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Sample records for classic chapter xviii

  1. XVIII CENTURY CLASSICAL TURKISH LITERATURE: MESNEVİ XVIII. YÜZYIL KLASİK TÜRK EDEBİYATI: MESNEVİLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet KARTAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Masnavi is one of the most widely used forms of classical Turkish poetry verse. Both the rhyming couplets formed themselves and to be free in the number of couplets, especially in off-balance as long mesnevi issues are discussed. In this study, we will give knowledge from Kutadgu Bilig which was written by Yusuf Has Hacip than XVIII. century mesnevi literature in the period up to be informed about the short. Bu çalışmada önce Balasagunlu Yûsuf’un 1070 tarihinde kaleme aldığı Kutadgu Bilig’den XVIII. asra kadar olan dönem içindeki mesnevi edebiyatı hakkında kısa bilgi verilerek, her dönemin öne çıkan özelliği vurgulanmıştır. Akabinde XVIII. asır mesnevi edebiyatı kısaca değerlendirilip hüviyeti ortaya konulmaya çalışılmış, özellikle mesnevînin konusunda oluşan değişikliğe dikkat çekilmiştir. Daha sonra mesneviler konularına göre tasnif edilmiş, mesnevîler hakkında bilgi verilmiş, özelliği belirtilmiş ve değeri ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca taşıdığı yenilikler dikkatlere sunulmuş ve üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar belirtilmiştir.

  2. Classical electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwinger, Julian Seymour; Milton, K A; Tsai, W Y

    1998-01-01

    This text for the graduate classical electrodynamics course was left unfinished upon Julian Schwinger's death in 1994, but was completed by his coauthors, who have brilliantly recreated the excitement of Schwinger's novel approach. Classical Electrodynamics captures Schwinger's inimitable lecturing style, in which everything flows inexorably from what has gone before. An essential resource for both physicists and their students, the book includes a "Reader's Guide", which describes the major themes in each chapter, suggests a possible path through the book, and identifies topics for inclusion

  3. Keila XVIII muinsuskaitsepäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    15. V Keila sotsiaalkeskuse saalis Keila XVIII muinsuskaitsepäeva puhul arhitektuurile pühendatud Harjumaa muuseumi konverents. Esinevad Kaspar Kuuse, Silja Konsa, Heli Kirikal, Silvi Lindmaa-Pihlak, Mart Kalm. Avatud Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumi näitus "Eesti puitarhitektuur"

  4. Chapter 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cissé, Salmana; Keith M. Moore; Brewster, C.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record In chapter 2, Cissé et al. introduce the social and historical context shaping the lifescape of the Inland Delta of the Niger, the core of Mali's 5th Region. Various ethnic groups have coexisted in this area for centuries, generating livelihoods with complementary systems of production. The chapter discusses how recent changes in agricultural and pastoral production systems have unbalanced this symbiosis and increased competition for scarce resources, thereby leading t...

  5. La civilización como modelo de vida en el Madrid del siglo XVIII

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    Álvarez Barrientos, Joaquín

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, the author approaches the social changes, both urban and rural, that Madrid sustained during the 18th century and which resulted in new manners and customs. It is a study of how civilization entered the Ancient Régime.

    Este trabajo es un acercamiento a los cambios sociales, urbanos y rurales, que se dieron en el Madrid del siglo XVIII desde el punto de vista de las nuevas costumbres: un estudio de cómo penetró la civilización en el Antiguo Régimen.

  6. Chapter 4

    OpenAIRE

    Westley, F.; Carpenter, S.R.; Brock, W.A.; C. S. Holling; Gunderson, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter attempts to compare ecological systems (as perceived by ecologists), against social systems (as perceived by social scientists). The differences between the systems lie in the dimensions used to study each system. Ecological systems key dimensions are space and time. While social systems include those dimensions, a third one, symbolic construction and meaning, is also added to fully understand the system. Essentially, this third dimension significantly con...

  7. Russian-Swedish Maritime Rivalry in XVIII cen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kolotov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the military-technical aspect of Russian-Swedish confrontation of the XVIII cen. Given short chronology of hostilities and influence the characteristics of the ships on the results of campaigns.

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF Fe XVIII IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teriaca, Luca; Curdt, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 A emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 A channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 A channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 A line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 A line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  9. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriaca, Luca; Warren, Harry P.; Curdt, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 Å channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 Å channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 Å line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  10. Sibilantes em manuscritos do século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ferreira Munhoz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das alternâncias no emprego das sibilantes, variação linguística encontrada em documentos da segunda metade do século XVIII editados no âmbito do projeto Filologia Bandeirante.

  11. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for TS Children’s Health Act Social Security Healthcare Reform Principles Mental Health Parity Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act ... status] => 0 [display_name] => Alaska Chapter ) [ID] => 22 [caps] => Array ( [chapter] => 1 ) [cap_key] => wp_capabilities [roles] => ...

  12. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  13. Classical antiparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Teriaca, Luca; Curdt, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broad band soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 AA emission line in an on-disk active region taken with then SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the XRT on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the AIA 94 AA channel on SDO. The AIA 94 AA channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperature...

  15. [Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, A V

    2014-03-01

    Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection.

  16. El oficio de los neveros en Gran Canaria en el siglo XVIII

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    Salvador Miranda Calderin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A finales del s. XVII el Cabildo Catedral de Canarias, con sede en la capital de Gran Canaria, construyó en la cumbre de la Isla dos pozos de nieve. Allí la recogían y conservaban hasta que era transportada en verano a la ciudad. Las libras de nieve se vendieron en la «nevería» ubicada en la trasera de la Catedral desde 1694 hasta 1866. En este artículo estudiamos el oficio de nevero en Gran Canaria, que había sido olvidado por completo, sus salarios, alimentación y especialidades en el s. XVIII.At the end of XVIIIth century the Canary Cathedral Chapter, settled in Gran Canaria Island capital, built, up in the mountains, two snow wells. Workers collected the snow and filled the wells until it was transported, in summer time, from the top of the island (1.949 meters to the city. Snow pounds were sold in the back of the Cathedral from 1694 to 1866. In this article we study the «neveros» job (snow workers in Gran Canaria, that it had been completely forgotten nowdays, their salaries, food and specialities in XVIIIth century.

  17. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  18. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  19. Chapter 9: Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  20. Classics Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayman, Dee L.

    1995-01-01

    Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CD-ROM pictorial dictionary…

  1. Hong Kong chapter report

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, M; Cheung, YM

    2008-01-01

    Yiu-ming Cheung from Hong Kong Baptist University, China, and Michael Chau from The University of Hong Kong, China, has discussed significant facts of the IEEE (Hong Kong) Computational Intelligence Chapter report. The Hong Kong Chapter, founded in 2003, is aimed at coordinating and supporting work and stimulating the public's interests in the field of Computational Intelligence in the city. They have organized many activities that can be classified in four categories, such as conference co-o...

  2. Classical integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  3. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  4. Classical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Donald T

    1997-01-01

    Graduate-level text for science and technology students provides strong background in the more abstract and intellectually satisfying areas of dynamical theory. Topics include d'Alembert's principle and the idea of virtual work, Hamilton's equations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, canonical transformations, more. Problems and references at chapter ends.

  5. Classical Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previous...

  6. Classical thermodynamics of non-electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Van Ness, H C

    1964-01-01

    Classical Thermodynamics of Non-Electrolyte Solutions covers the historical development of classical thermodynamics that concerns the properties of vapor and liquid solutions of non-electrolytes. Classical thermodynamics is a network of equations, developed through the formal logic of mathematics from a very few fundamental postulates and leading to a great variety of useful deductions. This book is composed of seven chapters and begins with discussions on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and the thermodynamic properties of fluids. The succeeding chapter presents the equations of state for

  7. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay-out to f...

  8. Classical Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previously given rules support all of these cases. Key Words: brain states, conscious observer, detector, measurement, probability current, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.

  9. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility

  10. El Quijote en un biombo novohispano del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARNULFO HERRERA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una revisión historiográfica sobre algunas de las resonancias de El Quijote en la vida cultural de la Nueva España. El análisis se centró en el examen de un biombo del siglo XVIII de autor desconocido en donde se plasmaron algunas de las escenas más importantes de la obra cervantina. Asimismo se plantearon dos hipótesis: primera, que tanto el estilo como el tópico del objeto se habrían convertido en una constante para este tipo de artículos suntuarios que proliferaron en las casas de los novohispanos pudientes, y segunda, que habría existido otro biombo novohispano con motivos iconográficos de la más famosa novela de Cervantes.

  11. Introduction to Chapter two

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the first forms of occupation of the territory east of the Jordan River, from prehistoric times to the taking of Phoenicia by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. At that time, the climate was wetter and hunter-gatherers of the Palaeolithic period were widely scattered along wadis and temporary ponds. During the Neolithic period they developed new hunting techniques and built kites throughout the badiya; these were long funnel-shaped stone walls used to capture gaz...

  12. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist

  13. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  14. Chapter 7: Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca; Coleman, Andre; Wigmosta, Mark; Schoenung, Susan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Langholtz, Matthew; Davis, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    This chapter of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report provides an estimate of biomass potential at given minimum selling prices. This is not a projection of actual measured biomass or a simulation of commercial projects. Biomass potential is estimated based on 30 years of hourly local climate and strain-specific biophysical characteristics using the Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT), assuming sufficient available nutrients (including CO2). As is the case for terrestrial feedstocks, important resource analysis questions for algae include not only how much of the crop may be available but also what price might be needed to procure that supply. Identifying resource co-location opportunities for algal biofuel facilities has the potential to reduce costs, utilize waste resources, and focus attention on appropriate technologies and locations for commercialization.

  15. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author)

  16. 77 FR 13317 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95...+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII: Project No. 14261-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC: Project No....

  17. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95... Friends Fund XVIII for Project No. 14261-000, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC for Project No. 14268-000,...

  18. ASPECTOS DE LA VIDA Y SOCIEDAD NOVOHISPANA DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Quirós Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se habla acerca de diversos aspectos de la vida y sociedad en la Nueva España. Se tratan concretamente dos temas que sirven de reflejo de esta la sociedad colonial de principios del siglo XVIII; en primer lugar el de la relación las colonias españolas de ultramar con la corona española, en la época de la Guerra de la Sucesión, y en segundo el de la esclavitud que se desarrolla en este mismo periodo, con el negocio conocido como Paso Medio, con africanos mayormente provenientes de Angola y La Guinea. El ámbito geográfico se acota a la localidad de San Luís Potosí, en México. Y su desarrollo se basa en dos documentos encontrados en el Archivo Histórico Municipal del San Luís Potosí, en su sección de Alcaldía Mayor.

  19. Instrumentos topográficos del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Lázaro, Teresa

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available An accurate evaluation of an engineering desing of the past requires a knowledge of the technical conditions under which it was drawn. For example, what were the resources available for the study of the topography on which the construction was going to be placed? Such a study must preceed the drawing of the plans of any preliminary sketch. On the following pages we will analyze the topographical equipment of an engineer of the end of the XVIIIth century.

    Para valorar un proyecto antiguo es preciso saber en qué condiciones técnicas se tiizo. Cuáles eran, por ejemplo, los medios disponibles para el estudio de la topografía en que la obra se iba a asentar, operación previa al levantamiento de los planos. Vamos a analizar, en las páginas siguientes, el equipo y los métodos topográficos de un ingeniero del siglo XVIII.

  20. The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations

    CERN Document Server

    Reichl, Linda E

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include • Noether’s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior • Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems • Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...

  1. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  2. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, J. S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  3. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process

  4. The classical theory of fields electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2012-01-01

    The study of classical electromagnetic fields is an adventure. The theory is complete mathematically and we are able to present it as an example of classical Newtonian experimental and mathematical philosophy. There is a set of foundational experiments, on which most of the theory is constructed. And then there is the bold theoretical proposal of a field-field interaction from James Clerk Maxwell. This textbook presents the theory of classical fields as a mathematical structure based solidly on laboratory experiments. Here the student is introduced to the beauty of classical field theory as a gem of theoretical physics. To keep the discussion fluid, the history is placed in a beginning chapter and some of the mathematical proofs in the appendices. Chapters on Green’s Functions and Laplace’s Equation and a discussion of Faraday’s Experiment further deepen the understanding. The chapter on Einstein’s relativity is an integral necessity to the text. Finally, chapters on particle motion and waves in a dis...

  5. Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...

  6. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  7. Chapter 59: Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M. J.

    Web services are a cornerstone of the distributed computing infrastructure that the VO is built upon yet to the newcomer, they can appear to be a black art. This perception is not helped by the miasma of technobabble that pervades the subject and the seemingly impenetrable high priesthood of actual users. In truth, however, there is nothing conceptually difficult about web services (unsurprisingly any complexities will lie in the implementation details) nor indeed anything particularly new. A web service is a piece of software available over a network with a formal description of how it is called and what it returns that a computer can understand. Note that entities such as web servers, ftp servers and database servers do not generally qualify as they lack the standardized description of their inputs and outputs. There are prior technologies, such as RMI, CORBA, and DCOM, that have employed a similar approach but the success of web services lies predominantly in its use of standardized XML to provide a language-neutral way for representing data. In fact, the standardization goes further as web services are traditionally (or as traditionally as five years will allow) tied to a specific set of technologies (WSDL and SOAP conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization). Alternative implementations are becoming increasingly common and we will cover some of these here. One important thing to remember in all of this, though, is that web services are meant for use by computers and not humans (unlike web pages) and this is why so much of it seems incomprehensible gobbledegook. In this chapter, we will start with an overview of the web services current in the VO and present a short guide on how to use and deploy a web service. We will then review the different approaches to web services, particularly REST and SOAP, and alternatives to XML as a data format. We will consider how web services can be formally described and discuss how advanced features such as security, state

  8. A Companion to Classical Receptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This recent addition to the excellent Blackwell Companions series looks at the various forms of classical reception currently being researched as well as those deemed to have future importance. The diversity and volume of the themes and approaches contained in this book are truly impressive. As Hardwick and Stray state in their introduction, this collection “has been constructed on the basis that the activators of reception are many and varied and that we all gain from encountering examples from outside our own immediate areas of knowledge” (p. 4. Throughout the book they stay true to this motto and traditional approaches to classical reception are not given prominence over more recent (sometimes contentious approaches such as film studies, cultural politics and photography. The same goes for the various cultures involved and there is even a chapter on Greek drama in South Africa.

  9. Cossacks on the Danube Territories (the End of XVIII - the 20s of the XIX c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lebedenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the emergence of Ukrainian Cossacks on the banks of the Danube in the XVIII-XIX centuries, their influence on the economic and cultural development of the region, the role of the Cossacks in rosiyskogo-Turkish wars of the period.

  10. Llengua i societat en la medicina tradicional i popular dels segles XVIII i XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Martí Mestre

    2014-01-01

    This text constitutes a study and critical edition of a Valencian prescription manuscript, from the beginning of the XIX century, which has remained practically unknown up to the present day. It juxtaposes early instances of the language in this genre with the presence of the traditional forms of the names of diseases or medicines in Valencian popular literature of the XVIII and XIX centuries.

  11. PREFACE: XVIII International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Chavdar; Janeva, Natalia

    2010-11-01

    This volume contains the lectures and short talks given at the XVIII International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications. The School was held from 21 to 27 September 2009 in Hotel 'Lilia' located on 'Golden Sands' (Zlatni Pyasaci) Resort Complex on the Black Sea coast, near Varna, Bulgaria. The School was organized by Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Co-organizer of the School was Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency. The event was sponsored by National Science Fund of Bulgaria. According to the long-standing tradition the School has taken place every second year since 1973. The School content has been restructured according to our new enlarged international links and today it is more similar to an international conference than to a classical nuclear physics school. This new image attracts a lot of young scientists and students from many countries. This year - 2009, we had the pleasure to welcome more than 50 distinguished scientists as lecturers. Additionally, 14 young colleagues received the opportunity to present a short contribution. The program ranges from recent achievements in nuclear structure and reactions to the hot problems of the application of nuclear methods, reactor physics and nuclear safety. The 94 participants enjoyed the scientific presentations and discussions as well as the relaxing atmosphere at the beach and the pleasant evenings. The main topics were the following: Nuclear excitations at various energies. Nuclei at high angular moments and temperature. Structure and reactions far from stability Symmetries and collective phenomena Methods for lifetime measurements Astrophysical aspects of nuclear structure Neutron nuclear physics Nuclear data Advanced methods in nuclear waste treatment Nuclear methods for applications Several colleagues contributed to the organization of the School. We would like to thank to them and especially to the Scientific Secretary of the School Dr

  12. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  13. El isomorfismo de las bibliotecas jesuitas (siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli de Tezanos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo, que es mostrar el isomorfismo de las bibliotecas jesuitas, se llevó a cabo el desciframiento y la transcripción, por primera vez, de los inventarios de las bibliotecas jesuitas de los colegios de Santiago, Concepción y Castro, que se encuentran en las temporalidades jesuitas en el Archivo Nacional de Chile. Para comprender la estructura y el desarrollo de las bibliotecas de la Compañía de Jesús, se da cuenta del significado de algunos conceptos claves (scriptor-auctor/inventario-catálogo, incluyendo aspectos de la historia de las formas de catalogación elaboradas por la Orden. Se presenta la cartografía de las bibliotecas que podían encontrarse en general en los diversos colegios y casas jesuitas, su organización y el papel del bibliotecario en relación con el acceso a los libros. Se recurre a la noción de isomorfismo que en matemáticas implica una relación de similitud entre dos objetos y que en teoría de grupos, permite deducir varias propiedades de un grupo a partir de otro. Esta noción la empleamos como herramienta para mostrar a través de la comparación entre los autores repertoriados en los inventarios y catálogos de las bibliotecas de los ocho colegios jesuitas, realizados en el siglo XVIII, que ellos comparten casi 300 autores en diversas disciplinas. Este isomorfismo de las bibliotecas jesuitas es la expresión de una experiencia común, de una tradición compartida y transmisible, y finalmente, lo convierte en un elemento constitutivo de la memoria colectiva de la O

  14. Tolerancia, verdad y libertad de conciencia en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, Eduardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century defense of tolerance rests upon two lines of argument; lines that we can observe in thinkers such as Montesquieu and Rousseau, Diderot, Romilly and Voltaire. The first deconstructs the concept of absolute truth as it applies not only to the (orthodox doctrine itself, as revealed by God, but also to the Catholic Church insofar as it is taken to be the only institution where truth resides uniquely. The second line of argument would run as follows: Once we acknowledge the rights of consciousness to every single religion, how can we possibly avoid a circular justification of intolerance? Romilly and Voltaire defend, without renouncing to the rights of consciousness (which are the base of individual liberties, the Lockean thesis of the separation Church-State. However, they assign to the State the ius circa sacra. It is only upon this foundation that the idea and the practice of tolerance, both religiously as well as universally and multiculturally speaking, can be constructed.

    La defensa de la tolerancia, en el siglo XVIII, se apoya en dos líneas de argumentación, que observamos en pensadores como Montesquieu y Rousseau, Diderot, Romilly y Voltaire. Una es la que deconstruye el concepto de verdad absoluta aplicado tanto a la doctrina (ortodoxa, por ello revelada por Dios como a la institución considerada única depositaria de tal verdad, la Iglesia católica, única «verdadera». Otra sigue este argumento: si se reconocen los derechos de la conciencia a toda confesión religiosa, ¿acaso podría evitarse una justificación circular de la intolerancia? Sin renunciar a los derechos de la conciencia, base de las libertades individuales, Romilly y Voltaire sostienen la separación Iglesia-Estado, como lo hiciera Locke, asignando a éste el ius circa sacra. Sólo sobre esta base se logra fundamentar la idea y la práctica de la tolerancia no sólo religiosa, sino también universal o multicultural.

  15. Absence of collagen XVIII in mice causes age-related insufficiency in retinal pigment epithelium proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivinen, Niko; Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Kinnunen, Aino I; Setälä, Niko; Aikio, Mari; Kinnunen, Kati; Sironen, Reijo; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Collagen XVIII has the structural properties of both collagen and proteoglycan. It has been found at the basement membrane/stromal interface where it is thought to mediate their attachment. Endostatin, a proteolytic fragment from collagen XVIII C-terminal end has been reported to possess anti-angiogenic properties. Age-related vision loss in collagen XVIII mutant mice has been accompanied with a pathological accumulation of deposits under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We have recently demonstrated that impaired proteasomal and autophagy clearance are associated with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. This study examined the staining levels of proteasomal and autophagy markers in the RPE of different ages of the Col18a1 (-/-) mice. Eyes from 3, 6-7, 10-13 and 18 months old mice were enucleated and embedded in paraffin according to the routine protocol. Sequential 5 μm-thick parasagittal samples were immunostained for proteasome and autophagy markers ubiquitin (ub), SQSTM1/p62 and beclin-1. The levels of immunopositivity in the RPE cells were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Collagen XVIII knock-out mice had undergone age-related RPE degeneration accompanied by an accumulation of drusen-like deposits. Ub protein conjugate staining was prominent in both RPE cytoplasm and extracellular space whereas SQSTM1/p62 and beclin-1 stainings were clearly present in the basal part of RPE cell cytoplasm in the Col18a1 (-/-) mice. SQSTM1/p62 displayed mild extracellular space staining. Disturbed proteostasis regulated by collagen XVIII might be responsible for the RPE degeneration, increased protein aggregation, ultimately leading to choroidal neovascularization. PMID:27125427

  16. Chapter 28. Chemistry and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author deals with the light and photochemical reactions as photosynthesis, visions, ozone layer depletion, photodynamic therapy, laser and its applications and photochromism. Principle of solar cells and solar energy conversion are presented.

