherence between sites is allowed to build up over time. We apply such a construction to the problem of excitation transfer through 1D lattices, and compare the performance of classical and quantum dynamics with equal local transition probabilities. Our discrete approach has the merits of stripping down the complications of the open system dynamics, of clearly isolating coherent effects, and of allowing for an exact treatment of conditional dynamics, all while capturing a rich variety of dynamical behaviors.
Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Scarani, Valerio
2016-12-01
We extend covert communication to the quantum regime by showing that covert quantum communication is possible over optical channels with noise arising either from the environment or from the sender's lab. In particular, we show that sequences of qubits can be transmitted covertly by using both a single photon and a coherent state encoding. We study the possibility of performing covert quantum key distribution (QKD) and show that positive key rates and covertness can be achieved simultaneously. Covert communication requires a secret key between the sender and receiver, which raises the problem of how this key can be regenerated covertly. We show that covert QKD consumes more secret bits than it can generate and propose instead a hybrid protocol for covert key regeneration that uses pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) together with covert QKD to regenerate secret keys. The security of the new key is guaranteed by QKD while the security of the covert communication is at least as strong as the security of the PRNG.
Bridging classical and quantum mechanics
Haddad, D.; Seifert, F.; Chao, L. S.; Li, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Williams, C.; Schlamminger, S.
2016-10-01
Using a watt balance and a frequency comb, a mass-energy equivalence is derived. The watt balance compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second, and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct link between mechanical action and the Planck constant is established by the practical realization of the electrical units derived from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects. By using frequency combs to measure velocities and acceleration of gravity, the unit of mass can be realized from a set of three defining constants: the Planck constant h, the speed of light c, and the hyperfine splitting frequency of 133Cs.
Classical and Quantum Nonlocal Supergravity
Giaccari, Stefano
2016-01-01
We derive the N=1 supersymmetric extension for a class of weakly nonlocal four dimensional gravitational theories.The construction is explicitly done in the superspace and the tree-level perturbative unitarity is explicitly proved both in the superfield formalism and in field components. For the minimal nonlocal supergravity the spectrum is the same as in the local theory and in particular it is ghost-free. The supersymmetric extension of the super-renormalizable Starobinsky theory and of two alternative massive nonlocal supergravities are found as straightforward applications of the formalism. Power-counting arguments ensure super-renormalizability with milder requirement for the asymptotic behavior of form factors than in ordinary nonlocal gravity. The most noteworthy result, common to ordinary supergravity, is the absence of quantum corrections to the cosmological constant in any regularization procedure. We cannot exclude the usual one-loop quadratic divergences. However, local vertices in the superfields...
Quantum dynamical entropies in discrete classical chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benatti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Cappellini, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Zertuche, Federico [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Unidad Cuernavaca, AP 273-3, Admon. 3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2004-01-09
We discuss certain analogies between quantization and discretization of classical systems on manifolds. In particular, we will apply the quantum dynamical entropy of Alicki and Fannes to numerically study the footprints of chaos in discretized versions of hyperbolic maps on the torus.
Mathematics of classical and quantum physics
Byron, Frederick W
Well-organized text designed to complement graduate-level physics texts in classical mechanics, electricity, magnetism, and quantum mechanics. Topics include theory of vector spaces, analytic function theory, Green's function method of solving differential and partial differential equations, theory of groups, more. Many problems, suggestions for further reading.
Effective Privacy Amplification for Secure Classical Communications
Horvath, Tamas; Scheuer, Jacob
2011-01-01
We study the effectiveness of privacy amplification for classical key-distribution schemes. We find that, unlike quantum key distribution schemes, the high fidelity of the raw key in classical systems allow the users to always sift a secure shorter key, given that they have an upper bound of eavesdropper probability to correctly guess the exchanged key-bits. We establish the number of privacy amplification iterations needed to achieve information leak of 10^-8 in several classical systems and highlight the inherent tradeoff between the number of iterations and the security of the raw key.
Quantum-classical transitions in complex networks
Javarone, Marco Alberto; Armano, Giuliano
2013-04-01
The inherent properties of specific physical systems can be used as metaphors for investigation of the behavior of complex networks. This insight has already been put into practice in previous work, e.g., studying the network evolution in terms of phase transitions of quantum gases or representing distances among nodes as if they were particle energies. This paper shows that the emergence of different structures in complex networks, such as the scale-free and the winner-takes-all networks, can be represented in terms of a quantum-classical transition for quantum gases. In particular, we propose a model of fermionic networks that allows us to investigate the network evolution and its dependence on the system temperature. Simulations, performed in accordance with the cited model, clearly highlight the separation between classical random and winner-takes-all networks, in full correspondence with the separation between classical and quantum regions for quantum gases. We deem this model useful for the analysis of synthetic and real complex networks.
Quantum Communication Using Coherent Rejection Sampling
Anshu, Anurag; Devabathini, Vamsi Krishna; Jain, Rahul
2017-09-01
Compression of a message up to the information it carries is key to many tasks involved in classical and quantum information theory. Schumacher [B. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2738 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevA.51.2738] provided one of the first quantum compression schemes and several more general schemes have been developed ever since [M. Horodecki, J. Oppenheim, and A. Winter, Commun. Math. Phys. 269, 107 (2007); , 10.1007/s00220-006-0118-xI. Devetak and J. Yard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230501 (2008); , 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230501A. Abeyesinghe, I. Devetak, P. Hayden, and A. Winter, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 2537 (2009), 10.1098/rspa.2009.0202]. However, the one-shot characterization of these quantum tasks is still under development, and often lacks a direct connection with analogous classical tasks. Here we show a new technique for the compression of quantum messages with the aid of entanglement. We devise a new tool that we call the convex split lemma, which is a coherent quantum analogue of the widely used rejection sampling procedure in classical communication protocols. As a consequence, we exhibit new explicit protocols with tight communication cost for quantum state merging, quantum state splitting, and quantum state redistribution (up to a certain optimization in the latter case). We also present a port-based teleportation scheme which uses a fewer number of ports in the presence of information about input.
Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light
Ndagano, Bienvenu; Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Roux, Filippus S.; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzman, Carmelo; Zhang, Yingwen; Mouane, Othmane; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Konrad, Thomas; Forbes, Andrew
2017-04-01
High-dimensional entanglement with spatial modes of light promises increased security and information capacity over quantum channels. Unfortunately, entanglement decays due to perturbations, corrupting quantum links that cannot be repaired without performing quantum tomography on the channel. Paradoxically, the channel tomography itself is not possible without a working link. Here we overcome this problem with a robust approach to characterize quantum channels by means of classical light. Using free-space communication in a turbulent atmosphere as an example, we show that the state evolution of classically entangled degrees of freedom is equivalent to that of quantum entangled photons, thus providing new physical insights into the notion of classical entanglement. The analysis of quantum channels by means of classical light in real time unravels stochastic dynamics in terms of pure state trajectories, and thus enables precise quantum error correction in short- and long-haul optical communication, in both free space and fibre.
Quantum state smoothing for classical mixtures
Tan, D; Mølmer, K; Murch, K W
2016-01-01
In quantum mechanics, wave functions and density matrices represent our knowledge about a quantum system and give probabilities for the outcomes of measurements. If the combined dynamics and measurements on a system lead to a density matrix $\\rho(t)$ with only diagonal elements in a given basis $\\{|n\\rangle\\}$, it may be treated as a classical mixture, i.e., a system which randomly occupies the basis states $|n\\rangle$ with probabilities $\\rho_{nn}(t)$. Fully equivalent to so-called smoothing in classical probability theory, subsequent probing of the occupation of the states $|n\\rangle$ improves our ability to retrodict what was the outcome of a projective state measurement at time $t$. Here, we show with experiments on a superconducting qubit that the smoothed probabilities do not, in the same way as the diagonal elements of $\\rho$, permit a classical mixture interpretation of the state of the system at the past time $t$.
Classical Simulation of Quantum Fields I
Hirayama, T
2005-01-01
We study classical field theories in a background field configuration where all modes of the theory are excited, matching the zero-point energy spectrum of quantum field theory. Our construction involves elements of a theory of classical electrodynamics by Wheeler-Feynman and the theory of stochastic electrodynamics of Boyer. The nonperturbative effects of interactions in these theories can be very efficiently studied on the lattice. In $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in 1+1 dimensions we find results, in particular for mass renormalization and the critical coupling for symmetry breaking, that are in agreement with their quantum counterparts. We then study the perturbative expansion of the $n$-point Green's functions and find a loop expansion very similar to that of quantum field theory. When compared to the usual Feynman rules, we find some differences associated with particular combinations of internal lines going on-shell simultaneously.
Classical simulation of quantum fields I
Hirayama, T.; Holdom, B.
2006-10-01
We study classical field theories in a background field configuration where all modes of the theory are excited, matching the zero-point energy spectrum of quantum field theory. Our construction involves elements of a theory of classical electrodynamics by Wheeler-Feynman and the theory of stochastic electrodynamics of Boyer. The nonperturbative effects of interactions in these theories can be very efficiently studied on the lattice. In lambda phi(4) theory in 1 + 1 dimensions, we find results, in particular, for mass renormalization and the critical coupling for symmetry breaking that are in agreement with their quantum counterparts. We then study the perturbative expansion of the n-point Green's functions and find a loop expansion very similar to that of quantum field theory. When compared to the usual Feynman rules, we find some differences associated with particular combinations of internal lines going on-shell simultaneously.
Simultaneous classical-quantum capacities of quantum multiple access channels
Yard, J
2005-01-01
The rates at which classical and quantum information can be simultaneously transmitted from two spatially separated senders to a single receiver over an arbitrary quantum channel are characterized. Two main results are proved in detail. The first describes the region of rates at which one sender can send classical information while the other sends quantum information. The second describes those rates at which both senders can send quantum information. For each of these situations, an example of a channel is given for which the associated region admits a single-letter description. This is the author's Ph.D. dissertation, submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University in March, 2005. It represents an expanded version of the paper quant-ph/0501045, containing a number of tutorial chapters which may be of independent interest for those learning about quantum Shannon theory.
Two-way quantum communication channels
Childs, A M; Lo, H K; Childs, Andrew M.; Leung, Debbie W.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2005-01-01
We consider communication between two parties using a bipartite quantum operation, which constitutes the most general quantum mechanical model of two-party communication. We primarily focus on the simultaneous forward and backward communication of classical messages. For the case in which the two parties share unlimited prior entanglement, we give inner and outer bounds on the achievable rate region that generalize classical results due to Shannon. In particular, using a protocol of Bennett, Harrow, Leung, and Smolin, we give a one-shot expression in terms of the Holevo information for the entanglement-assisted one-way capacity of a two-way quantum channel. As applications, we rederive two known additivity results for one-way channel capacities: the entanglement-assisted capacity of a general one-way channel, and the unassisted capacity of an entanglement-breaking one-way channel.
2008-03-15
Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Publications: 1) W. Wasilewski and...K. Banaszek, Protecting an optical qubit against photon loss, Phys. Rev. A 75, 042316 (2007) 2) K. Banaszek and W. Wasilewski , Linear-optics...manipulations of photon-loss codes, Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Quantum Communication and Security" 3) W. Wasilewski , P. Kolenderski
Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory
Hadasz, L; Piatek, M; Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Piatek, Marcin
2005-01-01
Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.
Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Piatek, Marcin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: piatek@ift.uni.wroc.pl
2005-09-26
Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.
Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks
Loke, T; Rodriguez, J; Small, M; Wang, J B
2015-01-01
Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. For the discrete-time case, we introduce an alternative PageRank measure based on the maximum probabilities achieved by the walker on the nodes. We demonstrate that the required time of evolution does not scale significantly with increasing network size. We affirm that all three quantum PageRank measures considered here distinguish clearly between outerplanar hierarchical, scale-free, and Erd\\"os-R\\'enyi network types. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for the networks we studied in this paper.
Quantum Communication Complexity of Quantum Authentication Protocols
Guedes, Elloá B
2011-01-01
In order to perform Quantum Cryptography procedures it is often essencial to ensure that the parties of the communication are authentic. Such task is accomplished by quantum authentication protocols which are distributed algorithms based on the intrinsic properties of Quantum Mechanics. The choice of an authentication protocol must consider that quantum states are very delicate and that the channel is subject to eavesdropping. However, even in face of the various existing definitions of quantum authentication protocols in the literature, little is known about them in this perspective, and this lack of knowledge may unfavor comparisons and wise choices. In the attempt to overcome this limitation, in the present work we aim at showing an approach to evaluate quantum authentication protocols based on the determination of their quantum communication complexity. Based on our investigation, no similar methods to analyze quantum authentication protocols were found in the literature. Pursuing this further, our approa...
Quantum-Classical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2004-11-12
In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author's perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the no-man's-land separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process) 2. How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process). However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher's description refers to this book as an accessible entre, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand quantum-classical correspondence. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the Fokker--Planck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms an infinitesimality condition, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as the Caldeira
Definition and classification of singularities in GR: classical and quantum
Konkowski, D A
2004-01-01
We will briefly review the definition and classification of classical and quantum singularities in general relativity. Examples of classically singular spacetimes that do not have quantum singularities will be given. We will present results on quantum singularities in quasiregular spacetimes. We will also show that a strong repulsive "potential" near the classical singularity can turn a classically singular spacetime into a quantum mechanically nonsingular spacetime.
Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)
2013-08-15
A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.
Mesoscopic systems: classical irreversibility and quantum coherence.
Barbara, Bernard
2012-09-28
Mesoscopic physics is a sub-discipline of condensed-matter physics that focuses on the properties of solids in a size range intermediate between bulk matter and individual atoms. In particular, it is characteristic of a domain where a certain number of interacting objects can easily be tuned between classical and quantum regimes, thus enabling studies at the border of the two. In magnetism, such a tuning was first realized with large-spin magnetic molecules called single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with archetype Mn(12)-ac. In general, the mesoscopic scale can be relatively large (e.g. micrometre-sized superconducting circuits), but, in magnetism, it is much smaller and can reach the atomic scale with rare earth (RE) ions. In all cases, it is shown how quantum relaxation can drastically reduce classical irreversibility. Taking the example of mesoscopic spin systems, the origin of irreversibility is discussed on the basis of the Landau-Zener model. A classical counterpart of this model is described enabling, in particular, intuitive understanding of most aspects of quantum spin dynamics. The spin dynamics of mesoscopic spin systems (SMM or RE systems) becomes coherent if they are well isolated. The study of the damping of their Rabi oscillations gives access to most relevant decoherence mechanisms by different environmental baths, including the electromagnetic bath of microwave excitation. This type of decoherence, clearly seen with spin systems, is easily recovered in quantum simulations. It is also observed with other types of qubits such as a single spin in a quantum dot or a superconducting loop, despite the presence of other competitive decoherence mechanisms. As in the molecular magnet V(15), the leading decoherence terms of superconducting qubits seem to be associated with a non-Markovian channel in which short-living entanglements with distributions of two-level systems (nuclear spins, impurity spins and/or charges) leading to 1/f noise induce τ(1)-like
Classical and quantum free motions in the tomographic probability representation
Man'ko, Vladimir I
2011-01-01
Based on a geometric picture, the example of free particle motion for both classical and quantum domains is considered in the tomographic probability representation. Wave functions and density operators as well as optical and symplectic tomograms are obtained as solutions of kinetic classical and quantum equations for the state tomograms. The difference of tomograms of free particle for classical and quantum states is discussed.
Quasi-classical alternatives in quantum chemistry
Gineityte, V
2014-01-01
The article contains an overview of authors achievements in development of alternative quantum-chemical approaches oriented towards revival of the classical tradition of qualitative chemical thinking instead of obtaining numerical results. The above-mentioned tradition is concluded to be based mainly on principles (rules) of additivity, transferability and locality of molecular properties. Accordingly, model Hamiltonian matrices are used in the approaches under development (called quasi-classical alternatives), wherein algebraic parameters play the role of matrix elements and these are assumed to be transferable for similar atoms and/or atomic orbitals in addition. Further, passing to delocalized descriptions of electronic structures (as usual) is expected to be the main origin of difficulties seeking to formulate quasi-classical alternatives. In the framework of the canonical method of molecular orbitals (MOs), delocalization is shown to be partially avoidable by invoking a recently-suggested approach to sec...
Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renaud, N; Joachim, C, E-mail: n-renaud@northwestern.edu [Nanoscience Group and MANA Satellite CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France)
2011-04-15
An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, {alpha} = {l_brace}{alpha}{sub 1}, ..., {alpha}{sub N}{r_brace}, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H{sub 0}({alpha}). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.
Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit.
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Ralph, Timothy C
2010-09-10
We consider the security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender's station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as much as 10(4) times greater than the variance of the vacuum mode). We show that, provided the channel transmission losses do not exceed 50%, the security of quantum cryptography is not dependent on the channel transmission, and is therefore incredibly robust against significant amounts of excess preparation noise. We extend these results to consider for the first time quantum cryptography at wavelengths considerably longer than optical and find that regions of security still exist all the way down to the microwave.
Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism
Fields, Chris
Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.
Additive Classical Capacity of Quantum Channels Assisted by Noisy Entanglement
Zhuang, Quntao; Zhu, Elton Yechao; Shor, Peter W.
2017-05-01
We give a capacity formula for the classical information transmission over a noisy quantum channel, with separable encoding by the sender and limited resources provided by the receiver's preshared ancilla. Instead of a pure state, we consider the signal-ancilla pair in a mixed state, purified by a "witness." Thus, the signal-witness correlation limits the resource available from the signal-ancilla correlation. Our formula characterizes the utility of different forms of resources, including noisy or limited entanglement assistance, for classical communication. With separable encoding, the sender's signals across multiple channel uses are still allowed to be entangled, yet our capacity formula is additive. In particular, for generalized covariant channels, our capacity formula has a simple closed form. Moreover, our additive capacity formula upper bounds the general coherent attack's information gain in various two-way quantum key distribution protocols. For Gaussian protocols, the additivity of the formula indicates that the collective Gaussian attack is the most powerful.
Novel classical post-processing for quantum key distribution-based quantum private query
Yang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Cao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-09-01
Existing classical post-processing (CPP) schemes for quantum key distribution (QKD)-based quantum private queries (QPQs) including the kN→ N, N→ N, and rM→ N ones have been found imperfect in terms of communication efficiency and security. In this paper, we propose a novel CPP scheme for QKD-based QPQs. The proposed CPP scheme reduces the communication complexity and improves the security of QKD-based QPQ protocols largely. Furthermore, the proposed CPP scheme can provide a multi-bit query efficiently.
Dimensional discontinuity in quantum communication complexity at dimension seven
Tavakoli, Armin; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed
2017-02-01
Entanglement-assisted classical communication and transmission of a quantum system are the two quantum resources for information processing. Many information tasks can be performed using either quantum resource. However, this equivalence is not always present since entanglement-assisted classical communication is sometimes known to be the better performing resource. Here, we show not only the opposite phenomenon, that there exist tasks for which transmission of a quantum system is a more powerful resource than entanglement-assisted classical communication, but also that such phenomena can have a surprisingly strong dependence on the dimension of Hilbert space. We introduce a family of communication complexity problems parametrized by the dimension of Hilbert space and study the performance of each quantum resource. Under an additional assumption of a linear strategy for the receiving party, we find that for low dimensions the two resources perform equally well, whereas for dimension seven and above the equivalence is suddenly broken and transmission of a quantum system becomes more powerful than entanglement-assisted classical communication. Moreover, we find that transmission of a quantum system may even outperform classical communication assisted by the stronger-than-quantum correlations obtained from the principle of macroscopic locality.
Quantum-classical path integral. I. Classical memory and weak quantum nonlocality.
Lambert, Roberto; Makri, Nancy
2012-12-14
We consider rigorous path integral descriptions of the dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a polyatomic environment, assuming that the latter is well approximated by classical trajectories. Earlier work has derived semiclassical or purely classical expressions for the influence functional from the environment, which should be sufficiently accurate for many situations, but the evaluation of quantum-(semi)classical path integral (QCPI) expressions has not been practical for large-scale simulation because the interaction with the environment introduces couplings nonlocal in time. In this work, we analyze the nature of the effects on a system from its environment in light of the observation [N. Makri, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2994 (1998)] that true nonlocality in the path integral is a strictly quantum mechanical phenomenon. If the environment is classical, the path integral becomes local and can be evaluated in a stepwise fashion along classical trajectories of the free solvent. This simple "classical path" limit of QCPI captures fully the decoherence of the system via a classical mechanism. Small corrections to the classical path QCPI approximation may be obtained via an inexpensive random hop QCPI model, which accounts for some "back reaction" effects. Exploiting the finite length of nonlocality, we argue that further inclusion of quantum decoherence is possible via an iterative evaluation of the path integral. Finally, we show that the sum of the quantum amplitude factors with respect to the system paths leads to a smooth integrand as a function of trajectory initial conditions, allowing the use of Monte Carlo methods for the multidimensional phase space integral.
Statistical mechanics of quantum-classical systems with holonomic constraints.
Sergi, Alessandro
2006-01-14
The statistical mechanics of quantum-classical systems with holonomic constraints is formulated rigorously by unifying the classical Dirac bracket and the quantum-classical bracket in matrix form. The resulting Dirac quantum-classical theory, which conserves the holonomic constraints exactly, is then used to formulate time evolution and statistical mechanics. The correct momentum-jump approximation for constrained systems arises naturally from this formalism. Finally, in analogy with what was found in the classical case, it is shown that the rigorous linear-response function of constrained quantum-classical systems contains nontrivial additional terms which are absent in the response of unconstrained systems.
Fundamental limits of repeaterless quantum communications.
Pirandola, Stefano; Laurenza, Riccardo; Ottaviani, Carlo; Banchi, Leonardo
2017-04-26
Quantum communications promises reliable transmission of quantum information, efficient distribution of entanglement and generation of completely secure keys. For all these tasks, we need to determine the optimal point-to-point rates that are achievable by two remote parties at the ends of a quantum channel, without restrictions on their local operations and classical communication, which can be unlimited and two-way. These two-way assisted capacities represent the ultimate rates that are reachable without quantum repeaters. Here, by constructing an upper bound based on the relative entropy of entanglement and devising a dimension-independent technique dubbed 'teleportation stretching', we establish these capacities for many fundamental channels, namely bosonic lossy channels, quantum-limited amplifiers, dephasing and erasure channels in arbitrary dimension. In particular, we exactly determine the fundamental rate-loss tradeoff affecting any protocol of quantum key distribution. Our findings set the limits of point-to-point quantum communications and provide precise and general benchmarks for quantum repeaters.
Sequential, successive, and simultaneous decoders for entanglement-assisted classical communication
Xu, Shen Chen
2011-01-01
Bennett et al. showed that allowing shared entanglement between a sender and receiver before communication begins dramatically simplifies the theory of quantum channels, and these results suggest that it would be worthwhile to study other scenarios for entanglement-assisted classical communication. In this vein, the present paper makes several contributions to the theory of entanglement-assisted classical communication. First, we rephrase the Giovannetti-Lloyd-Maccone sequential decoding argument as a more general "packing lemma" and show that it gives an alternate way of achieving the entanglement-assisted classical capacity. Next, we show that a similar sequential decoder can achieve the Hsieh-Devetak-Winter region for entanglement-assisted classical communication over a multiple access channel. Third, we prove several variations of a quantum simultaneous decoder for entanglement-assisted classical communication over a multiple access channel---some variations require that the code states and channel satisf...
Classical and quantum partition bound and detector inefficiency
Laplante, S; Roland, J
2012-01-01
In communication complexity, two players each have an input and they wish to compute some function of the joint inputs. This has been the object of much study and a wide variety of lower bound methods have been introduced to address the problem of showing lower bounds on communication. Recently, Jain and Klauck introduced the partition bound, which subsumes many of the known methods, in particular factorization norm, discrepancy, and the rectangle (corruption) bound. Physicists have considered a closely related scenario where two players share a predefined entangled state. Each is given a measurement as input, which they perform on their share of the system. The outcomes of the measurements follow a distribution which is predicted by quantum mechanics. In an experimental setting, Bell inequalities are used to distinguish truly quantum from classical behavior. We present a new lower bound technique based on the notion of detector inefficiency (where some runs are discarded by either of the players) for the ext...
How quantum are classical spin ices?
Gingras, Michel J. P.; Rau, Jeffrey G.
The pyrochlore spin ice compounds Dy2TiO7 and Ho2Ti2O7 are well described by classical Ising models down to low temperatures. Given the empirical success of this description, the question of the importance of quantum effects in these materials has been mostly ignored. We argue that the common wisdom that the strictly Ising moments of non-interacting Dy3+ and Ho3+ ions imply Ising interactions is too naive and that a more complex argument is needed to explain the close agreement between the classical Ising model theory and experiments. By considering a microscopic picture of the interactions in rare-earth oxides, we show that the high-rank multipolar interactions needed to induce quantum effects in these two materials are generated only very weakly by superexchange. Using this framework, we formulate an estimate of the scale of quantum effects in Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7, finding it to be well below experimentally relevant temperatures. Published as: PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 144417 (2015).
Experimental quantum multiparty communication protocols
Smania, Massimiliano; Elhassan, Ashraf M.; Tavakoli, Armin; Bourennane, Mohamed
2016-06-01
Quantum information science breaks limitations of conventional information transfer, cryptography and computation by using quantum superpositions or entanglement as resources for information processing. Here we report on the experimental realisation of three-party quantum communication protocols using single three-level quantum system (qutrit) communication: secret-sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement and communication complexity reduction for a three-valued function. We have implemented these three schemes using the same optical fibre interferometric setup. Our realisation is easily scalable without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states.
Enhanced quantum communication via optical refocusing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, Cosmo [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio [National Enterprise for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (NEST), Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Pirandola, Stefano [Department of Computer Science, University of York, York YO10 5GH (United Kingdom); Mancini, Stefano [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Lloyd, Seth [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2011-07-15
We consider the problem of quantum communication mediated by a passive optical refocusing system. The model captures the basic features of all those situations in which a signal is either refocused by a repeater for long-distance communication, or it is focused on a detector prior to the information decoding process. Introducing a general method for linear passive optical systems, we determine the conditions under which optical refocusing implies information transmission gain. Although the finite aperture of the repeater may cause loss of information, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the rate of reliable communication with respect to the free-space propagation. We explicitly address the transferring of classical messages over the quantum channel, but the results can be easily extended to include the case of transferring quantum messages as well.
Enhanced quantum communication via optical refocusing
Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth
2011-07-01
We consider the problem of quantum communication mediated by a passive optical refocusing system. The model captures the basic features of all those situations in which a signal is either refocused by a repeater for long-distance communication, or it is focused on a detector prior to the information decoding process. Introducing a general method for linear passive optical systems, we determine the conditions under which optical refocusing implies information transmission gain. Although the finite aperture of the repeater may cause loss of information, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the rate of reliable communication with respect to the free-space propagation. We explicitly address the transferring of classical messages over the quantum channel, but the results can be easily extended to include the case of transferring quantum messages as well.
Classical and quantum physics of hydrogen clusters.
Mezzacapo, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo
2009-04-22
We present results of a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the low temperature (T) properties of clusters of para-hydrogen (p-H(2)), both pristine as well as doped with isotopic impurities (i.e., ortho-deuterium, o-D(2)). We study clusters comprising up to N = 40 molecules, by means of quantum simulations based on the continuous-space Worm algorithm. Pristine p-H(2) clusters are liquid-like and superfluid in the [Formula: see text] limit. The superfluid signal is uniform throughout these clusters; it is underlain by long cycles of permutation of molecules. Clusters with more than 22 molecules display solid-like, essentially classical behavior at temperatures down to T∼1 K; some of them are seen to turn liquid-like at sufficiently low T (quantum melting).
Picturing classical and quantum Bayesian inference
Coecke, Bob
2011-01-01
We introduce a graphical framework for Bayesian inference that is sufficiently general to accommodate not just the standard case but also recent proposals for a theory of quantum Bayesian inference wherein one considers density operators rather than probability distributions as representative of degrees of belief. The diagrammatic framework is stated in the graphical language of symmetric monoidal categories and of compact structures and Frobenius structures therein, in which Bayesian inversion boils down to transposition with respect to an appropriate compact structure. We characterize classical Bayesian inference in terms of a graphical property and demonstrate that our approach eliminates some purely conventional elements that appear in common representations thereof, such as whether degrees of belief are represented by probabilities or entropic quantities. We also introduce a quantum-like calculus wherein the Frobenius structure is noncommutative and show that it can accommodate Leifer's calculus of `cond...
Quantum reading of a classical digital memory.
Pirandola, Stefano
2011-03-04
We consider a basic model of digital memory where each cell is composed of a reflecting medium with two possible reflectivities. By fixing the mean number of photons irradiated over each memory cell, we show that a nonclassical source of light can retrieve more information than any classical source. This improvement is shown in the regime of few photons and high reflectivities, where the gain of information can be surprising. As a result, the use of quantum light can have nontrivial applications in the technology of digital memories, such as optical disks and barcodes.
Dominance of quantum over classical correlations: entropic and geometric approach
Walczak, Zbigniew; Wintrowicz, Iwona; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna
2013-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that there exist quantum states for which quantum correlations dominate over classical correlations. Inspired by this observation, we investigate the problem of quantum correlations dominance for two-qubit Bell diagonal states in the Ollivier--Zurek paradigm, using both entropic and geometric approach to quantification of classical and quantum correlations. In particular, we estimate numerically the amount of two-qubit Bell diagonal states for which quantum correla...
Bohmian quantum mechanical and classical Lyapunov exponents for kicked rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng Yindong [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Kobe, Donald H. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States)], E-mail: kobe@unt.edu
2008-04-15
Using de Broglie-Bohm approach to quantum theory, we show that the kicked rotor at quantum resonance exhibits quantum chaos for the control parameter K above a threshold. Lyapunov exponents are calculated from the method of Benettin et al. for bounded systems for both the quantum and classical kicked rotor. In the chaotic regime we find stability regions for control parameters equal to even and odd multiples of {pi}, but the quantum regions are only remnants of the classical ones.
Chaos And Quantum-classical Correspondence For Two- Coupled Spins
Emerson, J V
2001-01-01
Two approaches to quantum-classical correspondence are distinguished according to the classical dynamical theory with which quantum theory is compared. The first of these, Ehrenfest correspondence, defines a dynamical regime in which the quantum expectation values follow approximately a classical trajectory. The second of these, Liouville correspondence, applies when the quantum probability distributions remain well approximated by a density in the classical phase space. The former applies only for narrow states, whereas the latter may remain valid even for quantum states that have spread to the system size. A spin model is adopted for this correspondence study because the quantum state is discrete and finite- dimensional, and thus no artificial truncation of the Hilbert space is required. The quantum time-evolution is given by a discrete unitary mapping. The corresponding classical model is volume-preserving (non-dissipative) and the time-evolution is given by a symplectic map. In classically chaotic regimes...
Classical Information Storage in an n-Level Quantum System
Frenkel, Péter E.; Weiner, Mihály
2015-12-01
A game is played by a team of two—say Alice and Bob—in which the value of a random variable x is revealed to Alice only, who cannot freely communicate with Bob. Instead, she is given a quantum n-level system, respectively a classical n-state system, which she can put in possession of Bob in any state she wishes. We evaluate how successfully they managed to store and recover the value of x by requiring Bob to specify a value z and giving a reward of value f ( x, z) to the team. We show that whatever the probability distribution of x and the reward function f are, when using a quantum n-level system, the maximum expected reward obtainable with the best possible team strategy is equal to that obtainable with the use of a classical n-state system. The proof relies on mixed discriminants of positive matrices and—perhaps surprisingly—an application of the Supply-Demand Theorem for bipartite graphs. As a corollary, we get an infinite set of new, dimension dependent inequalities regarding positive operator valued measures and density operators on complex n-space. As a further corollary, we see that the greatest value, with respect to a given distribution of x, of the mutual information I ( x; z) that is obtainable using an n-level quantum system equals the analogous maximum for a classical n-state system.
Quantum Mechanics As A Limiting Case of Classical Mechanics
Ghose, Partha
2000-01-01
In spite of its popularity, it has not been possible to vindicate the conventional wisdom that classical mechanics is a limiting case of quantum mechanics. The purpose of the present paper is to offer an alternative point of view in which quantum mechanics emerges as a limiting case of classical mechanics in which the classical system is decoupled from its environment.
Classical vs Quantum Mechanics: role of elementary excitations
Loris, I
2003-01-01
Simple theorems relating a quantum mechanical system to the corresponding classical one at equilibrium and connecting the quantum eigenvalues to the frequencies of normal modes oscillations are presented. Corresponding to each quantum eigenfunction, a ` classical eigenfunction' is associated. Those belonging to `elementary excitations' play an important role.
Classical vs Quantum Games: Continuous-time Evolutionary Strategy Dynamics
Leung, Ming Lam
2011-01-01
This paper unifies the concepts of evolutionary games and quantum strategies. First, we state the formulation and properties of classical evolutionary strategies, with focus on the destinations of evolution in 2-player 2-strategy games. We then introduce a new formalism of quantum evolutionary dynamics, and give an example where an evolving quantum strategy gives reward if played against its classical counterpart.
Effective horizons for quantum communication in a Schwarzschild spacetime
Hosler, Dominic; Kok, Pieter
2011-01-01
Communication between a free-falling observer and an observer hovering above the Schwarzschild horizon of a black hole suffers from Unruh-Hawking noise, which degrades communication channel capacities. Ignoring time dilation, which affects all channels equally, we show that for bosonic communication using single and dual rail encoding the classical channel capacity reaches a finite value and the quantum channel capacity falls off exponentially. The latter defines an effective horizon, beyond which quantum communication becomes exponentially resource inefficient. The characteristic length scale associated with this quantum horizon depends on the mass of the black hole and the frequency of the communication channel.
Sequential, successive, and simultaneous decoders for entanglement-assisted classical communication
Xu, Shen Chen; Wilde, Mark M.
2013-01-01
Bennett et al. showed that allowing shared entanglement between a sender and receiver before communication begins dramatically simplifies the theory of quantum channels, and these results suggest that it would be worthwhile to study other scenarios for entanglement-assisted classical communication. In this vein, the present paper makes several contributions to the theory of entanglement-assisted classical communication. First, we rephrase the Giovannetti-Lloyd-Maccone sequential decoding argument as a more general "packing lemma" and show that it gives an alternate way of achieving the entanglement-assisted classical capacity. Next, we show that a similar sequential decoder can achieve the Hsieh-Devetak-Winter region for entanglement-assisted classical communication over a multiple access channel. Third, we prove the existence of a quantum simultaneous decoder for entanglement-assisted classical communication over a multiple access channel with two senders. This result implies a solution of the quantum simultaneous decoding conjecture for unassisted classical communication over quantum multiple access channels with two senders, but the three-sender case still remains open (Sen recently and independently solved this unassisted two-sender case with a different technique). We then leverage this result to recover the known regions for unassisted and assisted quantum communication over a quantum multiple access channel, though our proof exploits a coherent quantum simultaneous decoder. Finally, we determine an achievable rate region for communication over an entanglement-assisted bosonic multiple access channel and compare it with the Yen-Shapiro outer bound for unassisted communication over the same channel.
Communication capacity of mixed quantum t -designs
Brandsen, Sarah; Dall'Arno, Michele; Szymusiak, Anna
2016-08-01
We operationally introduce mixed quantum t -designs as the most general arbitrary-rank extension of projective quantum t -designs which preserves indistinguishability from the uniform distribution for t copies. First, we derive upper bounds on the classical communication capacity of any mixed t -design measurement for t ∈[1 ,5 ] . Second, we explicitly compute the classical communication capacity of several mixed t -design measurements, including the depolarized version of any qubit and qutrit symmetric, informationally complete (SIC) measurement and complete mutually unbiased bases, the qubit icosahedral measurement, the Hoggar SIC measurement, any anti-SIC (where each element is proportional to the projector on the subspace orthogonal to one of the elements of the original SIC), and the uniform distribution over pure effects.
Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables
Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.
2007-06-01
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.
Topics In Classical And Quantum Gravity
Cho, D H
2004-01-01
This thesis is composed of two separate parts. The first part is on the stability issue of a ground state geometry of Kaluza-Klein theory. A number of workers have considered semiclassical solutions, in which a Kaluza- Klein geometry has as its source the vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor associated with a set of quantum fields. In a spacetime of this kind, however, the internal space is typically unstable to collapse. Within the semiclassical approximation, the degrees of freedom associated with boson and fermion fields on the background spacetime are quantized, but the length of the internal space remains a classical variable. The present project is concerned with whether the instability to collapse is an artifact of this approximation. We consider a generalization in which the length of the internal space remains a quantum variable, beginning with a toy, minisuperspace model whose quantum geometry is coupled to a set of scalar fields; as in the semiclassical approximation these fields ...
Quantum to classical transitions in causal relations
Ried, Katja; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W.; Spekkens, Robert W.; Resch, Kevin J.
2017-06-01
The landscape of causal relations that can hold among a set of systems in quantum theory is richer than in classical physics. In particular, a pair of time-ordered systems can be related as cause and effect or as the effects of a common cause, and each of these causal mechanisms can be coherent or not. Furthermore, one can combine these mechanisms in different ways: by probabilistically realizing either one or the other or by having both act simultaneously (termed a physical mixture). In the latter case, it is possible for the two mechanisms to be combined quantum coherently. Previous work has shown how to experimentally realize one example of each class of possible causal relations. Here, we make a theoretical and experimental study of the transitions between these classes. In particular, for each of the two distinct types of coherence that can exist in mixtures of common-cause and cause-effect relations—coherence in the individual causal pathways and coherence in the way the causal relations are combined—we determine how it degrades under noise and we confirm these expectations in a quantum-optical experiment.
Experimental realization of the analogy of quantum dense coding in classical optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Zhenwei; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Zhang, Xiong; Song, Xinbing, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: songxinbing@bit.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: songxinbing@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, 100081, Beijing (China)
2016-06-15
We report on the experimental realization of the analogy of quantum dense coding in classical optical communication using classical optical correlations. Compared to quantum dense coding that uses pairs of photons entangled in polarization, we find that the proposed design exhibits many advantages. Considering that it is convenient to realize in optical communication, the attainable channel capacity in the experiment for dense coding can reach 2 bits, which is higher than that of the usual quantum coding capacity (1.585 bits). This increased channel capacity has been proven experimentally by transmitting ASCII characters in 12 quaternary digitals instead of the usual 24 bits.
Network-Centric Quantum Communications
Hughes, Richard
2014-03-01
Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers ``future-proof'' cryptographic security rooted in the laws of physics. Today's quantum-secured communications cannot be compromised by unanticipated future technological advances. But to date, QC has only existed in point-to-point instantiations that have limited ability to address the cyber security challenges of our increasingly networked world. In my talk I will describe a fundamentally new paradigm of network-centric quantum communications (NQC) that leverages the network to bring scalable, QC-based security to user groups that may have no direct user-to-user QC connectivity. With QC links only between each of N users and a trusted network node, NQC brings quantum security to N2 user pairs, and to multi-user groups. I will describe a novel integrated photonics quantum smartcard (``QKarD'') and its operation in a multi-node NQC test bed. The QKarDs are used to implement the quantum cryptographic protocols of quantum identification, quantum key distribution and quantum secret splitting. I will explain how these cryptographic primitives are used to provide key management for encryption, authentication, and non-repudiation for user-to-user communications. My talk will conclude with a description of a recent demonstration that QC can meet both the security and quality-of-service (latency) requirements for electric grid control commands and data. These requirements cannot be met simultaneously with present-day cryptography.
CubeSat quantum communications mission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oi, Daniel K.L. [University of Strathclyde, SUPA Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Space Institute, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ling, Alex [National University of Singapore, Centre for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Dept. of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo [Universita degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Padova (Italy); Greenland, Steve; Kerr, Emma [University of Strathclyde, Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Macdonald, Malcolm [Technology and Innovation Centre, Scottish Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Weinfurter, Harald [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Kuiper, Hans [Delft University of Technology, Space Systems Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Charbon, Edoardo [AQUA, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Ursin, Rupert [Vienna Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Vienna (Austria)
2017-12-15
Quantum communication is a prime space technology application and offers near-term possibilities for long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and experimental tests of quantum entanglement. However, there exists considerable developmental risks and subsequent costs and time required to raise the technological readiness level of terrestrial quantum technologies and to adapt them for space operations. The small-space revolution is a promising route by which synergistic advances in miniaturization of both satellite systems and quantum technologies can be combined to leap-frog conventional space systems development. Here, we outline a recent proposal to perform orbit-to-ground transmission of entanglement and QKD using a CubeSat platform deployed from the International Space Station (ISS). This ambitious mission exploits advances in nanosatellite attitude determination and control systems (ADCS), miniaturised target acquisition and tracking sensors, compact and robust sources of single and entangled photons, and high-speed classical communications systems, all to be incorporated within a 10 kg 6 litre mass-volume envelope. The CubeSat Quantum Communications Mission (CQuCoM) would be a pathfinder for advanced nanosatellite payloads and operations, and would establish the basis for a constellation of low-Earth orbit trusted-nodes for QKD service provision. (orig.)
Quantum and Classical Phase Space Separability and Entanglement
Patwardhan, A
2002-01-01
The formalism of classical and quantum mechanics on phase space leads to symplectic and Heisenberg group representations, respectively. The Wigner functions give a representation of the quantum system using classical variables. The correspondence between the classical and the quantum criterion of separability for the system is obtained in terms of these functions. Entanglement is generic and separability is special. Some applications are discussed in commonly occuring examples and possibly in exotic systems.
Fault-tolerant Remote Quantum Entanglement Establishment for Secure Quantum Communications
Tsai, Chia-Wei; Lin, Jason
2016-07-01
This work presents a strategy for constructing long-distance quantum communications among a number of remote users through collective-noise channel. With the assistance of semi-honest quantum certificate authorities (QCAs), the remote users can share a secret key through fault-tolerant entanglement swapping. The proposed protocol is feasible for large-scale distributed quantum networks with numerous users. Each pair of communicating parties only needs to establish the quantum channels and the classical authenticated channels with his/her local QCA. Thus, it enables any user to communicate freely without point-to-point pre-establishing any communication channels, which is efficient and feasible for practical environments.
Emergence of a classical Universe from quantum gravity and cosmology.
Kiefer, Claus
2012-09-28
I describe how we can understand the classical appearance of our world from a universal quantum theory. The essential ingredient is the process of decoherence. I start with a general discussion in ordinary quantum theory and then turn to quantum gravity and quantum cosmology. There is a whole hierarchy of classicality from the global gravitational field to the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, which serve as the seeds for the structure in the Universe.
Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.
Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán
2016-06-24
A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.
Reliable quantum communication over a quantum relay channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gyongyosi, Laszlo, E-mail: gyongyosi@hit.bme.hu [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117, Hungary and Information Systems Research Group, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hungarian Ac (Hungary); Imre, Sandor [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary)
2014-12-04
We show that reliable quantum communication over an unreliable quantum relay channels is possible. The coding scheme combines the results on the superadditivity of quantum channels and the efficient quantum coding approaches.
Separation between Classical and Quantum Winning Strategies for the Matching Game
Fialík, Ivan
2010-01-01
Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. The matching game is the newest member of the family of pseudo-telepathy games. After introducing a g...
Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source
Geometry from dynamics, classical and quantum
Cariñena, José F; Marmo, Giuseppe; Morandi, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
This book describes, by using elementary techniques, how some geometrical structures widely used today in many areas of physics, like symplectic, Poisson, Lagrangian, Hermitian, etc., emerge from dynamics. It is assumed that what can be accessed in actual experiences when studying a given system is just its dynamical behavior that is described by using a family of variables ("observables" of the system). The book departs from the principle that ''dynamics is first'', and then tries to answer in what sense the sole dynamics determines the geometrical structures that have proved so useful to describe the dynamics in so many important instances. In this vein it is shown that most of the geometrical structures that are used in the standard presentations of classical dynamics (Jacobi, Poisson, symplectic, Hamiltonian, Lagrangian) are determined, though in general not uniquely, by the dynamics alone. The same program is accomplished for the geometrical structures relevant to describe quantum dynamics. Finall...
Proliferation of observables and measurement in quantum-classical hybrids
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2012-01-01
Following a review of quantum-classical hybrid dynamics, we discuss the ensuing proliferation of observables and relate it to measurements of (would-be) quantum mechanical degrees of freedom performed by (would-be) classical ones (if they were separable). -- Hybrids consist in coupled classical ("CL") and quantum mechanical ("QM") objects. Numerous consistency requirements for their description have been discussed and are fulfilled here. We summarize a representation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical analytical mechanics which is naturally extended to QM-CL hybrids. This framework allows for superposition, separable, and entangled states originating in the QM sector, admits experimenter's "Free Will", and is local and non-signalling. -- Presently, we study the set of hybrid observables, which is larger than the Cartesian product of QM and CL observables of its components; yet it is smaller than a corresponding product of all-classical observables. Thus, quantumness and classicality infect each other.
Fate of classical solitons in one-dimensional quantum systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.
2015-11-23
We study one-dimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the well-known solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classical-to-quantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum one-dimensional systems with a well-defined classical limit described by the KdV equation.
Strong Analog Classical Simulation of Coherent Quantum Dynamics
Wang, Dong-Sheng
2017-02-01
A strong analog classical simulation of general quantum evolution is proposed, which serves as a novel scheme in quantum computation and simulation. The scheme employs the approach of geometric quantum mechanics and quantum informational technique of quantum tomography, which applies broadly to cases of mixed states, nonunitary evolution, and infinite dimensional systems. The simulation provides an intriguing classical picture to probe quantum phenomena, namely, a coherent quantum dynamics can be viewed as a globally constrained classical Hamiltonian dynamics of a collection of coupled particles or strings. Efficiency analysis reveals a fundamental difference between the locality in real space and locality in Hilbert space, the latter enables efficient strong analog classical simulations. Examples are also studied to highlight the differences and gaps among various simulation methods. Funding support from NSERC of Canada and a research fellowship at Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia are acknowledged
Classical computing, quantum computing, and Shor's factoring algorithm
Manin, Yu I
1999-01-01
This is an expository talk written for the Bourbaki Seminar. After a brief introduction, Section 1 discusses in the categorical language the structure of the classical deterministic computations. Basic notions of complexity icluding the P/NP problem are reviewed. Section 2 introduces the notion of quantum parallelism and explains the main issues of quantum computing. Section 3 is devoted to four quantum subroutines: initialization, quantum computing of classical Boolean functions, quantum Fourier transform, and Grover's search algorithm. The central Section 4 explains Shor's factoring algorithm. Section 5 relates Kolmogorov's complexity to the spectral properties of computable function. Appendix contributes to the prehistory of quantum computing.
Inhomogeneous Quantum Mixmaster: from Classical toward Quantum Mechanics
Montani, R B G
2006-01-01
Starting from the Hamiltonian formulation for the inhomogeneous Mixmaster dynam- ics, we approach its quantum features through the link of the quasi-classical limit. We fix the proper operator-ordering which ensures that the WKB continuity equation overlaps the Liouville theorem as restricted to the configuration space. We describe the full quantum dynamics of the model in some details, providing a characterization of the (discrete) spectrum with analytic expressions for the limit of high occupation number. One of the main achievements of our analysis relies on the description of the ground state morphology, showing how it is characterized by a non-vanishing zero-point energy associated to the Universe anisotropy degrees of freedom
Quantum communication with coherent states of light
Khan, Imran; Elser, Dominique; Dirmeier, Thomas; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2017-06-01
Quantum communication offers long-term security especially, but not only, relevant to government and industrial users. It is worth noting that, for the first time in the history of cryptographic encoding, we are currently in the situation that secure communication can be based on the fundamental laws of physics (information theoretical security) rather than on algorithmic security relying on the complexity of algorithms, which is periodically endangered as standard computer technology advances. On a fundamental level, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the non-orthogonality of the quantum states used. So even coherent states are well suited for this task, the quantum states that largely describe the light generated by laser systems. Depending on whether one uses detectors resolving single or multiple photon states or detectors measuring the field quadratures, one speaks of, respectively, a discrete- or a continuous-variable description. Continuous-variable QKD with coherent states uses a technology that is very similar to the one employed in classical coherent communication systems, the backbone of today's Internet connections. Here, we review recent developments in this field in two connected regimes: (i) improving QKD equipment by implementing front-end telecom devices and (ii) research into satellite QKD for bridging long distances by building upon existing optical satellite links. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.
Advanced quantum communications an engineering approach
Imre, Sandor
2012-01-01
The book provides an overview of the most advanced quantum informational geometric techniques, which can help quantum communication theorists analyze quantum channels, such as security or additivity properties. Each section addresses an area of major research of quantum information theory and quantum communication networks. The authors present the fundamental theoretical results of quantum information theory, while also presenting the details of advanced quantum ccommunication protocols with clear mathematical and information theoretical background. This book bridges the gap between quantum ph
Gaussian bosonic synergy: quantum communication via realistic channels of zero quantum capacity
Smith, Graeme; Yard, Jon
2011-01-01
As with classical information, error-correcting codes enable reliable transmission of quantum information through noisy or lossy channels. In contrast to the classical theory, imperfect quantum channels exhibit a strong kind of synergy: there exist pairs of discrete memoryless quantum channels, each of zero quantum capacity, which acquire positive quantum capacity when used together. Here we show that this "superactivation" phenomenon also occurs in the more realistic setting of optical channels with attenuation and Gaussian noise. This paves the way for its experimental realization and application in real-world communications systems.
A reconfigurable spintronic device for quantum and classical logic
Bhowmik, Debanjan; Sarkar, Angik; Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti
2010-01-01
Quantum superposition and entanglement of physical states can be harnessed to solve some problems which are intractable on a classical computer implementing binary logic. Several algorithms have been proposed to utilize the quantum nature of physical states and solve important problems. For example, Shor's quantum algorithm is extremely important in the field of cryptography since it factors large numbers exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. Another celebrated example is the Grovers quantum algorithm. These algorithms can only be implemented on a quantum computer which operates on quantum bits (qubits). Rudimentary implementations of quantum processor have already been achieved through linear optical components, ion traps, NMR etc. However demonstration of a solid state quantum processor had been elusive till DiCarlo et al demonstrated two qubit algorithms in superconducting quantum processor. Though this has been a significant step, scalable semiconductor based room temperature quantum co...
Markovian Zero-Discord Classicality for Bipartite Quantum Systems
Arsenijevic, M; Dugic, M
2012-01-01
Recent observation that almost all quantum states bear nonclassical correlations [A. Ferraro et al, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052318 (2010)] distinguishes the zero-discord classicality essentially as a rareness of the Markovian bipartite systems realm. This seems to be in contrast with decoherence-theory established classicality where classical states are robust and unavoidable. Nevertheless, we formally construct such a classical model and its variant that represents a matter-of-principle formal proof, i.e. a sufficient condition for the, otherwise not obvious, existence of the Markovian zero-discord classicality. Rigorous analysis suggests there is no alternative to classical model, aside approximate model which follows from relaxing rigid quantum information constraints on classical model. A need for the more elaborate and more systematic search for the alternative such models (if there any) reveals we are still learning about the very meaning of "classicality" in the realm of open quantum systems.
Brownian Motion of a Classical Particle in Quantum Environment
Tsekov, R.
2017-01-01
The Klein-Kramers equation, governing the Brownian motion of a classical particle in quantum environment under the action of an arbitrary external potential, is derived. Quantum temperature and friction operators are introduced and at large friction the corresponding Smoluchowski equation is obtained. Introducing the Bohm quantum potential, this Smoluchowski equation is extended to describe the Brownian motion of a quantum particle in quantum environment.
A Continuous Transition Between Quantum and Classical Mechanics (I)
Ghose, Partha
2001-01-01
In spite of its popularity, it has not been possible to vindicate the conventional wisdom that classical mechanics is a limiting case of quantum mechanics. The purpose of the present paper is to offer an alternative formulation of classical mechanics which provides a continuous transition to quantum mechanics via environment-induced decoherence.
Quantum description of classical apparatus; Zeno effect and decoherence
Gurvitz, S A
2003-01-01
We study the measurement process by treating classical detectors entirely quantum mechanically. Transition to the classical description and the mechanism of decoherence is investigated. We concentrate on influence of continuous measurement on decay of unstable systems (quantum Zeno effect). We discuss the experimental consequences of our results and a role of the projection postulate in a measurement process.
Quantum Communication Scheme Using Non-symmetric Quantum Channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Hai-Jing; CHEN Zhong-Hua; SONG He-Shan
2008-01-01
A theoretical quantum communication scheme based on entanglement swapping and superdense coding is proposed with a 3-dimensional Bell state and 2-dimensional Bell state function as quantum channel quantum key distribution and quantum secure direct communication can be simultaneously accomplished in the scheme. The scheme is secure and has high source capacity. At last, we generalize the quantum communication scheme to d-dimensional quantum channel.
Multiplexed communication over a high-speed quantum channel
Heurs, M; Dunlop, A E; Harb, C C; Ralph, T C; Huntington, E H
2010-01-01
In quantum information systems it is of particular interest to consider the best way in which to use the non-classical resources consumed by that system. Quantum communication protocols are integral to quantum information systems and are amongst the most promising near-term applications of quantum information science. Here we show that a multiplexed, digital quantum communications system supported by comb of vacuum squeezing has a greater channel capacity per photon than a source of broadband squeezing with the same analogue bandwidth. We report on the time-resolved, simultaneous observation of the first dozen teeth in a 2.4 GHz comb of vacuum squeezing produced by a sub-threshold OPO, as required for such a quantum communications channel. We also demonstrate multiplexed communication on that channel.
Experimental Blind Quantum Computing for a Classical Client
Huang, He-Liang; Zhao, Qi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Liu, Chang; Su, Zu-En; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Sanders, Barry C.; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-08-01
To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
"Classical-ish": Negotiating the boundary between classical and quantum particles
Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2015-01-01
Quantum mechanics can seem like a departure from everyday experience of the physical world, but constructivist theories assert that learners build new ideas from their existing ones. To explore how students can navigate this tension, we examine video of a focus group completing a tutorial about the "particle in a box." In reasoning about the properties of a quantum particle, the students bring in elements of a classical particle ontology, evidenced by students' language and gestures. This reasoning, however, is modulated by metacognitive moments when the group explicitly considers whether classical intuitions apply to the quantum system. The students find some cases where they can usefully apply classical ideas to quantum physics, and others where they explicitly contrast classical and quantum mechanics. Negotiating this boundary with metacognitive awareness is part of the process of building quantum intuitions. Our data suggest that (some) students bring productive intellectual resources to this negotiation.
Complete experimental toolbox for alignment-free quantum communication
D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Walborn, Stephen P; Aolita, Leandro; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2012-01-01
Quantum communication employs the counter-intuitive features of quantum physics to perform tasks that are im- possible in the classical world. It is crucial for testing the foundations of quantum theory and promises to rev- olutionize our information and communication technolo- gies. However, for two or more parties to execute even the simplest quantum transmission, they must establish, and maintain, a shared reference frame. This introduces a considerable overhead in communication resources, par- ticularly if the parties are in motion or rotating relative to each other. We experimentally demonstrate how to circumvent this problem with the efficient transmission of quantum information encoded in rotationally invariant states of single photons. By developing a complete toolbox for the efficient encoding and decoding of quantum infor- mation in such photonic qubits, we demonstrate the fea- sibility of alignment-free quantum key-distribution, and perform a proof-of-principle alignment-free entanglement distribut...
Markovian Classicality from Zero Discord for Bipartite Quantum Systems
Arsenijevic, M; Dugic, M
2012-01-01
Modern quantum information theory provides new tools for investigating the decoherence-induced "classicality" of open quantum systems. Recent observation that almost all quantum states bear non-classical correlations [A. Ferraro {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 81}, 052318 (2010)] distinguishes the zero-discord classicality essentially as a pathology of the Markovian bipartite-systems realm. Nevertheless, we formally construct such a classical model and its variant that represents a matter-of-principle formal proof, i.e. a sufficient condition for the, otherwise not obvious, existence of the Markovian zero-discord classicality. A need for the more elaborate and more systematic search for the alternative such models reveals we are still learning about the very meaning of "classicality" in the realm of open quantum systems.
From quantum to classical instability in relativistic stars
Landulfo, André G S; Matsas, George E A; Vanzella, Daniel A T
2014-01-01
It has been shown that gravitational fields produced by realistic classical-matter distributions can force quantum vacuum fluctuations of some nonminimally coupled free scalar fields to undergo a phase of exponential growth. The consequences of this unstable phase to the background spacetime have not been addressed so far due to known difficulties concerning backreaction in semiclassical gravity. It seems reasonable to believe, however, that the quantum fluctuations will "classicalize" when they become large enough, after which backreaction can be treated in the general-relativistic context. Here we investigate the emergence of a classical regime out of the quantum field evolution during the unstable phase. By studying the appearance of classical correlations and loss of quantum coherence, we show that by the time backreaction becomes important the system already behaves classically. Consequently, the gravity-induced vacuum instability will naturally lead to initial conditions for the eventual classical descr...
Classical oscillators in the control of quantum tunneling: Numerical experiments
Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.
2016-06-01
The dynamics of a classical anharmonic oscillator is exploited to control the tunneling dynamics of a quantum particle to which the classical oscillator is coupled. The mixed quantum classical problem is investigated at a mean-field like level. The anharmonic strength (λ) , particle mass (Mc) and harmonic stiffness (ωc) of the classical controller are explored as possible control parameters for the tunneling dynamics. The strength, the type of coupling between the quantum system and classical controller and the effective frequency of the controller emerge as crucial factors in shaping the nature and extent of the control. A whole spectrum of possibilities starting from enhancement, suppression to complete destruction of tunneling emerge depending on values assigned to the control parameters, the type of coupling and the control configuration used. When classical controller is replaced by a quantum controller, the control landscape becomes much simpler.
The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations
Reichl, Linda E
2004-01-01
This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include • Noether’s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior • Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems • Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...