  17. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  18. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  19. Chapter IV: Primary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inanimate and live nature, which represent the basis of the landscape as yet not affected by man and his activities is represented in detail in this chapter. It is characterised by the series of components of the physical sphere as the permanent material basis of the remaining landscape structures. The output is the types of the primary landscape structure represented by the abiotic complexes. This chapter consists of next subchapters: (1) Geological base; (2) Surface; (3) Air; (4) Waters; (5) Soils; (6) Vegetation; (7) Fauna; (8) Types of primary landscape structure

  20. Comparison of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX Line Emissions with Spectral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, P.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Drake, J. J.; Edgar, R. J.; Hoogerwerf, R.; Kashyap, V.; Wargelin, B. J.; Smith, R. K.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Liedahl, D. A.

    2005-06-01

    We discuss here the observations of Fe XVIII and XIX emission lines and compare the X-ray, EUV and FUV lines with the spectral codes widely used today (e.g. FAC and APEC). We assess the relative accuracy of these spectral models and try to identify the critical atomic data and processes. Capella with a narrow enhancement in its emission measure distribution at 6 MK provides a unique opportunity to test the Fe XVIII and Fe XIX model emissivities which peak from 6 to 8 MK. We use the summed spectra from Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and LETG/HRC-S, as well as contemporaneous EUVE and FUSE observations, to measure line ratios for comparison with predictions.

  1. Documentos para la historio social de Popayán en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marzalh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Documentos para la Historia Social de Papayán en el siglo XVIII. Varios/ Archivo Central del Central del Cauca. Fondo: Protocolos Notariales. Años 1616, 1620, 1621, 1629, 1634. Transcripción de Peter Marzahl// En: Anuario No. 5 (1970; p. 143-188. Serie de documentos, testamentos, contratos, etc., en donde se dan datos importantes para reconstruir aspectos de la economía y sociedad del Cauca del siglo XVIII, tales como: número de vecinos, encomenderos, mano de obra indígena y esclava; importancia de la minería como motor económico de la región; relaciones entre encomienda y control de mano de obra; el desarrollo de una economía mercantil con surgimiento de compañías para tal actividad.  

  2. Classicalization of Quantum Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Koide, T

    2014-01-01

    A systematic procedure to extract classical degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics is formulated using the stochastic variational method. With this classicalization, a hybrid model constructed from quantum and classical variables (quantum-classical hybrids) is derived systematically. In this procedure, conservation laws such as energy are maintained, and Eherefest`s theorem is still satisfied with modification. The criterion for the applicability of quantum-classical hybrids is also investigated.

  3. Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...

  4. La difusión social de los manuales epistolares : Girona, siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Pelayo, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigación analiza la difusión social de la literatura epistolar en la ciudad de Girona durante el siglo XVIII escrutando la presencia de manuales y modelos epistolares en la producción de los impresores gerundenses, en los fondos de los libreros, en las bibliotecas particulares y en las subastas públicas. Asimismo, se examina la tipología y las pretensiones de los títulos más frecuentes.

  5. Un conflicto matrimonial en el siglo XVIII: Henri de Vaucocour y Marie Boutinaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Minvielle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El matrimonio en 1741 de dos miembros de la baja nobleza del suroeste de Francia, Henri de Vaucocour y Marie Boutinaud, desembocó, a partir de 1751, en un proceso judicial de separación. Los fondos documentales conservados sirven para analizar un conflicto matrimonial, las relaciones entre esposos, y las múltiples facetas de la violencia doméstica en la Francia del siglo XVIII

  6. Collagen XVIII/endostatin expression in experimental endotoxemic acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Cichy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a frequent complication of Gram-negative sepsis, with a high risk of mortality. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARF is associated with hemodynamic changes that are strongly influenced by the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO through the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of inducible NO synthase. LPS-induced reductions in systemic vascular resistance paradoxically culminate in renal vasoconstriction. Collagen XVIII is an important component of the extracellular matrix expressed in basement membranes. Its degradation by matrix metalloproteases, cathepsins and elastases results in the formation of endostatin, claimed to have antiangiogenic activity and to be a prominent vasorelaxing agent. We evaluated the expression of endostatin/collagen XVIII in an endotoxemic ARF model. ARF was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg followed by sacrifice 4 and 12 h later. Kidney tissue was the source of RNA and protein and the subject of histological analysis. As early as 4 h after LPS administration, blood urea, creatinine and NO levels were significantly increased compared to control. Endostatin/collagen XVIII mRNA levels were 0.71 times lower than sham-inoculated mice 4 h after LPS inoculation, returning to normal levels 12 h after LPS inoculation. Immunohistological examination revealed that acute injury caused by LPS leads to an increase of endostatin basement membrane staining in association with the decrease of CD31 endothelial basement membrane staining. These results indicate that in the early phase of endotoxemic ARF the endostatin levels were not regulated by gene expression, but by the metabolism of collagen XVIII.

  7. Around the world with professor Vening Meinesz onboard the submarine K-XVIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Bart; Hanssen, Ramon; Vermeersen, Bert; Munnik, Michiel; Vlijm, Rozemarijn

    2015-04-01

    In November 1934, Den Helder, The Netherlands, the start of a remarkable voyage commenced. The Hr. Ms. K-XVIII, a Dutch submarine, was about to set sail to Soerabaya, Indonesia. Onboard was a Dutch professor, Felix Andries Vening Meinesz. He was able to measure the Earth's gravity field with similar precision as on land for the first time in history using his innovative pendulum apparatus. His ground breaking data and systematic way of working changed the way of performing scientific expeditions. With the Library of the TUDelft and "Stichting Academisch Erfgoed" (Academic Heritage Foundation), we revisit this particular expedition and use it as a stepping stone to web-based geodetic and geophysical education for students and the public. The K-XVIII sailed over spreading ridges, transform faults, hotspot volcanos, subduction zones and many more interesting geological structures, which are discussed in this application. The importance of geodetic research is heavily present along the complete voyage in the form of global geoid determination. Moreover, the precision of the observations onboard the K-XVIII are compared with current satellite gravimetry and prove to be remarkable accurate. The goal of the project is to make the several datasets of Vening Meinesz, his measurements, articles, media, old foto's and other objects of the K-XVIII voyage, accessible for the public. The user can follow the famous voyage from Den Helder to Soerabaya in an interactive web application, stopping at interesting geophysical or historical places in space and time. The user can learn about plate tectonics and its historical findings, study the equipment that Vening Meinesz used to observe the gravity field with extreme precision, and learn about the important collaboration between science and the Navy. Dive into the adventure of the geo-scientific research of professor Vening Meinesz.

  8. Classical and new ideas of a university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    The chapter examines what has happened to ideas of the university in the light of current reforms and the implementation of performance management. Taking a retrospective view of the most central ideas of a university, focus will be on why even a modernized and corporatized university apparently...... cannot survive without reference to ideas and idealistic justifications, including a number of classical ideas, as well as on which new ideas may be delineated on the basis of the old....

  9. What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum and signifies a break with the Copenhagen interpretation-for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shine some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum-classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classical...

  10. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images

  11. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    CERN Document Server

    Makarova, L N; Karachentsev, I D; Tully, R B; Rizzi, L

    2016-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33+-0.08 Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2x10^6 Msun. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star form...

  12. Functional characterization of neostatins, the MMP-derived, enzymatic cleavage products of type XVIII collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin-Hong; Javier, Joel A D; Chang, Gene-Yuan; Oliveira, Hailton B; Azar, Dimitri T

    2005-07-01

    Several anti-angiogenic factors are derived from proteolytic processing of large molecules including endostatin from type XVIII collagen and angiostatin from plasminogen. In previous studies we showed that neostatin-7, the C-terminal 28kDa endostatin-spanning proteolytic fragment, is generated from the proteolytic action of matrix metalloproteinase matrilysin (MMP)-7 on type XVIII collagen. Now, we report a second member of the neostatin family of proteins, neostatin-14. Given the small quantities of neostatin-7 and -14 generated by the breakdown of naturally occurring collagen XVIII (using MMP-7 and -14, respectively), we used two other approaches to characterize the anti-angiogenic properties of these molecules: murine recombinant neostatin in vitro, and gene therapy. We demonstrate that murine recombinant neostatin-7 inhibits calf pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation and that microinjection of neostatin-7 and neostatin-14 naked DNA into the corneal stroma of mice results in significant reduction of basic fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization. These results provide supportive evidence of the possible anti-angiogenic effect of neostatins. PMID:15978592

  13. Steel catenary riser for the Marlim field FPS P-XVIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serta, O.B.; Mourelle, M.M. [Petrobras S/A, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Grealish, F.W.; Harbert, S.J.; Souza, L.F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Steel catenary risers (SCRs) have been successfully deployed on the Shell Auger TLP in the Gulf of Mexico and will also be deployed on the Shell Mars TLP. There is considerable interest in using SCRs for other applications, in particular for semi-sub based FPS systems. Petrobras is developing an SCR for installation on the P-XVIII platform, located in the Marlim Field, Campos Basin, in a water depth of 910 meters. The riser will be a dead-ended prototype which will be monitored for a period of up to one year. Subsequently, it will be connected via flexible piping to the P-XXVI platform, located approximately 5 kilometers from P-XVIII. This paper describes the design, materials, components, specification and installation of the Petrobras P-XVIII SCR. The static/dynamic design, VIV analysis and fatigue analysis methodologies are discussed in detail and results are presented. Important aspects of the flex joint design and specification are discussed. This project represents the first application of SCRs to semi-sub based FPS systems. In addition, it is the first use of SCRs outside of the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. La Librería de Juan Polo en Murcia a mediados del siglo XVIII Juan Polo's library in Murcia in the middle of the XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo García Cuadrado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A través del análisis del inventario de los bienes dejados a su muerte por el librero Juan Polo, junto a la utilización de otras fuentes archivísticas, se retrata el perfil vital y las actividades desarrolladas por este profesional del libro en la Murcia de mediados del siglo XVIII. La trascripción e identificación de los libros y otros impresos menores reseñados en el inventario y, sobre todo, la cuantía de ejemplares por título ha permitido abordar el tipo de clientela de la librería y la aceptación o el éxito de determinados productos editoriales, siempre en consonancia con unas necesidades prácticas, formativas o recreativas y con unos hábitos lectores fácilmente reconocibles.The profile and activities carried out by the bookseller Juan Polo during the XVIII century are analyzed through the inventory of assets and other archival sources which remained after his death. The identification and transcription of books and other minor works recorded in the inventory, and above all the quantity of existing copies of each title, allow us to also depict the profile of regular clients, and to assess the degree of success attained by certain publishing products. Practical, recreational or educational needs were also kept in mind in order to acknowledge easily recognizable reader's habits.

  15. From classical to quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, Laurent; Sénéor, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate the correct mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unified theories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a re...

  16. A course in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bettini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This first volume covers the mechanics of point particles, gravitation, extended systems (starting from the two-body system), the basic concepts of relativistic mechanics and the mechanics of rigid bodies and fluids. The four-volume textbook, which covers electromagnetism, mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics, and waves and light, is designed to reflect the typical syllabus during the first two years of a calculus-based university physics program. Throughout all four volumes, particular attention is paid to in-depth clarification of conceptual aspects, and to this end the historical roots of the principal concepts are traced. Writings by the founders of classical mechanics, G. Galilei and I. Newton, are reproduced, encouraging students to consult them. Emphasis is also consistently placed on the experimental basis of the concepts, highlighting the experimental nature of physics. Whenever feasible at the elementary level, concepts relevant to more advanced courses in modern physics are included. Each chapter b...

  17. Quantum computing classical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David A

    2002-03-15

    In the past decade, quantum algorithms have been found which outperform the best classical solutions known for certain classical problems as well as the best classical methods known for simulation of certain quantum systems. This suggests that they may also speed up the simulation of some classical systems. I describe one class of discrete quantum algorithms which do so--quantum lattice-gas automata--and show how to implement them efficiently on standard quantum computers.

  18. Chapter V: Secondary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the secondary landscape structure of the Slovak Republic. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Land use pattern; (2) Special landscape structures; (3) Real vegetation. The secondary landscape structure consists of the elements influenced by man, created or recreated. They represent material elements with a particular spatial delimitation in the landscape. Vegetation, above all forest vegetation, is the indispensable part of the secondary landscape structure. Special space was given to the historical landscape structure

  19. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  20. Chapter 17 - Economics of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Chambwera, M.; Heal, G.; Dubeux, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Leclerc, L.; Markandya, A.; McCarl, B.A.; Mechler, R; Neumann, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter assesses the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation, building on the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) and the increasing role that economic considerations are playing in adaptation decisionmaking and policy. AR4 provided a limited assessment of the costs and benefits of adaptation, based on narrow and fragmented sectoral and regional literature (Adger et al, 2007). Substantial advances have been made in the economics of climate change adaptation after AR4.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Xviii to Part 86 - Statistical Outlier Identification Procedure for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Subpart R XVIII Appendix XVIII to Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R... calculate the residual at the deleted point, denoted as (yi − yi′). Obtain a statistic by dividing (yi −...

  2. Entanglement in Classical Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghose, Partha

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate between separable and nonseparable states in classical wave optics where no discreteness is involved. The influence of the Pancharatnam phase on a classical Bell-like state is deived. Finally, to what extent classical polarization optics can be used to simulate quantum information processing tasks is also discussed. This should be of great practical importance because coherence and entanglement are robust in classical optics but not in quantum systems.

  3. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station

  4. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Note Appendixes to Chapter V Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Ch. V, Nt. Appendixes to Chapter V—Note Notes: The alphabetical lists.... References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: : Western Balkans Stabilization...

  5. Un mapa topográfico del término de Ólvega del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Pérez, Eugenio; Sáenz Sanz, Clemente; Alcolea Martínez, José

    2009-01-01

    Se describe un mapa del siglo XVIII del término municipal de de la localidad de Ólvega (Soria). El mapa que aquí se presenta, es un croquis topográfico del término de Ólvega y su entorno, perteneciente al estilo de la cartografía popular, típica del siglo XVIII. Aparece en color, con orientación y escala gráfica en leguas castellanas. De este mapa se pueden extraer algunas observaciones de interés respecto a la geografía histórica de la comarca.

  6. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Tully, R. B.; Rizzi, L.

    2016-10-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33_{-0.09}^{+0.06} Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2 × 106 M⊙. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star formation processes of dSphs KKR 25, KKs 03, as well as dTr KK 258. Their star formation histories were uniformly measured by us from HST/ACS observations. All the galaxies are situated well beyond the Local Group and the two dSphs KKR 25 and KKs 03 are extremely isolated. Evidently, the evolution of these objects has proceeded without influence of neighbours.

  7. Las falsificaciones granadinas del siglo XVIII. Nacionalismo y arqueología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, Gloria

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the forgeries of Granada in the eighteenth century, as a case of manipulation of archaeological findings with a political purpose. The context of this case is the Enlightenment reform of historical methodology.

    En el contexto de la reforma de los métodos de investigación histórica en época ilustrada, se estudia en este trabajo el uso de la arqueología con fines políticos y nacionalistas. Para ello nos basamos en el caso de las falsificaciones granadinas de mediados del siglo XVIII.

  8. La "nación de Vizcaya" en la Universidades de Castilla ss. XVI-XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Enrique RODRÍGUEZ-SAN PEDRO BEZARES

    2002-01-01

    Panorámica sobre la presencia de estudiantes del País Vasco, Navarra y Rioja en las universidades de la Corona de Castilla durante la Edad Moderna, siglos XVI-XVIII. A través de los estudios de Derecho, estos universitarios se promocionaban hacia los altos cargos burocráticos del Estado y de la Iglesia, constituyendo un grupo muy destacado y significativo en el sistema administrativo de la Monarquía Hispánica. Se tratan aspectos diversos de dichos estudiantes: vida cotidi...

  9. IZ MAĐARSKO-HRVATSKIH KNJIŽEVNIH VEZA U XVIII. STOLJEĆU

    OpenAIRE

    Nyomárkay, István

    1999-01-01

    Poslije jednoga pada mađarsko-hrvatskih kulturnih veza (i inih) u XVIII. stoljeću, koncem toga stoljeća počinju se te veze opet obogaćivati, čemu pridonose bosanski franjevci. U radu se govori o djelovanju Jerolima Lipovčića (Hieronymus Lipovchich): njegovo je djelo 'Dušu čuvajuće pohođenje' (Budim 1750) prijevod djela 'Lelket őriző látogatás' Martina Biróa de Padánya (Padányi Biro Márton).

  10. The discovery of the political economy of New Granada at the of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the biography and thinking of Camilo Torres, who belonged to one of the impoverished aristocratic families of Popayan at the end of the XVIII century, this article studies the way, in which the enlightened inhabitants of New Granada, mostly clerics and engineers, army officers and merchants - were worried about the economy mainly motivated by the rhetoric of the Illustration and botanical studies. Many undertook the founding of companies that had poor commercial success, even though their main objective, was to methodically take advantage of the natural resources. That they believed to be unlimited to generate export agricultural products.

  11. Artes y oficios artísticos en Granada a mediados del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    López Muñoz, Miguel Luis; López Muñoz, Juan Jesús

    1996-01-01

    El Catastro de Ensenada, realizado a instancias del rey Fernando VI a partir de 1749, es sin duda alguna la fuente económica de conjunto más amplia en la España del siglo xviii. Su amplitud y riqueza de datos la hace imprescindible para conocer la realidad de ciudades y pueblos, de la Iglesia y de las diferentes capas sociales. Su minuciosidad responde a ese afán ilustrado por conocer la realidad como paso previo para reformarla. En el caso concreto del Catastro, el móvil...

  12. La actividad agraria en el Aguilar del s. XVIII. Los cultivos y aprovechamientos

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo-Ramírez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizando la información (vaciada en su totalidad) contenida en los Libros de Haciendas del Catastro de Ensenada, se presenta una radiografía de la actividad agraria en el Aguilar del s. XVIII. Son objeto de estudio y análisis desde la superficie inculta, las distintas modalidades de sembradura de secano, el olivar, los espacios ocupados por vegetación natural y monte, el viñedo y las tierras regadas. Se dedica igualmente un espacio a la consideración de la actividad ganadera.

  13. Arte, legislación y política en Lima: Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto establecer las relaciones entre política,legislación y producción artística durante el siglo XVIII en el Virreynatodel Perú. Se establecen, así, tres momentos diferenciados en los que elEstado mostró su preocupación por el patrimonio artístico y la actividadvinculada al arte. El estudio se centra en la legislación local y en la peninsularque normaron esta actividad y en el papel que los agentes relacionadoscon el arte desempeñaron durante ese siglo.

  14. Miguel Francia : arquitecto del siglo XVIII en la gobernación de Orihuela

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Gómez, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El siglo XVIII fue especialmente relevante para Orihuela, puesto que, y a pesar de los efectos negativos que la Guerra de Sucesión generó en la zona, supuso un renovado despertar político-económico y socio-cultural; ya que se afianzó la estabilidad estamental, se regeneró la actividad agrícola y se desarrollaron las ideas ilustradas gracias a la ingente labor del estamento eclesiástico, a través de importantes prelados e instituciones como la Universidad y el Seminario. Por lo tanto, con la i...

  15. Herencia de la inmigración francesa desde el siglo XVIII en Alicante

    OpenAIRE

    Planelles Iváñez, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    La onomástica alicantina está plagada de apellidos de origen francés, como Maisonnave, Gaubert, Dupuy, Fourcade, Fresneau, Lamaignere o Bardin, por solo citar unos ejemplos. Resulta interesante, por ello, en el contexto de una publicación sobre la actualidad del siglo XVIII, preguntarse por la procedencia de dichas familias, indagar en las causas que les condujeron a asentarse en Alicante, que varían en relación al momento en que llegaron los fundadores de dichos linajes y concluir con el leg...

  16. Opinion publique e nozione di affaire nella Francia del XVIII secolo: Voltaire difensore di Calas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pontieri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the famous case of Jean Calas’s trial and on the defense made by Voltaire after Calas’ death. Voltaire’s complex operation succeed in mobilizing public opinion and was resumed in the well known Traité sur la tolérance, an early example of the typical scheme of the affaire. Through the analysis of the public opinion in France during the XVIII century, we will demonstrate the ambivalence of Voltaire’s thoughts in relation to this concept: one one side reign of the irrationality, when linked to the local reality, on the other, source of truth when enlightened and universal.

  17. Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-01-01

    En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ...

  18. Entanglement in Classical Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha; Mukherjee, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate betw...

  19. Bidirectional coherent classical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.

    2005-01-01

    A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...

  20. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  1. Teleportation via classical entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    We present a classical counterpart to quantum teleportation that uses classical entanglement instead of quantum entanglement. In our implementation we take advantage of classical entanglement among three parties: orbital angular momentum (OAM), polarization, and the radial degrees of freedom of a beam of light. We demonstrate the teleportation of arbitrary OAM states, in the subspace spanned by any two OAM states, to the polarization of the same beam. Our letter presents the first classical demonstration of a commonly-perceived--quantum phenomenon that requires entanglement among more than two parties.