Fisher information and quantum-classical field theory: classical statistics similarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syska, J. [Department of Field Theory and Particle Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)
2007-07-15
The classical statistics indication for the impossibility to derive quantum mechanics from classical mechanics is proved. The formalism of the statistical Fisher information is used. Next the Fisher information as a tool of the construction of a self-consistent field theory, which joins the quantum theory and classical field theory, is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Quantum and classical behavior in interacting bosonic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology & Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2016-11-21
It is understood that in free bosonic theories, the classical field theory accurately describes the full quantum theory when the occupancy numbers of systems are very large. However, the situation is less understood in interacting theories, especially on time scales longer than the dynamical relaxation time. Recently there have been claims that the quantum theory deviates spectacularly from the classical theory on this time scale, even if the occupancy numbers are extremely large. Furthermore, it is claimed that the quantum theory quickly thermalizes while the classical theory does not. The evidence for these claims comes from noticing a spectacular difference in the time evolution of expectation values of quantum operators compared to the classical micro-state evolution. If true, this would have dramatic consequences for many important phenomena, including laboratory studies of interacting BECs, dark matter axions, preheating after inflation, etc. In this work we critically examine these claims. We show that in fact the classical theory can describe the quantum behavior in the high occupancy regime, even when interactions are large. The connection is that the expectation values of quantum operators in a single quantum micro-state are approximated by a corresponding classical ensemble average over many classical micro-states. Furthermore, by the ergodic theorem, a classical ensemble average of local fields with statistical translation invariance is the spatial average of a single micro-state. So the correlation functions of the quantum and classical field theories of a single micro-state approximately agree at high occupancy, even in interacting systems. Furthermore, both quantum and classical field theories can thermalize, when appropriate coarse graining is introduced, with the classical case requiring a cutoff on low occupancy UV modes. We discuss applications of our results.
Yard, J; Hayden, P; Yard, Jon; Devetak, Igor; Hayden, Patrick
2005-01-01
We consider quantum channels with two senders and one receiver. For an arbitrary such channel, we give multi-letter characterizations of two different two-dimensional capacity regions. The first region characterizes the rates at which it is possible for one sender to send classical information, while the other sends quantum information. The second region gives the rates at which each sender can send quantum information. We give an example of a channel with a single-letter classical-quantum region. We conclude with connections to other work and a conjecture on a generalization where each user simultaneously sends classical and quantum information.
Does the Quantum Player Always Win the Classical One?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Hai-Jun; FANG Xi-Ming
2004-01-01
@@ We study quantum games in which the players have different strategic spaces. We find that the player who can use a quantum strategic space does not always possess more payoffs than the player who is restricted to apply only classical strategies. We find the condition of the classical player getting more payoffs than the quantum player. We also find that the game exhibits intriguing structures.
The classical skeleton of open quantum chaotic maps
Raviola, Lisandro A; Carlo, Gabriel G
2011-01-01
We have studied two complementary decoherence measures purity and fidelity for a generic diffusive noise in two different chaotic systems (the baker and the cat maps). For both quantities, we have found classical structures in quantum mechanics - the scar functions - that are specially stable when subjected to environmental perturbations. We show that these quantum states constructed on classical invariants are the most robust significant quantum distributions in generic dissipative maps.
Anonymous Quantum Communication
Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Gambs, Sébastien; Tapp, Alain
We introduce the first protocol for the anonymous transmission of a quantum state that is information-theoretically secure against an active adversary, without any assumption on the number of corrupt participants. The anonymity of the sender and receiver is perfectly preserved, and the privacy of the quantum state is protected except with exponentially small probability. Even though a single corrupt participant can cause the protocol to abort, the quantum state can only be destroyed with exponentially small probability: if the protocol succeeds, the state is transferred to the receiver and otherwise it remains in the hands of the sender (provided the receiver is honest).
There is no quantum ontology without classical ontology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fink, Helmut [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
2011-07-01
The relation between quantum physics and classical physics is still under debate. In his recent book ''Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics'', Peter Mittelstaedt explores a route from classical to quantum mechanics by reduction and elimination of (some of) the ontological hypotheses underlying classical mechanics. While, according to Mittelstaedt, classical mechanics describes a fictitious world that does not exist in reality, he claims to achieve a universal quantum ontology that can be improved by incorporating unsharp properties and equipped with Planck's constant without any need to refer to classical concepts. In this talk, we argue that quantum ontology in Mittelstaedt's sense is not enough. Quantum ontology can never be universal as long as the difference between potential and real properties is not represented adequately. Quantum properties are potential, not (yet) real, be they sharp or unsharp. Hence, preparation and measurement presuppose classical concepts, even in quantum theory. We end up with a classical-quantum sandwich ontology, which is still less extravagant than Bohmian or many-worlds ontologies are.
Classical synchronization indicates persistent entanglement in isolated quantum systems
Witthaut, Dirk; Wimberger, Sandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Timme, Marc
2017-04-01
Synchronization and entanglement constitute fundamental collective phenomena in multi-unit classical and quantum systems, respectively, both equally implying coordinated system states. Here, we present a direct link for a class of isolated quantum many-body systems, demonstrating that synchronization emerges as an intrinsic system feature. Intriguingly, quantum coherence and entanglement arise persistently through the same transition as synchronization. This direct link between classical and quantum cooperative phenomena may further our understanding of strongly correlated quantum systems and can be readily observed in state-of-the-art experiments, for example, with ultracold atoms.
Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables
Wilde, M M; Krovi, H; Brun, Todd A.; Krovi, Hari; Wilde, Mark M.
2006-01-01
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical communication and quantum communication. The cobit channel produces coherent versions of the teleportation and superdense coding protocols. We extend the cobit channel to the continuous variables of quantum optics. We provide a general definition of the ``coherent nat'' (conat) channel when only finite-squeezing resources are available. Coherent teleportation provides sufficient conditions and coherent superdense coding provides necessary conditions for a channel to be a finite-squeezing approximation to an ideal conat channel. We illustrate several protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel. Finally, we address the reversibility of coherent teleportation and coherent superdense coding with only finite-squeezing resources.
Quantum communication and information processing
Beals, Travis Roland
Quantum computers enable dramatically more efficient algorithms for solving certain classes of computational problems, but, in doing so, they create new problems. In particular, Shor's Algorithm allows for efficient cryptanalysis of many public-key cryptosystems. As public key cryptography is a critical component of present-day electronic commerce, it is crucial that a working, secure replacement be found. Quantum key distribution (QKD), first developed by C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, offers a partial solution, but many challenges remain, both in terms of hardware limitations and in designing cryptographic protocols for a viable large-scale quantum communication infrastructure. In Part I, I investigate optical lattice-based approaches to quantum information processing. I look at details of a proposal for an optical lattice-based quantum computer, which could potentially be used for both quantum communications and for more sophisticated quantum information processing. In Part III, I propose a method for converting and storing photonic quantum bits in the internal state of periodically-spaced neutral atoms by generating and manipulating a photonic band gap and associated defect states. In Part II, I present a cryptographic protocol which allows for the extension of present-day QKD networks over much longer distances without the development of new hardware. I also present a second, related protocol which effectively solves the authentication problem faced by a large QKD network, thus making QKD a viable, information-theoretic secure replacement for public key cryptosystems.
Hybrid Quantum-Classical Approach to Correlated Materials
Bauer, Bela; Wecker, Dave; Millis, Andrew J.; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias
2016-07-01
Recent improvements in the control of quantum systems make it seem feasible to finally build a quantum computer within a decade. While it has been shown that such a quantum computer can in principle solve certain small electronic structure problems and idealized model Hamiltonians, the highly relevant problem of directly solving a complex correlated material appears to require a prohibitive amount of resources. Here, we show that by using a hybrid quantum-classical algorithm that incorporates the power of a small quantum computer into a framework of classical embedding algorithms, the electronic structure of complex correlated materials can be efficiently tackled using a quantum computer. In our approach, the quantum computer solves a small effective quantum impurity problem that is self-consistently determined via a feedback loop between the quantum and classical computation. Use of a quantum computer enables much larger and more accurate simulations than with any known classical algorithm, and will allow many open questions in quantum materials to be resolved once a small quantum computer with around 100 logical qubits becomes available.
Quasi-superactivation for the classical capacity of quantum channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gyongyosi, Laszlo, E-mail: gyongyosi@hit.bme.hu [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117, Hungary and Information Systems Research Group, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hungarian Ac (Hungary); Imre, Sandor [Quantum Technologies Laboratory, Department of Telecommunications, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2 Magyar tudosok krt, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary)
2014-12-04
The superactivation effect has its roots in the extreme violation of additivity of the channel capacity and enables to reliably transmit quantum information over zero-capacity quantum channels. In this work we demonstrate a similar effect for the classical capacity of a quantum channel which previously was thought to be impossible.
On Feedback and the Classical Capacity of a Noisy Quantum Channel
Bowen, G; Nagarajan, Rajagopal
2003-01-01
In Shannon information theory the capacity of a memoryless communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback from receiver to sender. In this paper the use of classical feedback is shown to provide no increase in the unassisted classical capacity of a memoryless quantum channel when feedback is used across non-entangled input states, or when the channel is an entanglement--breaking channel. This gives a generalization of the Shannon theory for certain classes of feedback protocols when transmitting through noisy quantum communication channels.
Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehtibar N Dzhafarov
Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.
Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics
Almasy, Andrea A
2009-01-01
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, als...
Quantum stream cipher based on optical communications
Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Usuda, T S; Harasawa, K; Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Usuda, Tsuyoshi S.; Harasawa, Katsuyoshi
2004-01-01
In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light pulse:$ = 1000 \\sim 10000$. In addition, it may provide information-theoretic security against known/chosen plaintext attack, which has no classical analogue. That is, one can provide secure communication, even the system has $H(K) << H(X)$. In this paper, first, we give a brief review on the general logic of Yuen's theory. Then, we show concrete security analysis of quantum stream cipher to quantum individual measurement attacks. Especially by showing the analysis of Lo-Ko known plaintext attack, the feature of Y-00 is clarified. In addition, we give a simple experimental result on the advantage distillation by scheme consisting of intensity modulation/dir...
A non-perturbative approach to relativistic quantum communication channels
Landulfo, Andre G S
2016-01-01
We investigate the transmission of both classical and quantum information between two arbitrary observers in globally hyperbolic spacetimes using a quantum field as a communication channel. The field is supposed to be in some arbitrary quasifree state and no choice of representation of its canonical commutation relations is made. Both sender and receiver posses some localized two-level quantum system with which they can interact with the quantum field to prepare the input and receive the output of the channel, respectively. The interaction between the two-level systems and the quantum field is such that one can trace out the field degrees of freedom exactly and thus obtain the quantum channel in a non-perturbative way. We end the paper determining the unassisted as well as the entanglement-assisted classical and quantum channel capacities.
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
Kryukov, Alexey A.
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accou...
Semiclassical Aspects of Quantum Mechanics by Classical Fluctuations
De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De
1998-01-01
Building on a model recently proposed by F. Calogero, we postulate the existence of a coherent, long--range universal tremor affecting any stable and confined classical dynamical system. Deriving the characteristic fluctuative unit of action for each classical interaction, we obtain in all cases its numerical coincidence with the Planck action constant. We therefore suggest that quantum corrections to classical dynamics can be simulated by suitable classical stochastic fluctuations.
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
Kryukov, A.
2013-04-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.
Generic emergence of classical features in quantum Darwinism
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Piani, Marco; Horodecki, Paweł
2015-08-01
Quantum Darwinism posits that only specific information about a quantum system that is redundantly proliferated to many parts of its environment becomes accessible and objective, leading to the emergence of classical reality. However, it is not clear under what conditions this mechanism holds true. Here we prove that the emergence of classical features along the lines of quantum Darwinism is a general feature of any quantum dynamics: observers who acquire information indirectly through the environment have effective access at most to classical information about one and the same measurement of the quantum system. Our analysis does not rely on a strict conceptual splitting between a system-of-interest and its environment, and allows one to interpret any system as part of the environment of any other system. Finally, our approach leads to a full operational characterization of quantum discord in terms of local redistribution of correlations.
Arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels
Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih
2014-01-01
This paper points out design confusion existing in all the arbitrated quantum signatures (AQS) that require public discussions over authenticated classical channels. Instead, an AQS scheme of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels is proposed here. A cryptographic hash function is used in combine with quantum mechanics to check the existence of an eavesdropping or to verify a signature. In addition, by using only single photons, this scheme provides higher efficiency both in quantum transmissions and generations. The proposed AQS scheme is shown to be immune to several well-known attacks, i.e., the Trojan-horse attacks and the existential forgery attack.
Models on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics.
Hooft, Gerard 't
2015-08-06
Arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there cannot be physical laws that require 'conspiracy'. It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In this report, several such counterexamples are shown. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. So now the question is asked: how can such a model feature 'conspiracy', and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations? Arguments concerning Bell's theorem are further sharpened.
Quantum computation with classical light: The Deutsch Algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Garcia, Benjamin [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Francis, Jason [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); McLaren, Melanie [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I. [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); Forbes, Andrew [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas, E-mail: konradt@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); National Institute of Theoretical Physics, Durban Node, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)
2015-08-28
We present an implementation of the Deutsch Algorithm using linear optical elements and laser light. We encoded two quantum bits in form of superpositions of electromagnetic fields in two degrees of freedom of the beam: its polarisation and orbital angular momentum. Our approach, based on a Sagnac interferometer, offers outstanding stability and demonstrates that optical quantum computation is possible using classical states of light. - Highlights: • We implement the Deutsh Algorithm using linear optical elements and classical light. • Our qubits are encoded in the polarisation and orbital angular momentum of the beam. • We show that it is possible to achieve quantum computation with two qubits in the classical domain of light.
Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels
Wang, Liu-Jun; Zou, Kai-Heng; Sun, Wei; Mao, Yingqiu; Zhu, Yi-Xiao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) generates symmetric keys between two remote parties and guarantees the keys are not accessible to any third party. Wavelength-division multiplexing between QKD and classical optical communications by sharing the existing fiber-optics infrastructure is highly desired in order to reduce the cost of QKD applications. However, comparing to the light for classical transmission, quantum signals are very weak and easily affected by impairments from classical light, such as the spontaneous Raman-scattering effect. Here, by selecting an optimal wavelength of quantum signals, we significantly reduce the influence of the Raman-scattering effect. In addition, through coherent optical communication technology, we achieve high-speed classical data transmission with relatively low launch powers, thereby further reducing the impairments from classical light. As a result, we realize the multiplexing and long-distance copropagation of QKD and terabit classical data transmission up to 80 km. The data capacity is two orders of magnitude larger than the existing results. Our demonstration verifies the feasibility of QKD and classical communication to share the resources of backbone fiber links and thus taking the utility of QKD a great step forward.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Prasanta K. Panigrahi
2015-01-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete...
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, JST, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2015-12-31
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.
Noise-driven informatics: secure classical communications via wire and noise-based computing
Kish, Laszlo B
2008-01-01
In this paper, we show recent results indicating that using electrical noise as information carrier offers outstanding potentials reminding of quantum informatics. One example is noise-based computing and logic that shows certain similarities to quantum logic. However, due to the lack of the collapse of wavefunction and due to the immediate accessibility of superposition components, the use of noise-based and quantum computers will probably be different. Another example is secure communications where, out of the unconditional security at idealistic situations, a practical security beyond known quantum solutions can be achieved and has been demonstrated. Here the keys to security are the robustness of classical information, and the second law of thermodynamics. These offer the avoidance of making error statistics and single bit security. It has the potential to restrict the practical applications of quantum communicators to the situations where no wire can be used but optical communication via fiber or via spa...
Finite-block-length analysis in classical and quantum information theory.
Hayashi, Masahito
2017-01-01
Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Although the physical media used to transmit information ultimately obey quantum mechanics, we need to choose the type of coding depending on the kind of information device, classical or quantum, that is being used. In both branches of information theory, there are many elegant theoretical results under the ideal assumption that an infinitely large system is available. In a realistic situation, we need to account for finite size effects. The present paper reviews finite size effects in classical and quantum information theory with respect to various topics, including applied aspects.
Quantum and Classical Behavior in Interacting Bosonic Systems
Hertzberg, Mark P
2016-01-01
It is understood that in free bosonic theories, the classical field theory accurately describes the full quantum theory when the occupancy numbers of systems are very large. However, the situation is less understood in interacting theories, especially on time scales longer than the dynamical relaxation time. Recently there have been claims that the quantum theory deviates spectacularly from the classical theory on this time scale, even if the occupancy numbers are extremely large. Furthermore, it is claimed that the quantum theory quickly thermalizes while the classical theory does not. The evidence for these claims comes from noticing a spectacular difference in the time evolution of expectation values of quantum operators compared to the classical micro-state evolution. If true, this would have dramatic consequences for many important phenomena, including laboratory studies of interacting BECs, dark matter axions, preheating after inflation, etc. In this work we critically examine these claims. We show that...
Absence of quantum states corresponding to unstable classical channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herbst, Ira; Skibsted, Erik
2008-01-01
We develop a general theory of absence of quantum states corresponding to unstable classical scattering channels. We treat in detail Hamiltonians arising from symbols of degree zero in x and outline a generalization in an Appendix....
Quantum spectra and classical periodic orbit in the cubic billiard
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dehua Wang; Yongjiang Yu; Shenglu Lin
2006-01-01
Quantum billiards have attracted much interest in many fields. People have made a lot of researches on the two-dimensional (2D) billiard systems. Contrary to the 2D billiard, due to the complication of its classical periodic orbits, no one has studied the correspondence between the quantum spectra and the classical orbits of the three-dimensional (3D) billiards. Taking the cubic billiard as an example, using the periodic orbit theory, we find the periodic orbit of the cubic billiard and study the correspondence between the quantum spectra and the length of the classical orbits in 3D system. The Fourier transformed spectrum of this system has allowed direct comparison between peaks in such plot and the length of the periodic orbits, which verifies the correctness of the periodic orbit theory. This is another example showing that semiclassical method provides a bridge between quantum and classical mechanics.
Relationship of quantum mechanics to classical electromagnetism and classical relativistic mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, J H [Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2004-05-14
Some connections between quantum mechanics and classical physics are explored. The Planck-Einstein and De Broglie relations, the wavefunction and its probabilistic interpretation, the canonical commutation relations and the Maxwell-Lorentz equation may be understood in a simple way by comparing classical electromagnetism and the photonic description of light provided by classical relativistic kinematics. The method used may be described as 'inverse correspondence' since quantum phenomena become apparent on considering the low photon number density limit of classical electromagnetism. Generalization to massive particles leads to the Klein-Gordon and Schroedinger equations. The difference between the quantum wavefunction of the photon and a classical electromagnetic wave is discussed in some detail.
Ultra-fast secure communication with complex systems in classical channels (Conference Presentation)
Mazzone, Valerio
2017-04-28
Developing secure communications is a research area of growing interest. During the past years, several cryptographic schemes have been developed, with Quantum cryptography being a promising scheme due to the use of quantum effects, which make very difficult for an eavesdropper to intercept the communication. However, practical quantum key distribution methods have encountered several limitations; current experimental realizations, in fact, fail to scale up on long distances, as well as in providing unconditional security and speed comparable to classical optical communications channels. Here we propose a new, low cost and ultra-fast cryptographic system based on a fully classical optical channel. Our cryptographic scheme exploits the complex synchronization of two different random systems (one on the side of the sender and another on the side of the receiver) to realize a “physical” one paid system. The random medium is created by an optical chip fabricated through electron beam lithography on a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) substrate. We present experiments with ps lasers and commercial fibers, showing the ultrafast distribution of a random key between two users (Alice and Bob), with absolute no possibility for a passive/active eavesdropper to intercept the communication. Remarkably, this system enables the same security of quantum cryptography, but with the use of a classical communication channel. Our system exploits a unique synchronization that exists between two different random systems, and at such is extremely versatile and can enable safe communications among different users in standards telecommunications channels.
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murg, Valentin
2008-04-07
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new 'analog' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
The quantum-to-classical transition of primordial cosmological perturbations
Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Struyve, Ward
2011-01-01
There is a widespread belief that the classical small inhomogeneities which gave rise to all structures in the Universe through gravitational instability originated from primordial quantum cosmological fluctuations. However, this transition from quantum to classical fluctuations is plagued with important conceptual issues, most of them related to the application of standard quantum theory to the Universe as a whole. In this paper, we show how these issues can easily be overcome in the framework of the de Broglie-Bohm quantum theory. This theory is an alternative to standard quantum theory that provides an objective description of physical reality, where rather ambiguous notions of measurement or observer play no fundamental role, and which can hence be applied to the Universe as a whole. In addition, it allows for a simple and unambiguous characterization of the classical limit.
Ensembles on configuration space classical, quantum, and beyond
Hall, Michael J W
2016-01-01
This book describes a promising approach to problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, including the measurement problem. The dynamics of ensembles on configuration space is shown here to be a valuable tool for unifying the formalisms of classical and quantum mechanics, for deriving and extending the latter in various ways, and for addressing the quantum measurement problem. A description of physical systems by means of ensembles on configuration space can be introduced at a very fundamental level: the basic building blocks are a configuration space, probabilities, and Hamiltonian equations of motion for the probabilities. The formalism can describe both classical and quantum systems, and their thermodynamics, with the main difference being the choice of ensemble Hamiltonian. Furthermore, there is a natural way of introducing ensemble Hamiltonians that describe the evolution of hybrid systems; i.e., interacting systems that have distinct classical and quantum sectors, allowing for consistent descriptio...
Decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition
Schlosshauer, Maximilian
2007-01-01
The ultimate introduction, textbook, and reference on decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition. This detailed but accessible text describes the concepts, formalism, interpretation, and experimental observation of decoherence and explains how decoherence is responsible for the emergence, from the realm of quantum mechanics, of the classical world of our experience. Topics include: • Foundational problems at the quantum–classical border; • The role of the environment and entanglement; • Environment-induced loss of coherence and superselection; • Scattering-induced decoherence and spatial localization; • Master equations; • Decoherence models; • Experimental realization of "Schrödinger kittens" and their decoherence; • Quantum computing, quantum error correction, and decoherence-free subspaces; • Implications of decoherence for interpretations of quantum mechanics and for the "measurement problem"; • Decoherence in the brain. Written in a lucid and concise style that is accessib...
Entropies and correlations in classical and quantum systems
Man'ko, Margarita A.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.; Marmo, Giuseppe
2016-09-01
We present a review of entropy properties for classical and quantum systems including Shannon entropy, von Neumann entropy, Rényi entropy, and Tsallis entropy. We discuss known and new entropic and information inequalities for classical and quantum systems, both composite and noncomposite. We demonstrate matrix inequalities associated with the entropic subadditivity and strong subadditivity conditions and give a new inequality for matrix elements of unitary matrices.
Analysing a complementarity experiment on the quantum-classical boundary
Terra-Cunha, M O
2002-01-01
The complementarity experiment reported in Bertet [{\\it{et al.}} (2001), {\\it{Nature}} {\\bf{411}}, 166.] is discussed. The role played by entanglement in reaching the classical limit is pointed out. Dissipative and thermal effects of the cavity are calculated and a simple modification of the experiment is proposed in order to observe the progressive loss of the capacity of ``quantum erasing''as a manifestation of the classical limit of quantum mechanics.
Quantum-like picture for intrinsic, classical, arrival distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres-Vega, Gabino [Physics Department, Cinvestav, Apdo. postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: gabino@fis.cinvestav.mx
2009-11-20
We introduce a marginal, quantum-like picture for the arrival of classical quantities in which the representation vectors are the quantities that evolve and probability densities remain static. The representation functions can be seen as probe functions which are the evolution of delta functions with support on a curve in phase space, the time fronts. This procedure provides a classical analog as well as a clear physical interpretation of the 'time eigenstates' used in quantum systems.
Inverse problems in classical and quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almasy, A.A.
2007-06-29
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. Despite a concentrated effort by physicists extending over many years, an understanding of QCD from first principles continues to be elusive. Fortunately, data continues to appear which provide a rather direct probe of the inner workings of the strong interactions. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. EIT is a technology developed to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technique works by performing simultaneous measurements of direct or alternating electric currents and voltages on the boundary of an object. These are the data used by an image reconstruction algorithm to determine the electrical conductivity distribution within the object. In this thesis, two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A
Secure communications using quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G. [and others
1997-08-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible. We have also constructed a quantum key distribution system for free-space, line-of-sight transmission using single-photon polarization states, which is currently undergoing laboratory testing. 7 figs.
Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel
2013-05-14
We show how to obtain the correct electronic response of a large system by embedding; a small region is propagated by TDDFT (time-dependent density functional theory) simultaneously with a classical electrodynamics evolution using the Near-Field method over a larger external region. The propagations are coupled through a combined time-dependent density yielding a common Coulomb potential. We show that the embedding correctly describes the plasmonic response of a Mg(0001) slab and its influence on the dynamical charge transfer between an adsorbed H2O molecule and the substrate, giving the same spectral shape as full TDDFT (similar plasmon peak and molecular-dependent differential spectra) with much less computational effort. The results demonstrate that atomistic embedding electrodynamics is promising for nanoplasmonics and nanopolaritonics.
Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication
Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth
2015-03-01
We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.
Quantum communication and other quantum information technologies
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2014-02-01
Full Text Available phase screen calculations: 0 1 2 3 w 0/r0 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 T a n g l e l = 1 l = 2 l = 3 l = 4 l = 5 l = 6 l = 7 – p. 40/41 Conclusions ⊲ Quantum communication, which enables fundamentally secure communication, is a new technology...) = ∫∫ E∗m(r1)En(r2)ψ(r1)ψ∗(r2) × exp [ −12Dθ (|r1 − r2|) ] d2r1 d2r2 Function of only w 0/r0 (contains all parameters including z) Evaluated at z = 0 aC. Paterson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 153901 (2005) – p. 22/41 Entanglement decay Decay of qubit OAM...
Correlated Equilibria of Classical Strategic Games with Quantum Signals
La Mura, P
2003-01-01
Correlated equilibria are sometimes more efficient than the Nash equilibria of a game without signals. We investigate whether the availability of quantum signals in the context of a classical strategic game may allow the players to achieve even better efficiency than in any correlated equilibrium with classical signals, and find the answer to be positive.
Integrable quantum spin chains and their classical continuous counterparts
Avan, Jean; Sfetsos, Konstadinos
2011-01-01
We present certain classical continuum long wave-length limits of prototype integrable quantum spin chains, and define the corresponding construction of classical continuum Lax operators. We also provide two specific examples, i.e. the isotropic and anisotropic Heisenberg models.
Isochronous classical systems and quantum systems with equally spaced spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carinena, J F; Perelomov, A M; Ranada, M F [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)
2007-11-15
We study isoperiodic classical systems, what allows us to find the classical isochronous systems, i.e. having a period independent of the energy. The corresponding quantum analog, systems with an equally spaced spectrum are analysed by looking for possible creation-like differential operators. The harmonic oscillator and the isotonic oscillator are the two main essentially unique examples of such situation.
Imprints of the Quantum World in Classical Mechanics
de Gosson, Maurice A.; Hiley, Basil
2010-01-01
The imprints left by quantum mechanics in classical (Hamiltonian) mechanics are much more numerous than is usually believed. We show Using no physical hypotheses) that the Schroedinger equation for a nonrelativistic system of spinless particles is a classical equation which is equivalent to Hamilton's equations.
The theory of variational hybrid quantum-classical algorithms
McClean, Jarrod R; Babbush, Ryan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-01-01
Many quantum algorithms have daunting resource requirements when compared to what is available today. To address this discrepancy, a quantum-classical hybrid optimization scheme known as "the quantum variational eigensolver" was developed with the philosophy that even minimal quantum resources could be made useful when used in conjunction with classical routines. In this work we extend the general theory of this algorithm and suggest algorithmic improvements for practical implementations. Specifically, we develop a variational adiabatic ansatz and explore unitary coupled cluster where we establish a connection from second order unitary coupled cluster to universal gate sets through relaxation of exponential splitting. We introduce the concept of quantum variational error suppression that allows some errors to be suppressed naturally in this algorithm on a pre-threshold quantum device. Additionally, we analyze truncation and correlated sampling in Hamiltonian averaging as ways to reduce the cost of this proced...
Functional Approach to Quantum Decoherence and the Classical Final Limit
Castagnino, M A; Castagnino, Mario; Laura, Roberto
2000-01-01
For a wide set of quantum systems it is demonstrated that the quantum regime can be considered as the transient phase while the final classical statistical regime is a permanent state. A basis where exact matrix decoherence appears for these final states is found. The relation with the decoherence of histories formalism is studied. A set of final intrinsically consistent histories is found.
Decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlosshauer, M.A. [Melbourne Univ., VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics
2007-07-01
The ultimate introduction, textbook, and reference on decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition. This detailed but accessible text describes the concepts, formalism, interpretation, and experimental observation of decoherence and explains how decoherence is responsible for the emergence, from the realm of quantum mechanics, of the classical world of our experience. Topics include: - Foundational problems at the quantum-classical border; - The role of the environment and entanglement; - Environment-induced loss of coherence and superselection; - Scattering-induced decoherence and spatial localization; - Master equations; - Decoherence models; - Experimental realization of ''Schroedinger's kittens'' and their decoherence; - Quantum computing, quantum error correction, and decoherence-free subspaces; - Implications of decoherence for interpretations of quantum mechanics and for the ''measurement problem''; - Decoherence in the brain. Written in a lucid and concise style that is accessible to all readers with a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics, this stimulating book tells the ''classical from quantum'' story in a comprehensive and coherent manner that brings together the foundational, technical, and experimental aspects of decoherence. It will be an indispensable resource for newcomers and experts alike. (orig.)
Generating shortcuts to adiabaticity in quantum and classical dynamics
Jarzynski, Christopher
2013-01-01
Transitionless quantum driving achieves adiabatic evolution in a hurry, using a counter-diabatic Hamiltonian to stifle non-adiabatic transitions. Here this strategy is cast in terms of a generator of adiabatic transport, leading to a classical analogue: dissipationless classical driving. For the single-particle piston, this approach yields simple and exact expressions for both the classical and quantal counter-diabatic terms. These results are further generalized to even-power-law potentials in one degree of freedom.