  2. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computer and Programs. Teacher's Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The teacher's guide for the eleventh unit in this SMSG series covers the chapter on rigid motions and vectors and the chapter on computers and programs. The overall purpose for each of the chapters is described, the prerequisite knowledge needed by students is specified, the mathematical development of each chapter is detailed, behavioral…

  3. Required Reading: Why Our American Classics Matter Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbanco, Andrew

    By examining the works of classic American authors, this book presents the idea that individual human beings can break free of the structures of thought into which they are born and that, by reimagining the world, can change it. In chapters on Herman Melville, Henry David Thoreau, Edith Wharton, Richard Wright, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abraham…

  4. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations

  5. Conflictos por el agua en Tepetitlán (Hidalgo, México, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luis Jiménez Abollado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea una aproximación a las luchas por el control y el acceso al agua entre las élites regionales hispanas y criollas y los pueblos de indios de la jurisdicción de Tula, durante el siglo XVIII. Una lucha que, en definitiva, hundía sus raíces en las nuevas perspectivas económicas regionales, provocadas por el descenso de la actividad ganadera. De esta manera, hacia el siglo XVIII la economía regional volteó la mirada hacia el cultivo de granos, sin dejar de lado la cría de ganado para las matanzas. Dentro de este contexto, las élites regionales, antiguas propietarias de grandes hatos de ganado, invirtieronimportantes capitales en la construcción de una infraestructura hidráulica (zanjas, presas, jagüeyes, encaminada al riego de los cultivos. Sin embargo, eran los pueblos indios quienes desde antaño habían controlado una parte importante de los recursos hídricos disponibles, por lo cual la confrontación fue el resultado inevitable del proceso.

  6. El comercio leonés de hilos e hilazas en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel BARTOLOMÉ BARTOLOMÉ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La ciudad de León en la Edad Moderna , siglo XVIII, se convirtió en uno de los centros más importantes de España en la comercialización, a través de sus ferias anuales, del hilo e hilaza que se elaboraba del lino. Esta materia prima textil tenía como núcleos principales de producción y abastecimiento las vegas del norte de la ciudad de León: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga y Luna. Desde la ciudad de León este hilo e hilaza comercializado, que llegaba a suponer los 26.568 kilos de media anual en los años sesenta, se dirigía a los mercados manchegos, sobre todo al toledano, y al vallisoletano, apoyándose en precios muy competitivos.ABSTRACT: In the XVIII century, León was famous for the production de linen thread. In this city there annual markets where people could rind this material. The linen thread was produced in land along the main valleys: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga, and it was distributed to a number of different markets: Toledo, Valladolid, Villalón... The clue to this success was its competitive price.

  7. Los incas representados (Lima – siglo XVIII: ¿Supervivencia o renacimiento?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perissat, Karine

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 18th Century the indigenous people of Lima were accorded permission to celebrate the Spanish kings in a segregated group. The criollo elites expected them to represent their old kings in the demostrations, thus taking part in the exaltation of the Peruvian history. The descriptions of the limeño festivities, which show that the costumes of the Incas in the masquerades were highly hibridisized and baroque, allow us to analyse the characteristics of the Inca renaissance in the 18th Century. The costume played a basic role in the rehabilitation of the old Peruvian kings in the Colonial society.

    Al principio del siglo XVIII, se les otorgó a los indios de Lima la posibilidad de festejar a los monarcas españoles en grupo aparte. De ellos se esperaba que representasen a sus antiguos monarcas en desfiles o mascaradas y participaran por consiguiente, animados por las elites criollas, en la exaltación de la historia peruana. Fuertemente mestizada y apropiada a los gustos barrocos, la indumentaria de los incas de las mascaradas descrita en las relaciones de fiestas limeñas nos permite analizar las características del renacimiento incaico del siglo XVIII y ver cómo la vestimenta desempañaba un papel fundamental en la rehabilitación de los antiguos monarcas peruanos en la sociedad colonial.

  8. Reformismo cristiano y tolerancia en España a finales del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Fernández, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the ideal of religious tolerance in 18th century Europe was not the exclusive work of deists or atheists. Many Christians then argued that intolerance was contrary to the Gospel and the spirit of the early centuries of the Church. The censorship of the Inquisition and the absence of religious minorities prevented the discussions on tolerance taking place in countries such as France or Austria from occurring south of the Pyrenees. Even so, Christian arguments in favour of religious freedom appeared, albeit stealthily, in 18th century Spain and were reflected in the texts of some Spanish reformers.La expansión del ideal de tolerancia religiosa en la Europa del siglo XVIII no fue obra exclusiva de deístas o ateos. Muchos cristianos defendieron por entonces que la intolerancia era contraria al Evangelio y al espíritu de los primeros siglos de la Iglesia. La labor censoria de la Inquisición y la ausencia de minorías religiosas impidieron que los debates sobre la tolerancia desarrollados en países como Francia o Austria se reprodujeran al sur de los Pirineos. Aun así, los argumentos cristianos en favor de la libertad religiosa entraron, aunque fuese a hurtadillas, en la España del siglo XVIII y se reflejaron en los textos de algunos reformistas españoles.

  9. Lectures on Classical Integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the lectures consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schroedinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  10. Factores de construcción de la idea de vergüenza en el XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    OBSCENIDAD, VERGÜENZA, TABÚ: CONTORNOS Y RETORNOS DE LO REPRIMIDO ENTRE LOS SIGLOS XVIII Y XIX. XV ENCUENTRO DE LA ILUSTRACIÓN AL ROMANTICISMO: CÁDIZ, AMÉRICA Y EUROPA ANTE LA MODERNIDAD. 1750-1850. Cádiz, 18-20 Mayo 2011.

  11. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or

  12. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003 and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914 and William James (1842-1910. I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect briefly on the relevance –often unrecognized- of classical pragmatist ideas in the context of contemporary philosophi-cal discussions.

  13. Chapter 12: Human microbiome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xochitl C Morgan

    Full Text Available Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease.

  14. Chapter 12: Human microbiome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Xochitl C; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease.

  15. On Noncommutative Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Djemai, A E F

    2003-01-01

    In this work, I investigate the noncommutative Poisson algebra of classical observables corresponding to a proposed general Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics, \\cite{1}. I treat some classical systems with various potentials and some Physical interpretations are given concerning the presence of noncommutativity at large scales (Celeste Mechanics) directly tied to the one present at small scales (Quantum Mechanics) and its possible relation with UV/IR mixing.

  16. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Rossi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003) and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) and William James (1842-1910). I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect brie...

  17. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  18. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guillermo Carcelén Reluz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de 'el niño' (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  19. Mujeres agregadas en el Buenos Aires del siglo XVIII: caridad y solidaridad

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Ma Selina Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    En la sociedad colonial del Buenos Aires del siglo XVIII, existió una figura con más valor del que se le atribuye tradicionalmente en los estudios sociodemográficos: las mujeres agregadas. En el presente estudio se analiza a estas féminas, así como las redes de “solidaridad de género” que a partir de éstas se tejieron. Para ello, se toma como fuente el padrón que se levantó en la ciudad de Buenos Aires en 1744, pues arroja gran cantidad de información para entender este fenómeno tan complejo....

  20. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcelén Reluz Carlos Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de ‘el niño’ (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  1. Chicha, guarapo y presión fiscal en la sociedad colonial del Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Lucía Mora de Tovar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reúne dos ensayos sobre el aguardiente y la bebidas embriagantes. Se inscribe en el contexto de la aplicación de medidas administrativas y fiscales impulsadas por la Corona Española, en la Península y en América, durante el siglo XVIII. La necesidad de recursos que le permitieran atender tanto las obligaciones propias de la administración de gobierno como las que se derivaban de las acciones bélicas, estimuló la ejecución de una política de libre comercio en el campo económico y, en el campo político, un mayor control estatal.

  2. Petrus Van Musschenbroek y la física experimental del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijarro Mora, Víctor

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the meaning and scope of Eigtheenth-century experimental physics. In particular, it is focused on anlysing the price role played by the different type of experiments considered among the strict experimental physicists. On the other hand, the paper is intended to account for one of the basic principles of these natural philosophers: the rejection of mathematics, especially the geometrical approach to nature.

    El artículo se centra en el estudio del significado y alcance de la física experimental en el siglo XVIII. En particular, se analiza el papel preciso que desempeñaron los diferentes tipos de experimentos planteados dentro de esta concepción de los fenómenos naturales así como la importancia que el rechazo de las matemáticas (en especial la geometría tuvo entre los físicos experimentales en sentido estricto.

  3. Conflictos en torno a la venta de esclavos en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pita Pico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en el análisis de los conflictos que giraron en torno a las operaciones de compra de esclavos en el nororiente neogranadino durante el siglo XVIII. Legalizaciones aplazadas, ventas desautorizadas, pagos pendientes, esclavos hipotecados y confusiones sobre el estado real del esclavo comercializado fueron situaciones que desataron enconadas disputas y pleitos judiciales que terminaron algunas veces con la declaratoria de redhibitoria, es decir, la anulación del contrato de venta y la devolución del esclavo. En vista de estos antecedentes, y con un ánimo preventivo, los negociantes se aseguraron de fijar en las escrituras de compraventa ciertas garantías o aclaraciones para no verse involucrados en tales litigios.

  4. Sospechas de sospechas, de sospechas: memorial de un militar ilustrado a finales del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lorandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el amplio corpus legal citado en un Memorial destinado al rey, escrito por un militar ilustrado de finales del siglo XVIII, cuyo objetivo es reclamar por la persecución de algunos criollos sospechosos de colaborar con la rebelión de Túpac Amaru. Se trata de detectar las múltiples líneas de conflictos que atravesaban la sociedad peruana después de las grandes rebeliones indígenas. El análisis se apoya en la nueva historia del derecho, que adopta principios de la antropología política y simbólica, donde se conjugan el análisis institucional y la manipulación de la jurisprudencia por parte de actores que buscaban solucionar sus problemas.

  5. Project Sherwood: Orientation Lectures presented at Oak Ridge National Labratory, November-December, 1955. Chapter IX. Diffusion Across a Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Albert

    1957-01-30

    The first part of this chapter will discuss the theory and experiments relating to diffusion in a weakly ionized plasma. The last part of the chapter will discuss the predictions of the classical collision-diffusion theory for diffusion in a fully ionized plasma.

  6. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  7. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  8. Childhood and its Age Limits in Society of Getmanat in the XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Serdiuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will talk about the child in society of Hetman – the autonomous entity within the Russian Empire, which was rapidly losing the remnants of autonomy in the second half of the XVIII century, subjecting to the desire of the center to modernize and unify its border territory. Such interaction of traditions and innovations influenced the public's worldview and determined the attitude to the family, marriage, child. These topics are still relatively poorly studied in the Ukrainian material, particularly the problems of childhood. The studies of actually "little man" in Ukraine of XVIII century are made virtually from a clean slate and at the beginning it is necessary to determine whom society is considered as a child, and also when the childhood is ended. This issue is harder than it seems at first glance, because the society of Hetmanate in relation to children was guided by the stratagem of folk traditions, religious norms, the "old" law (the Lithuanian Statute, the Magdeburg right and sachsenspiegel inherited from the Commonwealth and the "new" laws of the Russian Empire. They determined the age of adulthood in different ways, when the individual became a child and was no longer to be, as well as the criteria of those age limits. It is important that the legal mechanisms of age-identification included in the action in the case of judicial proceedings, property disputes, marital conflicts. On a daily level, the perception of childhood and maturity depended on the combination of external features of an individual (body type, facial features, etc., conduct, and perform social roles. A huge role is played the institution of marriage, act of which was probably the most important and revealing marker of the fact that the kid finally became an adult.

  9. El sistema beneficial en la España del siglo XVIII. Pervivencias y cambios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Al estudiar el clero secular lo primero que se observa es la importancia que tiene el sistema beneficial en la Iglesia de la época moderna, pues en función del beneficio eclesiástico el clero se jerarquiza y se diferencia, tanto por su cargo como por su condición económica y social. Ante la amplia gama de elementos derivables del estudio de los beneficios eclesiásticos, en el presente trabajo me limito a ofrecer una panorámica general del sistema beneficial en la España del siglo XVIII; es decir, a describir el beneficio eclesiástico y el derecho de presentación, así como su tipología y forma de acceso, para terminar con unas palabras sobre la reforma beneficial que la administración ilustrada proyecta en la segunda mitad del siglo.ABSTRACT: When we start the study of the secular clergy, the first thing we consider is the importance of the beneficial system referred to the Church of the enlightenment age, but on account of the ecclesiastic benefit clergy is distinguished and organized into higher ranks or degrees, as to its ministry and economic and social status. Due to the wide range of elements from the study of the ecclesiastic benefits, at the present written work I try to show a general view of the beneficial system in Spain in the XVIII century; and thus to describe the ecclesiastic benefit and the right of presentation; and also its typology and way of access and to finish with some words concerning the beneficial reform which is arranged in the second half of the century by the enlightened administration.

  10. VARIACIONES MONETARIAS, IMPULSO URBANO Y SALARIOS EN SANTIAGO EN LA SEGUNDA MITAD DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENRIQUETA QUIROZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es demostrar que en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, en Santiago de Chile, la circulación monetaria fue mucho más activa de lo que hasta ahora se ha aceptado. Con este propósito se han revisado los niveles de acuñación, especialmente los de moneda menuda, porque esta era la que circulaba en los mercados cotidianamente y se usaba para fijar los precios de los comestibles, así como para pagar los jornales de los trabajadores en la ciudad de Santiago a fines del siglo XVIII y comienzos del siglo XIX. Esto quiere decir que la gente común conocía el dinero y lo utilizaba para pagar sus transacciones cotidianas, lo que a su vez implicaría que la economía chilena estaba creciendo y conformando un mercado con sus propias características.The object of this article is to illustrate that during the second half of the eighteenth century monetary circulation was much more active in Santiago than had been previously thought. To that end minting levels have been analyzed especially the volume of small change as this was the currency that circulated in the daily market and was used to fix the price of foodstuffs as well as to pay daily wages in the city of Santiago during the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth century. This means that common people knew about and used money in their daily transactions and also implies that the Chilean economy was growing and forming a market of its own.

  11. The CLASSIC/CLIMB Data Reduction: The Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brummelaar, T.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter describes the methods used to extract closure phase from CLIMB data and visibility amplitude from both the CLASSIC and CLIMB beam combiners. It also includes a rather exhaustive description of the theory behind these methods. This high degree of detail is partly because previous publications of this theory contain errors, and partly because having done all this work it*s nice to have it written up in full somewhere, and being slightly beyond the thesis writing stage, this is only possible for me in a chapter like this.

  12. Classically-Controlled Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Perdrix, Simon; Jorrand, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Quantum computations usually take place under the control of the classical world. We introduce a Classically-controlled Quantum Turing Machine (CQTM) which is a Turing Machine (TM) with a quantum tape for acting on quantum data, and a classical transition function for a formalized classical control. In CQTM, unitary transformations and measurements are allowed. We show that any classical TM is simulated by a CQTM without loss of efficiency. The gap between classical and quantum computations, ...

  13. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  14. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  15. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  16. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  17. El cuento en el siglo XVIII: una propuesta para el rescate y estudio de un género olvidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta CANTOS CASENAVE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo pretendo mostrar de qué manera el cuento del siglo XVIII se puede encontrar al rastrear en los periódicos, colecciones narrativas, misceláneas y libros de entretenimiento, y de qué manera este cuento tuvo que servir necesariamente de puente al nacimiento del cuento como género literario moderno en el siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: In this article I try to show how the eighteenth-century short story can be found when we exam the eighteenth-century newspapers, miscellany and pleasant literature, and how this short story was in the origin of the modern literary genre.

  18. Strong Coupling and Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2016-01-01

    Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...

  19. Nuclear motion is classical

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.

  20. Classics in What Sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Charles

    2008-01-01

    They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008--each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…

  1. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C

    1999-01-01

    First Internet undergraduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  2. Classical galactosaemia revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Bosch

    2006-01-01

    Classical galactosaemia (McKusick 230400) is an: autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712). Most patients present in the neonatal period, after ingestion of galactose, with jaundice, hepatospl

  3. The Classical Cake Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

  4. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  5. Classical and quantum satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    de Araújo, Anderson; 10.4204/EPTCS.81.6

    2012-01-01

    We present the linear algebraic definition of QSAT and propose a direct logical characterization of such a definition. We then prove that this logical version of QSAT is not an extension of classical satisfiability problem (SAT). This shows that QSAT does not allow a direct comparison between the complexity classes NP and QMA, for which SAT and QSAT are respectively complete.

  6. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    OpenAIRE

    H. C. Rosu

    1999-01-01

    First Internet graduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  7. Classical Mechanics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosing, Juliet W.

    2006-12-01

    At Pacific University we have included a lab with our upper division Classical Mechanics class. We do a combination of physical labs (air resistance, harmonic motion, amusement park physics), Maple labs (software), and projects. Presentation of some of the labs, results and challenges with this course will be included.

  8. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  9. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  10. Letras ramistas e variação vocálica no século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Held Lombardi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo de algumas ocorrências grafemáticas de letras ramistas e de variação fonética no século XVIII. Analisa os dados e aponta para critérios que oscilam entre influência da oralidade, da etimologia e da pseudo-etimologia na grafia da época.

  11. The girl from the Church of the Sacrament: a case of congenital syphilis in XVIII century Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mendonça de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually or congenitally transmitted infectious disease with an impact on the health of human populations that has undergone important cycles in different countries and periods of history. Its presence was first diagnosed in Europe in the late XIV century. In Portugal, although there are various written records of the infection in the last centuries, there are rare references to it in archeological findings (mummified bodies are also rare in Portugal. The current study describes a probable case of congenital syphilis in an 18-month-old girl buried in the Church of the Sacrament in Lisbon. Her body, dating to the XVIII century, was found mummified together with dozens of others, still not studied. Symmetrical periostitis of the long bones, osteitis, metaphyseal lesions, left knee articular, and epiphyseal destruction, and a rarefied lesion with a radiological appearance compatible with Wimberger's sign all point to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. The diagnosis of this severe form of the infection, possibly related to the cause of death in this upper-class girl, calls attention to the disease's presence in XVIII century Lisbon and is consistent with the intense mobilization at the time in relation to the risks posed by so-called heredosyphilis. It is the first case of congenital syphilis in a child reported in archeological findings in Portugal, and can be correlated with other cases in skeletons of adults buried in cemeteries in Lisbon (in the XVI to XVIII centuries and Coimbra (XIX century. Finally, this finding highlights the need to study the entire series of mummified bodies in the Church of the Sacrament in order to compare the paleopathological findings and existing historical documents on syphilis, so as to expand the paleoepidemiological knowledge of this infection in XVIII century Lisbon.

  12. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  13. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  14. Where Social and Professional Networking Meet: The Virtual Association Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noxon, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Online Capella University wanted to sponsor an International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) chapter. Using social networking platforms, a new type of chapter was designed. The virtual chapter breaks new ground on more than the chapter's platform; it is also the first university-sponsored chapter and has a unique approach to…

  15. Volume 3 Chapter 6: Transformation paths

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Rezai, A; Mehdi, B.

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that the currently observed patterns of climate change are predominantly caused by human activity (Volume 1, Chapter 1). This chapter addresses the challenge of stabilizing climate change at 2 degrees C and particularly focuses on the questions which mitigation and adaptation measures in Austria can contribute to achieve this goal. Additionally, a number of desirable co-benefits pertaining to socio-ecological transformation leading towards limiting climate change are ana...

  16. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  17. Randomness: quantum versus classical

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g., quantum random generators. This development stimulates a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of quantum state. Closely related problem is clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. The second part of this review is devoted to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in the spirit of Zeilinger and Brukner (and QBism of Fuchs et al.) and physics in general (e.g., Wheeler's "it from bit") as well as digital philosophy of Chaitin (with historical coupling to ideas of Leibnitz). Finally, w...

  18. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  19. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  20. Classical Weyl Transverse Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally-invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally-invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a "fake" symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields,...

  1. Computation in Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss the ways we have used computation in our classical mechanics courses, focusing on how computational work can improve students' understanding of physics as well as their computational skills. We present examples of computational problems that serve these two purposes. In addition, we provide information about resources for instructors who would like to include computation in their courses.

  2. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    2004-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  3. Sociology and Classical Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    KLEIN, Daniel; Stern, Lotta

    2005-01-01

    We advocate the development of a classical-liberal character within professional sociology. The American Sociological Association (ASA) is taken as representative of professional sociology in the United States. We review the ASA’s activities and organizational statements, to show the association’s leftist character. Internal criticism is often very uneasy about leftist domination of the field. We present survey results establishing that, in voting and in policy views, the ASA membership is mo...

  4. Revisiting a Classic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…

  5. Injuries in classical ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external ...

  6. A Classic's New Charm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ North Korea's Phibada Opera Troupe arrived in Beijing on May3,bringing with it a Korean opera adapted from China's classic novel A Dream of Red Mansions written by Cao Xueqin(around 1715-63),a great novelist of the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911).The troupe,invited by the Chinese Ministry of Culture,is one of the largest performing groups having visited China in recent years.

  7. Diffusion of Classical Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1998-01-01

    We study the diffusion and deformation of classical solitons coupled to thermal noise. The diffusion coefficient for kinks in the $\\phi^4$ theory is predicted up to the second order in $kT$. The prediction is verified by numerical simulations. Multiskyrmions in the vector O(3) sigma model are studied within the same formalism. Thermal noise results in a diffusion on the multisoliton collective coordinate space (moduli space). There are entropic forces which tend, for example, to bind pairs of...