Classical limit of quantum gravity in an accelerating universe
Schuller, F P; Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2005-01-01
A one-parameter deformation of Einstein-Hilbert gravity with an inverse curvature term is derived as the classical limit of quantum gravity compatible with an accelerating universe. This result is based on the investigation of semi-classical theories with sectional curvature bounds which are shown not to admit static black holes if otherwise of phenomenological interest. Consequences for classical gravity and the canonical quantization program are briefly discussed.
Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)
2010-11-01
The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
Non-monotonicity in the quantum-classical transition: Chaos induced by quantum effects
Kapulkin, A; Kapulkin, Arie; Pattanayak, Arjendu K.
2007-01-01
The transition from classical to quantum behavior for chaotic systems is understood to be accompanied by the suppression of chaotic effects as the relative size of $\\hbar$ is increased. We show evidence to the contrary in the behavior of the quantum trajectory dynamics of a dissipative quantum chaotic system, the double-well Duffing oscillator. The classical limit in the case considered has regular behavior, but as the effective $\\hbar$ is increased we see chaotic behavior. This chaos then disappears deeper into the quantum regime, which means that the quantum-classical transition in this case is non-monotonic in $\\hbar$.
Comparison of quantum and classical relaxation in spin dynamics.
Wieser, R
2013-04-01
The classical Landau-Lifshitz equation with a damping term has been derived from the time evolution of a quantum mechanical wave function under the assumption of a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Further, the trajectory of a classical spin (S) has been compared with the expectation value of the spin operator (Ŝ). A good agreement between classical and quantum mechanical trajectories can be found for Hamiltonians linear in Ŝ or S, respectively. Quadratic or higher order terms in the Hamiltonian result in a disagreement.
The Semiclassical Regime of the Chaotic Quantum-Classical Transition
Greenbaum, B D; Shizume, K; Sundaram, B; Greenbaum, Benjamin D.; Habib, Salman; Shizume, Kosuke; Sundaram, Bala
2004-01-01
An analysis of the semiclassical regime of the quantum-classical transition is given for open, bounded, one dimensional chaotic dynamical systems. Previous numerical work has shown that in this regime, the results from a quantum master equation are very close to those obtained from a classical Fokker-Planck equation. We provide an explanation of these results by demonstrating that environmental noise plays the dual roles of suppressing the development of fine structure in classical phase space and damping nonlocal contributions to the semiclassical Wigner function. A numerical investigation of the chaotic Duffing oscillator supports these conclusions.
Quantum-Classical Correspondence of Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka
2017-04-01
We formulate the theory of shortcuts to adiabaticity in classical mechanics. For a reference Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is constructed from the dispersionless Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy. Then the adiabatic theorem holds exactly for an arbitrary choice of time-dependent parameters. We use the Hamilton-Jacobi theory to define the generalized action. The action is independent of the history of the parameters and is directly related to the adiabatic invariant. The dispersionless KdV hierarchy is obtained from the classical limit of the KdV hierarchy for the quantum shortcuts to adiabaticity. This correspondence suggests some relation between the quantum and classical adiabatic theorems.
Qian, Xiao-Feng; Howell, John C; Eberly, J H
2015-01-01
The growing recognition that entanglement is not exclusively a quantum property, and does not even originate with Schr\\"odinger's famous remark about it [Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. {\\bf 31}, 555 (1935)], prompts examination of its role in marking the quantum-classical boundary. We have done this by subjecting correlations of classical optical fields to new Bell-analysis experiments, and report here values of the Bell parameter greater than ${\\cal B} = 2.54$. This is many standard deviations outside the limit ${\\cal B} = 2$ established by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 23}, 880 (1969)], in agreement with our theoretical classical prediction, and not far from the Tsirelson limit ${\\cal B} = 2.828...$. These results cast a new light on the standard quantum-classical boundary description, and suggest a reinterpretation of it.
Multiplexed CV quantum teleportation for high rates in quantum communication
Christ, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine
2012-01-01
A major challenge of today's quantum communication systems lies in the transmission of quantum information with high rates over long distances in the presence of unavoidable losses. Thereby the achievable quantum communication rate is fundamentally limited by the amount of energy that can be transmitted per use of the channel. It is hence vital to develop quantum communication protocols which encode quantum information as energy efficiently as possible. To this aim we investigate continuous-variable quantum teleportation as a method of distributing quantum information. We explore the possibility to encode information on multiple optical modes and derive upper and lower bounds on the achievable quantum channel capacities. This analysis enables us to benchmark single-mode vs. multi-mode entanglement resources. Our research reveals that multiplexing does not only feature an enhanced energy efficiency, significantly increasing the achievable quantum communication rates in comparison to single-mode coding, but als...
Classical and Quantum Mechanical Motion in Magnetic Fields
Franklin, J
2016-01-01
We study the motion of a particle in a particular magnetic field configuration both classically and quantum mechanically. For flux-free radially symmetric magnetic fields defined on circular regions, we establish that particle escape speeds depend, classically, on a gauge-fixed magnetic vector potential, and demonstrate some trajectories associated with this special type of magnetic field. Then we show that some of the geometric features of the classical trajectory (perpendicular exit from the field region, trapped and escape behavior) are reproduced quantum mechanically using a numerical method that extends the norm-preserving Crank-Nicolson method to problems involving magnetic fields. While there are similarities between the classical trajectory and the position expectation value of the quantum mechanical solution, there are also differences, and we demonstrate some of these.
The quantum vacuum at the foundations of classical electrodynamics
Leuchs, G; Sánchez-Soto, L L
2010-01-01
In the classical theory of electromagnetism, the permittivity and the permeability of free space are constants whose magnitudes do not seem to possess any deeper physical meaning. By replacing the free space of classical physics with the quantum notion of the vacuum, we speculate that the values of the aforementioned constants could arise from the polarization and magnetization of virtual pairs in vacuum. A classical dispersion model with parameters determined by quantum and particle physics is employed to estimate their values. We find the correct orders of magnitude. Additionally, our simple assumptions yield an independent estimate for the number of charged elementary particles based on the known values of the permittivity and the permeability, and for the volume of a virtual pair. Such interpretation would provide an intriguing connection between the celebrated theory of classical electromagnetism and the quantum theory in the weak field limit.
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
Darabi, F
2015-01-01
In a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz's representations of perfect fluid and find the solutions. Moreover, we study the quantum cosmology using the canonical quantization procedure and derive the Schrodinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmological considerations. Similar to the study of Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de...
Absorbing State Phase Transition with Competing Quantum and Classical Fluctuations
Marcuzzi, Matteo; Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-06-01
Stochastic processes with absorbing states feature examples of nonequilibrium universal phenomena. While the classical regime has been thoroughly investigated in the past, relatively little is known about the behavior of these nonequilibrium systems in the presence of quantum fluctuations. Here, we theoretically address such a scenario in an open quantum spin model which, in its classical limit, undergoes a directed percolation phase transition. By mapping the problem to a nonequilibrium field theory, we show that the introduction of quantum fluctuations stemming from coherent, rather than statistical, spin flips alters the nature of the transition such that it becomes first order. In the intermediate regime, where classical and quantum dynamics compete on equal terms, we highlight the presence of a bicritical point with universal features different from the directed percolation class in a low dimension. We finally propose how this physics could be explored within gases of interacting atoms excited to Rydberg states.
Commuting quantum circuits: efficient classical simulations versus hardness results
Ni, Xiaotong
2012-01-01
The study of quantum circuits composed of commuting gates is particularly useful to understand the delicate boundary between quantum and classical computation. Indeed, while being a restricted class, commuting circuits exhibit genuine quantum effects such as entanglement. In this paper we show that the computational power of commuting circuits exhibits a surprisingly rich structure. First we show that every 2-local commuting circuit acting on d-level systems and followed by single-qudit measurements can be efficiently simulated classically with high accuracy. In contrast, we prove that such strong simulations are hard for 3-local circuits. Using sampling methods we further show that all commuting circuits composed of exponentiated Pauli operators e^{i\\theta P} can be simulated efficiently classically when followed by single-qubit measurements. Finally, we show that commuting circuits can efficiently simulate certain non-commutative processes, related in particular to constant-depth quantum circuits. This give...
Classical Aspects of Quantum Walls in One Dimension
Fülöp, T; Tsutsui, I; Fulop, Tamas; Cheon, Taksu; Tsutsui, Izumi
2002-01-01
We investigate the system of a particle moving on a half line $x \\ge 0$ under the general walls at $x = 0$ that are permitted quantum mechanically. These quantum walls, characterized by a parameter $L$, are shown to be realized as a limit of regularized potentials. We then study the classical aspects of the quantum walls, by seeking a classical counterpart which admits the same time delay in scattering with the quantum wall, and also by examining the WKB-exactness of the transition kernel based on the regularized potentials. It is shown that no classical counterpart exists for walls with $L < 0$, and that the WKB-exactness can hold only for $L = 0$ and $L = \\infty$.
Quantum theory of human communication
Slowikowski, Wojtek; Nielsen, Erik B.
2004-01-01
We use notions and techniques of Quantum Field Theory to formulate and investigate basic concepts and mechanisms of human communication. We start with attitudes which correspond to photons frequencies, then we introduce states-of-mind which correspond to wave functions. Finally, by way of the second quantization, we come to states-of-opinions which correspond to states of quantized radiation fields. In the present paper we shall only investigate superpositions of pairs of coherent states (e.g...
Classical Pendulum Feels Quantum Back-Action
Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Hayase, Gen; Aso, Yoichi; Tsubono, Kimio
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics, which has agreed with every experimental test, predicts superposition of position states even for macroscopic objects. Because of the massiveness, such states might have a key to investigate both quantum measurement problem and quantum gravity. Recently, the use of quasi-freely suspended mirror combined with a laser field was proposed to prepare such states. One of the key milestones for the quantum-optomechanical effects such as the generation of the entanglement state and a squeezed state of light is the observation of quantum back-action, which identifies the connection between the objects and quantumness of the light. Until now, this effect has been observed below the meso-scopic mass scale. However, it has not been observed yet in the macroscopic scale beyond Planck mass. This is partially due to a technical limitation-the radiation pressure of light will expose a free mass to instability such as anti-torsional spring effect. Also, there is the fundamental compromise between tolerance ...
Separation between Classical and Quantum Winning Strategies for the Matching Game
Fialík, Ivan
2010-01-01
Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. The matching game is the newest member of the family of pseudo-telepathy games. After introducing a general model for pseudo-telepathy games, we focus on the question what the smallest size of inputs is for which the matching game is a pseudo-telepathy game.
Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Yu Hsieh
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is difficult to carry out, approximations must often be made to compute these functions. We present a general scheme for the computation of correlation functions, which preserves the full quantum equilibrium structure of the system and approximates the time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Several aspects of the scheme are discussed, including a practical and general approach to sample the quantum equilibrium density, the properties of the quantum-classical Liouville equation in the context of correlation function computations, simulation schemes for the approximate dynamics and their interpretation and connections to other approximate quantum dynamical methods.
Trigonometric version of quantum-classical duality in integrable systems
Beketov, M; Zabrodin, A; Zotov, A
2015-01-01
We extend the quantum-classical duality to the trigonometric (hyperbolic) case. The duality establishes an explicit relationship between the classical N-body trigonometric Ruijsenaars-Schneider model and the inhomogeneous twisted XXZ spin chain on N sites. Similarly to the rational version, the spin chain data fixes a certain Lagrangian submanifold in the phase space of the classical integrable system. The inhomogeneity parameters are equal to the coordinates of particles while the velocities of classical particles are proportional to the eigenvalues of the spin chain Hamiltonians (residues of the properly normalized transfer matrix). In the rational version of the duality, the action variables of the Ruijsenaars-Schneider model are equal to the twist parameters with some multiplicities defined by quantum (occupation) numbers. In contrast to the rational version, in the trigonometric case there is a splitting of the spectrum of action variables (eigenvalues of the classical Lax matrix). The limit correspondin...
Semi-classical States in Homogeneous Loop Quantum Cosmology
Tan, H; Ma, Yongge; Tan, Huahai
2006-01-01
Semi-classical states in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC) are constructed by two different ways. In the first approach, we firstly construct an exponentiated annihilation operator. Then a kind of semi-classical (coherent) state is obtained by solving the eigen-equation of that operator. Moreover, we use these coherent states to analyze the semi-classical limit of the quantum dynamics. It turns out that the Hamiltonian constraint operator employed currently in homogeneous LQC has correct classical limit with respect to the coherent states. In the second approach, the other kind of semi-classical state is derived from the mathematical construction of coherent states for compact Lie groups due to Hall.
Locality and the classical limit of quantum systems
Banks, T
2009-01-01
I argue that conventional estimates of the criterion for classical behavior of a macroscopic body are incorrect in most circumstances,because they do not take into account the locality of interactions, which characterizes the behavior of all systems described approximately by local quantum field theory. The deviations from classical behavior of a macroscopic body, except for those that can be described as classical uncertainties in the initial values of macroscopic variables,are {\\it exponentially} small as a function of the volume of the macro-system in microscopic units. Conventional estimates are correct only when the internal degrees of freedom of the macrosystem are in their ground state, and the classical motion of collective coordinates is adiabatic. Otherwise, the system acts as its own environment and washes out quantum phase correlations between different classical states of its collective coordinates. I suggest that it is likely that we can only achieve meso-scopic superpositions, for systems which...
Planck's radiation law: is a quantum-classical perspective possible?
Marrocco, Michele
2016-05-01
Planck's radiation law provides the solution to the blackbody problem that marks the decline of classical physics and the rise of the quantum theory of the radiation field. Here, we venture to suggest the possibility that classical physics might be equally suitable to deal with the blackbody problem. A classical version of the Planck's radiation law seems to be achievable if we learn from the quantum-classical correspondence between classical Mie theory and quantum-mechanical wave scattering from spherical scatterers (partial wave analysis). This correspondence designs a procedure for countable energy levels of the radiation trapped within the blackbody treated within the multipole approach of classical electrodynamics (in place of the customary and problematic expansion in terms of plane waves that give rise to the ultraviolet catastrophe). In turn, introducing the Boltzmann discretization of energy levels, the tools of classical thermodynamics and statistical theory become available for the task. On the other hand, the final result depends on a free parameter whose physical units are those of an action. Tuning this parameter on the value given by the Planck constant makes the classical result agree with the canonical Planck's radiation law.
Classical and quantum computing with C++ and Java simulations
Hardy, Y
2001-01-01
Classical and Quantum computing provides a self-contained, systematic and comprehensive introduction to all the subjects and techniques important in scientific computing. The style and presentation are readily accessible to undergraduates and graduates. A large number of examples, accompanied by complete C++ and Java code wherever possible, cover every topic. Features and benefits: - Comprehensive coverage of the theory with many examples - Topics in classical computing include boolean algebra, gates, circuits, latches, error detection and correction, neural networks, Turing machines, cryptography, genetic algorithms - For the first time, genetic expression programming is presented in a textbook - Topics in quantum computing include mathematical foundations, quantum algorithms, quantum information theory, hardware used in quantum computing This book serves as a textbook for courses in scientific computing and is also very suitable for self-study. Students, professionals and practitioners in computer...
Improved Classical Simulation of Quantum Circuits Dominated by Clifford Gates.
Bravyi, Sergey; Gosset, David
2016-06-24
We present a new algorithm for classical simulation of quantum circuits over the Clifford+T gate set. The runtime of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of qubits and the number of Clifford gates in the circuit but exponential in the number of T gates. The exponential scaling is sufficiently mild that the algorithm can be used in practice to simulate medium-sized quantum circuits dominated by Clifford gates. The first demonstrations of fault-tolerant quantum circuits based on 2D topological codes are likely to be dominated by Clifford gates due to a high implementation cost associated with logical T gates. Thus our algorithm may serve as a verification tool for near-term quantum computers which cannot in practice be simulated by other means. To demonstrate the power of the new method, we performed a classical simulation of a hidden shift quantum algorithm with 40 qubits, a few hundred Clifford gates, and nearly 50 T gates.
Computational physics simulation of classical and quantum systems
Scherer, Philipp O J
2017-01-01
This textbook presents basic numerical methods and applies them to a large variety of physical models in multiple computer experiments. Classical algorithms and more recent methods are explained. Partial differential equations are treated generally comparing important methods, and equations of motion are solved by a large number of simple as well as more sophisticated methods. Several modern algorithms for quantum wavepacket motion are compared. The first part of the book discusses the basic numerical methods, while the second part simulates classical and quantum systems. Simple but non-trivial examples from a broad range of physical topics offer readers insights into the numerical treatment but also the simulated problems. Rotational motion is studied in detail, as are simple quantum systems. A two-level system in an external field demonstrates elementary principles from quantum optics and simulation of a quantum bit. Principles of molecular dynamics are shown. Modern bounda ry element methods are presented ...
Quantum mechanical version of the classical Liouville theorem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Chuan-Mei; Fan Hong-Yi
2013-01-01
In terms of the coherent state evolution in phase space,we present a quantum mechanical version of the classical Liouville theorem.The evolution of the coherent state from | z> to | sz-rz*> corresponds to the motion from a point z (q,p)to another point sz-rz* with |s|2-|r|2 =1.The evolution is governed by the so-called Fresnel operator U(s,r) that was recently proposed in quantum optics theory,which classically corresponds to the matrix optics law and the optical Fresnel transformation,and obeys group product rules.In other words,we can recapitulate the Liouville theorem in the context of quantum mechanics by virtue of coherent state evolution in phase space,which seems to be a combination of quantum statistics and quantum optics.
Quantum correction to classical gravitational interaction between two polarizable objects
Wu, Puxun; Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei
2016-12-01
When gravity is quantized, there inevitably exist quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations which induce quadrupole moments in gravitationally polarizable objects and produce a quantum correction to the classical Newtonian interaction between them. Here, based upon linearized quantum gravity and the leading-order perturbation theory, we study, from a quantum field-theoretic prospect, this quantum correction between a pair of gravitationally polarizable objects treated as two-level harmonic oscillators. We find that the interaction potential behaves like r-11 in the retarded regime and r-10 in the near regime. Our result agrees with what were recently obtained in different approaches. Our study seems to indicate that linearized quantum gravity is robust in dealing with quantum gravitational effects at low energies.
Direction Cryptography in Quantum Communications
Simmons, W; Simmons, Walter; Pakvasa, Sandip
2003-01-01
We examine a situation in which an information-carrying signal is sent from two sources to a common receiver. The radiation travels through free space in the presence of noise. The information resides in a relationship between the two beams. We inquire into whether itis possible, in principle, that the locations of the transmitters can be concealed from a party who receives the radiation and decodes the information. Direction finding entails making a set of measurements on asignal and constructing an analytic continuation of the time dependent fields from the results. The fact that this process is generally different in quantum mechanics and in classical electrodynamics is the basis in this investigation. We develop a model based upon encoding information into a microscopic, transverse, non-local quantum image (whose dimensions are of the order of a few wavelengths) and using a detector of a type recently proposed by Strekalov et al. The optical system, which uses SPDC (Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion)...
Beating the Classical Limits of Information Transmission using a Quantum Decoder
Karim, Akib; Huang, Zixin; Chapman, Rob; Tomamichel, Marco; Flammia, Steve; Peruzzo, Alberto
Reliable transmission of information over a noisy channel is a fundamental challenge in communication theory. The emergence of quantum technologies has created a new class of strategies that allow for message recovery greater than purely classical methods. Despite this, for minimal uses of the channel, finding such schemes remains a challenge. We investigate the amplitude damping channel which describes physical systems that suffer energy loss such as in cavity quantum electrodynamics or spin chain excitations. We derive and experimentally demonstrate the fundamental limit for message recovery possible with only classical methods. We then propose a quantum decoder and experimentally demonstrate message recovery past this classical limit. We use polarisation-encoded photonic qubits. The post-amplitude damping states are generated by an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer and entanglement is accomplished with a linear optical probabilistic controlled z gate. Our quantum decoder uses a single entangling gate at the receiver where other similar schemes rely on both the sender and the receiver having quantum devices. Our results present an advance in discovering the quantum capabilities of finite resource communications, with specific regard to the amplitude damping channel.
Classical and quantum dynamics of the sphere
Lasukov, Vladimir; Moldovanova, Evgeniia; Abdrashitova, Maria; Malik, Hitendra; Gorbacheva, Ekaterina
2016-07-01
In Minkowski space, there has been developed the mathematic quantum model of the real particle located on the sphere evolving owing to the negative pressure inside the sphere. The developed model is analogous to the geometrodynamic model of the Lemaitre-Friedmann primordial atom in superspace-time, whose spatial coordinate is the scale factor functioning as a radial coordinate. There is a formulation of quantum geometrodynamics in which the spatial coordinate is an offset of the scale factor and wave function at the same time. With the help of the Dirac procedure for extracting the root from the Hamiltonian operator we have constructed a Dirac quantum dynamics of the sphere with fractional spin.
Relativistic Classical Integrable Tops and Quantum R-matrices
Levin, A; Zotov, A
2014-01-01
We describe classical top-like integrable systems arising from the quantum exchange relations and corresponding Sklyanin algebras. The Lax operator is expressed in terms of the quantum non-dynamical $R$-matrix even at the classical level, where the Planck constant plays the role of the relativistic deformation parameter in the sense of Ruijsenaars and Schneider (RS). The integrable systems (relativistic tops) are described as multidimensional Euler tops, and the inertia tensors are written in terms of the quantum and classical $R$-matrices. A particular case of ${\\rm gl}_N$ system is gauge equivalent to the $N$-particle RS model while a generic top is related to the spin generalization of the RS model. The simple relation between quantum $R$-matrices and classical Lax operators is exploited in two ways. In the elliptic case we use the Belavin's quantum $R$-matrix to describe the relativistic classical tops. Also by the passage to the noncommutative torus we study the large $N$ limit corresponding to the relat...
Relativistic classical integrable tops and quantum R-matrices
Levin, A.; Olshanetsky, M.; Zotov, A.
2014-07-01
We describe classical top-like integrable systems arising from the quantum exchange relations and corresponding Sklyanin algebras. The Lax operator is expressed in terms of the quantum non-dynamical R-matrix even at the classical level, where the Planck constant plays the role of the relativistic deformation parameter in the sense of Ruijsenaars and Schneider (RS). The integrable systems (relativistic tops) are described as multidimensional Euler tops, and the inertia tensors are written in terms of the quantum and classical R-matrices. A particular case of gl N system is gauge equivalent to the N-particle RS model while a generic top is related to the spin generalization of the RS model. The simple relation between quantum R-matrices and classical Lax operators is exploited in two ways. In the elliptic case we use the Belavin's quantum R-matrix to describe the relativistic classical tops. Also by the passage to the noncommutative torus we study the large N limit corresponding to the relativistic version of the nonlocal 2d elliptic hydrodynamics. Conversely, in the rational case we obtain a new gl N quantum rational non-dynamical R-matrix via the relativistic top, which we get in a different way — using the factorized form of the RS Lax operator and the classical Symplectic Hecke (gauge) transformation. In particular case of gl2 the quantum rational R-matrix is 11-vertex. It was previously found by Cherednik. At last, we describe the integrable spin chains and Gaudin models related to the obtained R-matrix.
Private classical capacity with a symmetric side channel and its application to quantum cryptography
Smith, Graeme
2008-08-01
We study the symmetric-side-channel-assisted private capacity of a quantum channel, for which we provide a single-letter formula. This capacity is additive, convex, and, for degradable channels, equal to the unassisted private capacity. While a channel’s (unassisted) capacity for private classical communication may be strictly larger than its quantum capacity, we will show that these capacities are equal for degradable channels, thus demonstrating the equivalence of privacy and quantum coherence in this context. We use these ideas to find new bounds on the key rate of quantum key distribution protocols with one-way classical post-processing. For the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol, our results demonstrate that collective attacks are strictly stronger than individual attacks.
Quantum and Classical OpticsEmerging Links
2016-05-09
N1 2 live inside a unit N-dimensional hyper - cube, since Y0 1j . The cube’s origin ( )¼0, 0, represents zero entanglement, corresponding to...Schmidt [3] via the classic mathematical physics text : Courant R and Hilbert D Methoden Der Mathematischen Physik 2nd edn (Berlin: Springer) 134 [3
PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum
Asorey, M.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.
2007-07-01
This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his life-long activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J Clemente-Gallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan International Advisory Committee A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA) L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain) I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany) G. F. Dell Antonio (Universitá di Roma La Sapienza, Italy) A. Galindo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain) S. L. Glashow (Boston University
Classical and quantum plasmonics in graphene nanodisks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Thomas; Wang, Weihua; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2014-01-01
Edge states are ubiquitous for many condensed matter systems with multicomponent wave functions. For example, edge states play a crucial role in transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. Here, we report microscopic calculations of quantum plasmonics in doped graphene nanodisks with zigzag edges. We...
Recent advances on integrated quantum communications
Orieux, Adeline; Diamanti, Eleni
2016-08-01
In recent years, the use of integrated technologies for applications in the field of quantum information processing and communications has made great progress. The resulting devices feature valuable characteristics such as scalability, reproducibility, low cost and interconnectivity, and have the potential to revolutionize our computation and communication practices in the future, much in the way that electronic integrated circuits have drastically transformed our information processing capacities since the last century. Among the multiple applications of integrated quantum technologies, this review will focus on typical components of quantum communication systems and on overall integrated system operation characteristics. We are interested in particular in the use of photonic integration platforms for developing devices necessary in quantum communications, including sources, detectors and both passive and active optical elements. We also illustrate the challenges associated with performing quantum communications on chip, by using the case study of quantum key distribution—the most advanced application of quantum information science. We conclude with promising perspectives in this field.
Quantum Communications Transmitter at 775 nm Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel new architecture for a quantum communications laser transmitter that is designed for free-space polarization encoded quantum key distribution...
Dynamics of classical and quantum fields an introduction
Setlur, Girish S
2014-01-01
Dynamics of Classical and Quantum Fields: An Introduction focuses on dynamical fields in non-relativistic physics. Written by a physicist for physicists, the book is designed to help readers develop analytical skills related to classical and quantum fields at the non-relativistic level, and think about the concepts and theory through numerous problems. In-depth yet accessible, the book presents new and conventional topics in a self-contained manner that beginners would find useful. A partial list of topics covered includes: Geometrical meaning of Legendre transformation in classical mechanics Dynamical symmetries in the context of Noether's theorem The derivation of the stress energy tensor of the electromagnetic field, the expression for strain energy in elastic bodies, and the Navier Stokes equation Concepts of right and left movers in case of a Fermi gas explained Functional integration is interpreted as a limit of a sequence of ordinary integrations Path integrals for one and two quantum particles and for...
Anthropomorphic Quantum Darwinism as an explanation for Classicality
Durt, Thomas
2009-01-01
According to the so-called ``Quantum Darwinist'' approach, the emergence of ``classical islands'' from a quantum background is assumed to obey a (selection) principle of maximal information. We illustrate this idea by considering the coupling of two particles that interact through a position-dependent potential. This approach sheds a new light on the emergence of classical logics and of our classical preconceptions about the world. The distinction between internal and external world, the Cartesian prejudice according to which the whole can be reduced to the sum of its parts and the appearance of preferred representation bases such as the position is seen here as the result of a very long evolution and would correspond to the most useful way of extracting stable and useful information from the quantum correlations.
Quantum mechanics can reduce the complexity of classical models.
Gu, Mile; Wiesner, Karoline; Rieper, Elisabeth; Vedral, Vlatko
2012-03-27
Mathematical models are an essential component of quantitative science. They generate predictions about the future, based on information available in the present. In the spirit of simpler is better; should two models make identical predictions, the one that requires less input is preferred. Yet, for almost all stochastic processes, even the provably optimal classical models waste information. The amount of input information they demand exceeds the amount of predictive information they output. Here we show how to systematically construct quantum models that break this classical bound, and that the system of minimal entropy that simulates such processes must necessarily feature quantum dynamics. This indicates that many observed phenomena could be significantly simpler than classically possible should quantum effects be involved.
Limits of Gaudin Systems: Classical and Quantum Cases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Chervov
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We consider the XXX homogeneous Gaudin system with N sites, both in classical and the quantum case. In particular we show that a suitable limiting procedure for letting the poles of its Lax matrix collide can be used to define new families of Liouville integrals (in the classical case and new ''Gaudin'' algebras (in the quantum case. We will especially treat the case of total collisions, that gives rise to (a generalization of the so called Bending flows of Kapovich and Millson. Some aspects of multi-Poisson geometry will be addressed (in the classical case. We will make use of properties of ''Manin matrices'' to provide explicit generators of the Gaudin Algebras in the quantum case.
Satellite Quantum Communication via the Alphasat Laser Communication Terminal
Elser, Dominique; Khan, Imran; Stiller, Birgit; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Saucke, Karen; Tröndle, Daniel; Heine, Frank; Seel, Stefan; Greulich, Peter; Zech, Herwig; Gütlich, Björn; Richter, Ines; Meyer, Rolf
2015-01-01
By harnessing quantum effects, we nowadays can use encryption that is in principle proven to withstand any conceivable attack. These fascinating quantum features have been implemented in metropolitan quantum networks around the world. In order to interconnect such networks over long distances, optical satellite communication is the method of choice. Standard telecommunication components allow one to efficiently implement quantum communication by measuring field quadratures (continuous variables). This opens the possibility to adapt our Laser Communication Terminals (LCTs) to quantum key distribution (QKD). First satellite measurement campaigns are currently validating our approach.
Foundations of classical and quantum electrodynamics
Toptygin, Igor N
2014-01-01
This advanced textbook covers many fundamental, traditional and new branches of electrodynamics, as well as the related fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. The book introduces the material at different levels, oriented towards 3rd–4th year bachelor, master, and PhD students. This is so as to describe the whole complexity of physical phenomena. The required mathematical background is collated in Chapter 1, while the necessary physical background is included in the main text of the corresponding chapters and also given in appendices. It contains approximately 800 examples and problems, many of which are described in detail. Some of these problems are designed for students to work on their own with only the answers and descriptions of results, and may be solved selectively. Equally suitable as a reference for researchers specialized in science and engineering.
Electromagnetically induced classical and quantum Lau effect
Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian; Xiong, Jun; Xu, Deqin
2016-07-01
We present two schemes of Lau effect for an object, an electromagnetically induced grating generated based on the electromagnetically induced effect. The Lau interference pattern is detected either directly in the way of the traditional Lau effect measurement with a classical thermal light being the imaging light, or indirectly and nonlocally in the way of two-photon coincidence measurement with a pair of entangled photons being the imaging light.
Quantum and classical correlations in quantum Brownian motion
Eisert, J; Plenio, M. B.
2001-01-01
We investigate the entanglement properties of the joint state of a distinguished quantum system and its environment in the quantum Brownian motion model. This model is a frequent starting point for investigations of environment-induced superselection. Using recent methods from quantum information theory, we show that there exists a large class of initial states for which no entanglement will be created at all times between the system of salient interest and the environment. If the distinguish...
Entangled qutrits for quantum communication
Thew, R T; Zbinden, H; Gisin, Nicolas
2003-01-01
We introduce a new technique to experimentally generate, control and measure entangled qutrits, 3-dimensional quantum systems. This scheme uses spontaneous parametric down converted photons and unbalanced 3-arm fiber optic interferometers in a scheme analogous to the Franson interferometric arrangement for qubits. The results reveal a source capable of generating maximally entangled states with a net state fidelity, F = 0.985 $\\pm$ 0.018. Further the control over the system reveals a high, net, 2-photon interference fringe visibility, V = 0.919 $\\pm$ 0.026, when the two phases are varied. This has all been done at telecom wavelengths thus facilitating the advancement to long distance higher dimensional quantum communication.
Malpetti, Daniele; Roscilde, Tommaso
2017-02-01
The mean-field approximation is at the heart of our understanding of complex systems, despite its fundamental limitation of completely neglecting correlations between the elementary constituents. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 130401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.130401], we have shown that in quantum many-body systems at finite temperature, two-point correlations can be formally separated into a thermal part and a quantum part and that quantum correlations are generically found to decay exponentially at finite temperature, with a characteristic, temperature-dependent quantum coherence length. The existence of these two different forms of correlation in quantum many-body systems suggests the possibility of formulating an approximation, which affects quantum correlations only, without preventing the correct description of classical fluctuations at all length scales. Focusing on lattice boson and quantum Ising models, we make use of the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics to introduce such an approximation, which we dub quantum mean-field (QMF) approach, and which can be readily generalized to a cluster form (cluster QMF or cQMF). The cQMF approximation reduces to cluster mean-field theory at T =0 , while at any finite temperature it produces a family of systematically improved, semi-classical approximations to the quantum statistical mechanics of the lattice theory at hand. Contrary to standard MF approximations, the correct nature of thermal critical phenomena is captured by any cluster size. In the two exemplary cases of the two-dimensional quantum Ising model and of two-dimensional quantum rotors, we study systematically the convergence of the cQMF approximation towards the exact result, and show that the convergence is typically linear or sublinear in the boundary-to-bulk ratio of the clusters as T →0 , while it becomes faster than linear as T grows. These results pave the way towards the development of semiclassical numerical
Classical simulatability, entanglement breaking, and quantum computation thresholds
Virmani, S; Plenio, M B; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.
2004-01-01
We investigate the amount of noise required to turn a universal quantum gate set into one that can be efficiently modelled classically. This question is useful for providing upper bounds on fault tolerant thresholds, and for understanding the nature of the quantum/classical computational transition. We refine some previously known upper bounds using two different strategies. The first one involves the introduction of bi-entangling operations, a class of classically simulatable machines that can generate at most bipartite entanglement. Using this class we show that it is possible to sharpen previously obtained upper bounds in certain cases. As an example, we show that under depolarizing noise on the controlled-not gate, the previously known upper bound of 74% can be sharpened to around 67%. Another interesting consequence is that measurement based schemes cannot work using only 2-qubit non-degenerate projections. In the second strand of the work we utilize the Gottesman-Knill theorem on the classically efficie...
Classical and quantum motion in an inverse square potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avila-Aoki, M. [Centro Universitario Valle de Chalco, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Valle de Chalco, CP 56615, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: manvlk@yahoo.com; Cisneros, C. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 6-96, CP 62131, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: carmen@ce.fis.unam.mx; Martinez-y-Romero, R.P. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 21-267, CP 04000, Coyoacan DF (Mexico)], E-mail: rodolfo@dirac.fciencias.unam.mx; Nunez-Yepez, H.N. [Departamento Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, CP 09340, Iztapalapa DF (Mexico)], E-mail: nyhn@xanum.uam.mx; Salas-Brito, A.L. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinamicos, Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Apartado Postal 21-267, CP 04000, Coyoacan DF (Mexico)], E-mail: asb@correo.azc.uam.mx
2009-01-19
Classical motion in an inverse square potential is shown to be equivalent to free motion on a hyperbola. The existence of a classical splitting between the q>0 and q<0 regions of motion is demonstrated. We show that this last property may be regarded as the classical counterpart of the superselection rule occurring in the corresponding quantum problem. We solve the quantum problem in momentum space finding that there is no way of quantizing its energy but that the eigenfunctions suffice to describe the single renormalized bound state of the system. The dynamical symmetry of the classical problem is found to be O(1,1). Both this symmetry and the symmetry of inversion through the origin are found to be broken.
Experimental device-independent tests of classical and quantum entropy
Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Sijing; You, Lixing; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yidong
2016-12-01
In quantum information processing, it is important to witness the entropy of the message in the device-independent way which was proposed recently [R. Chaves, J. B. Brask, and N. Brunner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 110501 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.110501]. In this paper, we theoretically obtain the minimal quantum entropy for three widely used linear dimension witnesses, which is considered "a difficult question." Then we experimentally test the classical and quantum entropy in a device-independent manner. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis, demonstrating that entropy is needed in quantum systems that is lower than the entropy needed in classical systems with the given value of the dimension witness.
Quantum dynamical entropies for discrete classical systems: a comparison
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cappellini, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)
2005-08-05
On a family of classical dynamical systems on the 2-torus, we perform a discretization procedure similar to the anti-Wick quantization. Such a discretization is performed by using a particular class of states, fulfilling an appropriate dynamical localization property, typical of quantum coherent states. The same set of states is involved in the construction of a quantum entropy, that we test on the discrete approximants; a correspondence with the classical metric entropy of Kolmogorov-Sinai is found only over time scales that are logarithmic in the discretization parameter.
Stable classical structures in dissipative quantum chaotic systems
Raviola, Lisandro A; Rivas, Alejandro M F
2009-01-01
We study the stability of classical structures in chaotic systems when a dissipative quantum evolution takes place. We consider a paradigmatic model, the quantum baker map in contact with a heat bath at finite temperature. We analyze the behavior of the purity, fidelity and Husimi distributions corresponding to initial states localized on short periodic orbits (scar functions) and map eigenstates. Scar functions, that have a fundamental role in the semiclassical description of chaotic systems, emerge as very robust against environmental perturbations. This is confirmed by the study of other states localized on classical structures. Also, purity and fidelity show a complementary behavior as decoherence measures.
Measures of quantum state purity and classical degree of polarization
Gamel, Omar
2013-01-01
There is a well-known mathematical similarity between two-dimensional classical polarization optics and two-level quantum systems, where the Poincare and Bloch spheres are identical mathematical structures. This analogy implies that the classical degree of polarization and quantum purity are in fact the same quantity. We make extensive use of this analogy to analyze various measures of polarization for higher dimensions proposed in the literature, in particular the N = 3 case, illustrating interesting relationships that emerge as well as the advantages of each measure. We also propose a different class of measures of entanglement based on the purity of subsystems.
Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vollmer, Christina E.
2014-01-24
The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.
2016-10-01
In a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Darabi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW space–time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger–Wheeler–DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle–Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.
Quantum healing of classical singularities in power-law spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helliwell, T M [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Konkowski, D A [Department of Mathematics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)
2007-07-07
We study a broad class of spacetimes whose metric coefficients reduce to powers of a radius r in the limit of small r. Among these four-parameter 'power-law' metrics, we identify those parameters for which the spacetimes have classical singularities as r {yields} 0. We show that a large set of such classically-singular spacetimes is nevertheless non-singular quantum mechanically, in that the Hamiltonian operator is essentially self-adjoint, so that the evolution of quantum wave packets lacks the ambiguity associated with scattering off singularities. Using these metrics, the broadest class yet studied to compare classical with quantum singularities, we explore the physical reasons why some that are singular classically are 'healed' quantum mechanically, while others are not. We show that most (but not all) of the remaining quantum-mechanically singular spacetimes can be excluded if either the weak energy condition or the dominant energy condition is invoked, and we briefly discuss the effect of this work on the strong cosmic censorship conjecture.
Classical limit of quantum gravity in an accelerating universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuller, Frederic P. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo N2L 2Y5 (Canada)]. E-mail: fschuller@perimeterinstitute.ca; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de
2005-04-21
A one-parameter deformation of Einstein-Hilbert gravity with an inverse Riemann curvature term is derived as the classical limit of quantum gravity compatible with an accelerating universe. This result is based on the investigation of semi-classical theories with sectional curvature bounds which are shown not to admit static spherically symmetric black holes if otherwise of phenomenological interest. We discuss the impact on the canonical quantization of gravity, and observe that worldsheet string theory is not affected.
Trigonometric version of quantum-classical duality in integrable systems
Beketov, M.; Liashyk, A.; Zabrodin, A.; Zotov, A.
2016-02-01
We extend the quantum-classical duality to the trigonometric (hyperbolic) case. The duality establishes an explicit relationship between the classical N-body trigonometric Ruijsenaars-Schneider model and the inhomogeneous twisted XXZ spin chain on N sites. Similarly to the rational version, the spin chain data fixes a certain Lagrangian submanifold in the phase space of the classical integrable system. The inhomogeneity parameters are equal to the coordinates of particles while the velocities of classical particles are proportional to the eigenvalues of the spin chain Hamiltonians (residues of the properly normalized transfer matrix). In the rational version of the duality, the action variables of the Ruijsenaars-Schneider model are equal to the twist parameters with some multiplicities defined by quantum (occupation) numbers. In contrast to the rational version, in the trigonometric case there is a splitting of the spectrum of action variables (eigenvalues of the classical Lax matrix). The limit corresponding to the classical Calogero-Sutherland system and quantum trigonometric Gaudin model is also described as well as the XX limit to free fermions.
Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?
Singh, Parampreet
2016-01-01
Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology. We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, non-trivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces non-vanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The non-curvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asym...
Statistical Mechanics of Classical and Quantum Computational Complexity
Laumann, C. R.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.; Sondhi, S. L.
The quest for quantum computers is motivated by their potential for solving problems that defy existing, classical, computers. The theory of computational complexity, one of the crown jewels of computer science, provides a rigorous framework for classifying the hardness of problems according to the computational resources, most notably time, needed to solve them. Its extension to quantum computers allows the relative power of quantum computers to be analyzed. This framework identifies families of problems which are likely hard for classical computers ("NP-complete") and those which are likely hard for quantum computers ("QMA-complete") by indirect methods. That is, they identify problems of comparable worst-case difficulty without directly determining the individual hardness of any given instance. Statistical mechanical methods can be used to complement this classification by directly extracting information about particular families of instances—typically those that involve optimization—by studying random ensembles of them. These pose unusual and interesting (quantum) statistical mechanical questions and the results shed light on the difficulty of problems for large classes of algorithms as well as providing a window on the contrast between typical and worst case complexity. In these lecture notes we present an introduction to this set of ideas with older work on classical satisfiability and recent work on quantum satisfiability as primary examples. We also touch on the connection of computational hardness with the physical notion of glassiness.
Classical and quantum temperature fluctuations via holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balatsky, Alexander [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Kedem, Yaron [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Krikun, Alexander [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thorlacius, Lárus [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); University of Iceland, Science Institute,Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics,Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Zarembo, Konstantin [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,SE-751 08 Uppsala (Sweden)
2015-01-07
We study local temperature fluctuations in a 2+1 dimensional CFT on the sphere, dual to a black hole in asymptotically AdS spacetime. The fluctuation spectrum is governed by the lowest-lying hydrodynamic modes of the system whose frequency and damping rate determine whether temperature fluctuations are thermal or quantum. We calculate numerically the corresponding quasinormal frequencies and match the result with the hydrodynamics of the dual CFT at high temperature. As a by-product of our analysis we determine the appropriate boundary conditions for calculating low-lying quasinormal modes for a four-dimensional Reissner-Nordström black hole in global AdS.
Quantum counterfactual communication without a weak trace
Arvidsson-Shukur, D. R. M.; Barnes, C. H. W.
2016-12-01
The classical theories of communication rely on the assumption that there has to be a flow of particles from Bob to Alice in order for him to send a message to her. We develop a quantum protocol that allows Alice to perceive Bob's message "counterfactually"; that is, without Alice receiving any particles that have interacted with Bob. By utilizing a setup built on results from interaction-free measurements, we outline a communication protocol whereby the information travels in the opposite direction of the emitted particles. In comparison to previous attempts on such protocols, this one is such that a weak measurement at the message source would not leave a weak trace that could be detected by Alice's receiver. While some interaction-free schemes require a large number of carefully aligned beam splitters, our protocol is realizable with two or more beam splitters. We demonstrate this protocol by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a Hamiltonian that implements this quantum counterfactual phenomenon.
Classical and Quantum Vibration in a Nonseparable, Nonharmonic System
McDonald, Karen Marie
Studies of vibrational dynamics have been performed on a two-dimensional model potential surface V(x,z; R), adapted from the ab initio surface previously used in this laboratory to analyze dynamics of the bifluoride ion (FHF) ^-. The model potential has C _{2v} symmetry, but is strongly anharmonic and nonseparable in the dynamical variables (x,z); its character changes as the parameter R is varied. Quantum and classical descriptions of vibrational states in this system are compared with corresponding Self-Consistent Field (SCF) approximations. Insights provided by each approach are assessed. Systematic Fermi resonances appear in the quantum mechanical states (at energies up to approximately 10,000 cm^{-1}) arising from crossings of quantum SCF levels with two quanta of vibration exchanged between x and z modes. The lowest quantum states of each symmetry are well described by the SCF approximation except near such crossings. Calculations using Configuration Interaction were done to obtain accurate eigenstates and examine correlations in the quantum mechanics. The Classical Self-Consistent Field (CSCF) method provides a description of the mechanics similar to that given by its quantum counterpart. Classical bound state methods based on semiclassical quantization of quasiperiodic trajectories are unable to give a corresponding description. At energies as low as the quantum ground state, the true classical dynamics is strongly disturbed by resonant interactions. At higher energies the number and strength of these disruptions is so great that the motion is largely irregular. The most prominent effect is a 1:1 frequency resonance associated with strong reorganization of the classical motion along pronounced valleys of the potential surface lying at +/-26^circ to the x-axis. This phenomenon has been studied by analysis of the true dynamics and by application of classical canonical perturbation theory to the zero-order CSCF description. It is found that the latter gives a
Classical and quantum interference in multiband optical Bloch oscillations
Longhi, S
2010-01-01
Classical and quantum interference of light propagating in arrays of coupled waveguides and undergoing multiband optical Bloch oscillations (BOs) with negligible Zener tunneling is theoretically investigated. In particular, it is shown that Mach-Zehnder-like interference effects spontaneously arise in multiband BOs owing to beam splitting and subsequent beam recombination occurring in one BO cycle. As a noteworthy example of quantum interference, we discuss the doubling of interference fringes in photon counting rates for a correlated photon pair undergoing two-band BOs, a phenomenon analogous to the manifestation of the de Broglie wavelength of an entangled biphoton state observed in quantum Mach-Zehnder interferometry.
Threshold quantum secure direct communication without entanglement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
For the first time, a threshold quantum secure direct communication (TQSDC) scheme is presented. Similar to the classical Shamir’s secret sharing scheme, the sender makes n shares, S1, …, Sn of secret key K and each receiver keeps a share secretly. If the sender wants to send a secret message M to the receivers, he en-codes the information of K and M on a single photon sequence and sends it to one of the receivers. According to the secret shares, the t receivers sequentially per-form the corresponding unitary operations on the single photon sequence and ob-tain the secret message M. The shared shares may be reusable if it can be judged that there is no eavesdropper in line. We discuss that our protocol is feasible with current technology.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-07-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Communication, and Quantum Computer in a Noisy Environment
Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao
2017-07-01
First, we study several information theories based on quantum computing in a desirable noiseless situation. (1) We present quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using an entangled state. (2) We discuss the fact that the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm can be used for quantum communication including an error correction. Finally, we discuss the main result. We study the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm in a noisy environment. The original algorithm determines a noiseless function. Here we consider the case that the function has an environmental noise. We introduce a noise term into the function f( x). So we have another noisy function g( x). The relation between them is g( x) = f( x) ± O( 𝜖). Here O( 𝜖) ≪ 1 is the noise term. The goal is to determine the noisy function g( x) with a success probability. The algorithm overcomes classical counterpart by a factor of N in a noisy environment.
Coulomb crystallization in classical and quantum systems
Bonitz, Michael
2007-11-01
Coulomb crystallization occurs in one-component plasmas when the average interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy by about two orders of magnitude. A simple road to reach such strong coupling consists in using external confinement potentials the strength of which controls the density. This has been succsessfully realized with ions in traps and storage rings and also in dusty plasma. Recently a three-dimensional spherical confinement could be created [1] which allows to produce spherical dust crystals containing concentric shells. I will give an overview on our recent results for these ``Yukawa balls'' and compare them to experiments. The shell structure of these systems can be very well explained by using an isotropic statically screened pair interaction. Further, the thermodynamic properties of these systems, such as the radial density distribution are discussed based on an analytical theory [3]. I then will discuss Coulomb crystallization in trapped quantum systems, such as mesoscopic electron and electron hole plasmas in coupled layers [4,5]. These systems show a very rich correlation behavior, including liquid and solid like states and bound states (excitons, biexcitons) and their crystals. On the other hand, also collective quantum and spin effects are observed, including Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of bound electron-hole pairs [4]. Finally, I consider Coulomb crystallization in two-component neutral plasmas in three dimensions. I discuss the necessary conditions for crystals of heavy charges to exist in the presence of a light component which typically is in the Fermi gas or liquid state. It can be shown that their exists a critical ratio of the masses of the species of the order of 80 [5] which is confirmed by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations [6]. Familiar examples are crystals of nuclei in the core of White dwarf stars, but the results also suggest the existence of other crystals, including proton or α-particle crystals in dense matter
Dephasing of a qubit due to quantum and classical noise
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ebad Kamil; Sushanta Dattagupta
2012-09-01
The qubit (or a system of two quantum dots) has become a standard paradigm for studying quantum information processes. Our focus is decoherence due to interaction of the qubit with its environment, leading to noise. We consider quantum noise generated by a dissipative quantum bath. A detailed comparative study with the results for a classical noise source such as generated by a telegraph process, enebles us to set limits on the pplicability of this process $ is à is$ its quantum counterpart, as well as lend handle on the parameters that can be tuned for analysing decoherence. Both Ohmic and non-Ohmic dissipations are treated and appropriate limits are analysed for facilitating comparison with the telegraph process.
Classical and quantum temperature fluctuations via holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balatsky, Alexander V. [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Thorlacius, Larus [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Zarembo, Konstantin [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Krikun, Alexander [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kedem, Yaron [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
2014-05-27
We study local temperature fluctuations in a 2+1 dimensional CFT on the sphere, dual to a black hole in asymptotically AdS space-time. The fluctuation spectrum is governed by the lowest-lying hydrodynamic sound modes of the system whose frequency and damping rate determine whether temperature fluctuations are thermal or quantum. We calculate numerically the corresponding quasinormal frequencies and match the result with the hydrodynamics of the dual CFT at large temperature. As a by-product of our analysis we determine the appropriate boundary conditions for calculating low-lying quasinormal modes for a four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in global AdS.
Satellite-Based Quantum Communications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nordholt, Jane E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCabe, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newell, Raymond T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Charles G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-09-20
Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers the attractive feature of 'future proof', forward security rooted in the laws of quantum physics. Ground based quantum key distribution (QKD) experiments in optical fiber have attained transmission ranges in excess of 200km, but for larger distances we proposed a methodology for satellite-based QC. Over the past decade we have devised solutions to the technical challenges to satellite-to-ground QC, and we now have a clear concept for how space-based QC could be performed and potentially utilized within a trusted QKD network architecture. Functioning as a trusted QKD node, a QC satellite ('QC-sat') could deliver secret keys to the key stores of ground-based trusted QKD network nodes, to each of which multiple users are connected by optical fiber or free-space QC. A QC-sat could thereby extend quantum-secured connectivity to geographically disjoint domains, separated by continental or inter-continental distances. In this paper we describe our system concept that makes QC feasible with low-earth orbit (LEO) QC-sats (200-km-2,000-km altitude orbits), and the results of link modeling of expected performance. Using the architecture that we have developed, LEO satellite-to-ground QKD will be feasible with secret bit yields of several hundred 256-bit AES keys per contact. With multiple ground sites separated by {approx} 100km, mitigation of cloudiness over any single ground site would be possible, potentially allowing multiple contact opportunities each day. The essential next step is an experimental QC-sat. A number of LEO-platforms would be suitable, ranging from a dedicated, three-axis stabilized small satellite, to a secondary experiment on an imaging satellite. to the ISS. With one or more QC-sats, low-latency quantum-secured communications could then be provided to ground-based users on a global scale. Air-to-ground QC would also be possible.
Long distance quantum communication using quantum error correction
Gingrich, R. M.; Lee, H.; Dowling, J. P.
2004-01-01
We describe a quantum error correction scheme that can increase the effective absorption length of the communication channel. This device can play the role of a quantum transponder when placed in series, or a cyclic quantum memory when inserted in an optical loop.
Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics
Dutt, Amit
2011-01-01
This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…
On the classical capacity of quantum Gaussian channels
Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Aniello, Paolo; Mancini, Stefano
2011-02-01
The set of quantum Gaussian channels acting on one bosonic mode can be classified according to the action of the group of Gaussian unitaries. We look for bounds on the classical capacity for channels belonging to such a classification. Lower bounds can be efficiently calculated by restricting the study to Gaussian encodings, for which we provide analytical expressions.
On the classical capacity of quantum Gaussian channels
Lupo, Cosmo; Aniello, Paolo; Mancini, Stefano
2010-01-01
The set of quantum Gaussian channels acting on one bosonic mode can be classified according to the action of the group of Gaussian unitaries. We look for bounds on the classical capacity for channels belonging to such a classification. Lower bounds can be efficiently calculated by restricting to Gaussian encodings, for which we provide analytical expressions.
On the classical capacity of quantum Gaussian channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Pirandola, Stefano [Department of Computer Science, University of York, York YO10 5GH (United Kingdom); Aniello, Paolo, E-mail: cosmo.lupo@unicam.it, E-mail: pirs@cs.york.ac.uk, E-mail: paolo.aniello@na.infn.it, E-mail: stefano.mancini@unicam.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)
2011-02-15
The set of quantum Gaussian channels acting on one bosonic mode can be classified according to the action of the group of Gaussian unitaries. We look for bounds on the classical capacity for channels belonging to such a classification. Lower bounds can be efficiently calculated by restricting the study to Gaussian encodings, for which we provide analytical expressions.
Classical and quantum time dependent solutions in string theory
Mart'inez-Prieto, C; Socorro, J
2004-01-01
Using the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in a particular sense, we obtain the classical behaviour of the scale factor and two scalar fields, derived from a string effective action for the FRW time dependent model. Besides, the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is solved exactly. We speculate that the same procedure could also be applied to S-branes.
Classical and Quantum Theory of Perturbations in Inflationary Universe Models
Brandenberger, R H; Mukhanov, V
1993-01-01
A brief introduction to the gauge invariant classical and quantum theory of cosmological perturbations is given. The formalism is applied to inflationary Universe models and yields a consistent and unified description of the generation and evolution of fluctuations. A general formula for the amplitude of cosmological perturbations in inflationary cosmology is derived.
Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics
Dutt, Amit
2011-01-01
This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND EMERGENCE PARAMETER OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available It was established that the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Bose-Einstein and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be described by a single equation, which follows from Einstein's equations for systems with central symmetry. Emergence parameter of classical and quantum systems composed by the rays of gravitational waves interacting with gravitational field of the universe has been computed
A Top-down View of the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics
Fortin, Sebastian; Lombardi, Olimpia
The problem of the classical limit of quantum mechanics consists in explaining how the classical realm "emerges" from the quantum domain. Although along the history of quantum mechanics the problem has been addressed from many different perspectives, at present it is recognized that the classical limit also involves some kind of physical process, which transforms quantum states in such a way that they finally can be interpreted as classical states. This process is known as quantum decoherence.
Yamakami, T
2006-01-01
Our task of quantum list decoding for a classical block code is to recover from a given quantumly corrupted codeword a short list containing all messages whose codewords have high "presence" in this quantumly corrupted codeword. All known families of efficiently quantum list decodable codes, nonetheless, have exponentially-small message rate. We show that certain generalized Reed-Solomon codes concatenated with Hadamard codes of polynomially-small rate and constant codeword alphabet size have efficient quantum list decoding algorithms, provided that target codewords should have relatively high presence in a given quantumly corrupted codeword.
Reproducing entanglement through local classical resources with no communication
Di Lorenzo, Antonio
2011-01-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It gives rise to peculiar correlations which cannot be reproduced by a large class of alternative theories, the so-called hidden-variable models, that use parameters in addition to the wave-function. This incompatibility was quantified through the celebrated Bell inequalities, and more recently through new inequalities due to Leggett. Experiments confirm the predictions of quantum mechanics. However, this does not imply that quantum mechanics is the ultimate theory, unsusceptible of improvement, nor that quantum mechanics is essentially non-local. The theories ruled out by Bell and Leggett inequalities are required to satisfy some hypotheses, none of which is implied by locality alone. By dropping one or more hypotheses, it is possible not only to violate said inequalities, but to reproduce the quantum mechanical predictions altogether. So far, the models proposed were only mathematical constructs. In this paper we provide a classical r...
ON CLASSICAL BCH CODES AND QUANTUM BCH CODES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Yajie; Ma Zhi; Zhang Chunyuan
2009-01-01
It is a regular way of constructing quantum error-correcting codes via codes with self-orthogonal property, and whether a classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code is self-orthogonal can be determined by its designed distance. In this paper, we give the sufficient and necessary condition for arbitrary classical BCH codes with self-orthogonal property through algorithms. We also give a better upper bound of the designed distance of a classical narrow-sense BCH code which contains its Euclidean dual. Besides these, we also give one algorithm to compute the dimension of these codes. The complexity of all algorithms is analyzed. Then the results can be applied to construct a series of quantum BCH codes via the famous CSS constructions.
Semiclassics of the Chaotic Quantum-Classical Transition
Greenbaum, B D; Shizume, K; Sundaram, B; Greenbaum, Benjamin D.; Habib, Salman; Shizume, Kosuke; Sundaram, Bala
2006-01-01
We elucidate the basic physical mechanisms responsible for the quantum-classical transition in one-dimensional, bounded chaotic systems subject to unconditioned environmental interactions. We show that such a transition occurs due to the dual role of noise in regularizing the semiclassical Wigner function and averaging over fine structures in classical phase space. The results are interpreted in the novel context of applying recent advances in the theory of measurement and open systems to the semiclassical quantum regime. We use these methods to show how a local semiclassical picture is stabilized and can then be approximated by a classical distribution at arbitrary times. The general results are demonstrated explicitly via numerical simulations of the chaotic Duffing oscillator.
Quantum theory is classical mechanics with non-local existence
Hegseth, John
2009-01-01
I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where I derive the quantum mechanical propagator from a variational principle. This variational principle is Hamilton's modified principle generalized to allow many paths due to the non-local existence of particles in phase space. This principle allows a physical system to evolve non-locally in phase space while still allowing a representation that uses many classical paths. Whereas a point in phase space represents a classical system's state, I represent the state of a non-local system by a mixed trajectory. This formulation naturally leads to the transactional interpretation for resolving the paradoxes of the measurement problem. This principle also suggests a more flexible framework for formulating theories based on invariant actions and provides a single conceptual framework for discussing many areas of science.