  8. Classical Maxwellian polarization entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, John E

    2015-01-01

    An explanation of polarization entanglement is presented using Maxwells classical electromagnetic theory.Two key features are required to understand these classical origins.The first is that all waves diffract and weakly diffracting waves,with a principal direction of propagation in the laboratory frame, travel along that direction at speeds ever so slightly less than c.This allows nontrivial Lorentz transformations that can act on selected forward F waves or selected waves R traveling in the opposite direction to show that both can arise from a single zero momentum frame where all the waves are transverse to the original principal direction.Such F and R waves then both belong to a single relativistic entity where correlations between the two are unremarkable.The second feature requires the avoidance of using the Coulomb gauge.Waves, tending to plane waves in the limit of zero diffraction,can then be shown to be composed of two coupled sets of E and B fields that demonstrate the classical entanglement of F an...

  9. Notas sobre la ebanistería madrileña en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiló Alonso, María Paz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available By pointing out the increasing importance of English furniture in Madrid in the first half of the 18th century, the author questions the widespread belief that Spanish furniture was under French influence at the time because of the advent of the Bourbons. In addition, the author calls attention to the most salient aspects of the union activity of cabinetmakers and joiners, such as membership of these artisans in a joint labor organization, their strategies to promote their craft as well as the union, the methods of examination used (with pieces selected beforehand and the important role played by cabinetmakers in value assessments of property, both for deeds of dowry and for postmortem inventories. The author's sources are documents found in the Archivo de Protocolos de Madrid which date to the years between 1740 through 1760. These documents significantly add new Information to the evidence already known about the activities of Madrid's woodwork craftsmen in the 18th century.

    Ante la idea generalizada de la influencia francesa en el mobiliario español con el advenimiento de los Borbones, se intenta apuntar la importancia creciente del mobiliario inglés en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII, al mismo tiempo que dar a conocer el mecanismo de las diversas actuaciones corporativas, desde la reunión en un solo gremio de ebanistas y ensambladores de nogal, su actividad para ejercer con mayor fortaleza su presencia en los foros ciudadanos, el sistema de exámenes con sus piezas determinadas de antemano hasta la importancia de los ebanistas en las labores de tasación, tanto en cartas de dote como en inventarios post mortem. Esta serie de documentos hallados en el Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Madrid, relativos a las décadas de 1740-1760, sumándose a los ya publicados, irán completando el conocimiento sobre los ebanistas y ensambladores madrileños del siglo XVIII.

  10. Los alcaldes mayores del Corregimiento de Lérida en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael CERRO NARGÁNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Articulado por Felipe V en el Decreto de Nueva Planta de 1716, el corregimiento de Lérida se convirtió en uno de los más extensos de Cataluña durante toda la centuria, integrándose en él las antiguas veguerías, no sólo de Lérida, sino también de Balaguer y Tárrega, ambas capitales de alcaldía. En consecuencia, nuestro objetivo en este artículo ha sido estudiar el perfil sociológico y profesional de estos alcaldes mayores o tenientes de corregidor para el período comprendido entre 1720 —fecha de su entrada en servicio— y 1808; año éste en que con la invasión napoleónica se puso fin, cronológicamente, al Antiguo Régimen. Con ello hemos pretendido saldar una deuda historiográfica que había relegado los estudios monográficos sobre estos letrados al olvido, ensombrecidos por los corregidores-gobernadores militares; superiores suyos, a los que asesoraban en materia de justicia ordinaria civil y criminal y presidían los cabildos durante sus ausencias. En definitiva, conocer mejor estos oficiales reales a través de los individuos que sirvieron estas varas, ya que jugaron un papel importante en la dministración catalana de justicia del siglo XVIII, algunos de cuyos fundamentos siguen estando vigentes hoy en día.ABSTRACT: Articulate by Philip V in the Decree of the Nueva Planta, the corregimiento of Lérida is converted in one of the more extensive of Catalonia during the century, integrating with it the juridical district —veguerías antiques— not only of Lérida but too Balaguer and Tárrega, both capitals of alcaldía. In consequent our objective in this article was study the sociological profile and professional of the alcaldes mayores or lieutemants of corregidor, between 1720 —date of the begun service— and 1808, year of the napoleonic invasion in that finished the Antique Regime. With it we seek settle an historiografhic debt that forgot monografhicals studies from this lawyer, grow dark by the

  11. STYLE ACTIVITIES SEEN IN THE MEANING DOMAIN OF XVII. CENTURY CLASSIC TURKISH POETRY: CLASSICAL STYLE-SEBK-İ HİNDÎ-HİKEMÎ TARZ- LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sener DEMİREL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available XVII. century corresponds to a period called“Middle Classic Period” by literature historians, a periodwhere the Classic Turkish poetry was at the peak of itsmaturity. This period is also interesting, because it is aperiod that contains different styles/tastes feeding fromthe same source in Turkish poetry. It is a well known factthat until the XVII. century, there wasn’t a seriousseparation between the words and meaning in ClassicTurkish poetry, and some poets were considered betterthan the others by personal preferences, but this hasnever became a generally accepted idea. However,especially at the end of the XVI. century and beginning ofthe XVII. century, with the effect of Sebk-i Hindi, firstseen in Iran, India and then Divan poetry and based onhidden, concealed and complex meaning, some importantchanges were seen in the meaning domain of Turkishpoetry. In the same century, a new formation calledHikemi Tarz, known as Nabi school and prioritizesthoughts and wisdom in poetry, has shown its effect inliterature history. This new style was also based on themeaning like Sebk-i Hindi, but was interested in theconcrete side of the meaning; in other words thoughts.The poets influenced by this new style have opened a newwindow in classic poetry and tried to enrich the meaningdimension of poetry by thought axis. In this paper, the changes and developments inthe meaning domain of Turkish poetry caused by Classicstyle, Sebk-i Hindi, Hikemi Tarz and Localization poetry,seem on classic Turkish poetry in the XVII. and XVIII.centuries, will tried to be examined in sample versestaken from the poems of the poets representing thoseperiods.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: An Introduction to Classical Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh Quang

    1998-05-01

    This book provides the basic concepts necessary for an introduction to the classical theory of radiation. The reader is first introduced to Maxwell's equations and then led through their basic properties (Chapters 1 and 2). Non-uniform plane waves are treated in Chapter 3 with a discussion of the two and three dimensional cases. Many examples of two and three dimensional electromagnetic fields are given, and the physics of practical devices is also analysed. Geometrical rays, as well as the notion of a Gaussian beam, are introduced at this stage, and the link between electromagnetism and optical principles is amplified in Chapter 4 (the Huyghens principle, transmission through an aperture, scattering cross-section). The electromagnetic radiation from charge and current distributions is obtained in a general form from potential theory (Chapter 5), followed quite naturally by the classic illustration of the fields produced by a moving charge in the classical (v/c feature is the inclusion in the text, whenever necessary, of the required mathematical bases: numerical solutions of Maxwell's equation, Fourier transforms (Chapter 1), the stationary phase method (Chapter 3), the Dirac function (Chapter 5) and a review of vector analysis (Annex B). These mathematical sections will be specially useful for advanced undergraduates who may need some mathematical tools and, thus, will not need to search for these in more specialized books. The main focus of the book is to provide the reader with the fundamentals of the classical theory of radiation. This aim is well complemented by examples from a variety of fields. Since the purpose of the book is not to provide a general treatment of electromagnetism or electrodynamics, the reader cannot expect to find some of the topics usual in other electrodynamics texts, such as relativistic transforms of electromagnetic fields (although the Lorentz condition is mentioned) or a discussion of the causality principle in the derivation of the

  13. (Una visión del medioambiente en los siglos XV al XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ojeda Nieto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los siglos XV y XVIII los oriolanos persiguieron a lobos y pájaros. Buscaban el exterminio del predador para acabar con los desmanes en los rebaños de ganado y con el temor ancestral, revivido constantemente en cuentos y leyendas. Mataban pájaros porque su proliferación reducía las cosechas. Se trataba de controlar, cuando no eliminar, unos competidores desleales. A la historia del medioambiente le corresponde señalar no solo los fenómenos de transformación y degradación del espacio, también la relación antrópica con las demás especies. La relación hombre-lobos y pájaros, y aún las ratas, en la Orihuela de los siglos señalados, constituye un modelo de análisis que compete también al campo de las ciencias humanas.

  14. SOME ASPECTS OF AVAR KHANS POLICY BY RUSSIA (XVIII - BEG. XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara A. OMAROVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our study is the policy of the Avar Khans towards Russia in XVIII XIX centuries. Most researchers believe that the Avar Khans State was always interested in close relations with the powerful nation, pursued a policy of deepening relations and, almost always, been loyal to Russia. This can be seen in the period of open confrontation Highlanders during the Caucasian War. Of course, such a policy could not lead to conflicts between the Avar Khan State and its nearest neighbors, causing the latter to exercise intolerance such loyalty to Russia. All of these issues are covered with the involvement of the literary and archival materials. Thus, based on the analysis of sources, the author establishes that the manifestation of the desire of the Avar Khan State, which occupies an isolated position in relation to other feudal lords, the establishment of a strong alliance with Russia is always determined by the desire Khans have Russia as a strong and reliable ally than to amass it in as an enemy. On the basis of archival sources, we can state the fact that Russia, in turn, highly valued the loyalty of Khan's house and noted it all sorts of honors. 

  15. La limpieza de sangre en el Colegio de Abogados de Caracas a finales del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rafael Almarza Villalobos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El discurso de la limpieza de sangre es esencial para la comprensión de los valores de las sociedades hispanas de la época colonial. En este artículo se muestra cómo un discurso originado en el continente europeo pasó a ser la base del sistema de estratificación social en el nuevo orden colonial y se analiza el impacto de la transferencia de ideas desde España a las sociedades coloniales, a partir del estudio del Colegio de Abogados de Caracas. El concepto de limpieza de sangre en la provincia de Caracas fue distinto del establecido en la metrópolis. En estas tierras, la limpieza de sangre fue preocupación de todos los grupos sociales que conformaban la provincia durante el siglo XVIII y elemento fundamental para que la élite criolla mantuviera el control de las instituciones civiles y eclesiásticas.

  16. El cielo y el infierno en el imaginario español del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta CANTERLA GONZÁLEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La creencia en la existencia de un Juicio posterior a la muerte cuya sentencia ha de conducir al individuo al Cielo o al Infierno –o bien, al estadio intermedio del Purgatorio– sigue estando presente en la sociedad española del siglo XVIII tanto, como medio de control social que como fuente de representaciones imaginativas. Esta última dualidad explica muchos rasgos de las pautas existenciales –presentes por igual en la vida cotidiana, la pintura, la literatura o la crítica social– del carácter ilustrado, así como del prerromántico.ABSTRACT: The belief in the existence of a Judgement wich sentence will lead the person after death to Heaven or Hell (or to the intermediate Stage of the Purgatory, is still being present in the spanish society of the XVIIIth century, so much as a way of social control, as a source of the imaginative representations. These last duality explain many characteristics of the existencial paterns of the enlightened and preromantic character, present equaly in the everiday life, the pinture, the literature and the social criticism.

  17. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 (Configuration Interaction Version 3) calculations of excitation energies from ground states for 141 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the levels of the (1s22s22p6) 3l2, 3l3l' and 3l4l configurations of Cu XVIII. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Since mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, it becomes difficult to identify these uniquely. Our excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement (better than 1.0%) with the available experimental results. From our calculated radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates are found to be in good agreement with other theoretical results, while the lifetimes agree very well with the experimental values (wherever available). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  18. Alianzas y traiciones en la pampa rioplatense durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Taruselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como escenario la región pampeana del Río de la Plata durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. En 1770 fue arrestado allí un indio llamado Flamenco. Remitido a la cárcel de Buenos Aires, el gobernador Vértiz dispuso inmediatamente una serie de diligencias para saber qué hacer con él. El expediente que entonces se formó contiene la opinión de los principales personajes de la campaña bonaerense y la declaración del propio Flamenco. Su análisis nos permite describir el mundo rural colonial rioplatense y las estrategias desplegadas por los españoles para controlar un territorio donde grupos indígenas mantuvieron su autonomía hasta mediados del siglo XIX. Para ampliar la información se relevaron fuentes documentales éditas e inéditas, conservadas en el Archivo General de la Nación, Argentina.

  19. Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ¿Cuál era su peso relativo sobre el volumen de sus fortunas? ¿A qué responde su aparición en las viviendas? ¿Protección personal y doméstica, exigencias profesionales, exhibicionismo en la jerarquía social y boato, necesidad cinegética? ¿Qué grado de permeabilidad y penetración conocieron las armas a lo largo del Setecientos?

  20. "La ciencia de los ingenieros..." en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Díaz, Jorge

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Paris was published, in 1729, sign ed by some different authors, a book known as the first great modern engineering treatise. "La Science des Ingénieurs...", signed by Bernard Forest de Belidor, a french man of catalan origin, mathematics teacher in La Fére Artillery School, member as well of the Scientific Societies of London and Prussia and a correspondent of the Paris Royal Academy of Sciences. In this book we will appreciate a firm direction change in two fundamental aspects of the technical culture of actual engineers: the way to dimension structures, starting from the numerical procedures and the organization of the processes in construction works In the following pages I want to introduce you into the contents of this treatise in its original version and in its castiílan particular translation. But, before this, I have also to explain the teatrise role in the disociation of two professions that, till this time. have share attitudes and competitivines: architecture and engineering, such as they were understood in the Renaissance distant years where the durability, stability and solidity of a building, watever it was, was preceded by a perfect execution, by the use of appropriated materials, and where the different parts were measured following a general plan of whole proportions and the search of balance elements. We will see how -based on the science of these XVIII century engineers- all those principies have to be explained through the nature of the algebraical reasons, the mechanical knowledge and the abstract understanding of the structural elements. It is worthwhile to point out that this work is a part of a much more important investigation concerning the transformations of the technical knowledge concerning engineering and architecture between XVI and XVIII centuries, as well in Europe as in America, insisting on the role played by the academies and schools, in one or the other ocean side.En 1729 aparece publicado en París el

  1. Excavaciones en el Tíber durante los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sánchez, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Renaissance, the Tiber River has been the object of the most unusual archaeological quests, driven mainly by fantastic medieval lore. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the excavations on the river intensified and were epitomized by the scientific atmosphere of the Enlightenment, even tough they resulted in little archaeological worth. In 1819, even the Spanish monarch Fernando VII almost became a Shareholder in one of these archaeological companies. After the Italian unification, many finds were discovered in the works done along the Tiber's urban region, of wich many are now in the Museo Nazionale Romano.Desde el Renacimiento el Tiber ha sido objeto de las más peregrinas búsquedas arqueológicas, emprendidas habitualmente sobre la base de fantásticos relatos medievales. En los siglos XVIII y XIX las excavaciones en el río se intensificaron y se dotaron del cientificismo propio de la Ilustración, siendo no obstante el fruto de estos trabajos muy escaso; en 1819, incluso el propio monarca español Fernando VII estuvo a punto de convertirse en accionista de una de estas empresas arqueológicas. Tras la Unificación italiana, las obras de estructuración del curso urbano del Tiber propiciaron finalmente numerosos hallazgos, muchos de los cuales se conservan en el Museo Nazionale Romano.

  2. La inmigración extranjera a Ferrol durante el s. XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín García, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The town of Ferrol experienced an important demographic increase during the second half of 18th century, thanks to the erection of the new crown arsenals in its port. The prospects opened up by this new situation, lead to the arrival of an important number of foreigners, highlighting the British, French, Italian and Portuguese contribution. The British attained an important role in the organization of the arsenals and the French held a privileged position in the town's commerce.

    La villa de Ferrol experimentó, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, un importante crecimiento demográfico, merced a la erección en su puerto de los nuevos arsenales de la Corona. Las expectativas abiertas por esta novedosa situación, provocaron la llegada de un importante número de extranjeros, destacando la aportación británica, francesa, italiana y portuguesa. De entre ellos, los británicos adquirieron un notable papel en el organigrama de los arsenales y los franceses, ocuparon una posición privilegiada en el comercio de la villa.

  3. Prácticas de sociabilidad. Salones y espacio público en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger CHARTIER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo estudia el papel desempeñado por las mujeres en la sociabilidad cultural del siglo XVIII francés, situándose en el marco del debate abierto en la historiografía, en particular norteamericana, en torno a la exclusión de las mujeres de la ciudadanía durante la Revolución y a las funciones que ejercieron en la vida política del Antiguo Régimen. A partir del análisis de los salones del siglo xvm, propone construir otra cronología, menos lineal, de la exclusión de las mujeres del espacio público de la crítica y de la política.ABSTRACT: This essay studies the role of women in eighteenth-century cultural sociability, in the framework of the debate on the issues of their exclusion from citizenship during the French Revolution and their functions in Ancien régime political life. On the base of analysis of the nature and roles of eighteenth- century salons, it proposes a less simplistic account of women's exclusion from the public sphere of intellectual debate and politics.

  4. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  5. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  6. Mechanics classical and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mechanics: Classical and Quantum explains the principles of quantum mechanics via the medium of analytical mechanics. The book describes Schrodinger's formulation, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the Lagrangian formulation. The author discusses the Harmonic Oscillator, the generalized coordinates, velocities, as well as the application of the Lagrangian formulation to systems that are partially or entirely electromagnetic in character under certain conditions. The book examines waves on a string under tension, the isothermal cavity radiation, and the Rayleigh-Jeans result pertaining to the e

  7. Chapter 10: CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Siefer, Gerald

    2016-04-15

    Characterization of solar cells can be divided into two types: the first is measurement of electrooptical semiconductor device parameters, and the second is determination of electrical conversion efficiency. This chapter reviews the multijunction concepts that are necessary for understanding Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cell characterization techniques, and describes how CPV efficiency is defined and used. For any I-V measurement of a multijunction cell, the sun simulator spectrum has to be adjusted in a way that all junctions generate the same photocurrent ratios with respect to each other as under reference conditions. The chapter discusses several procedures for spectral irradiance adjustments of solar simulators, essential for multijunction measurements. It overviews the light sources and optics commonly used in simulators for CPV cells under concentration. Finally, the chapter talks about the cell area, quantum efficiency (QE), and current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements that are needed to characterize cells as a function of irradiance.

  8. Probability representation of classical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man'ko, OV; Man'ko, [No Value; Pilyavets, OV

    2005-01-01

    Probability representation of classical states described by symplectic tomograms is discussed. Tomographic symbols of classical observables which are functions on phase-space are studied. Explicit form of kernel of commutative star-product of the tomographic symbols is obtained.

  9. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computers and Programs. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Transformation geometry topics are covered in one chapter of Unit 11 of this SMSG series. Work with translations, reflections, rotations, and composition of motions is included; vectors are briefly discussed. The chapter on computers and programming deals with recent history and uses of of the computer, organization of a digital computer, an…

  10. Numerical calculation of classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, D; Neyenhuis, B; Christensen, Dan; Durfee, Dallin S.; Neyenhuis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    We present a numerical exercise in which classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials were calculated. The non-classical fields take into account effects due to a possible non-zero photon rest mass. We show that in the limit of small photon rest mass, both the classical and non-classical potential can be found by solving Poisson's equation twice, using the first calculation as a source term in the second calculation. Our results support the assumptions in a recent proposal to use ion interferometry to search for a non-zero photon rest mass.

  11. Classical Physics and Quantum Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry R. Holstein; John F. Donoghue

    2004-05-01

    The standard picture of the loop expansion associates a factor of h-bar with each loop, suggesting that the tree diagrams are to be associated with classical physics, while loop effects are quantum mechanical in nature. We discuss examples wherein classical effects arise from loop contributions and display the relationship between the classical terms and the long range effects of massless particles.

  12. Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…

  13. Lectures on classical and quantum theory of fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. Physics

    2010-07-01

    This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course. (orig.)

  14. Lectures on Classical and Quantum Theory of Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Arodź, Henryk

    2010-01-01

    This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course.

  15. Lectures on classical and quantum theory of fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course. (orig.)

  16. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  17. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  18. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  19. Molecular Analysis of Collagen XVIII Reveals Novel Mutations, Presence of a Third Isoform, and Possible Genetic Heterogeneity in Knobloch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, O. T.; Sertié, A. L.; Der Kaloustian, V. M.; Kok, F.; Carpenter, M.; Murray, J.; Czeizel, A. E.; Kliemann, S. E.; Rosemberg, S.; Monteiro, M.; Olsen, B. R.; Passos-Bueno, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Knobloch syndrome (KS) is a rare disease characterized by severe ocular alterations, including vitreoretinal degeneration associated with retinal detachment and occipital scalp defect. The responsible gene, COL18A1, has been mapped to 21q22.3, and, on the basis of the analysis of one family, we have demonstrated that a mutation affecting only one of the three COL18A1 isoforms causes this phenotype. We report here the results of the screening of both the entire coding region and the exon-intron boundaries of the COL18A1 gene (which includes 43 exons), in eight unrelated patients with KS. Besides 20 polymorphic changes, we identified 6 different pathogenic changes in both alleles of five unrelated patients with KS (three compound heterozygotes and two homozygotes). All are truncating mutations leading to deficiency of one or all collagen XVIII isoforms and endostatin. We have verified that, in exon 41, the deletion c3514-3515delCT, found in three unrelated alleles, is embedded in different haplotypes, suggesting that this mutation has occurred more than once. In addition, our results provide evidence of nonallelic genetic heterogeneity in KS. We also show that the longest human isoform (NC11-728) is expressed in several tissues (including the human eye) and that lack of either the short variant or all of the collagen XVIII isoforms causes similar phenotypes but that those patients who lack all forms present more-severe ocular alterations. Despite the small sample size, we found low endostatin plasma levels in those patients with mutations leading to deficiency of all isoforms; in addition, it seems that absence of all collagen XVIII isoforms causes predisposition to epilepsy. PMID:12415512

  20. Presencia musical en la Catedral de La Seu d'Urgell en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII a través de sus actas capitulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roig i Capdevila, Jordi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is the continuation, presented as the second part, of the article published last year in this same Review, With its publication we shall have covered all of the 18th century, up to the beginning of the 19th century with respect to allusions of a musical nature made during the Chapter ceremonies in the Cathedral in the Pyrenees (the hiring and the activities of its musicians, protagonists of the religious functions with musical accompaniment, etc.. As the last issue covered the years 1700-1750, we continue on from 1751 to 1810. In this way we relate the musical life of this Cathedral music chapel, thus linking up with the anterior studies carried out by Felipe Pedrell and Higinio Anglés, who covered mostly the 16th and 17th centuries, thereby enlightening those interested concerning some of the fundamental characteristics of the cultural, social and artistic evolution of La Seu d'Urgell which stamped the city with an identity of its own.

    El presente artículo supone la continuación, como segunda parte, del publicado el año anterior en esta misma revista. Se cubre con ello todo el siglo XVIII, e incluso los primeros años del siglo XIX, en lo referente a alusiones de índole musical en las actas capitulares de la catedral pirenaica (contrataciones y actividad de sus músicos protagonistas, funciones religiosas con participación musical, etc., pues, editados en el número anterior los años 1700-1750, se prosigue ahora con los años 1751-1810. De este modo, se da noticia sobre la vida musical de esta capilla musical catedralicia, empalmando con los anteriores trabajos realizados por Felipe Pedrell e Higinio Anglés (que cubrían básicamente los siglos XVI y XVII, aproximando con ello al interesado algunas de las características fundamentales en la evolución cultural, social y artística de La Seu d'Urgell, que proporcionaron personalidad propia a la ciudad.

  1. Nucleosynthesis in classical novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Jordi; Hernanz, Margarita; Iliadis, Christian

    2006-10-01

    Classical novae are dramatic stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. These unique cataclysmic events constitute a crucible where different scientific disciplines merge, including astrophysics, nuclear and atomic physics, cosmochemistry, high-energy physics or computer science. In this review, we focus on the nucleosynthesis accompanying nova outbursts. Theoretical predictions are compared with the elemental abundances inferred from observations of the nova ejecta as well as with the isotopic abundance ratios measured in meteorites. Special emphasis is given to the interplay between nova outbursts and the Galactic abundance pattern and on the synthesis of radioactive nuclei for which γ-ray signals are expected. Finally, we analyze the key role played by nuclear physics in our understanding of the nova phenomenon by means of recent experiments and a thorough account of the impact of nuclear uncertainties.

  2. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  3. Grassmannization of classical models

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V; Svistunov, Boris V

    2016-01-01

    Applying Feynman diagrammatics to non-fermionic strongly correlated models with local constraints might seem generically impossible for two separate reasons: (i) the necessity to have a Gaussian (non-interacting) limit on top of which the perturbative diagrammatic expansion is generated by Wick's theorem, and (ii) the Dyson's collapse argument implying that the expansion in powers of coupling constant is divergent. We show that for arbitrary classical lattice models both problems can be solved/circumvented by reformulating the high-temperature expansion (more generally, any discrete representation of the model) in terms of Grassmann integrals. Discrete variables residing on either links, plaquettes, or sites of the lattice are associated with the Grassmann variables in such a way that the partition function (and correlations) of the original system and its Grassmann-field counterpart are identical. The expansion of the latter around its Gaussian point generates Feynman diagrams. A proof-of-principle implement...

  4. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  5. La estructura socio-económica de un concejo de mies abierta: en Cantabria en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Perojo Díez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN. Este trabajo define la institución de concejo de mies abierta, (que prevaleció en Europa hasta principios del siglo XIX), a partir del estudio de centenares de ordenanzas de concejos en Alemania, Francia, España e Inglaterra, vigentes entre el siglo XII y el XVIII, mediante la identificación de sus características más sobresalientes y definitorias de un concejo paneuropeo que O. Ostrom llama “significant features” y C. Dahlman “stylized facts”. Y compara el “Memorial d...

  6. Pharmacopea de la Armada (1760), un libro singular para uso de los sanitarios navales del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila Olivares, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    La Pharmacopea de la Armada, obra de Leandro de Vega, publicada en 1760 para uso de médicos y cirujanos de los buques y hospitales de la marina española a lo largo del siglo XVIII, está considerada como la primera farmacopea naval española. Su autor la define con un «catálogo de medicamentos pertenecientes a las enfermedades médicas», en definitiva un nomenclátor de fórmulas para la preparación de los medicamentos de mayor utilidad para los navegantes de la época, tanto de uso interno como ex...

  7. Los "otros" militares : desertores en la América meridional española del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Chauca García, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    La deserción en la América española fue una constante favorecida por un conjunto de causas y gracias a factores como la distancia. El fenómeno de los desertores constituyó un problema que los monarcas intentaron vía legislativa frenar con la persuasión y la reintegración al servicio, bajo determinadas circunstancias, evitando sus nefastas consecuencias para la defensa de las Indias en un siglo, el XVIII, en el que las relaciones internacionales proyectadas en América oscilab...

  8. La población de Villamayor de Calatrava a mediados del XVIII según el Catastro de Ensenada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Domenech, Mª Angeles; Rodríguez Espinosa, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de esta comunicación es el estudio de los efectivos de población del municipio de Villamayor de Calatrava a mediados del XVIII, utilizando como fuente el Catastro del Marqués de la Ensenada 708y, dentro de él, las Respuestas Generales y los Memoriales. No abordamos, sin embargo, en esta comunicación la estructura demográfica ni la profesional o económica que, sin duda, es posible analizar con mucha exactitud utilizando esta misma fuente. No obstante, hay una publicación d...

  9. Familia, hogar y vivienda en Burgos a mediados del siglo XVIII: Entre cuatro paredes, compartiendo armarios, camas, mesas y manteles

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2002-01-01

    Los memoriales del Catastro de Ensenada y los inventarios post-mortem, recopilados para esos mismos vecinos concretos, han sido las fuentes documentales esenciales. Ambos yacimientos de información se yuxtaponen, imbrican y retroalimentan mutuamente. Este trabajo, sobre Burgos a mediados del siglo XVIII, ha reconstruido las dimensiones del hogar, tanto en lo que se refiere a la estructura y tamaño de los grupos domésticos como a la superficie sobre la que desarrollaban sus particulares existe...

  10. DE ESPIRITUALES A HISTÉRICAS: LAS BEATAS DEL SIGLO XVIII EN LA NUEVA ESPAÑA

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRA ARAYA ESPINOZA

    2004-01-01

    Los procesos inquisitoriales a beatas por ilusas y alumbradas en la Nueva España, durante el siglo XVIII, muestran cómo la "anormalidad" del modelo de espiritualidad místico y ascético, al que las mujeres fueron tan proclives en dicha centuria, pasó al campo del discurso médico. La mirada masculina se desconcierta con la continuidad de los signos exteriores de la espiritualidad femenina, son sus cuerpos el medio por el cual dan cuenta de que algo fuera de lo normal las identifica: arrobamient...

  11. El Real de Minas de Bolaños, Jalisco, en el siglo xviii : transformaciones territoriales y cambios sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rubén Ruiz Medrano

    2014-01-01

    en el presente artículo se muestra la forma en que la minería desarrollada en Bolaños durante el siglo xviii cons - tituyó un poderoso incentivo para subordinar el territorio adyacente a nuevas lógicas comerciales, que lo transfor - maron y tuvieron efectos distintos en las comunidades indígenas situadas en las Fronteras de San Luis Colotlán, Jalisco. Un fenómeno multifactorial que ejerció presión directa sobre las identidades étnicas, al tiempo que desató conflictos sociales que se desplegar...

  12. La espiritualidad mundana en Cuenca a inicios del siglo XVIII. El caso de Martina Catalina de Barzallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Catalina León Galarza

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examina el proceso judicial de una monja en Cuenca, a inicios del siglo XVIII, que buscaba regresar a la "vida mundana" y anular su profesión y hábito. Este caso permite mostrar la mentalidad barroca, acercarse a la construcción cultural del cuerpo y a la situación de las mujeres. A partir de los fragmentos disponibles del juicio, el artículo sugiere que Martina Catalina de Barzallo reivindicó el retomo a la vida mundana y el rechazo a las prácticas coercitivas propias de la vida monástica.

  13. Cultura escrita, oralidade e gênero em conventos portugueses (séculos XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bellini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda formatos e usos da escrita em mosteiros femininos e masculinos, no Portugal dos séculos XVII e XVIII, buscando explorar significados particulares do domínio de técnicas escriturais. Neste sentido, procura adaptar, à especificidade do contexto analisado, sugestões metodológicas dos estudos sobre as implicações do letramento e seus vínculos com a esfera da oralidade, noutros universos histórico-sociais.

  14. Doctrina contable del siglo XVIII y su influencia en los proyectos de reforma contable de la época

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Anes, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Durante el siglo XVIII la contabilidad parece despertar del silencio en el que estaba inmersa. Este resurgir se da en dos frentes: por un lado, se haya vinculado al comercio y por otro lado, unido a una nueva experiencia que se llevaría a cabo en las Cajas Reales de las Indias, para llevar las cuentas mediante la aplicación del método de la partida doble. Este último suscitó un discurso en el seno del funcionariado -entre partidarios y detractores del nuevo método-, tanto en Indias como en Es...

  15. Usos y acepciones de chino, china en el norte del Perú, siglos XVIII-XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Andrade Ciudad; Fred Rohner

    2014-01-01

    ResumenSe estudian los usos de la palabra chino, china en el norte peruano, entre los siglos XVIII y XIX, a partir de documentos históricos y coplas de la lírica popular. En contra de propuestas anteriores, se confirma el uso efectivo del término, sobre todo en su forma femenina, y se postulan dos acepciones: la primera, vinculada a la terminología de castas, alude a un tipo de mestizaje que une los troncos indio y africano, con un componente menor, variable, de “sangre blanca”, mientras que ...

  16. Montes de Piedad eclesiásticos y particulares (S. XVIII-XIX: Usos monetarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Serrulla, María Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Montes de Piedad (Mounts of Mercy, beneficial-credit institutions, arise in Italy (S. XV to initiative of Franciscans preachers, with the objective to provide loans on pignoratious guarantees to an interest lower than the demanded by the moneylenders. This type of institution propagates immediately by all Italian geography, and going beyond its borders will arrive at other European zones, among them to the Iberian Peninsula. Within the Hispanic monarchy in the beginnings of century XVIII the foundation of Monte de Piedad of Madrid takes place, by Piquer Father who will be inheriting of the spirit and objectives of primitive Italian predecessors and will include some new features as a result of the devotion of their founder and the particularities of that time. This Monte will serve as a model for other similar institutions as much in the peninsula as in the American virreinatos. With time, a series of new foundations will take place, bearing the same denomination (all will take by name Monte de Piedad, but with important differences in their constitutions and aims. These foundations arise as much in ecclesiastical as secular scope. The analysis of some of these institutions is the objective of the present study, differentiating ecclesiastical and secular foundations (in these last ones a further difference is made for the ones founded by members of the nobility. Starting off from original texts, the particular or general objectives and their beneficial aims are analyzed and different aspects related to their start up, lawsuits, use for aims different from the indicated ones in their foundation, etc.Los Montes de Piedad, instituciones benéfico-crediticias, surgen en Italia (S. XV a iniciativa de predicadores franciscanos, con el objetivo de proporcionar préstamos sobre garantías prendarias a un interés más bajo que el exigido por los prestamistas. Este tipo de institución se propaga enseguida por toda la geografía italiana, traspasando sus

  17. BAJA DE LA FECUNDIDAD Y FAMILIA URBANA EN REIMS EN EL SIGLO XVIII (1760-1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTOINETTE FAUVE-CHAMOUX

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la conclusión que se puede sacar de las investigaciones realizadas hasta ahora sobre la transición demográfica en el medio urbano. Comparando Ginebra con Rouen, Alfred Perrenoud logró demostrar que la alta burguesía, tanto suiza como normanda, practicaba el control de la natalidad en 1650 (Perrenoud, 1990, y esto antes incluso que empezara a bajar seriamente la tasa de mortalidad (Bardet, 1990. Tanto en Rouen como en Ginebra, el control de la descendencia se extendió luego rápidamente al conjunto de la población, como lo demuestra la caída regular de la fecundidad. A estos dos principales modelos testigos del comportamiento innovador de algunas familias urbanas de Europa occidental en los siglos XVII y XVIII, cabe agregar el de Reims, ciudad de los Reyes de Francia ubicada en Champagne con 30.000 habitantes, famosa desde luego por sus vinos espumantes después de 1700, pero también por sus tejidos de lana. Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la

  18. THEMES AND MOTIVES OF ORNAMENT FOLK EMBROIDERY IN THE RUSSIAN NORTH IN XVIII CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkevich S. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses a feature of graphic ornamental motives of embroidery in clothing and household decoration, typical for the North-West region of Russia in the XVIII century. The semiotic status of the Russian clothing and household decorations with decorative ornaments embroidery with figurative ornamental motives as a group of functionally related items have remained very high, having both utilitarian and sign pragmatics for millennia. Despite the sociohistorical processes, changing the external shape of the suit, the symbolism of embroidery patterns remained unchanged and continued to exist until the twentieth century. In connection with the political events, readier subjects and fine motives can be traced in the Russian folk embroidery due to the resettlement of Novgorod in the XV century. This is the way from Novgorod to Arkhangelsk and the path from Veliky Novgorod to Vologda where Novgorod settled, keeping their culture. It is proved, that there is a correlation between the zoomorphic pendants, amulets female ornaments of the tenth century and plot embroidered with iconic ornamental motives of the North-West region of Russia. People piously observed the laws of their fathers and grandfathers. The embroidery from generation to generation has been portraying images of ancient mythology. The most common images in the northern Russian embroidery were the goddess of Mokos, Rozhanitsy, birds, horses, moose, deer, and wild animals and plants, depicted in subject compositions. The zoomorphic motives are also the images of flying dragons, symbolizing lightning, they are often found in Russian folk tales. Fire Dragon was considered the protector of property and fire. The people’s attitude to fire was special: it was called "You sir, the King-fire", and it was regards’ a god. One of the main roles in the embroidery is given to the technical side. Counted Russian embroidery stitches do not only recreate the image, but also express its

  19. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Vikas [Department of Physics, Dronacharya College of Engineering (Affiliated to Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow), Greater Noida (UP), 201 308 (India); Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S D (Postgraduate) College (Affiliated with Choudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut), Muzaffarnagar - UP, 251 001 (India)], E-mail: tayalvikas11@rediffmail.com

    2009-11-15

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 (Configuration Interaction Version 3) calculations of excitation energies from ground states for 141 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the levels of the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}) 3l{sup 2}, 3l3l' and 3l4l configurations of Cu XVIII. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Since mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, it becomes difficult to identify these uniquely. Our excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement (better than 1.0%) with the available experimental results. From our calculated radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates are found to be in good agreement with other theoretical results, while the lifetimes agree very well with the experimental values (wherever available). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  20. INSTALACIONES Y EQUIPAMIENTO VITIVINÍCOLA EN EL REINO DE CHILE. VASIJAS, PIPAS, LAGARES (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina las instalaciones y el equipamiento de los establecimientos vitivinícolas del Reino de Chile en el siglo XVIII. El tema es relevante porque en ese momento, Chile era el principal polo vitivinícola de América y ejercía un liderazgo en la región. Se estudian las distintas formas de lagares, tanto los de cuero como los de adobe, cal y ladrillo; también se indaga en la evolución de la vasija vinaria, de la greda la madera. Los hornos botijeros ocuparon un lugar importante por su aporte a la fabricación de tinajas y botijas. Estos recipientes fueron como un icono característico de la viticultura del sur de América (en México la vasija no era de greda sino de madera, aún al comienzo de la industria vitivinícola. Posteriormente, a partir de la mitad de la centuria, comenzó la incorporación de vasija de madera (pipas y barriles en Chile. Durante cincuenta años éstas convivieron con los recipientes de greda, hasta comenzar a sustituirlos progresivamente en el siglo XIX. Este equipamiento hizo posible el desarrollo de una de las principales industrias que hubo en América española durante la época colonial y que, actualmente, sigue siendo la principal industria de Chile.

  1. Poblaciones, vecinos y fronteras rioplatenses. Santa Fe a fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez, Teresa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the territorial growth of a small Hispanic-Creole town: Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz, as well as the modifications of its estates, Indian towns, parishes, chapels, and forts along during the three last decades of the eighteenth century. Changes took place not only due to strategic migrations of people looking for settlements but also by institutional reform (the Bourbon Reforms, facilitated by the vicinity of viceroyalty officials that allowed elites to protect their interests. It is thus possible to recognize a frontier policy generated by negociations of subordinate sectors with elite families at a time of cattle raising expansion, and consequently, of a growing demand for land. In addition, city authorities struggled to settle population within us district and thus set their limits in front of neighboring town councils.

    El trabajo versa sobre el crecimiento espacial de una pequeña aldea hispanocriolla —Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz— y los reacomodamientos que sus pagos, pueblos de indios, curatos, capillas y fuertes tuvieron en las tres últimas décadas del siglo XVIII. Tales adecuaciones se produjeron tanto por estrategias de la población flotante en búsqueda de asentamiento, como por cambios institucionales —en el marco de reformas borbónicas y debido a la cercanía de las autoridades virreinales— con que los vecinos “hidalgos” protegieron sus intereses. Así se reconoce una política de fronteras que resulta de las negociaciones de los sectores subalternos con las familias de elite en un momento de expansión ganadera y consecuente aumento de la demanda por tierras. Asimismo, las autoridades de la ciudad lucharon por fijar población en su jurisdicción a los fines de marcar su espacio frente a los avances de cabildos vecinos.

  2. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  3. The Classical Electron Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, T L; Lindesay, J

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a parallel image of the conventional Maxwell theory by replacing the observer-time by the proper-time of the source. This formulation is mathematically, but not physically, equivalent to the conventional form. The change induces a new symmetry group which is distinct from, but closely related to the Lorentz group, and fixes the clock of the source for all observers. The new wave equation contains an additional term (dissipative), which arises instantaneously with acceleration. This shows that the origin of radiation reaction is not the action of a "charge" on itself but arises from inertial resistance to changes in motion. This dissipative term is equivalent to an effective mass so that classical radiation has both a massless and a massive part. Hence, at the local level the theory is one of particles and fields but there is no self-energy divergence (nor any of the other problems). We also show that, for any closed system of particles, there is a global inertial frame and unique (...

  4. Time, classical and quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniello, P.; Ciaglia, F. M.; Di Cosmo, F.; Marmo, G.; Pérez-Pardo, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a new point of view regarding the problem of time in quantum mechanics, based on the idea of replacing the usual time operator T with a suitable real-valued function T on the space of physical states. The proper characterization of the function T relies on a particular relation with the dynamical evolution of the system rather than with the infinitesimal generator of the dynamics (Hamiltonian). We first consider the case of classical hamiltonian mechanics, where observables are functions on phase space and the tools of differential geometry can be applied. The idea is then extended to the case of the unitary evolution of pure states of finite-level quantum systems by means of the geometric formulation of quantum mechanics. It is found that T is a function on the space of pure states which is not associated with any self-adjoint operator. The link between T and the dynamical evolution is interpreted as defining a simultaneity relation for the states of the system with respect to the dynamical evolution itself. It turns out that different dynamical evolutions lead to different notions of simultaneity, i.e., the notion of simultaneity is a dynamical notion.

  5. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  6. Extended symmetrical classical electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A V; Kalashnikov, E G

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a modification of classical electrodynamics in which "ordinary" point charges are absent. The modified equations contain additional terms describing the induced charges and currents. The densities of the induced charges and currents depend on the vector k and the vectors of the electromagnetic field, E and B . It is shown that the vectors E and B can be defined in terms of two four-potentials and the components of k are the components of a four-tensor of the third rank. The Lagrangian of the modified electrodynamics is defined. The conditions are derived at which only one four-potential determines the behavior of the electromagnetic field. It is also shown that static modified electrodynamics can describe the electromagnetic field in the inner region of an electric monopole. In the outer region of the electric monopole the electric field is governed by the Maxwell equations. It follows from boundary conditions at the interface between the inner and outer regions of the monopole that the vector k has a discrete spectrum. The electric and magnetic fields, energy, and angular momentum of the monopole are found for different eigenvalues of k .

  7. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  8. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters

  9. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  10. Classical and quantum effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.

  11. Population in the classic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-01-01

    Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In ad...

  12. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology

  13. Chapter 5. Measuring operational marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to raise the issue of marketing accountability. A central problem in business today is that marketing lacks the kind of accountability and metrics common to the rest of the corporation. For a very long time, this imprecision has been tolerated and has been excused because marketing was supposed to be inherently “creative”. Yet, as marketing consumes a larger and larger portion of the firm budget, the imperative grows to quantify marketing’s direct contribution...