Experimental non-classicality of an indivisible quantum system
Lapkiewicz, Radek; Schaeff, Christoph; Langford, Nathan K; Ramelow, Sven; Wiesniak, Marcin; Zeilinger, Anton; 10.1038/nature10119
2011-01-01
Quantum theory demands that, in contrast to classical physics, not all properties can be simultaneously well defined. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is a manifestation of this fact. Another important corollary arises that there can be no joint probability distribution describing the outcomes of all possible measurements, allowing a quantum system to be classically understood. We provide the first experimental evidence that even for a single three-state system, a qutrit, no such classical model can exist that correctly describes the results of a simple set of pairwise compatible measurements. Not only is a single qutrit the simplest system in which such a contradiction is possible, but, even more importantly, the contradiction cannot result from entanglement, because such a system is indivisible, and it does not even allow the concept of entanglement between subsystems.
Lectures on Classical and Quantum Theory of Fields
Arodź, Henryk
2010-01-01
This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course.
Lectures on classical and quantum theory of fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. Physics
2010-07-01
This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course. (orig.)
Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S M Roy
2002-08-01
Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative deﬁnition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.
Modified Semi-Classical Methods for Nonlinear Quantum Oscillations Problems
Moncrief, Vincent; Maitra, Rachel
2012-01-01
We develop a modified semi-classical approach to the approximate solution of Schrodinger's equation for certain nonlinear quantum oscillations problems. At lowest order, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the conventional semi-classical formalism is replaced by an inverted-potential-vanishing-energy variant thereof. Under smoothness, convexity and coercivity hypotheses on its potential energy function, we prove, using the calculus of variations together with the Banach space implicit function theorem, the existence of a global, smooth `fundamental solution'. Higher order quantum corrections, for ground and excited states, are computed through the integration of associated systems of linear transport equations, and formal expansions for the corresponding energy eigenvalues obtained by imposing smoothness on the quantum corrections to the eigenfunctions. For linear oscillators our expansions naturally truncate, reproducing the well-known solutions for the energy eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. As an application, w...
Classical-Quantum Correspondence and Functional Relations for Painleve Equations
Zabrodin, A
2012-01-01
In the light of the Quantum Painleve-Calogero Correspondence established in our previous papers [1,2], we investigate the inverse problem. We imply that this type of the correspondence (Classical-Quantum Correspondence) holds true and find out what kind of potentials arise from the compatibility conditions of the related linear problems. The latter conditions are written as functional equations for the potentials depending on a choice of a single function - the left-upper element of the Lax connection. The conditions of the Correspondence impose restrictions on this function. In particular, it satisfies the heat equation. It is shown that all natural choices of this function (rational, hyperbolic and elliptic) reproduce exactly the Painleve list of equations. In this sense the Classical-Quantum Correspondence can be regarded as an alternative definition of the Painleve equations.
The Classical and Quantum Mechanics of lazy baker Maps
Lakshminarayan, A
1993-01-01
We introduce and study the classical and quantum mechanics of certain non hyperbolic maps on the unit square. These maps are modifications of the usual baker's map and their behaviour ranges from chaotic motion on the whole measure to chaos on a set of measure zero. Thus we have called these maps ``lazy baker maps.'' The aim of introducing these maps is to provide the simplest models of systems with a mixed phase space, in which there are both regular and chaotic motions. We find that despite the obviously contrived nature of these maps they provide a good model for the study of the quantum mechanics of such systems. We notice the effect of a classically chaotic fractal set of measure zero on the corresponding quantum maps, which leads to a transition in the spectral statistics. Some periodic orbits belonging to this fractal set are seen to scar several eigenfunctions.
Connection Between Quantum-Classical Correspondence and Long-Range Correlations in Quantum Spectra
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xi-Guo; SONG Jian-Jun
2004-01-01
@@ Based on the Berry-Tabor trace formula, a semiclassical quantization condition for the periodic orbits in a two dimensional uncoupled oscillator system and the correspondence relation between the quantum levels and classical trajectories of the system have been studied in detail. Making use of the quantum-classical correspondence relation, it has been found that if a set of quantum levels corresponds to the periodic orbits with the same topology structure M ( M1, M2 ), there will be long-range correlations among these quantum levels.
Geometry and symmetry of quantum and classical-quantum variational principles
Luz, Esther Bonet
2015-01-01
This paper presents the geometric setting of quantum variational principles and extends it to comprise the interaction between classical and quantum degrees of freedom. Euler-Poincar\\'e reduction theory is applied to the Schr\\"odinger, Heisenberg and Wigner-Moyal dynamics of pure states. This construction leads to new variational principles for the description of mixed quantum states. The corresponding momentum map properties are presented as they arise from the underlying unitary symmetries. Finally, certain semidirect-product group structures are shown to produce new variational principles for Dirac's interaction picture and the equations of hybrid classical-quantum dynamics.
Communication theory of quantum systems. Ph.D. Thesis, 1970
Yuen, H. P. H.
1971-01-01
Communication theory problems incorporating quantum effects for optical-frequency applications are discussed. Under suitable conditions, a unique quantum channel model corresponding to a given classical space-time varying linear random channel is established. A procedure is described by which a proper density-operator representation applicable to any receiver configuration can be constructed directly from the channel output field. Some examples illustrating the application of our methods to the development of optical quantum channel representations are given. Optimizations of communication system performance under different criteria are considered. In particular, certain necessary and sufficient conditions on the optimal detector in M-ary quantum signal detection are derived. Some examples are presented. Parameter estimation and channel capacity are discussed briefly.
Efficient Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Wen-Jie; CHEN Han-Wu; LI Zhi-Qiang; LIU Zhi-Hao
2008-01-01
Two protocols of quantum direct communication with authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] were recently indicated to be insecure against the authenticator Trent attacks [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 026301]. We present two efficient protocols by using four Pauli operations, which are secure against inner Trent attacks as well as outer Eve attacks. Finally, we generalize them to multiparty quantum direction communication.
Advance Achieved for Global Secure Quantum Communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
@@ In today's Information Age, the protection of information is of .critical importance for national security, business firms, and private individuals. The common long-distance communication technology is poor in keeping privacy as it is vulnerable to eavesdropping. Quantum cryptography, a new approach to communication based on certain phenomena of quantum physics, is considered the absolute secure method in this regard.
Ultrafast Long-Distance Quantum Communication with Static Linear Optics
Ewert, Fabian; Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter
2016-11-01
We propose a projection measurement onto encoded Bell states with a static network of linear optical elements. By increasing the size of the quantum error correction code, both Bell measurement efficiency and photon-loss tolerance can be made arbitrarily high at the same time. As a main application, we show that all-optical quantum communication over large distances with communication rates similar to those of classical communication is possible solely based on local state teleportations using optical sources of encoded Bell states, fixed arrays of beam splitters, and photon detectors. As another application, generalizing state teleportation to gate teleportation for quantum computation, we find that in order to achieve universality the intrinsic loss tolerance must be sacrificed and a minimal amount of feedforward has to be added.
Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication.
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D; Jiang, Liang
2016-02-15
Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥ 1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.
Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Jiang, Liang
2016-02-01
Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.
Quantum Mind from a Classical Field Theory of the Brain
Zizzi, Paola
2011-01-01
We suggest that, with regard to a theory of quantum mind, brain processes can be described by a classical, dissipative, non-abelian gauge theory. In fact, such a theory has a hidden quantum nature due to its non-abelian character, which is revealed through dissipation, when the theory reduces to a quantum vacuum, where temperatures are of the order of absolute zero, and coherence of quantum states is preserved. We consider in particular the case of pure SU(2) gauge theory with a special anzatz for the gauge field, which breaks Lorentz invariance. In the ansatz, a contraction mapping plays the role of dissipation. In the limit of maximal dissipation, which corresponds to the attractive fixed point of the contraction mapping, the gauge fields reduce, up to constant factors, to the Pauli quantum gates for one-qubit states. Then tubuline-qubits can be processed in the quantum vacuum of the classical field theory of the brain, where decoherence is avoided due to the extremely low temperature. Finally, we interpret...
Role of quantum discord in quantum communication
Madhok, Vaibhav
2011-01-01
Positivity of quantum discord is shown to be equivalent to the strong sub additivity of the Von-Nuemann entropy. This leads to a connection between the mother protocol of quantum information theory [A. Abeyesinghe, I. Devetak, P. Hayden, and A. Winter, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 2537, (2009)] and quantum discord. We exploit this to show that quantum discord is a measure coherence in the performance of the mother protocol. Since the mother protocol is a unification of an important class of problems (those that are bipartite, unidirectional and memoryless), we show quantum discord to be a measure of coherence in these protocols. Our work generalizes an earlier operational interpretation of quantum discord provided in terms of quantum state merging [V. Madhok and A. Datta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 032323, (2011)].
Recent progress of quantum communication in China (Conference Presentation)
Zhang, Qiang
2016-04-01
Quantum communication, based on the quantum physics, can provide information theoretical security. Building a global quantum network is one ultimate goal for the research of quantum information. Here, this talk will review the progress for quantum communication in China, including quantum key distribution over metropolitan area with untrustful relay, field test of quantum entanglement swapping over metropolitan network, the 2000 km quantum key distribution main trunk line, and satellite based quantum communication.
A classical to quantum optical network link for orbital angular momentum carrying light
Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-01-01
Light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has great potentials in both classical and quantum optical communications such as enhancing the transmission capacity of a single communication channel because of its unlimited dimensions. Based on OAM conservation in second order nonlinear interaction processes, we create a classical to quantum optical network link in OAM degree of freedoms of light via sum frequency generation (SFG) following by a spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). A coherent OAM-carrying beams at telecom wavelength 1550nm is up-converted to 525.5nm OAM-carrying beams in the first crystal, then up-converted OAM-carrying beam is used to pump a second crystal to generate non-degenerate OAM entangled photon pairs at 795nm and 1550nm. By switching the OAM carries by the classical party, the OAM correlation in the quantum party is shifted. High OAM entanglements in two dimensional subspaces are verified. This primary study enables to build a hybrid optical communication network contains both ...
Khrennikov, Andrei
2017-02-01
The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schrödinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be unaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity-the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT ↦ QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and the superposition principle-by using the formalism of classical field correlations.
Spectral Approach to Chaos and Quantum-Classical Correspondence in Quantum Mapas
García-Mata, I; Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Saraceno, Marcos
2005-01-01
Correspondence in quantum chaotic systems is lost in short time scales. Introducing some noise we study the spectrum of the resulting coarse grained propagaor of density matrices. Some differen methods to compute the spectrum are reviewed. Moreover, the relationship between the eigenvalues of the coarse-grained superoperator and the classical Ruelle-Pollicott resonances is remarked. As a concequence, classical decay rates in quantum time dependent quantities appear.
Information flow during the quantum-classical transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIC) (Argentina); Martin, M.T., E-mail: mtmartin@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Zunino, L., E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (IFISC) CSIC-UIB, Campus Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)] [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata - CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina)] [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2010-04-12
We have exhaustively investigated the classical limit of the semi-classical evolution with reference to a well-known model that represents the interaction between matter and a given field. In this Letter we approach this issue by recourse to a new statistical quantifier called the 'symbolic transfer entropy' [T. Schreiber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 461; M. Staniek, K. Lehnertz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 158101]. We encounter that the quantum-classical transition gets thereby described as the sign reversal of the dominating direction of the information flow between classical and quantal variables. This can be considered as an evidence of the physical useful of this new statistical quantifier.
Foundations of quantum theory from classical concepts to operator algebras
Landsman, Klaas
2017-01-01
This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*-algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the Kochen-Specker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the Kadison-Singer conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory. This book is Open Access under a CC BY licence.
Emergence Of A Classical World From Within Quantum Theory
Poulin, D
2005-01-01
The starting point of this dissertation is that a quantum state represents the observer's knowledge about the system of interest. As it has been pointed out several times by the opponents of this epistemic interpretation, it is difficult to reconcile this point of view with our common notion of “physical reality”, which exists independently of our monitoring, and can be discovered without disturbance. Indeed, if quantum theory is correct, it should apply to classical systems—including measurement devices—as well as to any other system. In this dissertation, we will study the quantum mechanisms responsible for our perception of the world and demonstrate how they lead to the emergence of an operational objective reality from within quantum theory: several observers gathering information through these mechanisms will arrive at a common consensus about the properties of the world. The two mechanisms we study in great detail are the redundant proliferation of information in ...
Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies perception of a classical world
Blood, Casey
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics, although highly successful, has two peculiarities. First, in many situations it gives more than one potential version of reality. And second, the wave function for a macroscopic object such as a baseball can be spread out over a macroscopic distance. In the first, quantum mechanics seems to imply that the observer will perceive more than one version of reality and in the second it seems to imply we should see spread-out, blurred objects instead of sharply delineated baseballs. But neither implication is true. Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies more than one version of reality will never be reportably perceived, and it implies the perceived position of a baseball will always be sharply defined. Further, two observers will never disagree on what they perceive. Thus quantum mechanics, by itself, with no assumption of particles or collapse, always leads to the perception of a classical-appearing universe.
A quantum algorithm for Viterbi decoding of classical convolutional codes
Grice, Jon R.; Meyer, David A.
2015-07-01
We present a quantum Viterbi algorithm (QVA) with better than classical performance under certain conditions. In this paper, the proposed algorithm is applied to decoding classical convolutional codes, for instance, large constraint length and short decode frames . Other applications of the classical Viterbi algorithm where is large (e.g., speech processing) could experience significant speedup with the QVA. The QVA exploits the fact that the decoding trellis is similar to the butterfly diagram of the fast Fourier transform, with its corresponding fast quantum algorithm. The tensor-product structure of the butterfly diagram corresponds to a quantum superposition that we show can be efficiently prepared. The quantum speedup is possible because the performance of the QVA depends on the fanout (number of possible transitions from any given state in the hidden Markov model) which is in general much less than . The QVA constructs a superposition of states which correspond to all legal paths through the decoding lattice, with phase as a function of the probability of the path being taken given received data. A specialized amplitude amplification procedure is applied one or more times to recover a superposition where the most probable path has a high probability of being measured.
Secure communication via quantum illumination
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Zhang, Zheshen; Wong, Franco N. C.
2014-10-01
In the quantum illumination protocol for secure communication, Alice prepares entangled signal and idler beams via spontaneous parametric downconversion. She sends the signal beam to Bob, while retaining the idler. Bob imposes message modulation on the beam he receives from Alice, amplifies it, and sends it back to her. Alice then decodes Bob's information by making a joint quantum measurement on the light she has retained and the light she has received from him. The basic performance analysis for this protocol—which demonstrates its immunity to passive eavesdropping, in which Eve can only listen to Alice and Bob's transmissions—is reviewed, along with the results of its first proof-of-principle experiment. Further analysis is then presented, showing that secure data rates in excess of 1 Gbps may be possible over 20-km-long fiber links with technology that is available or under development. Finally, an initial scheme for thwarting active eavesdropping, in which Eve injects her own light into Bob's terminal, is proposed and analyzed.
Classical simulation of quantum many-body systems
Huang, Yichen
Classical simulation of quantum many-body systems is in general a challenging problem for the simple reason that the dimension of the Hilbert space grows exponentially with the system size. In particular, merely encoding a generic quantum many-body state requires an exponential number of bits. However, condensed matter physicists are mostly interested in local Hamiltonians and especially their ground states, which are highly non-generic. Thus, we might hope that at least some physical systems allow efficient classical simulation. Starting with one-dimensional (1D) quantum systems (i.e., the simplest nontrivial case), the first basic question is: Which classes of states have efficient classical representations? It turns out that this question is quantitatively related to the amount of entanglement in the state, for states with "little entanglement'' are well approximated by matrix product states (a data structure that can be manipulated efficiently on a classical computer). At a technical level, the mathematical notion for "little entanglement'' is area law, which has been proved for unique ground states in 1D gapped systems. We establish an area law for constant-fold degenerate ground states in 1D gapped systems and thus explain the effectiveness of matrix-product-state methods in (e.g.) symmetry breaking phases. This result might not be intuitively trivial as degenerate ground states in gapped systems can be long-range correlated. Suppose an efficient classical representation exists. How can one find it efficiently? The density matrix renormalization group is the leading numerical method for computing ground states in 1D quantum systems. However, it is a heuristic algorithm and the possibility that it may fail in some cases cannot be completely ruled out. Recently, a provably efficient variant of the density matrix renormalization group has been developed for frustration-free 1D gapped systems. We generalize this algorithm to all (i.e., possibly frustrated) 1D
Quantum communications: Teleportation becomes streetwise
Grosshans, Frédéric
2016-10-01
Quantum teleportation is at the heart of many quantum information protocols. Two teams have now performed it over several kilometres of metropolitan fibre networks, paving the way for future quantum technologies on the city scale.
Quantum communications and quantum metrology in the spacetime of a rotating planet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohlrus, Jan; Louko, Jorma [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bruschi, David Edward [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Racah Institute of Physics and Quantum Information Science Centre, Jerusalem (Israel); University of York, York Centre for Quantum Technologies, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom); Fuentes, Ivette [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Wien (Austria)
2017-12-15
We study how quantum systems that propagate in the spacetime of a rotating planet are affected by the curved background. Spacetime curvature affects wavepackets of photons propagating from Earth to a satellite, and the changes in the wavepacket encode the parameters of the spacetime. This allows us to evaluate quantitatively how quantum communications are affected by the curved spacetime background of the Earth and to achieve precise measurements of Earth's Schwarzschild radius and equatorial angular velocity. We then provide a comparison with the state of the art in parameter estimation obtained through classical means. Satellite to satellite communications and future directions are also discussed. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAIHong-Yi; KUANGLe-Man; LICheng-Zu
2005-01-01
We propose a scheme to probabilistically teleport an unknown arbitrary three-level two-particle state by using two partial entangled two-particle states of three-level as the quantum channel. The classical communication cost required in the ideal probabilistic teleportation process is also calculated. This scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown and arbitrary three-level K-particle state by using K partial entangled two-particle states of three-level as the quantum channel.
Classical and quantum mechanics of diatomic molecules in tilted fields.
Arango, Carlos A; Kennerly, William W; Ezra, Gregory S
2005-05-08
We investigate the classical and quantum mechanics of diatomic molecules in noncollinear (tilted) static electric and nonresonant linearly polarized laser fields. The classical diatomic in tilted fields is a nonintegrable system, and we study the phase space structure for physically relevant parameter regimes for the molecule KCl. While exhibiting low-energy (pendular) and high-energy (free-rotor) integrable limits, the rotor in tilted fields shows chaotic dynamics at intermediate energies, and the degree of classical chaos can be tuned by changing the tilt angle. We examine the quantum mechanics of rotors in tilted fields. Energy-level correlation diagrams are computed, and the presence of avoided crossings quantified by the study of nearest-neighbor spacing distributions as a function of energy and tilting angle. Finally, we examine the influence of classical periodic orbits on rotor wave functions. Many wave functions in the tilted field case are found to be highly nonseparable in spherical polar coordinates. Localization of wave functions in the vicinity of classical periodic orbits, both stable and unstable, is observed for many states.
Measurable signatures of quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime
Helou, Bassam; Luo, Jun; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Shao, Cheng-gang; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; McClelland, David E.; Chen, Yanbei
2017-08-01
We propose an optomechanics experiment that can search for signatures of a fundamentally classical theory of gravity and in particular of the many-body Schrödinger-Newton (SN) equation, which governs the evolution of a crystal under a self-gravitational field. The SN equation predicts that the dynamics of a macroscopic mechanical oscillator's center-of-mass wave function differ from the predictions of standard quantum mechanics [H. Yang, H. Miao, D.-S. Lee, B. Helou, and Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170401 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170401]. This difference is largest for low-frequency oscillators, and for materials, such as tungsten or osmium, with small quantum fluctuations of the constituent atoms around their lattice equilibrium sites. Light probes the motion of these oscillators and is eventually measured in order to extract valuable information on the pendulum's dynamics. Due to the nonlinearity contained in the SN equation, we analyze the fluctuations of measurement results differently than standard quantum mechanics. We revisit how to model a thermal bath, and the wave-function collapse postulate, resulting in two prescriptions for analyzing the quantum measurement of the light. We demonstrate that both predict features, in the outgoing light's phase fluctuations' spectrum, which are separate from classical thermal fluctuations and quantum shot noise, and which can be clearly resolved with state of the art technology.
Evading Quantum Mechanics: Engineering a Classical Subsystem within a Quantum Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mankei Tsang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Quantum mechanics is potentially advantageous for certain information-processing tasks, but its probabilistic nature and requirement of measurement backaction often limit the precision of conventional classical information-processing devices, such as sensors and atomic clocks. Here we show that, by engineering the dynamics of coupled quantum systems, it is possible to construct a subsystem that evades the measurement backaction of quantum mechanics, at all times of interest, and obeys any classical dynamics, linear or nonlinear, that we choose. We call such a system a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem (QMFS. All of the observables of a QMFS are quantum-nondemolition (QND observables; moreover, they are dynamical QND observables, thus demolishing the widely held belief that QND observables are constants of motion. QMFSs point to a new strategy for designing classical information-processing devices in regimes where quantum noise is detrimental, unifying previous approaches that employ QND observables, backaction evasion, and quantum noise cancellation. Potential applications include gravitational-wave detection, optomechanical-force sensing, atomic magnetometry, and classical computing. Demonstrations of dynamical QMFSs include the generation of broadband squeezed light for use in interferometric gravitational-wave detection, experiments using entangled atomic-spin ensembles, and implementations of the quantum Toffoli gate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Fu-Guo; LONG Gui-Lu; WANG Yan; XIAO Li
2004-01-01
@@ The security of quantum communications lies in the capability of the legitimate parties to detect eavesdropping.Here we propose to use delayed measurement to increase the efficiency of protocols of quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing that uses a random choice of measuring-basis. In addition to a higher efficiency,these measures also bring the benefit of much reduced amount of classical communications.
Statistical origin of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, S. (Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States))
1993-11-01
The classical action for interacting strings, obtained by generalizing the time-symmetric electrodynamics of Wheeler and Feynman, is exactly additive. The additivity of the string action suggests a connection between the area of the string world sheets and entropy. We find that the action principle of classical mechanics is the condition that the total entropy of the strings be at an extremum, and the path-integral representation of the quantum density matrix element is an approximation to the partition function of the string theory.
Lectures on classical and quantum theory of fields
Arodz, Henryk
2017-01-01
This textbook addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course.
Classical and Quantum Chaos in the Diamond Shaped Billiard
Salazar, R; Jaramillo, D; González, D L
2012-01-01
We analyse the classical and quantum behaviour of a particle trapped in a diamond shaped billiard. We defined this billiard as a half stadium connected with a triangular billiard. A parameter $\\xi$ which gradually change the shape of the billiard from a regular equilateral triangle ($\\xi=1$) to a diamond ($\\xi=0$) was used to control the transition between the regular and chaotic regimes. The classical behaviour is regular when the control parameter $\\xi$ is one; in contrast, the system is chaotic when $\\xi \
A decoupling approach to classical data transmission over quantum channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Szehr, Oleg; Tomamichel, Marco
2014-01-01
Most coding theorems in quantum Shannon theory can be proven using the decoupling technique. To send data through a channel, one guarantees that the environment gets no information about it. Uhlmann's theorem then ensures that the receiver must be able to decode. While a wide range of problems can...... be solved this way, one of the most basic coding problems remains impervious to a direct application of this method, sending classical information through a quantum channel. We will show that this problem can, in fact, be solved using decoupling ideas, specifically by proving a dequantizing theorem, which...
Classical and Quantum features of the spin-curvature coupling
Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni
2007-04-01
We analyze the behavior of a spinning particle in gravity, both from a quantum and a classical perspective point of view. We infer that, since the interaction between the space-time curvature and a spinning test particle is expected, then the main features of such an interaction can get light on which degrees of freedom have physical meaning in a quantum gravity theory with fermions. Finally, the dimensional reduction of Papapetrou equations is performed in a 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein background and Dixon-Souriau results for the motion of a charged spinning body are obtained.
How larger quantum correlations are than classical ones
Cabello, A
2004-01-01
The volume of the set of physically obtainable correlations in the EPR-Bell scenario assumed to be those obtainable within quantum mechanics, is (3 pi/8)^2 = 1.388 larger than the volume of the set of correlations obtainable by classical deterministic theories, but is only 3 pi^2/32 = 0.925 of the volume allowed by general probabilistic theories. We use these results to quantify the success of the approximate characterizations of the set of quantum correlations using linear (Tsirelson's) and quadratic (Uffink's) inequalities.
Nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ra, Young-Sik; Tichy, Malte; Lim, Hyang-Tag
2013-01-01
Quantum-mechanical wave–particle duality implies that probability distributions for granular detection events exhibit wave-like interference. On the single-particle level, this leads to self-interference—e.g., on transit across a double slit—for photons as well as for large, massive particles...... that interference fades away monotonically with increasing distinguishability—in accord with available experimental evidence on the single- and on the many-particle level. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that such monotonicity of the quantum-to-classical transition is the exception rather than...
Long-distance quantum communication. Decoherence-avoiding mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolb Bernardes, Nadja
2012-12-17
Entanglement is the essence of most quantum information processes. For instance, it is used as a resource for quantum teleportation or perfectly secure classical communication. Unfortunately, inevitable noise in the quantum channel will typically affect the distribution of entanglement. Owing to fundamental principles, common procedures used in classical communication, such as amplification, cannot be applied. Therefore, the fidelity and rate of transmission will be limited by the length of the channel. Quantum repeaters were proposed to avoid the exponential decay with the distance and to permit long-distance quantum communication. Long-distance quantum communication constitutes the framework for the results presented in this thesis. The main question addressed in this thesis is how the performance of quantum repeaters are affected by various sources of decoherence. Moreover, what can be done against decoherence to improve the performance of the repeater. We are especially interested in the so-called hybrid quantum repeater; however, many of the results presented here are sufficiently general and may be applied to other systems as well. First, we present a detailed entanglement generation rate analysis for the quantum repeater. In contrast to what is commonly found in the literature, our analysis is general and analytical. Moreover, various sources of errors are considered, such as imperfect local two-qubit operations and imperfect memories, making it possible to determine the requirements for memory decoherence times. More specifically, we apply our formulae in the context of a hybrid quantum repeater and we show that in a possible experimental scenario, our hybrid system can create near-maximally entangled pairs over a distance of 1280 km at rates of the order of 100 Hz. Furthermore, aiming to protect the system against different types of errors, we analyze the hybrid quantum repeater when supplemented by quantum error correction. We propose a scheme for
Integrated Quantum and Classical Key Scheme for Two Servers Password Authentication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Krishnan
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Traditional user authentication system uses passwords for their secured accessibility in a central server, which is prone to attack by adversaries. The adversaries gain access to the contents of the user in attack prone servers. To overcome this problem, the multi-server systems were being proposed in which the user communicate in parallel with several or all of the servers for the purpose of authentication. Such system requires a large communication bandwidth and needs for synchronization at the user. Approach: Present an efficient two server user password authentication and reduce the usage of communication traffic and bandwidth consumption between the servers. Integration of quantum and classical key exchange model is deployed to safeguard user access security in large networks. The proposed work presented, a two server system, front end service server interacts directly to the user and the back end control server visible to the service server. The performance measure of the user password made for the transformed two long secrets held by both service and control server. Further the proposal applied quantum key distribution model along with classical key exchange in the two server authentication. Three-party Quantum key distribution used in this model, one with implicit user authentication and other with explicit mutual authentication, deployed for ecommerce buyer authentication in internet peer servers. Results: Effect of online and offline dictionary attacks prevailing in the single and multi-server systems are analyzed. The performance efficiency test carried out in terms success rate of authenticity for two server shows 35% better than single server. The performance of integrated Quantum Key Distribution (QKD systems and classical public key model have shown experimentally better performance in terms of computational efficiency and security rounds (11% improvement than traditional cryptic security
Improving zero-error classical communication with entanglement
Cubitt, Toby S; Matthews, William; Winter, Andreas
2009-01-01
Given one or more uses of a classical channel, only a certain number of messages can be transmitted with zero probability of error. The study of this number and its asymptotic behaviour constitutes the field of classical zero-error information theory, the quantum generalisation of which has started to develop recently. We show that, given a single use of certain classical channels, entangled states of a system shared by the sender and receiver can be used to increase the number of (classical) messages which can be sent with no chance of error. In particular, we show how to construct such a channel based on any proof of the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem. This is a new example of the use of quantum effects to improve the performance of a classical task. We investigate the connection between this phenomenon and that of ``pseudo-telepathy'' games. The use of generalised non-signalling correlations to assist in this task is also considered. In this case, a particularly elegant theory results and, remarkably, it is s...
Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.
Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander
2016-03-23
Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.
Supersymmetric quantum spin chains and classical integrable systems
Tsuboi, Zengo; Zabrodin, Anton; Zotov, Andrei
2015-05-01
For integrable inhomogeneous supersymmetric spin chains (generalized graded magnets) constructed employing Y( gl( N| M))-invariant R-matrices in finite-dimensional representations we introduce the master T-operator which is a sort of generating function for the family of commuting quantum transfer matrices. Any eigenvalue of the master T-operator is the tau-function of the classical mKP hierarchy. It is a polynomial in the spectral parameter which is identified with the 0-th time of the hierarchy. This implies a remarkable relation between the quantum supersymmetric spin chains and classical many-body integrable systems of particles of the Ruijsenaars-Schneider type. As an outcome, we obtain a system of algebraic equations for the spectrum of the spin chain Hamiltonians.