  14. Contribuciones al estudiode los anfibios y reptiles de Méxicodurante el siglo XVIII y la Ilustración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Casas Andreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de la herpetología moderna en general se establecieron en el siglo XVIII,particularmente durante la Ilustración y quienes hicieron la mayor contribución fueronfundamentalmente los naturalistas franceses. No obstante, en México se hicieron varias publicacionesde cierto relieve, en especial por los misioneros jesuitas y otros estudiosos de la Nueva España. Esinteresante mencionar que aun con la trascendencia de Linneo para la biología moderna, algunoshistoriadores de los anfibios y los reptiles señalan que por lo menos para la herpetofauna de Méxicoexistió una importante regresión, ya que era mucho mayor el conocimiento que había dejadoFrancisco Hernández en el siglo XVI. Las contribuciones de los autores de la escuela francesa comoBuffon y quienes lo sucedieron como Lacepéde y Daudin, fueron los grandes pilares de laherpetología o estudios de los anfibios y los reptiles de la manera en que la conocemos en laactualidad. Las bases establecidas en el siglo XVIII sirvieron para que con la apertura de México almundo a partir de su independencia, se entrara en una de las etapas de mayor relevancia para laherpetología del país.

  15. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  16. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

  17. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  18. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions

  19. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  20. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  1. Complex analysis fundamentals of the classical theory of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Stalker, John

    1998-01-01

    This clear, concise introduction to the classical theory of one complex variable is based on the premise that "anything worth doing is worth doing with interesting examples." The content is driven by techniques and examples rather than definitions and theorems. This self-contained monograph is an excellent resource for a self-study guide and should appeal to a broad audience. The only prerequisite is a standard calculus course. The first chapter deals with a beautiful presentation of special functions. . . . The third chapter covers elliptic and modular functions. . . in much more detail, and from a different point of view, than one can find in standard introductory books. . . . For [the] subjects that are omitted, the author has suggested some excellent references for the reader who wants to go through these topics. The book is read easily and with great interest. It can be recommended to both students as a textbook and to mathematicians and physicists as a useful reference. ---Mathematical Reviews Mainly or...

  2. PREFACE: XVIII International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakhov, M. Kh; Samartsev, V. V.; Gainutdinov, R. Kh

    2015-05-01

    Kazan Federal University has held the annual International Youth School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" since 1997. The choice of the topic is not accidental. Kazan is the home of photon echo which was predicted at Kazan Physical-Technical Institute in 1963 by Prof. U.G. Kopvil'em and V.R. Nagibarov and observed in Columbia University by N.A. Kurnit, I.D. Abella, and S.R. Hartmann in 1964. Since then, photon echo has become a powerful tool of coherent optical spectroscopy and optical information processing, which have been developed here in Kazan in close collaboration between Kazan Physical-Technical Institute and Kazan Federal University. The main subjects of the XVIII International Youth School are: Nonlinear and coherent optics; Atomic and molecular spectroscopy; Coherent laser spectroscopy; Problems of quantum optics; Quantum theory of radiation; and Nanophotonics and Scanning Probe Microscopy. The unchallenged organizers of that school are Kazan Federal University and Kazan E.K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute. The rector of the School is Professor Myakzyum Salakhov, and the vice-rector is Professor Vitaly Samartsev. The International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" follows the global pattern of comprehensive studies of matter properties and their interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from the USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have given plenary lecture presentations. Here over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in lively discussions about the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the fullsize papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. The

  3. Censura gubernativa, Iglesia e inquisición en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro López, Ceferino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Government censorship in Eighteenth Century Spain was another means of the Spanish Enlightenment policy. Until mid-century both powers of Church and State were balanced; from Charles Ill's reign on the censorship of the Consejo de Castilla tried to control and restrict not only the traditional power of the Inquisition, but also the intellectual output of the country, either ideological —criticism on the Crown's policy— or cultural-publishing religious works. It is important to notice that many members of the clergy collaborated with the State in that task; and also that, after the French Revolution, the Inquisition regained its previous role. In the last decade of the Seventeenth century the irreconcilable clash between the advocates and the critics of the Inquisition became evident.

    La práctica de la censura gubernativa fue, en el siglo XVIII, un instrumento más de la política regalista de la Ilustración española. Si hasta mediados del siglo se mantuvieron estables las relaciones de poder entre Iglesia y Estado, a partir del reinado de Carlos III se nota cómo la censura del Consejo de Castilla intentaba vigilar y limitar no sólo el tradicional poder de la Inquisición, sino también la producción ideológica —crítica a la política de la Corona— y cultural-edición de obras de religión. Es importante observar que muchos hombres de Iglesia colaboraron con el Estado en esas tareas; y también que tras la Revolución Francesa la Inquisición volvió a asumir el papel que había jugado con anterioridad. En el último decenio del Setecientos se pone de manifiesto el enfrentamiento irreconciliable entre los partidarios y los detractores de la Inquisición.

  4. Gurruminos, petimetres, abates y currutacos en el teatro breve del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Valldaura, Josep Maria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of certain negative models of sainetes [afterpieces] from the 18th century reveals not only a continuity of comic stereotypes, but also their relationship to the ideals of behaviour of the era: the authority of the husband, the submissiveness of the wife, thriftiness in managing household finances, etc. Afterpieces join other literary genres (journalism, satirical poetry and the moral essay in ridiculing those who are involved in the practice of cortejo and who readily adopt new forms of social behavior, fashions, foreign dances, etc., in contrast to traditional ways and tastes. Examples taken from Antonio de Zamora, Agramont, Ramón de la Cruz, Vázquez and González del Castillo are used to illustrate this reticence towards changes in mentality of a new culture of leisure, as well as to observe it a contrario: its “feminization”, its frivolity, and its uselessness.El estudio de ciertos modelos negativos del teatro breve del siglo XVIII revela no sólo la continuidad cómica de los tipos, sino también su relación con los ideales de conducta coetáneos: la autoridad del marido, la discreción de la mujer, el cuidado de la economía familiar... Los sainetes se unen a otros géneros literarios (el periodismo, la poesía satírica y el ensayo de carácter moral en la ridiculización de quienes practican el cortejo y aplauden nuevas formas de sociabilidad, las modas y los bailes extranjeros, etc. frente a la conducta y los gustos tradicionales. Ejemplos tomados de Antonio de Zamora, Agramont, Ramón de la Cruz, Vázquez y González del Castillo sirven para argumentar tales reticencias ante el cambio de mentalidades de una nueva cultura del ocio, así como para observarlo a contrario: su “afeminación”, su frivolidad y su inutilidad.

  5. Classic writings on instructional technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ely, Donald P.; Plomp, Tjeerd

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the selection process of 17 articles for inclusion in the book, "Classic Writings on Instructional Technology." The book brings together original "classic" educational technology articles into one volume to document the history of the field through its literature. It is also an

  6. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  7. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  8. Classical Music Fan Chen Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The heyday of Beijing’s classical music beganin 1993, when top-quality sound equipment andrecords were imported. Also in that year, BeijingMusic Radio presented a classical music programtitled "Fan’s Club" and founded the "Music and

  9. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  10. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  11. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  12. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  13. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  14. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations.

  15. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  16. UMA SOCIEDADE DE APARÊNCIA: A JOALHERIA EM SABARÁ, MINAS GERAIS NO SÉCULO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Ozanan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O texto aponta os diversos atores sociais que produziram, comercializaram e usaram joias na antiga Vila Real de Nossa Senhora da Conceição do Sabará, hoje cidade de Sabará, um antigo arraial que se transformou em um dos maiores centros produtores de ouro de Minas Gerais no século XVIII. Pretende-se estabelecer as diversas relações e posturas daquela sociedade perante o uso e a posse de joias. Cada possuidor de joia naquele período tinha uma justificativa para tal utilização, sendo as mais comuns a demonstração da religiosidade e a demonstração do poder que essas  joias proporcionam. A abordagem perpassa por quais os atores e quais suas expectativas com relação ao uso das joias, bem como a relação entre os tipos mais utilizados, sempre embasados na documentação produzida pelos cartórios de Sabará durante o século XVIII. Vamos, nesse texto, entender como joia, o artefato feito a partir de materiais nobres, como ouro e prata, com ou sem o uso de pedraria.Palavras-chave: Joalheria, Minas Gerais, Design de joias, Cultura Material. Abstract: The text points out the various social actors that produced, marketed and used jewelry in old Vila Real de Nossa Senhora da Conceição of Sabara, today city of Sabara, an ancient village that has become one of the largest producers of gold centers of Minas Gerais in century XVIII. It is intended to establish the various relationships and attitudes that society to the use and possession of jewelry. Each jewel possessed at that time had a justification for such use, the most common being the demonstration of religion and the demonstration of the power that these jewels provide. The approach which permeates the actors and what their expectations regarding the use of jewelry, as well as the relationship between the most popular types, always grounded in the documentation produced by the notary Sabara during the eighteenth century. Come on, this text, understand how jewel, the artifact

  17. Quantum localization of classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  18. Simultaneous classical-quantum capacities of quantum multiple access channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yard, J

    2005-01-01

    The rates at which classical and quantum information can be simultaneously transmitted from two spatially separated senders to a single receiver over an arbitrary quantum channel are characterized. Two main results are proved in detail. The first describes the region of rates at which one sender can send classical information while the other sends quantum information. The second describes those rates at which both senders can send quantum information. For each of these situations, an example of a channel is given for which the associated region admits a single-letter description. This is the author's Ph.D. dissertation, submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University in March, 2005. It represents an expanded version of the paper quant-ph/0501045, containing a number of tutorial chapters which may be of independent interest for those learning about quantum Shannon theory.

  19. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  20. System analysis using multitracer approaches. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter offers a qualitative or semi-quantitative step towards a synthesis of the information that the different tracers provide. It also offers some criteria that can be used to help assess the reliability of selected tracer data in evaluating tracer model ages from measurements of concentrations of multiple environmental tracers in the system. In most of the literature on isotope hydrology, the term ‘apparent age’ is used instead of ‘tracer model age’, and within this chapter the two terms are considered synonymous. This approach testing reliability of tracer data is only a first step and performs a black and white selection of the tracer data. Some consistency tests are performed, and for data passing these tests there is at least no obvious reason known that the tracer model age is not a valid description. For data that fail these tests, it is obvious that a straightforward calculation of tracer model ages will not give the intended result.

  1. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models

  2. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...... both their most positive and most negative chapter. As predicted, the beginning age of positive but not negative chapters produced a bump and specific memories tended to cluster at chapter beginnings. The results support the idea that chapters guide the search for specific memories...

  3. Topografías religiosas. La dimensión territorial de la religiosidad popular en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Chinchilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se pretende abordar la dimensión territorial de la religiosidad popular en el siglo XVIII a partir del análisis de una serie de representaciones espaciales. El estudio de tales imágenes –croquis remitidos al geógrafo Tomás López y planos insertos en la documentación del Catastro de Ensenada– nos permitirá aproximarnos al complejo universo de la percepción espacial y la apreciación paisajística, así como a reflexionar sobre las construcciones simbólicas y la apropiación ideoló...

  4. A escrita em guarani dos mayordomos e o exemplo de Valentín Ybariguá (Paraguai, XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Eduardo S.

    2014-01-01

    En las reducciones del Paraguay, la enseñanza de las “artes y oficios” alcanzó un nivel sorprendente. La conquista del alfabeto por los guaraníes fue un aspecto de ese desarrollo, que amplió las posibilidades de comunicación de los indígenas con los poderes coloniales. A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII fue frecuente la práctica de la escritura entre los indígenas de las misiones. El conocimiento de los protocolos letrados permitió a la élite indígena una vía de comunicación direc...

  5. LOS POTREROS DE ANTOFAGASTA. TRABAJO INDÍGENA Y PROPIEDAD (FINALES DEL SIGLO XVIII Y COMIENZOS DEL XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos N. Quesada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos la forma en que el trabajo de los campesinos indígenas de la puna meridional organizó, de acuerdo a una lógica local, la producción agrícola que le permitió su reproducción y articulación con la economía regional a finales del siglo XVIII y comienzos del XIX. El uso co de metodologías y técnicas históricas y arqueológicas nos permite proponer una visión alternativa de las formas locales de producción agrícola, poniendo en evidencia procesos de trabajo y mecanismos de apropiación que de otra forma permanecían invisibilizados.

  6. Carretas y transporte terrestre bioceánico: la ruta Buenos Aires-Mendoza en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A carreta foi o principal meio de transporte terrestre na América colonial entre os séculos XVI e XIX. Uma das rotas mais utilizadas foi Buenos Aires-Mendoza, estabelecendo uma ligação entre os mercados do Atlântico e do Pacífico. Este artigo examina essas rotas, ao final do século XVIII, com base no processamento das viagens de 16. 000 carretas. O tema será aprofundado em um segundo trabalho intitulado "Los troperos y los orígenes de la burguesía en el Cono Sur de América colonial" (previsto para o próximo número de Estudos Ibero-Americanos

  7. La literatura de viajes y el transporte en Galicia desde el último tercio del siglo XVIII hasta mediados del XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindoso-Tato, Elvira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, in general, and Galicia, in particular, stayed away from the Grand Tour, major exponent of the modern tourism born in Great Britain. The ignorance of the land and the poor ground transportation contributed to this distance, among other things. In this way, the paper focuses in the analysis of both obstacles in the first tourism development in Galicia, between the late eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century, before the railway construction. On the one hand, it analyses the image that some foreign travelers offered about their travels in Galicia, and, on the other hand, it studies the state of the ground transportation during the period. The foreign testimonies about the Galician region were short compared with other parts of the peninsula. Although they relieved in certain degree the ignorance about Galicia with the marking of some points of future tourist interest. At last, several and partial improvements in the ground transportation were made in the last third of the eighteenth century.España, en general, y Galicia, en particular, permanecieron alejadas de las rutas del Grand Tour, exponente principal del turismo moderno iniciado en Gran Bretaña. El desconocimiento del territorio y el deficiente estado de los transportes terrestres contribuyeron a este alejamiento, entre otros factores. Así, el trabajo se centra en el análisis de ambos obstáculos al primer desarrollo del turismo en Galicia entre finales del siglo XVIII y mediados del siglo XIX, antes de la construcción del ferrocarril. Por un lado, se analiza la imagen que ofrecieron algunos viajeros extranjeros en sus crónicas de viaje por tierras galaicas y, por otro lado, se estudia el estado del transporte terrestre de la época. Se observa que los testimonios forasteros sobre la región gallega resultaron escasos en comparación con otros puntos peninsulares aunque aliviaron en cierto grado el desconocimiento que pesaba sobre la comunidad, marcando una serie de

  8. El tropero y el origen de la burguesía en el Cono Sur (Mendoza, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aprofunda a análise sobre a carreta e o tropeiro, para definir em que medida contribuíram para o processo de construção de uma cultura empresarial na América Colonial, levando ao surgimento de uma burguesia. Atenta-se, em especial, para temas como mobilidade social, riscos empresariais, fomento do crédito em confiança ou por hipoteca de carretas, circulação de idéias e configuração de um ethos capitalista. Este trabalho constitui a continuação e a conclusão de um anterior intitulado "Carretas y transporte terrestre bioceánico: la ruta Buenos Aires-Mendoza en el siglo XVIII" (Estudos Ibero-Americanos, vol. XXXI, nº 1, 2005

  9. Cacicas indígenas en la Audiencia de Quito, siglo XVIII: las redes ocultas del poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Coronel Feijóo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el rol que las mujeres mitmas y llactayas tuvieron como cacicas de los antiguos señoríos norandinos, en el contexto de la Audiencia de Quito, en el siglo XVIII. A pesar de los cambios introducidos por las conquistas inca y española, el trabajo descubre una importante línea de continuidad de los linajes femeninos en determinadas organizaciones étnicas. Encuentra que las mujeres negociaron con el poder colonial y con otros caciques por medio de estrategias que incluyeron habilidad e inteligencia para jugar con el derecho español y con la tradición indígena, la movilización de elementos económicos y simbólicos, y la manipulación del mestizaje.

  10. Pattern of dental development in Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez De Castro, J M; Rosas, A

    2001-04-01

    . We describe the pattern of dental development of Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (SH) site of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). As expected, this pattern is similar to that of modern humans. A delay of development of the lower and upper canines was observed. In contrast, the relative advanced development of the lower second molars and, especially, the upper and lower third molars is noteworthy. This latter feature seems to be common in Pleistocene hominids, and suggests that the pattern of dental development evolved in the genus Homo during the Pleistocene. In European Middle Pleistocene hominids, this pattern probably was facilitated by the extra space available in the mandible and maxilla for developing teeth. PMID:11275961

  11. EL DISCURSO CONFESIONAL EN EL EPISTOLARIO DE SOR JOSEFA DE LOS DOLORES PEÑA Y LILLO (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCÍA INVERNIZZI SANTA CRUZ

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to make known the Epistolary, up to now inedited, of Sister Josefa de los Dolores Peña y Lillo, chilean dominican nun from the XVIII th century. Her text constituted by sixty five letters, addressed to her father confessor, the jesuit Manuel Alvarez. These letters are kept in the Archive of the Dominican Monastery of Santa Rosa de Lima in Santiago, Chile. The letters seem a manifestation of confessional discourse which the nuns had to write by order of their father confessors or ecclesiastical autorities. However, the Epistolary analysis reveals the transformations of that discoursive pattern, which Sor Josefa's writing constitutes itself in the support of a selfknowing process and in a construction of woman identity, which is not recognized only in her religious vocation and virtues, but also in her knowing capacity, wisdom and words management.

  12. Resistencia india, conciliación y estrategia militar en Quixos durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Gómez González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El noroccidente amazónico, en especial la gobernación de Quixos, fue una de las más ignotas regiones de América del Sur durante el siglo XVIII. Sus jurisdicciones, dependientes en parte de la Real Audiencia de Quito, no gozaron de suficiente atención por parte de la administración monárquica; por tanto, la dominación del territorio y sus habitantes originarios no pudo concretarse en términos absolutos debido a las dificultades supuestas por la resistencia indígena frente a unas estrategias de sometimiento poco consecuentes y evidentemente desarticuladas de las políticas hispánicas para los territorios fronterizos.

  13. XVIII. YÜZYILIN İKİNCİ YARISINDA ÇILDIR EYÂLETİ VE İDARECİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    İnbaşı, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Osmanlı-İran harpleri sırasında 1 Temmuz 1579’da kurulan Çıldır Eyâleti, Atabeylerin idaresine verilmişti. XVII. yüzyılda sancak sayısı 14 ile 20 arasında değişmiş, XVIII. yüzyılda ise 21 sancağa kadar yükselmiştir. 1750–1800 yılları arasında sancak sayısı 21’dir. Bu dönemde 9 vali görev yapmıştır. Bunlar içerisinde en uzun görev yapan vali 19 yıl ile Süleyman Paşa’dır. Valiler içerisinde ismi geçen İ...

  14. From Classical to Quantum Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the classical transistor and the basic physics underlying the operation of single electron transistor are presented; a brief history of transistor and current technological issues are discussed.

  15. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  16. Fano interference in classical oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the splitting of normal-mode frequencies of a coupled oscillator. Using this analogy, we simulate and experimentally demonstrate Fano interference and the associated phenomena in three-level atoms in a coupled electrical resonator circuit. This work aims to highlight analogies between classical and quantum systems for students at the postgraduate and graduate levels. Also, the reported technique can be easily realized in undergraduate laboratories. (paper)

  17. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  18. Elementary charges in classical electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    KAPU'{S}CIK, Edward

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of classical electrodynamics elementary particles are treated as capacitors. The electrostatic potentials satisfy equations of the Schrödinger type. An interesting "quantization condition" for elementary charges is derived.

  19. Probabilities for classically forbidden transitions using classical and classical path methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits are established for the applicability of purely classical methods for calculating nonreactive, inelastic transition probabilities in collinear collisions of a structureless atom and a harmonic oscillator. These limits, obtained by comparison with previous exact quantum mechanical results, indicate that such methods are inappropriate not only for ''classically forbidden'' but for many ''classically allowed'' transitions (in spite of the fact that they are widely used to calculate probabilities for such processes). A classical path method in the context of infinite-order time-dependent perturbation theory is described which yields extremely accurate transition probabilities even for the most classically forbidden transitions in the collinear atom--harmonic oscillator system. The essential features of this method are: (1) the use of the expectation value of the total interaction potential in determining the atom--oscillator (central force) trajectory, and (2) the use of the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocities of relative motion in the (elastic) central force trajectory. This choice of interaction potential allows the relative motion to be coupled to changes in the internal state of the oscillator. The present classical method is further applied to three-dimensional atom-breathing sphere collisions, and exact quantum mechanical calculations are also carried out. Comparison of the classical path and exact quantum results shows excellent agreement both in the specific inelastic cross section and in the individual partial-wave contributions

  20. Classical Transitions for Flux Vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Deskins, J Tate; Yang, I-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    We present the simplest model for classical transitions in flux vacua. A complex field with a spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry is embedded in $M_2\\times S_1$. We numerically construct different winding number vacua, the vortices interpolating between them, and simulate the collisions of these vortices. We show that classical transitions are generic at large boosts, independent of whether or not vortices miss each other in the compact $S_1$.

  1. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  2. Gaussian Dynamics is Classical Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Salman

    2004-01-01

    A direct comparison of quantum and classical dynamical systems can be accomplished through the use of distribution functions. This is useful for both fundamental investigations such as the nature of the quantum-classical transition as well as for applications such as quantum feedback control. By affording a clear separation between kinematical and dynamical quantum effects, the Wigner distribution is particularly valuable in this regard. Here we discuss some consequences of the fact that when...

  3. Anderson localization from classical trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively descri...

  4. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 5, Number Theory, Chapter 6, The Integers. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The third student text in this SMSG series of 14 covers the following topics from number theory: the division algorithm, divisibility, prime numbers, prime factorization, common divisors and common multiples, and properties of the whole number system. A second chapter discusses properties and operations with integers. For a special edition of this…

  5. The Other 7/8--The application of “Iceberg Principle” in the 17th chapter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟璠

    2013-01-01

    Based on “Iceberg Principle”, the paper briefly introduces the development of this theory in the area of literature, and also gives a brief introduction of Hemingway’s classic novel The Sun Also Rises. The paper studies take the 17th chapter of this novel as an example, analyzing the application of “Iceberg principle” in this chapter from the perspective of both the storyline and characterization and summarizes the effect that “Iceberg Principle” have in this chapter. It will be beneficial for the readers to understand of“Iceberg Principle” in a specific context, and to understand the thoughts and emotion of the novel from a much deeper level.

  6. Chapter I: Landscape and its representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter contains and defines the basic concepts, represents the landscape in schematic way, demonstrates the concepts in form of pictures (landscape as a whole, its individual components and structures), graphic forms, including the historical and the present representation of landscape in artistic works. Definition of landscape and schemes of the basic concepts are included. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Landscape - material reality - fragment of geographical sphere; (2) Landscape, its elements, and relationships; (3) Landscape structure; (4) Definition of the landscape; (5) Landscape characteristics; Methodology used for compilation of the Landscape Atlas of the SR; (6) Conception of the Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic; Historical representation of landscape; (7) Development of representation of the selected landscape types; Slovak landscape in fine arts

  7. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  9. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  10. Beyond the classical Stefan problem

    OpenAIRE

    Font Martínez, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we develop and analyse mathematical models describing phase change phenomena linked with novel technological applications. The models are based on modifications to standard phase change theory. The mathematical tools used to analyse such models include asymptotic analysis, similarity solutions, the Heat Balance Integral Method and standard numerical techniques such as finite differences. In chapters 2 and 3 we study the melting of nanoparticles. The Gibbs-Thomson relation,...

  11. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  12. Classical approach in atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov' ev, E.A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  13. No Return to Classical Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Jennings, David

    2015-01-01

    At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of Nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, noncommutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem, and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understandi...

  14. Caminhos e invenções da santidade feminina em Portugal nos séculos XVII e XVIII : Alguns, dados, problemas e sugestões

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Pedro Vilas Boas

    1996-01-01

    This work draws on available data and factual examples (particularly from the feminine social sphere) to establish the relationship between, on the one hand, a growing search for sanctity during the XVII century and the first half of the XVIII, and, on the other hand, the proclamation of silent prayer and contemplation which should be practiced by the secular world. Due to these circumstances and concurrent fear of degradation of spiritual life, we try to describe in this research work the ne...

  15. Estela de Tuiia, arquero del rey: Traducción de una estela egipcia de la dinastía XVIII al castellano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria González Márquez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación, transliteración y traducción de una estela egipcia de la Dinastía XVIII creada en honor a Tuiia, un arquero y sirviente personal del rey. La estela nos ofrece una puerta de acceso a los ritos funerarios y las relaciones familiares en el contexto del universo cultural del Reino Nuevo. El documento se encuentra preservado en el Museo Británico

  16. Fiscal year 1990 estimated national average monthly payments for extended care services under Part A of Title XVIII of the Social Security Act--HRSA Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    This notice announces the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 estimated national average monthly payments for Medicare extended care services under part A of title XVIII of the Social Security Act. This information is provided for the purpose of determining the limitation on total payments to States under title XXIV of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, section 2401(a), part A--Formula Grants to States for Home and Community Based Health Services, with respect to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). PMID:10106393

  17. Análisis metrológico de la planimetria empleada en el antiguo Reino de Valencia durante los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Rioja Castellano, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ENGLISH ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS TITLE: METROLOGICAL ANALYSIS ABOUT THE PERFORMED PLANIMETRY ON THE OLD KINGDOM OF VALENCIA OVER THE XVII, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES. In this thesis, the author make a study about the used units on the Old Kingdom of Valencia, since the XVII century until mid XIX century. In order to do this, two paragraphs have been reorganized. On the first one, the author analyse metrics systems as a whole, its origin, the units, its geographical location, the mea...

  18. New Approaches to Classical Liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Maloberti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the following three novel and original philosophical approaches to classical liberalism: Den Uyl and Rasmussen's perfectionist argument from meta-norms, Gaus's justificatory model, and Kukathas's conscience-based theory of authority. None of these three approaches are utilitarian or consequentialist in character. Neither do they appeal to the notion of a rational bargain as it is typical within contractarianism. Furthermore, each of these theories rejects the idea that classical liberalism should be grounded on considerations of interpersonal justice such as those that are central to the Lockean tradition. It is argued that these three theories, despite their many attractive features, fail to articulate in a convincing manner some central classical liberal concerns.

  19. Population in the classic economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In addition to population made it established. The aim of this study is analyzing the mental relationship between Malthus whose name has been identified with relation between population-growth and Smith who discussed this subject first time but put it off on process of theorisation.

  20. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  1. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; Jones, L; Lu, S.; Menut, L.; Mulcahy, J.; Nickovic, S.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Perez, C.; Reid, J. S.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Tanaka, T.; Terradellas, E.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhou, C.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  2. Chapter IX: Stress phenomena in landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter consist of next sub-chapters: (1) Sources of stress phenomena and their reflection in landscape; (2) Impact of stress phenomena on natural resources and human hea; (3) Impact of stress phenomena on landscape. The different types of human activities and natural phenomena affect the environment. They are referred to by the general term of stress phenomena. There are the stress phenomena of natural character (the radon risk, landslides, avalanches, etc.) and anthropogenic phenomena determined or directly provoked by man (air and water pollution, emissions, etc.). They cause different environmental problems: they threaten the ecological and cultural priorities, but above all they threaten human health. National legislation and international conventions concerning the air protection lay down the regular inventory of emission of pollutants to atmosphere. Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) is responsible for such inventory. It is carried out in co-operation with several specialised institutions under the methodological guidance of the SHMU. The Register of Emissions and Pollution Sources (REZZO) was in operation at SHMU since 1985. It contains the data on emissions of the basic pollutants from stationary sources. This system was replaced by the National Emission Inventory System (NEIS) harmonised with the internationally accepted methodology (CORINAIR, EMEP, IPCC/FCCC). Sources of pollutants emitted to atmosphere are above all energetic and industrial productions, transport, fuel mining and transport, waste disposal and agriculture. Emissions in Slovakia reached their highest level by the end of the 1980's. Their consistent decrease is recorded since the 1990's. The cause of such developments is the overall recession connected with the decline of industrial production and consequently lower demand of the amount of produced energy. Simultaneously, the effects of legal instruments (Act No. 309/1991 of Coll. on protection of air against pollutants (The

  3. Comparing classical and quantum equilibration

    CERN Document Server

    Malabarba, Artur S L; Short, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    By using a physically-relevant and theory independent definition of measurement-based equilibration, we show quantitatively that equilibration is easier for quantum systems than for classical systems, in the situation where the initial state of the system is completely known (pure state). This shows that quantum equilibration is a fundamental, nigh unavoidable, aspect of physical systems, while classical equilibration relies on experimental ignorance. When the state is not completely known, a mixed state, this framework also shows quantum equilibration requires weaker conditions.

  4. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate......In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...

  5. Classical analogy of Fano resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analogy of Fano resonances in quantum interference to classical resonances in the harmonic oscillator system. It has a manifestation as a coupled behaviour of two effective oscillators associated with propagating and evanescent waves. We illustrate this point by considering a classical system of two coupled oscillators and interfering electron waves in a quasi-one-dimensional narrow constriction with a quantum dot. Our approach provides a novel insight into Fano resonance physics and provides a helpful view in teaching Fano resonances

  6. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  7. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  8. Ladybeetles (Coccinellidae. Chapter 8.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Roy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Coccinellidae are beneficial predators and they have received considerable research attention because of their potential as biological control agents. Indeed the role of coccinellids as predators of pest insects has been a major factor in the movement of coccinellids between countries. The commercial production of coccinellids by biological control companies and local producers led to a rapid increase in distribution thoughout the 1990’s. To date, 13 alien coccinellid species have been documented in Europe; 11 of these are alien to Europe (two are alien to Great Britain and Sweden but native within Europe. The distribution of alien coccinellids in Europe mirrors the biogeographical distribution and patterns of introduction. Some species have dispersed widely; Harmonia axyridis has spread rapidly from countries where it was deliberately introduced to many others across Europe. The ecological and economic impacts of alien coccinellids are not well documented. In this chapter we provide an overview of the temporal and spatial patterns of alien coccinellids in Europe.

  9. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  10. Chapter 3: Small molecules and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Wishart

    Full Text Available "Big" molecules such as proteins and genes still continue to capture the imagination of most biologists, biochemists and bioinformaticians. "Small" molecules, on the other hand, are the molecules that most biologists, biochemists and bioinformaticians prefer to ignore. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that small molecules such as amino acids, lipids and sugars play a far more important role in all aspects of disease etiology and disease treatment than we realized. This particular chapter focuses on an emerging field of bioinformatics called "chemical bioinformatics"--a discipline that has evolved to help address the blended chemical and molecular biological needs of toxicogenomics, pharmacogenomics, metabolomics and systems biology. In the following pages we will cover several topics related to chemical bioinformatics. First, a brief overview of some of the most important or useful chemical bioinformatic resources will be given. Second, a more detailed overview will be given on those particular resources that allow researchers to connect small molecules to diseases. This section will focus on describing a number of recently developed databases or knowledgebases that explicitly relate small molecules--either as the treatment, symptom or cause--to disease. Finally a short discussion will be provided on newly emerging software tools that exploit these databases as a means to discover new biomarkers or even new treatments for disease.

  11. Los boticarios del hospital Real de Santiago de Compostela en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartín Miguez, J. Santiago

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work tries to illustrate the life and work of the professionals of a Pharmacy at an outstanding Spanish hospital in the 18th century. This centre, founded by the Catholic King and Queen (Fernando of Aragón and Isabel of Castilla in the late 15th century, will provide the professionals of Pharmacy with an original constitution that shall rule their lives beyond their pharmaceutical activity. The author aims to recreate the figure of the Institution´s Pharmacists, both on their professional aspects and on their projection on the urban society of their time. To do so, different sections focus on the obligations of the Pharmacists as drugs technicians and as Major Ministers of the Institution; Their interaction among the centre sanitary personnel and the conflicts that arise among the different professionals; their formation; their salary which is compared to those of similar professionals and even with those of other similar Spanish hospitals, the criteria for their promotion as well as their social origin and consideration their job gives them.



    El presente trabajo trata de dar a conocer la vida y la actividad de los profesionales de la Botica de un emblemático hospital español durante el siglo XVIII. Este Centro sanitario, fundado por los Reyes CatCLASSIC APPROACH TO BUSINESS COACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present business coaching in a classical way. An overview of coaching definitions will be provided. Attention will be drawn to coaching components and varieties. Moreover, a brief description of coach competences and tools supporting their work will be offered. Joanna Żukowska

  12. On Classical and Quantum Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Volovich, I V; Volovich, Ya.I.

    2001-01-01

    Lectures on classical and quantum cryptography. Contents: Private key cryptosystems. Elements of number theory. Public key cryptography and RSA cryptosystem. Shannon`s entropy and mutual information. Entropic uncertainty relations. The no cloning theorem. The BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. Security proofs. Bell`s theorem. The EPRBE quantum cryptographic protocol.

  13. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  14. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza]. E-mail: rafael@cfp.ufpb.br; Almeida, W. Pires de [Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; Fonseca Neto, I. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-06-01

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, {phi}(t;{theta}). (author)

  15. Relative Clauses in Classical Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1975-01-01

    Jane Rosenthal's paper on relative clauses in Classical Nahuatl is discussed, and it is argued that she misses an important generalization. An alternative analysis to a class of relative pronouns and new rules for the distribution of relative pronouns are proposed. (SC)

  16. Minimum signals in classical physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文基; 许基桓; 刘平

    2003-01-01

    The bandwidth theorem for Fourier analysis on any time-dependent classical signal is shown using the operator approach to quantum mechanics. Following discussions about squeezed states in quantum optics, the problem of minimum signals presented by a single quantity and its squeezing is proposed. It is generally proved that all such minimum signals, squeezed or not, must be real Gaussian functions of time.

  17. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chaiho

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  18. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  19. Functional Techniques in Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gozzi, E

    2001-01-01

    In 1931 Koopman and von Neumann extended previous work of Liouville and provided an operatorial version of Classical Mechanics (CM). In this talk we will review a path-integral formulation of this operatorial version of CM. In particular we will study the geometrical nature of the many auxiliary variables present and of the unexpected universal symmetries generated by the functional technique.

  1. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  2. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, φ(t;Θ). (author)

  3. No return to classical reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David; Leifer, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, non-commutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understanding - the intrinsically quantum mechanical aspects of nature. The most famous of these is Bell's theorem, but we also review two more recent results in this area. Firstly, Hardy's theorem shows that even a finite-dimensional quantum system must contain an infinite amount of information, and secondly, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem shows that the wave function must be an objective property of an individual quantum system. Besides being of foundational interest, results of this sort now find surprising practical applications in areas such as quantum information science and the simulation of quantum systems.

  4. El retablo mayor de la iglesia de Santa Baia de Vedra en los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the study of the main altarpiece of thechurch of Santa Baia de Vedra, in the Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, one of the best examples of Galician Baroque polychrome wood sculpture, carved by Manuel de Leis around 1758. The structure and ornamentation are influenced by Galicia’s two principal eighteenth century architects, Fernando Casas y Novoa and Simón Rodríguez, and also by architectural treatises. Some of the images were carved at this time and others date from earlier. The first polychromy were not apply until a century later, in 1865, being its author Andrés Cardama.La presente investigación tiene por objeto el estudio del retablo mayor de la iglesia parroquial de Santa Baia de Vedra, perteneciente a la archidiócesis de Santiago de Compostela, una de los mejores obras de madera policromada del Barroco gallego, ejecutada por Manuel de Leis hacia 1758. La estructura y el aparato ornamental acusan la influencia de los dos grandes maestros de la Galicia del siglo XVIII, Fernando de Casas y Novoa y Simón Rodríguez, y de los tratados de arquitectura. Una parte de la imaginería se esculpe para este retablo y otra proviene de etapas anteriores. La primera policromía, encomendada a Andrés Cardama, no se administra hasta un siglo después, en 1865. [gl] O obxectivo da presente investigación é o estudo do retablo maior da igrexa parroquial de Santa Baia de Vedra, integrada na arquidiocese de Santiago de Compostela, unha das mellores obras de madeira policromada do Barroco galego, executada por Manuel de Leis preto de 1758. A estrutura e a decoración acusan a influencia dos dous grandes mestres da Galicia do século XVIII, Fernando de Casas y Novoa e Simón Rodríguez, e dos tratados de arquitectura. Algunhas imaxes escúlpense para este retablo e outras pertencen a etapas anteriores. A primeira policromía, encomendada a Andrés Cardama, non se administra ata un século máis tarde, en 1865.

  5. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    phrases such as “may ultimately infl uence community structure” (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1999), yet few demonstrate ecological effects. Here, we consider the conditions under which manipulative parasites might have a substantial ecological effect in nature and highlight those for which evidence exists (see also Chapter 10).

  6. Chapter 2: Optical Properties of the Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, D. A.; Collins, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter, and in chapter 29, the basic inter-relationship between the flux of radiant energy through the water column and the fixation of carbon by the phytoplankton in the ocean through processes of photosynthesis or primary production will be discussed.

  7. Classical electrodynamics from image charges to the photon mass and magnetic monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Lacava, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book proposes intriguing arguments that will enable students to achieve a deeper understanding of electromagnetism, while also presenting a number of classical methods for solving difficult problems. Two chapters are devoted to relativistic electrodynamics, covering all aspects needed for a full comprehension of the nature of electric and magnetic fields and, subsequently, electrodynamics. Each of the two final chapters examines a selected experimental issue, introducing students to the work involved in actually proving a law or theory. Classical books on electricity and magnetism are mentioned in many references, helping to familiarize students with books that they will encounter in their further studies. Various problems are presented, together with their worked-out solutions. The book is based on notes from special lectures delivered by the author to students during the second year of a BSc course in Physics, but the subject matter may also be of interest to senior physicists, as many of the themes co...

  8. Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and

  9. Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Gerald

    2008-11-03

    In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and

  10. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  11. From classical to quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stehle, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Suitable for lay readers as well as students, this absorbing survey explores the twentieth-century transition from classical to quantum physics. Author Philip Stehle traces the shift in the scientific worldview from the work of Galileo, Newton, and Darwin to the modern-day achievements of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, and others of their generation. His insightful overview examines not only the history of quantum physics but also the ways that progress in the discipline changed our understanding of the physical world and forces of nature. This chronicle of the second revolution in the physical sciences conveys the excitement and suspense that new developments produced in the scientific community. The narrative ranges from the classical physics of the seventeenth-century to the emergence of quantum mechanics with the entrance of the electron, the rise of relativity theory, the development of atomic theory, and the recognition of wave-particle duality. Relevant mathematical details...

  12. Classical Probability and Quantum Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Malley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a contact problem between classical probability and quantum outcomes. Thus, a standard result from classical probability on the existence of joint distributions ultimately implies that all quantum observables must commute. An essential task here is a closer identification of this conflict based on deriving commutativity from the weakest possible assumptions, and showing that stronger assumptions in some of the existing no-go proofs are unnecessary. An example of an unnecessary assumption in such proofs is an entangled system involving nonlocal observables. Another example involves the Kochen-Specker hidden variable model, features of which are also not needed to derive commutativity. A diagram is provided by which user-selected projectors can be easily assembled into many new, graphical no-go proofs.

  13. Coupled Classical and Quantum Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    McDermott, R M; Dermott, Rachael M. Mc; Redmount, Ian H.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the most enduring questions in physics--including the quantum measurement problem and the quantization of gravity--involve the interaction of a quantum system with a classical environment. Two linearly coupled harmonic oscillators provide a simple, exactly soluble model for exploring such interaction. Even the ground state of a pair of identical oscillators exhibits effects on the quantum nature of one oscillator, e.g., a diminution of position uncertainty, and an increase in momentum uncertainty and uncertainty product, from their unperturbed values. Interaction between quantum and classical oscillators is simulated by constructing a quantum state with one oscillator initially in its ground state, the other in a coherent or Glauber state. The subsequent wave function for this state is calculated exactly, both for identical and distinct oscillators. The reduced probability distribution for the quantum oscillator, and its position and momentum expectation values and uncertainties, are obtained from thi...

  14. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  15. Classical Equations for Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...

  16. Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Oemer, B

    2002-01-01

    The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control and structured programming can be used in quantum computing. The experimental language QCL will be introduced as an example, how elements like irreversible functions, local variables and conditional branching, which have no direct quantum counterparts, can be implemented, and how non-classical features like the reversibility of unitary transformation or the non-observability of quantum states can be accounted for within the framework of a procedural programming language.

  17. Teaching Classical Mechanics using Smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    Chevrier, Joel; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Using a personal computer and a smartphone, iMecaProf is a software that provides a complete teaching environment for practicals associated to a Classical Mechanics course. iMecaProf proposes a visual, real time and interactive representation of data transmitted by a smartphone using the formalism of Classical Mechanics. Using smartphones is more than using a set of sensors. iMecaProf shows students that important concepts of physics they here learn, are necessary to control daily life smartphone operations. This is practical introduction to mechanical microsensors that are nowadays a key technology in advanced trajectory control. First version of iMecaProf can be freely downloaded. It will be tested this academic year in Universit\\'e Joseph Fourier (Grenoble, France)

  18. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  19. Logical, conditional, and classical probability

    OpenAIRE

    Quznetsov, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    The propositional logic is generalized on the real numbers field. the logical function with all properties of the classical probability function is obtained. The logical analog of the Bernoulli independent tests scheme is constructed. The logical analog of the Large Number Law is deduced from properties of these functions. The logical analog of thd conditional probability is defined. Consistency encured by a model on a suitable variant of the nonstandard analysis.

  20. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas; Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a) identify the most frequent postural changes; (b) determine the postural pattern; (c) verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a) questionnaire; (b) a checkerboard; (c) postural chart; ...

  1. Gauge Invariance in Classical Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, W

    2005-01-01

    The concept of gauge invariance in classical electrodynamics assumes tacitly that Maxwell's equations have unique solutions. By calculating the electromagnetic field of a moving particle both in Lorenz and in Coulomb gauge and directly from the field equations we obtain, however, contradicting solutions. We conclude that the tacit assumption of uniqueness is not justified. The reason for this failure is traced back to the inhomogeneous wave equations which connect the propagating fields and their sources at the same time.

  2. Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Oemer, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control and structured programming can be used in quantum comput...

  3. Quantum manifolds with classical limit

    CERN Document Server

    Hohmann, Manuel; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2008-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model of quantum spacetime as an infinite-dimensional manifold locally homeomorphic to an appropriate Schwartz space. This extends and unifies both the standard function space construction of quantum mechanics and the manifold structure of spacetime. In this picture we demonstrate that classical spacetime emerges as a finite-dimensional manifold through the topological identification of all quantum points with identical position expectation value. We speculate on the possible relevance of this geometry to quantum field theory and gravity.