Supersymmetric quantum spin chains and classical integrable systems
Tsuboi, Zengo; Zotov, Andrei
2014-01-01
For integrable inhomogeneous supersymmetric spin chains (generalized graded magnets) constructed employing Y(gl(N|M))-invariant R-matrices in finite-dimensional representations we introduce the master T-operator which is a sort of generating function for the family of commuting quantum transfer matrices. Any eigenvalue of the master T-operator is the tau-function of the classical mKP hierarchy. It is a polynomial in the spectral parameter which is identified with the 0-th time of the hierarchy. This implies a remarkable relation between the quantum supersymmetric spin chains and classical many-body integrable systems of particles of the Ruijsenaars-Schneider type. As an outcome, we obtain a system of algebraic equations for the spectrum of the spin chain Hamiltonians.
Classical and quantum dissipation in non homogeneous environments
Illuminati, F; Sodano, P
1994-01-01
We generalize the oscillator model of a particle interacting with a thermal reservoir by introducing arbitrary nonlinear couplings in the particle coordinates.The equilibrium positions of the heat bath oscillators are promoted to space-time functions, which are shown to represent a modulation of the internal noise by the external forces. The model thus provides a description of classical and quantum dissipation in non homogeneous environments. In the classical case we derive a generalized Langevin equation with nonlinear multiplicative noise and a position-dependent fluctuation- dissipation theorem associated to non homogeneous dissipative forces. When time-modulation of the noise is present, a new force term is predicted besides the dissipative and random ones. The model is quantized to obtain the non homogenous influence functional and master equation for the reduced density matrix of the Brownian particle. The quantum evolution equations reproduce the correct Langevin dynamics in the semiclassical limit. T...
PT Symmetry in Classical and Quantum Statistical Mechanics
Meisinger, Peter N
2012-01-01
PT-symmetric Hamiltonians and transfer matrices arise naturally in statistical mechanics. These classical and quantum models often require the use of complex or negative weights and thus fall outside of the conventional equilibrium statistical mechanics of Hermitian systems. PT-symmetric models form a natural class where the partition function is necessarily real, but not necessarily positive. The correlation functions of these models display a much richer set of behaviors than Hermitian systems, displaying sinusoidally-modulated exponential decay, as in a dense fluid, or even sinusoidal modulation without decay. Classical spin models with PT symmetry include Z(N) models with a complex magnetic field, the chiral Potts model and the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. Quantum many-body problems with a non-zero chemical potential have a natural PT-symmetric representation related to the sign problem. Two-dimensional QCD with heavy quarks at non-zero chemical potential can be solved by diagona...
Noether symmetric classical and quantum scalar field cosmology
Vakili, Babak
2011-01-01
We study the evolution of a two dimensional minisuperspace cosmological model in classical and quantum levels by the Noether symmetry approach. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factor of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model and a scalar field with which the action of the model is augmented. It is shown that the minisuperspace of such a model is a two dimensional manifold with vanishing Ricci scalar. We present a coordinate transformation which cast the corresponding minisuper metric to a Minkowskian or Euclidean one according to the choices of an ordinary or phantom model for the scalar field. Then, the Noether symmetry of such a cosmological model is investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generators of the desired symmetry. We explicitly calculate the form of the scalar field potential functions for which such symmetries exist. For these potential functions, the exact classical and quantum solutions in the cases where th...
Robust quantum spatial coherence near a classical environment
Zhou, Shuyu; Keil, Mark; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron
2015-01-01
In quantum physics spatial coherence allows a massive object to be present in two locations at the same time. Such spatial coherence is easily lost in the presence of a classical environment, making it unobservable in our day-to-day experience. Here we report the persistence of spatial coherence for ultra-cold atoms held only 5$\\,\\mu$m from a room temperature surface, reducing substantially the distance previously achieved between trapped atoms exhibiting spatial coherence and their classical environment. At this distance, the environment would normally destroy spatial coherence over any length greater than a few micrometers, but we nevertheless observe coherence over a length of 30$\\,\\mu$m. We show that no observable dephasing is taking place, even on a time scale on the order of one second. From a technological point of view, this may enable quantum devices based on atomic circuits.
Mao, Ting; Yu, Yang
2010-01-01
We numerically investigated the quantum-classical transition in rf-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems coupled to a dissipative environment. It is found that chaos emerges and the degree of chaos, the maximal Lyapunov exponent lambda(m), exhibits nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the coupling strength D. By measuring the proximity of quantum and classical evolution with the uncertainty of dynamics, we show that the uncertainty is a monotonic function of lambda(m)/D. In addition, the scaling holds in SQUID systems to a relatively smaller variant Planck's over [symbol: see text], suggesting the universality for this scaling.
Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.; Rosen, D.
2002-12-01
A new quantum optics tool for simulating quantum probability density functions resulting from the linear and nonlinear interaction of photons with atoms and with other photons is developed and presented. It can be used to design and simulate quantum optics experiments used in quantum communications, quantum computing, and quantum imaging. Examples of a photon interacting with linears systems of mirrors and beamsplitters are simulated. Nonlinear simulations of the interaction of three photons resulting in photon momentum entanglement is presented. The wavefunction is expanded in Fock states. Fock states cannot be represented by classical modeling and therefore, the results of our modeling can in general represent phenomena in both the linear and nonlinear cases which cannot be modeled by classical linear optics. The modeling presented here is more general than the classical linear optics. Models of atmospheric turbulence and their simulations are presented and demonstrate the potential for first principles physics quantum optics simulations through turbulence in realistic environments.
Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability
2016-06-29
linear models, and (v) physical realizability results for finite level quantum systems. Introduction : Classical linear systems theory has a...PAGE Unclassified REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to...needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this
Authenticated semi-quantum key distributions without classical channel
Li, Chuan-Ming; Yu, Kun-Fei; Kao, Shih-Hung; Hwang, Tzonelih
2016-07-01
Yu et al. have proposed the first authenticated semi-quantum key distribution (ASQKD) without using an authenticated classical channel. This study further proposes two advanced ASQKD protocols. Compared to Yu et al.'s schemes, the proposed protocols ensure better qubit efficiency and require fewer pre-shared keys. Security analyses show that the proposed ASQKD protocols also can be secure against several well-known outside eavesdropper's attacks.
Conservative error measures for classical and quantum metrology
Tsang, Mankei
2016-01-01
The classical and quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bounds have become standard measures of parameter-estimation uncertainty for a variety of sensing and imaging applications in recent years, but their assumption of unbiased estimators potentially undermines their significance as fundamental limits. In this note we advocate a Bayesian approach with Van Trees inequalities and worst-case priors to overcome the problem. Applications to superlocalization and gravitational-wave parameter estimation are discussed.
Scalar Field Dynamics Classical, Quantum and in Between
Salle, M; Vink, Jeroen C
2000-01-01
Using a Hartree ensemble approximation, we investigate the dynamics of the \\phi^4 model in 1+1 dimensions. We find that the fields initially thermalize with a Bose-Einstein distribution for the fields. Gradually, however, the distribution changes towards classical equipartition. Using suitable initial conditions quantum thermalization is achieved much faster than the onset of this undesirable equipartition. We also show how the numerical efficiency of our method can be significantly improved.
Coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on evolving random networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Li
Full Text Available We study the coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on weighted and directed random networks in the realm of the prisoner's dilemma game. During the evolution, agents can break and rewire their links with the aim of maximizing payoffs, and they can also adjust the weights to indicate preferences, either positive or negative, towards their neighbors. The network structure itself is thus also subject to evolution. Importantly, the directionality of links does not affect the accumulation of payoffs nor the strategy transfers, but serves only to designate the owner of each particular link and with it the right to adjust the link as needed. We show that quantum strategies outperform classical strategies, and that the critical temptation to defect at which cooperative behavior can be maintained rises, if the network structure is updated frequently. Punishing neighbors by reducing the weights of their links also plays an important role in maintaining cooperation under adverse conditions. We find that the self-organization of the initially random network structure, driven by the evolutionary competition between quantum and classical strategies, leads to the spontaneous emergence of small average path length and a large clustering coefficient.
Bohr's Relational Holism and the classical-quantum Interaction
Dorato, Mauro
2016-01-01
In this paper I present and critically discuss the main strategies that Bohr used and could have used to fend off the charge that his interpretation does not provide a clear-cut distinction between the classical and the quantum domain. In particular, in the first part of the paper I reassess the main arguments used by Bohr to advocate the indispensability of a classical framework to refer to quantum phenomena. In this respect, by using a distinction coming from an apparently unrelated philosophical corner, we could say that Bohr is not a revisionist philosopher of physics but rather a descriptivist one in the sense of Strawson. I will then go on discussing the nature of the holistic link between classical measurement apparatuses and observed system that he also advocated. The oft-repeated conclusion that Bohr's interpretation of the quantum formalism is untenable can only be established by giving his arguments as much force as possible, which is what I will try to do in the following by remaining as faithful ...
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Gerald
2008-11-03
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and
Classical and quantum dynamics in an inverse square potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guillaumín-España, Elisa, E-mail: ege@correo.azc.uam.mx [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinámicos, Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Azcapotzalco CP 02200 D. F. (Mexico); Núñez-Yépez, H. N., E-mail: nyhn@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Iztapalapa CP 09340 D. F. (Mexico); Salas-Brito, A. L., E-mail: asb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (ICN-UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 México D F (Mexico)
2014-10-15
The classical motion of a particle in a 3D inverse square potential with negative energy, E, is shown to be geodesic, i.e., equivalent to the particle's free motion on a non-compact phase space manifold irrespective of the sign of the coupling constant. We thus establish that all its classical orbits with E < 0 are unbounded. To analyse the corresponding quantum problem, the Schrödinger equation is solved in momentum space. No discrete energy levels exist in the unrenormalized case and the system shows a complete “fall-to-the-center” with an energy spectrum unbounded by below. Such behavior corresponds to the non-existence of bound classical orbits. The symmetry of the problem is SO(3) × SO(2, 1) corroborating previously obtained results.
Representational Realism, Closed Theories and the Quantum to Classical Limit
de Ronde, Christian
2016-01-01
In this paper we discuss the representational realist stance as a pluralist ontic approach to inter-theoretic relationships. Our stance stresses the fact that physical theories require the necessary consideration of a conceptual level of discourse which determines and configures the specific field of phenomena discussed by each particular theory. We will criticize the orthodox line of research which has grounded the analysis about QM in two (Bohrian) metaphysical presuppositions -accepted in the present as dogmas that all interpretations must follow. We will also examine how the orthodox project of "bridging the gap" between the quantum and the classical domains has constrained the possibilities of research, producing only a limited set of interpretational problems which only focus in the justification of "classical reality" and exclude the possibility of analyzing the possibilities of non-classical conceptual representations of QM. The representational realist stance introduces two new problems, namely, the ...
Directed transport in classical and quantum chaotic billiards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acevedo, W; Dittrich, T [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and CeiBA, Complejidad, Bogota DC (Colombia)], E-mail: jwacevedov@unal.edu.co, E-mail: tdittrich@unal.edu.co
2009-01-30
We construct an autonomous chaotic Hamiltonian ratchet as a channel billiard subdivided by equidistant walls attached perpendicularly to one side of the channel, leaving an opening on the opposite side. A static homogeneous magnetic field penetrating the billiard breaks time-reversal invariance and renders the classical motion partially chaotic. We show that the classical dynamics exhibits directed transport, owing to the asymmetric distribution of regular regions in phase space. The billiard is quantized by a numerical method based on a finite-element algorithm combined with the Landau gauge and the Bloch formalism for periodic potentials. We discuss features of the billiard eigenstates such as node lines and vortices in the probability flow. Evidence for directed quantum transport, inherited from the corresponding features of the classical dynamics, is presented in terms of level-velocity statistics.
Quantum versus Classical Domains for Teleportation with Continuous Variables
Braunstein, S L; Kimble, H J; Van Loock, P; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Fuchs, Christopher A.
2000-01-01
Fidelity F{classical} = 1/2 has been established as setting the boundary between classical and quantum domains in the teleportation of coherent states of the electromagnetic field (S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, and H. J. Kimble, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 267 (2000)). Two recent papers by P. Grangier and F. Grosshans (quant-ph/0009079 and quant-ph/0010107) introduce alternate criteria for setting this boundary and as a result claim that the appropriate boundary should be F = 2/3. Although larger fidelities would lead to enhanced teleportation capabilities, we show that the new conditions of Grangier and Grosshans are largely unrelated to the questions of entanglement and Bell-inequality violations that they take to be their primary concern. With regard to the quantum-classical boundary, we demonstrate that fidelity F{classical} = 1/2 remains the appropriate point of demarcation. The claims of Grangier and Grosshans to the contrary are simply wrong, as we show by an analysis of the conditions for nonseparability (that ...
Comment on `Do we have a consistent non-adiabatic quantum-classical mechanics?'
Kisil, Vladimir V.
2009-01-01
We argue with claims of the paper [Agostini F., Caprara S. and Ciccotti G., Europhys. Lett. EPL, 78 (2007) Art. 30001, 6] that the quantum-classic bracket introduced in [arXiv:quant-ph/0506122] produces "artificial coupling" and has "genuinely classical nature". Keywords: p-mechanics, quantum, classic, commutator, Poisson bracket, mixing, coupling, semi-classical
A retrodiction paradox in quantum and classical optics
Aiello, Andrea
2015-01-01
Quantum mechanics represents one of the greatest triumphs of human intellect and, undoubtedly, is the most successful physical theory we have to date. However, since its foundation about a century ago, it has been uninterruptedly the center of harsh debates ignited by the counterintuitive character of some of its predictions. The subject of one of these heated discussions is the so-called "retrodiction paradox", namely a deceptive inconsistency of quantum mechanics which is often associated with the "measurement paradox" and the "collapse of the wave function"; it comes from the apparent time-asymmetry between state preparation and measurement. Actually, in the literature one finds several versions of the retrodiction paradox; however, a particularly insightful one was presented by Sir Roger Penrose in his seminal book \\emph{The Road to Reality}. Here, we address the question to what degree Penrose's retrodiction paradox occurs in the classical and quantum domain. We achieve a twofold result. First, we show t...
Beables/Observables in Classical and Quantum Gravity
Anderson, Edward
2013-01-01
Observables `are observed' whereas beables just `are'. Beables have more scope in the cosmological and quantum domains. Both are entities that form `brackets' with `the constraints' that are `equal to' zero. Moreover, a variety of notions of brackets, constraints and equalities are to be considered. I.e. Poisson, Dirac, commutator, histories, Schouten-Nijenhuis, double and Nambu brackets; first-class, gauge, linear and effective constraints; plain alias strong, weak and weak-effective equalities. The Dirac-Bergmann distinction in notions of gauge leads to further notions of beable, and is tied to some diffeomorphism-specific subtleties. Thus we cover a wide range of notions of beables/observables: Dirac, Kuchar, effective, Bergmann, histories, multisymplectic, master, Nambu and bi-. We also cover a wide range of classical and quantum theories of gravity: general relativity, loop quantum gravity, histories theory, supergravity and M-theory.
Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
2016-09-01
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.
Security of quantum digital signatures for classical messages.
Wang, Tian-Yin; Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Ren, Yan-Li; Zhang, Rui-Ling
2015-03-18
Quantum digital signatures can be used to authenticate classical messages in an information-theoretically secure way. Previously, a novel quantum digital signature for classical messages has been proposed and gave an experimental demonstration of distributing quantum digital signatures from one sender to two receivers. Some improvement versions were subsequently presented, which made it more feasible with present technology. These proposals for quantum digital signatures are basic building blocks which only deal with the problem of sending single bit messages while no-forging and non-repudiation are guaranteed. For a multi-bit message, it is only mentioned that the basic building blocks must be iterated, but the iteration of the basic building block still does not suffice to define the entire protocol. In this paper, we show that it is necessary to define the entire protocol because some attacks will arise if these building blocks are used in a naive way of iteration. Therefore, we give a way of defining an entire protocol to deal with the problem of sending multi-bit messages based on the basic building blocks and analyse its security.
Memory-based quantum repeater in quantum information communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Xiang-Sheng
2004-01-01
This paper studies the quantum repeater in quantum information communication. We propose to introduce the photon buffer mechanism for storing photons, which uses fibre delay loops as photon memories and a programmable 1 × N switcher for distributing photon delay time. Meanwhile, we also consider entanglement purification and entanglement swapping restoration at an entanglement purification or entanglement swapping failure and introduce a protection link mechanism that allows the photonic quantum repeater of a broken connection to initiate a connection restoration process.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is ) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schr\\"odinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be inaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity - the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT to QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and th...
Quantum Communication Experiments Over Optical Fiber
Takesue, Hiroki
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is expected to be the first application of quantum information to be realized as a practical system. In the last decade, research on QKD made significant progress both in concept and technology. In this chapter, we review the progress of technologies designed to realize high-speed and long-distance quantum communication over optical fiber, focusing on the results obtained by NTT. The first section describes a roadmap towards scalable quantum communications, which is composed of three phases. The second section reviews our effort to realize phase 1 quantum communication systems, namely point-to-point QKD systems based on the differential phase shift QKD (DPS-QKD) protocol. The third section describes entanglement generation and application in the telecom band, which are the key technologies for realizing phase 2 and 3 systems. The final section provides a summary and describes the future outlook.
An efficient quantum secure direct communication scheme with authentication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen
2007-01-01
In this paper an efficient quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme with authentication is presented,which is based on quantum entanglement and polarized single photons. The present protocol uses Einstein-PodolskyRosen (EPR) pairs and polarized single photons in batches. A particle of the EPR pairs is retained in the sender's QSDC protocol. According to the shared information beforehand, these two kinds of quantum states are mixed and then transmitted via a quantum channel. The EPR pairs are used to transmit secret messages and the polarized single photons used for authentication and eavesdropping check. Consequently, because of the dual contributions of the polarized single photons, no classical information is needed. The intrinsic efficiency and total efficiency are both 1 in this scheme as almost all of the instances are useful and each EPR pair can be used to carry two bits of information.
Quantum trade-off coding for bosonic communication
Wilde, Mark M; Guha, Saikat
2011-01-01
Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks---classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to several well-known quantum communication protocols over noisy channels. A single trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time-sharing between the best known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task alone. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of much practical value (for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels, for instance). In this article, we demonstrate to the contrary that the associated performance gains are remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that mo...
Quantum stream cipher based on optical communications
Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Usuda, Tsuyoshi S.; HARASAWA, Katsuyoshi
2004-01-01
In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light pulse:$ = 1000 \\sim 10000$. In addition, it may provide information-theoretic security against known/chosen plaintext attack, which has no class...
Modeling classical and quantum radiation from laser-plasma accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Chen
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The development of models and the “Virtual Detector for Synchrotron Radiation” (vdsr code that accurately describe the production of synchrotron radiation are described. These models and code are valid in the classical and linear (single-scattering quantum regimes and are capable of describing radiation produced from laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs through a variety of mechanisms including betatron radiation, undulator radiation, and Thomson/Compton scattering. Previous models of classical synchrotron radiation, such as those typically used for undulator radiation, are inadequate in describing the radiation spectra from electrons undergoing small numbers of oscillations. This is due to an improper treatment of a mathematical evaluation at the end points of an integration that leads to an unphysical plateau in the radiation spectrum at high frequencies, the magnitude of which increases as the number of oscillation periods decreases. This is important for betatron radiation from LPAs, in which the betatron strength parameter is large but the number of betatron periods is small. The code vdsr allows the radiation to be calculated in this regime by full integration over each electron trajectory, including end-point effects, and this code is used to calculate betatron radiation for cases of experimental interest. Radiation from Thomson scattering and Compton scattering is also studied with vdsr. For Thomson scattering, radiation reaction is included by using the Sokolov method for the calculation of the electron dynamics. For Compton scattering, quantum recoil effects are considered in vdsr by using Monte Carlo methods. The quantum calculation has been benchmarked with the classical calculation in a classical regime.
Directional coupling for quantum computing and communication.
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M
2008-11-14
We introduce the concept of directional coupling, i.e., the selective transfer of a state between adjacent quantum wires, in the context of quantum computing and communication. Our analysis rests upon a mathematical analogy between a dual-channel directional coupler and a composite spin system.
Classical and quantum cosmology of the little rip abrupt event
Albarran, Imanol; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Kiefer, Claus; Marto, João; Vargas Moniz, Paulo
2016-09-01
We analyze from a classical and quantum point of view the behavior of the Universe close to a little rip, which can be interpreted as a big rip sent towards the infinite future. Like a big rip singularity, a little rip implies the destruction of all bounded structures in the Universe and is thus an event where quantum effects could be important. We present here a new phantom scalar field model for the little rip. The quantum analysis is performed in quantum geometrodynamics, with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation as its central equation. We find that the little rip can be avoided in the sense of the DeWitt criterion, that is, by having a vanishing wave function at the place of the little rip. Therefore our analysis completes the answer to the question: can quantum cosmology smoothen or avoid the divergent behavior genuinely caused by phantom matter? We show that this can indeed happen for the little rip, similar to the avoidance of a big rip and a little sibling of the big rip.
Classical and quantum cosmology of the little rip abrupt event
Albarran, Imanol; Kiefer, Claus; Marto, João; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2016-01-01
We analyze from a classical and quantum point of view the behavior of the universe close to a little rip, which can be interpreted as a big rip sent towards the infinite future. Like a big rip singularity, a little rip implies the destruction of all bounded structure in the Universe and is thus an event where quantum effects could be important. We present here a new phantom scalar field model for the little rip. The quantum analysis is performed in quantum geometrodynamics, with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation as its central equation. We find that the little rip can be avoided in the sense of the DeWitt criterion, that is, by having a vanishing wave function at the place of the little rip. Therefore our analysis completes the answer to the question: can quantum cosmology smoothen or avoid the divergent behavior genuinely caused by phantom matter? We show that this can indeed happen for the little rip, similar to the avoidance of a big rip and a little sibling of the big rip.
Controller-independent bidirectional quantum direct communication
Mohapatra, Amit Kumar; Balakrishnan, S.
2017-06-01
Recently, Chang et al. (Quantum Inf Process 14:3515-3522, 2015) proposed a controlled bidirectional quantum direct communication protocol using Bell states. In this work, the significance of Bell states, which are being used as initial states in Chang et al. protocol, is elucidated. The possibility of preparing initial state based on the secret message of the communicants is explored. In doing so, the controller-independent bidirectional quantum direct communication protocol has evolved naturally. It is shown that any communicant cannot read the secret message without knowing the initial states generated by the other communicant. Further, intercept-and-resend attack and information leakage can be avoided. The proposed protocol is like a conversion between two persons without the help of any third person with high-level security.
Enhancing Quantum Discord in Cavity QED by Applying Classical Driving Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Yi; XU Jing-Bo
2012-01-01
We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system, which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical Gelds and classical fields, and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields. It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields. Finally, the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined.%We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system,which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical fields and classical fields,and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields.It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields.Finally,the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined.
Quantum to classical transition induced by gravitational time dilation
Sokolov, Boris; Vilja, Iiro; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2017-07-01
We study the loss of quantumness caused by time dilation [I. Pikovski, M. Zych, F. Costa, and Č. Brukner, Nat. Phys. 11, 668 (2015), 10.1038/nphys3366] for a Schrödinger cat state. We give a holistic view of the quantum to classical transition by comparing the dynamics of several nonclassicality indicators, such as the Wigner function interference fringe, the negativity of the Wigner function, the nonclassical depth, the Vogel criterion, and the Klyshko criterion. Our results show that only two of these indicators depend critically on the size of the cat, namely, on how macroscopic the superposition is. Finally we compare the gravitation-induced decoherence times to the typical decoherence times due to classical noise originating from the unavoidable statistical fluctuations in the characteristic parameters of the system [J. Trapani, M. Bina, S. Maniscalco, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 91, 022113 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.022113]. We show that the experimental observation of decoherence due to time dilation imposes severe limitations on the allowed levels of classical noise in the experiments.
PT symmetry in classical and quantum statistical mechanics.
Meisinger, Peter N; Ogilvie, Michael C
2013-04-28
PT-symmetric Hamiltonians and transfer matrices arise naturally in statistical mechanics. These classical and quantum models often require the use of complex or negative weights and thus fall outside the conventional equilibrium statistical mechanics of Hermitian systems. PT-symmetric models form a natural class where the partition function is necessarily real, but not necessarily positive. The correlation functions of these models display a much richer set of behaviours than Hermitian systems, displaying sinusoidally modulated exponential decay, as in a dense fluid, or even sinusoidal modulation without decay. Classical spin models with PT-symmetry include Z(N) models with a complex magnetic field, the chiral Potts model and the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour Ising model. Quantum many-body problems with a non-zero chemical potential have a natural PT-symmetric representation related to the sign problem. Two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics with heavy quarks at non-zero chemical potential can be solved by diagonalizing an appropriate PT-symmetric Hamiltonian.
Quantum Spectra and Classical Orbits in Two-Dimensional Equilateral Triangular Billiards
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Sheng-Lu; GAO Feng; HONG Zheng-Pin; DU Meng-Li
2005-01-01
@@ We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the equilateral triangular billiards. The eigenstates of such systems are not separable functions of two variables even though the problem is exactlysolvable. We calculate the Fourier transform of a quantum spectral function and find that the positions of thepeaks match well with the lengths of the classical orbits. This is another example showing that the quantum spectral function provides a bridge between quantum and classical mechanics.
Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David
2004-01-01
In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…
Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David
2004-01-01
In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…
Intracity Quantum Communication via Thermal Microwave Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ze-Liang Xiang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Communication over proven-secure quantum channels is potentially one of the most wide-ranging applications of currently developed quantum technologies. It is generally envisioned that in future quantum networks, separated nodes containing stationary solid-state or atomic qubits are connected via the exchange of optical photons over large distances. In this work, we explore an intriguing alternative for quantum communication via all-microwave networks. To make this possible, we describe a general protocol for sending quantum states through thermal channels, even when the number of thermal photons in the channel is much larger than 1. The protocol can be implemented with state-of-the-art superconducting circuits and enables the transfer of quantum states over distances of about 100 m via microwave transmission lines cooled to only T=4 K. This opens up new possibilities for quantum communication within and across buildings and, consequently, for the implementation of intracity quantum networks based on microwave technology only.
Communication: quantum mechanics without wavefunctions.
Schiff, Jeremy; Poirier, Bill
2012-01-21
We present a self-contained formulation of spin-free non-relativistic quantum mechanics that makes no use of wavefunctions or complex amplitudes of any kind. Quantum states are represented as ensembles of real-valued quantum trajectories, obtained by extremizing an action and satisfying energy conservation. The theory applies for arbitrary configuration spaces and system dimensionalities. Various beneficial ramifications-theoretical, computational, and interpretational-are discussed.
Classical-quantum versus exact quantum results for a particle in a box
De Vincenzo,Salvatore
2012-01-01
The problems of a free classical particle inside a one-dimensional box: (i) with impenetrable walls and (ii) with penetrable walls, were considered. For each problem, the classical amplitude and mechanical frequency of the T -th harmonic of the motion of the particle were identified from the Fourier series of the position function. After using the Bohr-Sommerfeld-Wilson quantization rule, the respective quantized amplitudes and frequencies (i.e., as a function of the quantum label n ) were ob...
Quantum communication based on orthogonal states enables quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2011-01-01
For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But basing on a formerly proposed quantum communication scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the impossibility proofs of QBC are based. Thus unconditional security can be achieved. Our protocol is very feasible with currently available technology. It re-opens the venue for other "post-cold-war" multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g., unconditionally secure quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.
Classical and quantum cosmology of Born-Infeld type models
Kamenshchik, Alexander; Kwidzinski, Nick
2016-01-01
We discuss Born-Infeld type fields (tachyon fields) in classical and quantum cosmology. We first partly review and partly extend the discussion of the classical solutions and focus in particular on the occurrence of singularities. For quantization, we employ geometrodynamics. In the case of constant potential, we discuss both Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and reduced quantization. We are able to give various solutions and discuss their asymptotics. For the case of general potential, we transform the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to a form where it leads to a difference equation. Such a difference equation was previously found in the quantization of black holes. We give explicit results for the cases of constant potential and inverse square potential and point out special features possessed by solutions of the difference equation.
Classical and quantum cosmology of Born-Infeld type models
Kamenshchik, Alexander; Kiefer, Claus; Kwidzinski, Nick
2016-04-01
We discuss Born-Infeld type fields (tachyon fields) in classical and quantum cosmology. We first partly review and partly extend the discussion of the classical solutions and focus in particular on the occurrence of singularities. For quantization, we employ geometrodynamics. In the case of constant potential, we discuss both Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and reduced quantization. We are able to give various solutions and discuss their asymptotics. For the case of general potential, we transform the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to a form where it leads to a difference equation. Such a difference equation was previously found in the quantization of black holes. We give explicit results for the cases of constant potential and inverse squared potential and point out special features possessed by solutions of the difference equation.
Black holes and Rindler superspace: classical singularity and quantum unitarity
Chou, C H; Yu, H L; Chou, Chung-Hsien; Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai
2007-01-01
Canonical quantization of spherically symmetric initial data which is appropriate to classical interior black hole solutions in four dimensions is carried out and solved exactly without gauge fixing. The resultant mini-superspace manifold and arena for quantum geometrodynamics is two-dimensional, of signature (+, -), non-singular, and can in fact be identified precisely with the first Rindler wedge. The associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation with evolution in intrinsic superspace time can be formulated as a free massive Klein-Gordon equation; and the Hamilton-Jacobi semiclassical limit of plane wave solutions can be matched precisely to the interiors of Schwarzschild black holes. Furthermore, classical black hole horizons and singularities correspond to the boundaries of the Rindler wedge. Exact wavefunctions of the first-order-in-superspace intrinsic time Dirac equation are also considered. Precise correspondence between Schwarzschild black holes and free particle mechanics in superspace is noted. Another intrig...
Gauge transformations and conserved quantities in classical and quantum mechanics
Berche, Bertrand; Malterre, Daniel; Medina, Ernesto
2016-08-01
We are taught that gauge transformations in classical and quantum mechanics do not change the physics of the problem. Nevertheless, here we discuss three broad scenarios where under gauge transformations: (i) conservation laws are not preserved in the usual manner; (ii) non-gauge-invariant quantities can be associated with physical observables; and (iii) there are changes in the physical boundary conditions of the wave function that render it non-single-valued. We give worked examples that illustrate these points, in contrast to general opinions from classic texts. We also give a historical perspective on the development of Abelian gauge theory in relation to our particular points. Our aim is to provide a discussion of these issues at the graduate level.
Computational physics simulation of classical and quantum systems
Scherer, Philipp O J
2013-01-01
This textbook presents basic and advanced computational physics in a very didactic style. It contains very-well-presented and simple mathematical descriptions of many of the most important algorithms used in computational physics. Many clear mathematical descriptions of important techniques in computational physics are given. The first part of the book discusses the basic numerical methods. A large number of exercises and computer experiments allows to study the properties of these methods. The second part concentrates on simulation of classical and quantum systems. It uses a rather general concept for the equation of motion which can be applied to ordinary and partial differential equations. Several classes of integration methods are discussed including not only the standard Euler and Runge Kutta method but also multistep methods and the class of Verlet methods which is introduced by studying the motion in Liouville space. Besides the classical methods, inverse interpolation is discussed, together with the p...
Classical and quantum initial conditions for Higgs inflation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Salvio
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate whether Higgs inflation can occur in the Standard Model starting from natural initial conditions or not. The Higgs has a non-minimal coupling to the Ricci scalar. We confine our attention to the regime where quantum Einstein gravity effects are small in order to have results that are independent of the ultraviolet completion of gravity. At the classical level we find no tuning is required to have successful Higgs inflation, provided the initial homogeneity condition is satisfied. On the other hand, at the quantum level we obtain that the renormalization for large non-minimal coupling requires an additional degree of freedom, unless a tuning of the initial values of the running parameters is made. In order to see that this effect may change the predictions we finally include such degree of freedom in the field content and show that Starobinsky's R2 inflation dominates over Higgs inflation.
Classical Simulation of Relativistic Quantum Mechanics in Periodic Optical Structures
Longhi, Stefano
2011-01-01
Spatial and/or temporal propagation of light waves in periodic optical structures offers a rather unique possibility to realize in a purely classical setting the optical analogues of a wide variety of quantum phenomena rooted in relativistic wave equations. In this work a brief overview of a few optical analogues of relativistic quantum phenomena, based on either spatial light transport in engineered photonic lattices or on temporal pulse propagation in Bragg grating structures, is presented. Examples include spatial and temporal photonic analogues of the Zitterbewegung of a relativistic electron, Klein tunneling, vacuum decay and pair-production, the Dirac oscillator, the relativistic Kronig-Penney model, and optical realizations of non-Hermitian extensions of relativistic wave equations.
Nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ra, Young-Sik; Tichy, Malte; Lim, Hyang-Tag
2013-01-01
Quantum-mechanical wave–particle duality implies that probability distributions for granular detection events exhibit wave-like interference. On the single-particle level, this leads to self-interference—e.g., on transit across a double slit—for photons as well as for large, massive particles...... that interference fades away monotonically with increasing distinguishability—in accord with available experimental evidence on the single- and on the many-particle level. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that such monotonicity of the quantum-to-classical transition is the exception rather than...... the rule whenever more than two particles interfere. As the distinguishability of the particles is continuously increased, different numbers of particles effectively interfere, which leads to interference signals that are, in general, nonmonotonic functions of the distinguishability of the particles...
Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics
Jun, Ni
2014-01-01
This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...
Classical Cryptography v/s Quantum Cryptography A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minakshi Bhatt
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this era of information technology, the need for security has attained paramount importance. As most of our sensitive information is stored in computers the need of data security becomes increasingly important. Protecting this information against unauthorized access is therefore a major concern for both operating systems and users alike. Cryptography is one such method of safeguarding sensitive data from being stolen or intercepted by unwanted third parties. Traditional cryptology is certainly clever, but as with all encoding methods in code-breaking history, it's being phased out. Quantum cryptography uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string known only to them, which can be used as a key to encrypt and decrypt messages. By harnessing the unpredictable nature of matter at the quantum level, physicists have figured out a way to exchange information on secret keys. Attaching information to the photons spin is the essence of Quantum Cryptology. In brief, the processes of encoding (cryptography and decoding (crypto analysis information or messages (called plaintext into an otherwise meaningless data (cipher text combined are cryptology. And when the keys used for this process are photons, it’s called Quantum Cryptology.
Gravity can significantly modify classical and quantum Poincare recurrence theorems
Dong, Ruifeng
2016-01-01
Poincare recurrence theorem states that any finite system will come arbitrary close to its initial state after some very long but finite time. At the statistical level, this by itself does not represent a paradox, but apparently violates the second law of thermodynamics, which may lead to some confusing conclusions for macroscopic systems. However, this statement does not take gravity into account. If two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. In the classical case, a black hole once formed will always grow and effectively quench the Poincare recurrence. We derive the condition under which the classical black hole production rate is higher than the classical Poincare recurrence rate. In the quantum case, if the temperature of the black hole is lower than the temperature of the surrounding gas, such a black hole cannot disappear via Hawking evaporation. We derive the condition w...
Exact Classical and Quantum Dynamics in Background Electromagnetic Fields
Heinzl, Tom; Ilderton, Anton
2017-03-01
Analytic results for (Q)ED processes in external fields are limited to a few special cases, such as plane waves. However, the strong focusing of intense laser fields implies a need to go beyond the plane wave model. By exploiting Poincaré symmetry and superintegrability we show how to construct, and solve without approximation, new models of laser-matter interactions. We illustrate the method with a model of a radially polarized (TM) laser beam, for which we exactly determine the classical orbits and quantum wave functions. Including in this way the effects of transverse field structure should improve predictions and analyses for experiments at intense laser facilities.
Lessons from Classical Gravity about the Quantum Structure of Spacetime
Padmanabhan, T
2010-01-01
I present the theoretical evidence which suggests that gravity is an emergent phenomenon like gas dynamics or elasticity with the gravitational field equations having the same status as, say, the equations of fluid dynamics/elasticity. This paradigm views a wide class of gravitational theories - including Einstein's theory - as describing the thermodynamic limit of the statistical mechanics of "atoms of spacetime". The evidence for this paradigm is hidden in several classical features of the gravitational theories and depends on just one quantum mechanical input, viz. the existence of Davies-Unruh temperature of horizons. I discuss several conceptual ingredients of this approach.
Minimum length from quantum mechanics and classical general relativity.
Calmet, Xavier; Graesser, Michael; Hsu, Stephen D H
2004-11-19
We derive fundamental limits on measurements of position, arising from quantum mechanics and classical general relativity. First, we show that any primitive probe or target used in an experiment must be larger than the Planck length lP. This suggests a Planck-size minimum ball of uncertainty in any measurement. Next, we study interferometers (such as LIGO) whose precision is much finer than the size of any individual components and hence are not obviously limited by the minimum ball. Nevertheless, we deduce a fundamental limit on their accuracy of order lP. Our results imply a device independent limit on possible position measurements.
Operational dynamic modeling transcending quantum and classical mechanics.
Bondar, Denys I; Cabrera, Renan; Lompay, Robert R; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Rabitz, Herschel A
2012-11-09
We introduce a general and systematic theoretical framework for operational dynamic modeling (ODM) by combining a kinematic description of a model with the evolution of the dynamical average values. The kinematics includes the algebra of the observables and their defined averages. The evolution of the average values is drawn in the form of Ehrenfest-like theorems. We show that ODM is capable of encompassing wide-ranging dynamics from classical non-relativistic mechanics to quantum field theory. The generality of ODM should provide a basis for formulating novel theories.
Semi-classical quantum theory for cyclotron radiation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈军锋; 邓劲松; 徐毅; 尤峻汉
1997-01-01
A semi-classical quantum theory of the cyclotron radiation of the nonrelativistic thermal electrons in a very strong magnetic field is presented.The basic formulae of the absorption coefficient of cyclotron resonance kv and the absorption (scattering) cross-section of cyclotron resonance σv have been derived under the quadrupole approximation.σv is an important quantity in the study of the "magnetic inverse-Compton scattering".It is shown that σv is greatly larger than the Thomson cross-sectron σT,which is important in discussing the magnetic inverse-Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons in a very strong magnetic field.
Quantum and Classical Chirps in an Anharmonic Oscillator
Shalibo, Yoni; Barth, Ido; Friedland, Lazar; Bialczack, Radoslaw; Martinis, John M; Katz, Nadav
2011-01-01
We measure the state dynamics of a tunable anharmonic quantum system, the Josephson phase circuit, under the excitation of a frequency-chirped drive. At small anharmonicity, the state evolves like a wavepacket - a characteristic response in classical oscillators; in this regime we report exponentially enhanced lifetimes of highly excited states, held by the drive. At large anharmonicity, we observe sharp steps, corresponding to the excitation of discrete energy levels. The continuous transition between the two regimes is mapped by measuring the threshold of these two effects.
Quantum algorithmic integrability: The metaphor of classical polygonal billiards
Mantica, Giorgio
2000-06-01
We study the algorithmic complexity of motions in classical polygonal billiards, which, as the number of sides increases, tend to curved billiards, both regular and chaotic. This study unveils the equivalence of this problem to the procedure of quantization: the average complexity of symbolic trajectories in polygonal billiards features the same scaling relations (with respect to the number of sides) that govern quantum systems when a semiclassical parameter is varied. Two cases, the polygonal approximations of the circle and of the stadium, are examined in detail and are presented as paradigms of quantization of integrable and chaotic systems.
Using classical probability to guarantee properties of infinite quantum sequences
Gutmann, S
1995-01-01
We consider the product of infinitely many copies of a spin-1\\over 2 system. We construct projection operators on the corresponding nonseparable Hilbert space which measure whether the outcome of an infinite sequence of \\sigma^x measurements has any specified property. In many cases, product states are eigenstates of the projections, and therefore the result of measuring the property is determined. Thus we obtain a nonprobabilistic quantum analogue to the law of large numbers, the randomness property, and all other familiar almost-sure theorems of classical probability.
A classical one-way function to confound quantum adversaries
Moore, Cristopher; Vazirani, U; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander; Vazirani, Umesh
2007-01-01
The promise of quantum computation and its consequences for complexity-theoretic cryptography motivates an immediate search for cryptosystems which can be implemented with current technology, but which remain secure even in the presence of quantum computers. Inspired by recent negative results pertaining to the nonabelian hidden subgroup problem, we present here a classical algebraic function $f_V(M)$ of a matrix $M$ which we believe is a one-way function secure against quantum attacks. Specifically, inverting $f_V$ reduces naturally to solving a hidden subgroup problem over the general linear group (which is at least as hard as the hidden subgroup problem over the symmetric group). We also demonstrate a reduction from Graph Isomorphism to the problem of inverting $f_V$; unlike Graph Isomorphism, however, the function $f_V$ is random self-reducible and therefore uniformly hard. These results suggest that, unlike Shor's algorithm for the discrete logarithm--which is, so far, the only successful quantum attack ...
Classical Wave Model of Quantum-Like Processing in Brain
Khrennikov, A.
2011-01-01
We discuss the conjecture on quantum-like (QL) processing of information in the brain. It is not based on the physical quantum brain (e.g., Penrose) - quantum physical carriers of information. In our approach the brain created the QL representation (QLR) of information in Hilbert space. It uses quantum information rules in decision making. The existence of such QLR was (at least preliminary) confirmed by experimental data from cognitive psychology. The violation of the law of total probability in these experiments is an important sign of nonclassicality of data. In so called "constructive wave function approach" such data can be represented by complex amplitudes. We presented 1,2 the QL model of decision making. In this paper we speculate on a possible physical realization of QLR in the brain: a classical wave model producing QLR . It is based on variety of time scales in the brain. Each pair of scales (fine - the background fluctuations of electromagnetic field and rough - the cognitive image scale) induces the QL representation. The background field plays the crucial role in creation of "superstrong QL correlations" in the brain.
The classical and quantum dynamics of molecular spins on graphene
Cervetti, Christian; Rettori, Angelo; Pini, Maria Gloria; Cornia, Andrea; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando; Dressel, Martin; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Kern, Klaus; Burghard, Marko; Bogani, Lapo
2015-01-01
Controlling the dynamics of spins on surfaces is pivotal to the design of spintronic1 and quantum computing2 devices. Proposed schemes involve the interaction of spins with graphene to enable surface-state spintronics3,4, and electrical spin-manipulation4-11. However, the influence of the graphene environment on the spin systems has yet to be unraveled12. Here we explore the spin-graphene interaction by studying the classical and quantum dynamics of molecular magnets13 on graphene. While the static spin response remains unaltered, the quantum spin dynamics and associated selection rules are profoundly modulated. The couplings to graphene phonons, to other spins, and to Dirac fermions are quantified using a newly-developed model. Coupling to Dirac electrons introduces a dominant quantum-relaxation channel that, by driving the spins over Villain’s threshold, gives rise to fully-coherent, resonant spin tunneling. Our findings provide fundamental insight into the interaction between spins and graphene, establishing the basis for electrical spin-manipulation in graphene nanodevices. PMID:26641019
Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Authentication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Min-Jie; PAN Wei
2008-01-01
We propose two schemes of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) combined ideas of user authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] and direct communication with dense coding [Phys. Rev. A. 68 (2003) 042317]. In these protocols, the privacy of authentication keys and the properties of the EPR pairs not only ensure the realization of identity authentication but also further improve the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the messages were broken.
Beyond Quantum Fields: A Classical Fields Approach to QED
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chafin C.
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A classical field theory is introduced that is defined on a tower of dimensionally in- creasing spaces and is argued to be equivalent to QED. The domain of dependence is discussed to show how an equal times picture of the many coordinate space gives QED results as part of a well posed initial value formalism. Identical particle symmetries are not, a priori, required but when introduced are clearly propagated. This construc- tion uses only classical fields to provide some explanation for why quantum fields and canonical commutation results have been successful. Some old and essential questions regarding causality of propagators are resolved. The problem of resummation, gener- ally forbidden for conditionally convergent series, is dis cussed from the standpoint of particular truncations of the infinite tower of functions an d a two step adiabatic turn on for scattering. As a result of this approach it is shown that the photon inherits its quantization ~ ω from the free lagrangian of the Dirac electrons despite the fact that the free electromagnetic lagrangian has no ~ in it. This provides a possible explanation for the canonical commutation relations for quantum operators , [ ˆ P , ˆ Q ] = i ~ , without ever needing to invoke such a quantum postulate. The form of the equal times conservation laws in this many particle field theory suggests a simplification of the radiation reaction process for fields that allows QED to arise from a sum of path integrals in the various particle time coordinates. A novel method of unifying this theory with gravity, but that has no obvious quantum field theoretic computational scheme , is introduced.
Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states
Klimek, Aleksandra; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad
2015-01-01
We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. {\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.}\\ {\\bf 2011}, {\\em 106}, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.
Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states.
Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad
2016-11-12
We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett.2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.
Hybrid Quantum-Classical Hierarchy for Mitigation of Decoherence and Determination of Excited States
McClean, Jarrod R; Carter, Jonathan; de Jong, Wibe A
2016-01-01
Using quantum devices supported by classical computational resources is a promising approach to quantum-enabled computation. One example of such a hybrid quantum-classical approach is the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) built to utilize quantum resources for the solution of eigenvalue problems and optimizations with minimal coherence time requirements by leveraging classical computational resources. These algorithms have been placed among the candidates for first to achieve supremacy over classical computation. Here, we provide evidence for the conjecture that variational approaches can automatically suppress even non-systematic decoherence errors by introducing an exactly solvable channel model of variational state preparation. Moreover, we show how variational quantum-classical approaches fit in a more general hierarchy of measurement and classical computation that allows one to obtain increasingly accurate solutions with additional classical resources. We demonstrate numerically on a sample electroni...
Huang, Y C; Zhang, N
2004-01-01
Classical statistical average values are generally generalized to average values of quantum mechanics, it is discovered that quantum mechanics is direct generalization of classical statistical mechanics, and we generally deduce both a general new continuous eigenvalue equation and a general discrete eigenvalue equation in quantum mechanics, and discover that a eigenvalue of quantum mechanics is just an extreme value of an operator in possibility distribution, the eigenvalue f is just classical observable quantity. A general classical statistical uncertain relation is further given, the general classical statistical uncertain relation is generally generalized to quantum uncertainty principle, the two lost conditions in classical uncertain relation and quantum uncertainty principle, respectively, are found. We generally expound the relations among uncertainty principle, singularity and condensed matter stability, discover that quantum uncertainty principle prevents from the appearance of singularity of the elec...
Fu, Jian
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that a tensor product structure could be obtained by introducing pseudorandom phase sequences into classical fields with two orthogonal modes. Using classical fields modulated with pseudorandom phase sequences, we discuss efficient simulation of several typical quantum states, including product state, Bell states, GHZ state, and W state. By performing quadrature demodulation scheme, we could obtain the mode status matrix of the simulating classical fields, based on which we propose a sequence permutation mechanism to reconstruct the simulated quantum states. The research on classical simulation of quantum states is important, for it not only enables potential practical applications in quantum computation, but also provides useful insights into fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics.
The quantum state of the universe from deformation quantization and classical-quantum correlation
Rashki, M.; Jalalzadeh, S.
2017-02-01
In this paper we study the quantum cosmology of homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, via the Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of phase space quantization, with perfect fluid as a matter source. The corresponding quantum cosmology is described by the Moyal-Wheeler-DeWitt equation which has exact solutions in Moyal phase space, resulting in Wigner quasiprobability distribution functions peaking around the classical paths for large values of scale factor. We show that the Wigner functions of these models are peaked around the non-singular universes with quantum modified density parameter of radiation.
Galapon, E A
2001-01-01
We raise the problem of constructing quantum observables that have classical counterparts without quantization. Specifically we seek to define and motivate a solution to the quantum-classical correspondence problem independent from quantization and discuss the general insufficiency of prescriptive quantization, particularly the Weyl quantization. We demonstrate our points by constructing time of arrival operators without quantization and from these recover their classical counterparts.
Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs
Skoric, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W.H.; Mosk, Allard P.
2016-01-01
Quantum Readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: a verifier can check if received classical data was sent by the PUF holder. We call this modific
Controlled quantum teleportation and secure direct communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Ting; Yan Feng-Li; Wang Zhi-Xi
2005-01-01
We present a controlled quantum teleportation protocol. In the protocol, quantum information of an unknown state of a 2-level particle is faithfully transmitted from a sender Alice to a remote receiver Bob via an initially shared triplet of entangled particles under the control of the supervisor Charlie. The distributed entangled particles shared by Alice, Bob and Charlie function as a quantum information channel for faithful transmission. We also propose a controlled and secure direct communication scheme by means of this teleportation. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, Alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states and transmits them to Bob supervised by Charlie using this controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded message directly by the measurement on his qubit. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits Alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret message between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if perfect quantum channel is used. The special feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side to co-operate.
From quantum to classical: Schrödinger cats, entanglement, and decoherence
Davidovich, L.
2016-06-01
Since the beginning of quantum physics, the relation between the properties of the microscopic quantum and the macroscopic classical world has been an important source for the development of the theory, and has led to new insights on the role of the environment in the transition from quantum to classical physics. Decoherence affects both coherence and entanglement of open systems. Quantum optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics have allowed detailed investigations of this phenomenon, within the framework of microwaves and light waves. In this paper, I present a personal account of theoretical and experimental developments that have led to the probing of the subtle frontier between quantum and classical phenomena.
Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution.
Jouguet, Paul; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Debuisschert, Thierry; Fossier, Simon; Diamanti, Eleni; Alléaume, Romain; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Pache, Philippe; Painchault, Philippe
2012-06-18
We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.
Field Test of Classical Symmetric Encryption with Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution
Jouguet, Paul; Debuisschert, Thierry; Fossier, Simon; Diamanti, Eleni; Alléaume, Romain; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Pache, Philippe; Painchault, Philippe
2012-01-01
We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.
Introduction of a Classical Level in Quantum Theory
Prosperi, G. M.
2016-11-01
In an old paper of our group in Milano a formalism was introduced for the continuous monitoring of a system during a certain interval of time in the framework of a somewhat generalized approach to quantum mechanics (QM). The outcome was a distribution of probability on the space of all the possible continuous histories of a set of quantities to be considered as a kind of coarse grained approximation to some ordinary quantum observables commuting or not. In fact the main aim was the introduction of a classical level in the context of QM, treating formally a set of basic quantities, to be considered as beables in the sense of Bell, as continuously taken under observation. However the effect of such assumption was a permanent modification of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the statistical operator by the introduction of a dissipative term which is in conflict with basic conservation rules in all reasonable models we had considered. Difficulties were even encountered for a relativistic extension of the formalism. In this paper I propose a modified version of the original formalism which seems to overcome both difficulties. First I study the simple models of an harmonic oscillator and a free scalar field in which a coarse grain position and a coarse grained field respectively are treated as beables. Then I consider the more realistic case of spinor electrodynamics in which only certain coarse grained electric and magnetic fields are introduced as classical variables and no matter related quantities.
Classical and quantum dynamics of driven elliptical billiards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lenz, Florian
2009-12-09
Subject of this thesis is the investigation of the classical dynamics of the driven elliptical billiard and the development of a numerical method allowing the propagation of arbitrary initial states in the quantum version of the system. In the classical case, we demonstrate that there is Fermi acceleration in the driven billiard. The corresponding transport process in momentum space shows a surprising crossover from sub- to normal diffusion. This crossover is not parameter induced, but rather occurs dynamically in the evolution of the ensemble. The four-dimensional phase space is analyzed in depth, especially how its composition changes in different velocity regimes. We show that the stickiness properties, which eventually determine the diffusion, are intimately connected with this change of the composition of the phase space with respect to velocity. In the course of the evolution, the accelerating ensemble thus explores regions of varying stickiness, leading to the mentioned crossover in the diffusion. In the quantum case, a series of transformations tailored to the elliptical billiard is applied to circumvent the time-dependent Dirichlet boundary conditions. By means of an expansion ansatz, this eventually yields a large system of coupled ordinary differential equations, which can be solved by standard techniques. (orig.)
Quantum Game Beats Classical Odds—Thermodynamics Implications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Levy
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A quantum game is described making use of coins embodied as entangled Fermions in a potential energy well. It is shown that the odds are affected by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. They depend on the elevation in the energy well where the coins are selected, ranging from being a certainty of winning at the bottom of the well to being near classical at the top. These odds differ markedly from those in a classical game in which they are independent of elevation. The thermodynamics counterpart of the quantum game is discussed. It is shown that the temperature of a Maxwellian gas column in a potential energy gradient is independent of elevation. However, the temperature of a Fermion gas is shown to drop with elevation. The game and the gas column utilize the same components. When Fermions are used, a shifting of odds is produced in the game and a shifting of kinetic energy is produced in the thermodynamic experiment, leading to a spontaneous temperature gradient.
Threshold Quantum Secret Sharing of Secure Direct Communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Bao-Kui; YANG Yu-Guang; WEN Qiao-Yan
2009-01-01
We propose a (t, n)-threshold quantum secret sharing protocol of secure direct communication following some ideas of Zhang's protocol [Phys. Lett. A 342 (2005) 60] and Tokunaga et al.'s protocol [Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 012314]. The sender distributes the classical secret shares to his or her n agents and each agent owns a secret share in advance. The sender's secure direct communication message can be extracted by an agent subset by collaboration in such a way that at least t or more agents can obtain the secret message with the mutual assistances but any t - 1 or fewer agents cannot. In contrast to the previous multiparty quantum secret sharing protocols in which the sender's secret message can be recovered only if all the agents collaborate, our protocol is more practical and more flexible.
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum-Classical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit
Turner, L.
2004-11-01
In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author’s perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the no-man’s-land separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. ‘How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process)? 2. ‘How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process)?’ However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher’s description refers to this book as ‘an accessible entrée’, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand ‘quantum-classical correspondence’. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the Fokker--Planck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms ‘an infinitesimality condition’, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.
Classical and Quantum Nonlinear Integrable Systems: Theory and Application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brzezinski, Tomasz [Department of Mathematics, University of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom)
2003-12-12
This is a very interesting collection of introductory and review articles on the theory and applications of classical and quantum integrable systems. The book reviews several integrable systems such as the KdV equation, vertex models, RSOS and IRF models, spin chains, integrable differential equations, discrete systems, Ising, Potts and other lattice models and reaction--diffusion processes, as well as outlining major methods of solving integrable systems. These include Lax pairs, Baecklund and Miura transformations, the inverse scattering method, various types of the Bethe Ansatz, Painleve methods, the dbar method and fusion methods to mention just a few. The book is divided into two parts, each containing five chapters. The first part is devoted to classical integrable systems and introduces the subject through the KdV equation, and then proceeds through Painleve analysis, discrete systems and two-dimensional integrable partial differential equations, to culminate in the review of solvable lattice models in statistical physics, solved through the coordinate and algebraic Bethe Ansatz methods. The second part deals with quantum integrable systems, and begins with an outline of unifying approaches to quantum, statistical, ultralocal and non-ultralocal systems. The theory and methods of solving quantum integrable spin chains are then described. Recent developments in applying Bethe Ansatz methods in condensed matter physics, including superconductivity and nanoscale physics, are reviewed. The book concludes with an introduction to diffusion-reaction processes. Every chapter is devoted to a different subject and is self-contained, and thus can be read separately. A reader interesting in classical methods of solitons, such as the methods of solving the KdV equation, can start from Chapter 1, while a reader interested in the Bethe Ansatz method can immediately proceed to Chapter 5, and so on. Thus the book should appeal and be useful to a wide range of theoretical
BOOK REVIEW: Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory
Mann, Robert
2013-02-01
Quantum field theory has evolved from its early beginnings as a tool for understanding the interaction of light with matter into a rather formidable technical paradigm, one that has successfully provided the mathematical underpinnings of all non-gravitational interactions. Over the eight decades since it was first contemplated the methods have become increasingly more streamlined and sophisticated, yielding new insights into our understanding of the subatomic world and our abilities to make clear and precise predictions. Some of the more elegant methods have to do with non-perturbative and semiclassical approaches to the subject. The chief players here are solitons, instantons, and anomalies. Over the past three decades there has been a steady rise in our understanding of these objects and of our ability to calculate their effects and implications for the rest of quantum field theory. This book is a welcome contribution to this subject. In 12 chapters it provides a clear synthesis of the key developments in these subjects at a level accessible to graduate students that have had an introductory course to quantum field theory. In the author's own words it provides both 'a survey and an overview of this field'. The first half of the book concentrates on solitons--kinks, vortices, and magnetic monopoles--and their implications for the subject. The reader is led first through the simplest models in one spatial dimension, into more sophisticated cases that required more advanced topological methods. The author does quite a nice job of introducing the various concepts as required, and beginning students should be able to get a good grasp of the subject directly from the text without having to first go through the primary literature. The middle part of the book deals with the implications of these solitons for both cosmology and for duality. While the cosmological discussion is quite nice, the discussion on BPS solitons, supersymmetry and duality is rather condensed. It is
Parametric down-conversion with local operation and two-way classical communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Qiang; Tan Yong-Gang
2011-01-01
The decoy-state quantum key distribution protocol suggested by Adachi et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 180503(2007))is proven to be secure and feasible with current techniques. It owns two attractive merits, i.e,its longer secure transmission distance and more convenient operation design. In this paper, we first improve the protocol with the aid of local operation and two-way classical communication(2-LOCC). After our modifications, the secure transmission distance is increased by about 20 km, which will make the protocol more practicable.
Classical Communication Cost and Probabilistic Remote Preparation of Four-Particle Entangled W State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Kui; SHI Shou-Hua
2009-01-01
We present a scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of the four-particle entangled W state by using four partial entangled two-particle states as the quantum channel. In this scheme, if Alice (sender) performs four-particle projective measurements and Bob (receiver) adopts some appropriate unitary operation, the remote state preparation can be successfully realized with certain probability. The classical communication cost is also calculated. However, the success probability of preparation can be increased to 1 for four kinds of special states.
Quantum control using genetic algorithms in quantum communication: superdense coding
Domínguez-Serna, Francisco; Rojas, Fernando
2015-06-01
We present a physical example model of how Quantum Control with genetic algorithms is applied to implement the quantum superdense code protocol. We studied a model consisting of two quantum dots with an electron with spin, including spin-orbit interaction. The electron and the spin get hybridized with the site acquiring two degrees of freedom, spin and charge. The system has tunneling and site energies as time dependent control parameters that are optimized by means of genetic algorithms to prepare a hybrid Bell-like state used as a transmission channel. This state is transformed to obtain any state of the four Bell basis as required by superdense protocol to transmit two bits of classical information. The control process protocol is equivalent to implement one of the quantum gates in the charge subsystem. Fidelities larger than 99.5% are achieved for the hybrid entangled state preparation and the superdense operations.