  4. Semi-classical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Sorine, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method called SCSA, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in the SCSA is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schr\\"odinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms.

  5. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  6. Rindler particles and classical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the quantum and classical radiation emitted by a uniformly accelerating point source in terms of the elementary processes of absorption and emission of Rindler scalar photons of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh bath observed by a co-accelerating observer. To this end we compute the rate at which a DeWitt detector emits a Minkowski scalar particle with defined transverse momentum per unit of proper time of the source and we show that it corresponds to the induced absorption or spontaneous and induced emission of Rindler particles from the thermal bath. We then take what could be called the inert limit of the DeWitt detector by considering the limit of no energy gap. As suggested by DeWitt, we identify, in this limit, the detector with a classical point source and verify the consistency of our computation with the classical result. Finally, we study the behaviour of the emission rate in D spacetime dimensions in connection with the so-called apparent statistics inversion

  7. Rindler Photons and Classical Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, D E

    2001-01-01

    We describe the quantum and classical radiation by a uniformly accelerating point source in terms of the elementary processes of absorption and emission of Rindler scalar photons of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh bath observed by a co-accelerating observer.To this end we compute the emission rate by a DeWitt detector of a Minkowski scalar field particle with defined transverse momentum per unit of proper time of the source and we show that it corresponds to the induced absorption or spontaneous and induced emission of Rindler photons from the thermal bath. We then take what could be called the inert limit of the DeWitt detector by considering the limit of zero gap energy. As suggested by DeWitt, we identify in this limit the detector with a classical point source and verify the consistency of our computation with the classical result. Finally, we study the behavior of the emission rate in D space-time dimensions in connection with the so called apparent statistics inversion.

  8. Quantum to Classical Randomness Extractors

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, Mario; Wehner, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Even though randomness is an essential resource for many information processing tasks, it is not easily found in nature. The goal of randomness extraction is to distill (almost) perfect randomness from a weak source of randomness. When the source yields a classical string X, many extractor constructions are known. Yet, when considering a physical randomness source, X is itself ultimately the result of a measurement on an underlying quantum system. When characterizing the power of a source to supply randomness it is hence a natural question to ask, how much classical randomness we can extract from a quantum state. To tackle this question we here take on the study of quantum-to-classical randomness extractors (QC-extractors). We provide constructions of QC-extractors based on measurements in a full set of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs), and certain single qubit measurements. As the first application, we show that any QC-extractor gives rise to entropic uncertainty relations with respect to quantum side informat...

  9. Trasvase de religiones y culturas en el mundo mediterráneo del siglo XVIII. Renegados y conversos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el contexto de la guerra corsaria, que sigue azotando el Mediterráneo en el siglo XVIII, nos encontramos con los esclavos o cautivos que viven a ambas orillas, muchos de los cuales reniegan del cristianismo y se hacen musulmanes o abandonan la religión musulmana y se convierten al cristianismo. Las razones del cambio de religión de los renegados y conversos, así como los efectos de su conversión son los principales aspectos que se analizan en el trabajo.ABSTRACT: In the context of the privateers wars, which were devastating and plundering the Mediterranean sea, one could find slaves and captives who were dwelling in both sides of the sea. Lot of them denied their religion and became Mohammedans or on the contrary Christians. The main reasons to explain this change of religion from renegades and converters, and also the consequences of their conversion are analysed in this piece of work.

  10. Aspectos climatológicos en las obras de funcionarios reales e ingenieros militares del siglo XVIII hispanoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina García, Juan Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Eighteenth century, royal officials and military engineers achieved a considerable knowledge of American climates and their links with several subjects of natural and social reality. They remained long periods at the Hispanic colonies and the governments commended them the wholeness of the Empire and the resolution of many business connected to climate. Their research procedures were base on the collective action, as well as on the division of tasks.En el siglo XVIII, los funcionarios reales y los ingenieros militares alcanzaron un considerable conocimiento de los climas americanos y de sus vínculos con aspectos de la realidad natural y social. Permanecieron durante largos períodos en las colonias hispánicas y los gobiernos les encomendaron la integridad del imperio y la resolución de asuntos relacionados con el clima. Sus procedimientos de indagación se basaron en la acción colectiva, así como en la división de tareas.

  11. LA "BODEGA DEL AMOR" Y LA TRADICIÓN MÍSTICA EN UN TEXTO CHILENO DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Invernizzi Santa Cruz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se refiere al Epistolario de una monja chilena del siglo XVIII, sor Josefa de los Dolores Peña y Lillo, y se centra en la consideración de la imagen mística de la "bodega del amor" que en el texto se transforma en "retrete del amor". A propósito de ello, se establece la vinculación del Epistolario con la tradición de la literatura mística española y se proponen sentidos para el relieve de lo íntimo y privado que esa transformación confiere a la imagen mística tradicionalThis article refers to the Epistolary of a Chilean nun of the 18th Century, Sister Josefa de los Dolores Peña y Lillo. It centers on the consideration of the mystical image of the "Love's storeroom", which in the text is transformed into the "Love privy". In relation to it, a link between the Epistolary and the tradition of the Spanish mystical literature is discussed, while different senses are suggested for the highlighting of the private and intimate which that transformation confers upon the traditional mystical image

  12. La naturaleza como percepción cultural. Montes y selvas en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Pérez Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo es una aproximación al mundo de las percepciones culturales sobre los principales entornos selváticos del Nuevo Reino de Granada durante el siglo XVIII, basada fundamentalmente en la consulta sistemática de fuentes primarias manuscritas y publicadas y apoyada en algunos aportes fundamentales de la perspectiva cultural de la historia ambiental y de la historia cultural del período de la Ilustración. En lo fundamental, se presentan las ideas, valoraciones, tensiones conflictivas y usos técnicos que se generaron desde los ámbitos perceptivos de los pobladores urbanos, las autoridades virreinales, algunos grupos indígenas y los hombres ilustrados. La noción de desierto, la sensibilidad del miedo o la categoría de “barbarie” se destacan entre los componentes principales de la percepción cultural de la época, estrechamente ligada a herencias europeas judeocristianas.

  13. Asentistas y fabricantes: el abastecimiento de armas y municiones al Estado en los siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín GONZÁLEZ ENCISO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia cómo resolvía el Estado español el abastecimiento de armas en los siglos XVII y XVIII según la fórmula empresarial utilizada: qué tipo de empresario y qué tipo de organización empresarial. Ello lleva, en primer lugar, a una somera, pero necesaria descripción del sector, en concreto, la fabricación de cañones, de municiones y de fusiles. Esta parte incluye consideraciones sobre la organización empresarial y sobre los aspectos técnicos. El cuerpo del trabajo estudia la figura de los asentistas en cada sector: quiénes eran, qué otros negocios tenían, cuáles eran las características de los asientos, cuál era su relación con la Administración, si desarrollaban vínculos familiares, etc. Hasta 1760 dominó el abastecimiento por asiento, pero tras esa fecha el Estado cambió, en unos cuantos casos, hacia otras fórmulas, para pasar a ser un Estado fabricante. La última parte del artículo estudia esta época, sus circunstancias y las consecuencias que trajo en la producción, en el abastecimiento y en los empresarios.

  14. Más allá del telar: el mundo del trabajo femenino en la Asturias del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Suárez Álvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Siglo de la Razón proliferaron los tratados dónde, por primera vez en la historia, se ponía de relieve la necesidad de educar de forma conveniente a las mujeres. Sin embargo, a pesar del reconocimiento que los Ilustrados otorgaron al sexo femenino, siguieron relegando a éstas a las paredes del hogar, exhortándoles a quedarse fuera del mundo del trabajo extra-doméstico, reservado sólo para los hombres de la familia. No obstante, la necesidad obligaba, y cuando los recursos u hombres de una casa escaseaban, la mujer tenía que salir a buscarse el sustento. Este es el caso de cientos de mujeres del Principado de Asturias, dónde, a mediados del siglo XVIII, la realidad femenina difería de lo que lo que se consideraba ideal. Este trabajo arrojará pues luz, en un campo hasta ahora desconocido: el del mundo profesional de las mujeres asturianas del Setecientos, dónde comprobaremos cómo en ocasiones llegaban a adquirir, gracias a su status profesional, papeles relevantes dentro de la sociedad.

  15. El color y su significado en los documentos cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita San Andrés Moya

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Documentos Cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del s. XVIII y las fuentes documentales asociadas a su ejecución tienen un gran interés histórico, artístico y cultural. En este artículo se analizan las fuentes relacionadas con las técnicas, los materiales y sus formas de aplicación. Se describen los pigmentos y colorantes recogidos en los distintos tratados relacionados con este arte, especialmente los referidos a la técnica del lavado, en los que, además, se hace referencia a los códigos de color según el elemento representado, el orden o secuencia de trabajo y las mezclas de colores. Puesto que se trata de documentos que en aquella época tuvieron una función eminentemente práctica, en su ejecución se seguían unas pautas determinadas, que permitían normalizar su lectura e interpretación. Desde la perspectiva de la Conservación-Restauración, la documentación estudiada aporta una información significativa relacionada con los materiales sobre los que se intervienen, la detección de procesos de degradación y la autentificación de documentos.

  16. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  17. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor peptides derived from the endostatin-containing NC1 fragment of human collagen XVIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Shirley L; Sabatini, Regiane A; Sampaio, Tatiana C; Hirata, Izaura Y; Cezari, Maria Helena S; Juliano, Maria A; Sturrock, Edward D; Carmona, Adriana K; Juliano, Luiz

    2006-05-01

    Extracellular matrix and soluble plasma proteins generate peptides that regulate biological activities such as cell growth, differentiation and migration. Bradykinin, a peptide released from kininogen by kallikreins, stimulates vasodilatation and endothelial cell proliferation. Various classes of substances can potentiate these biological actions of bradykinin. Among them, the best studied are bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) derived from snake venom, which can also strongly inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. We identified and synthesized sequences resembling BPPs in the vicinity of potential proteolytic cleavage sites in the collagen XVIII molecule, close to endostatin. These peptides were screened as inhibitors of human recombinant wild-type ACE containing two intact functional domains; two full-length ACE mutants containing only a functional C- or N-domain catalytic site; and human testicular ACE, a natural form of the enzyme that only contains the C-domain. The BPP-like peptides inhibited ACE in the micromolar range and interacted preferentially with the C-domain. The proteolytic activity involved in the release of BPP-like peptides was studied in human serum and human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. The presence of enzymes able to release these peptides in blood led us to speculate on a physiological mechanism for the control of ACE activities.

  18. Ingresos y egresos del tribunal del Santo Oficio de la nueva España en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Islas, Alfredo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This article informs on the means through which the Inquisition of New Spain obtained the necessary resources and the way in which such resources were disposed of. Through the analysis of archive sources and chosen bibliography a series of tables have been built up showing the income and outcome entries as well as the corresponding amounts and percentages. It is the aim of this work to increase our knowledge of this institution by exploring a little known aspect of the same: that of the economy on which it was run.

    El artículo busca proporcionar información acerca de la manera en que la Inquisición novohispana obtenía en el siglo XVIII los recursos que permitían su correcto funcionamiento y, al tiempo, la forma en que los mismos se distribuían. Mediante el análisis de los datos contenidos en documentos de archivo, y en la bibliografía apropiada, se confeccionaron una serie de tablas que presentan los rubros que componían al ingreso y al egreso del Tribunal, así como sus montos y porcentajes, de los cuales sólo se incluye un par por razones de espacio. El objetivo es enriquecer el conocimiento existente sobre el Santo Oficio, explorando su vertiente menos conocida: la económica.

  19. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  20. Quantum-Classical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-11-12

    In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author's perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the no-man's-land separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process) 2. How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process). However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher's description refers to this book as an accessible entre, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand quantum-classical correspondence. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the Fokker--Planck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms an infinitesimality condition, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as the Caldeira

  1. Intuitionism vs. classicism a mathematical attack on classical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer launched a powerful attack on the prevailing mathematical methods and theories. He developed a new kind of constructive mathematics, called intuitionism, which seems to allow for a rigorous refutation of widely accepted mathematical assumptions including fundamental principles of classical logic. Following an intense mathematical debate esp. in the 1920s, Brouwer's revolutionary criticism became a central philosophical concern in the 1970s, when Michael Dummett tried to substantiate it with meaning-theoretic considerations.

  2. Los Pacientes del ‘Hospital de paisanos’ de Zamora en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Álvarez, María José

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerous hospitals in existence in the city of Zamora in the Middle Ages were considerably streamlined in the Early Modern Era. The foundation of the Sotelo hospital in the 16th century and the La Encarnación hospital in the 17th century endowed the city with two main centres offering medical and health care. This study focused on an analysis of the patients who received care at the La Encarnación hospital, which was governed by the City Council and the Cathedral Chapter. A patient profile was constructed from admission and mortality records, depending on the case. However, the main focus was an analysis of the hospital’s area of influence, which was found to amply exceed its immediate geographical context.El gran número de hospitales que tuvo la ciudad de Zamora durante la Edad Media quedó notablemente simplificado en la época Moderna. La fundación en el siglo XVI del hospital de Sotelo y en el XVII de La Encarnación, supuso dotar a la ciudad con dos importantes centros que ofrecía atención médico-sanitaria. Este trabajo está centrado en el de La Encarnación, entre cuyos administradores se hallaban el Ayuntamiento y el Cabildo de la Catedral, y el objeto de análisis han sido los asistidos. A partir de los registros de ingreso y defunciones, dependiendo del momento, hemos trazado el perfil de los mismos, pero, sobre todo, nos hemos centrado en el radio de influencia del establecimiento, que, como hemos podido comprobar, superaba ampliamente el marco geográfico de emplazamiento.

  3. The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.

  4. Bayesian signal processing classical, modern, and particle filtering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Candy, James V

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to give readers a unified Bayesian treatment starting from the basics (Baye's rule) to the more advanced (Monte Carlo sampling), evolving to the next-generation model-based techniques (sequential Monte Carlo sampling). This next edition incorporates a new chapter on "Sequential Bayesian Detection," a new section on "Ensemble Kalman Filters" as well as an expansion of Case Studies that detail Bayesian solutions for a variety of applications. These studies illustrate Bayesian approaches to real-world problems incorporating detailed particle filter designs, adaptive particle filters and sequential Bayesian detectors. In addition to these major developments a variety of sections are expanded to "fill-in-the gaps" of the first edition. Here metrics for particle filter (PF) designs with emphasis on classical "sanity testing" lead to ensemble techniques as a basic requirement for performance analysis. The expansion of information theory metrics and their application to PF designs is fully developed an...

  5. Surfaces in classical geometries a treatment by moving frames

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Gary R; Nicolodi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Designed for intermediate graduate studies, this text will broaden students' core knowledge of differential geometry providing foundational material to relevant topics in classical differential geometry. The method of moving frames, a natural means for discovering and proving important results, provides the basis of treatment for topics discussed. Its application in many areas helps to connect the various geometries and to uncover many deep relationships, such as the Lawson correspondence. The nearly 300 problems and exercises range from simple applications to open problems. Exercises are embedded in the text as essential parts of the exposition. Problems are collected at the end of each chapter; solutions to select problems are given at the end of the book. Mathematica®, Matlab™, and Xfig are used to illustrate selected concepts and results. The careful selection of results serves to show the reader how to prove the most important theorems in the subject, which may become the foundation of future progress...

  6. Grandes de Portugal no século XVIII. Inventários da casa de Tavora, Atoguia e Aveiro (1758-1759

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Benavente Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cada país tiene sus casos historiográficos y Portugal no escapa a la regla. Tenemos muchos casos, muchas dudas, muchas historias. El dia 3 de septiembre de 1758 quedará para siempre envuelto en el misterio, lo que no impide que procuremos hacer la mayor luz posible sobre el tema del atentado contra el rey D. José, junto a la quinta de Belém. El atentado originó un proceso sumarísimo que en casi cuatro meses liquidó las Casas de Távora, Atouguia y Aveiro, así como a la Compañía de Jesús, con las monstruosas ejecuciones en el patíbulo de Belém del 13 de enero de 1759. Los inventarios y el secuestro de bienes ejecutados por orden de la Junta da Inconfidência, pueden servir tanto para medir la grandeza de las Casas, como también su situación social y financiera. Por estos inventarios se evidencia que estas Casas, que eran socialmente de las más consideradas en Portugal en el siglo XVIII, estaban bastante endeudadas. A mediados del siglo XVIII, la clase emergente de hombres de negocios y de prestamistas era, de hecho, la poseedora de los grandes activos de éstos y de otros Grandes de Portugal ya que los mismos servían de garantía a los créditos concedidos. Sin embargo, la aristocracia, profundamente endogámica, no se permitía ninguna contaminación con las clases adineradas, pero sin título. Este hecho nos sirve de punto de partida para llegar a conclusiones tangenciales de coyuntura para la década de los 50 del siglo XVIII, así como también de estructura, válidas éstas para todo el período pombalino, por lo que respecta a los Grandes de Portugal.Each country has its own histograph cases and Portugal is no exception. We have plenty of cases, lots of doubts and many histories. September 3 1758 will be forever a landmark shrouded in mistery, which doesn’t prevent our attempt to bring to the light, as much as possible, the attempt on D. José’s life, close to what was known as the place of Belém. The murder plot gave

  7. Classical trajectories and quantum tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, B I

    2003-01-01

    The problem of inter-band tunneling in a semiconductor (Zener breakdown) in a nonstationary and homogeneous electric field is solved exactly. Using the exact analytical solution, the approximation based on classical trajectories is studied. A new mechanism of enhanced tunneling through static non-one-dimensional barriers is proposed in addition to well known normal tunneling solely described by a trajectory in imaginary time. Under certain conditions on the barrier shape and the particle energy, the probability of enhanced tunneling is not exponentially small even for non-transparent barriers, in contrast to the case of normal tunneling.

  8. Lectures on classical differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Struik, Dirk J

    1988-01-01

    Elementary, yet authoritative and scholarly, this book offers an excellent brief introduction to the classical theory of differential geometry. It is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find it not only highly readable but replete with illustrations carefully selected to help stimulate the student's visual understanding of geometry. The text features an abundance of problems, most of which are simple enough for class use, and often convey an interesting geometrical fact. A selection of more difficult problems has been included to challenge the ambitious student.Writ

  9. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...... using historical data on composers and employ a unique instrumental variable – a measure of birth centrality, calculated as the average distance between a composer’s birthplace and the birthplace of his peers. I find a strong causal impact of peer group size on the number of important compositions...

  10. Advances In Classical Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalom, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Classical field theory is employed by physicists to describe a wide variety of physical phenomena. These include electromagnetism, fluid dynamics, gravitation and quantum mechanics. The central entity of field theory is the field which is usually a multi component function of space and time. Those multi component functions are usually grouped together as vector fields as in the case in electromagnetic theory and fluid dynamics, in other cases they are grouped as tensors as in theories of gravitation and yet in other cases they are grouped as complex functions as in the case of quantum mechanic

  11. Solar Activity and Classical Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.

  12. Panamá en el siglo XVIII: Trazado urbano, materiales y técnica constructiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena García, Carmen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the relocation of Panamá City to its current site, as well as the morphological characteristics that made it both a fortress and a market place. In its new location, the city continued to play to role of the sea port and commercial center that it played before by being a key stop in the silver route and house of trade of the Americas; but the new city was surrounded by the wall, and built according to a plan that is the perfect example of the classic colonial city in Spanish America.

    Se analiza aquí el traslado de la ciudad de Panamá la Vieja a su actual emplazamiento y las características morfológicas que la convierten en una ciudad "fortaleza y mercado" a la vez, dado que sigue desempeñando la misma función portuaria y comercial que antaño: la de centro neurálgico del comercio americano y puerto de tránsito y transbordo en la ruta de la plata, sólo que ahora su perímetro urbano es ceñido por un gran cinturón abaluartado y su trazado reproduce con gran perfección el modelo clásico de la ciudad americana colonial.

  13. Classical Electron Theory and Conservation Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Kiessling, Michael K. -H.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the traditional conservation laws for total charge, energy, linear and angular momentum, hold jointly in classical electron theory if and only if classical electron spin is included as dynamical degree of freedom.

  14. Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)

  15. The revision of classical stock model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶柏青; 王洪利

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to the limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical model and enforces the applicability of the stock model.

  16. The revision of classical stock model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Bai-qing; WANG Hong-li

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to th e limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical mo del and enforces the applicability of the stock model.

  17. Lagrangian formalism and retarded classical electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Xavier; Llosa, Josep; Molina, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    Unlike the 1/c2 approximation, where classical electrodynamics is described by the Darwin Lagrangian, here there is no Lagrangian to describe retarded (resp., advanced) classical electrodynamics up to 1/c3 for two-point charges with different masses.

  18. Miradas ilustradas: cambios en las imágenes de los «indios Patagones» de la América Austral a fines del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gentinetta, Martín Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    International audience Este trabajo se propone recuperar algunas de las imágenes construidas y difundidas en el Imperio Hispánico hacia fines del siglo XVIII sobre los pueblos de aborígenes denominados genéricamente Patagones. Al considerar diferentes tipos de fuentes propias de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII –diccionarios, enciclopedias, relatos de viajeros, obras de divulgación, etc.– se advierten construcciones opuestas sobre el origen, rasgos físicos, formas de vida y costumbres de e...

  19. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  20. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  1. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  2. Row erupts over axed chapter from Newt Gingrich book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A chapter written by a respected climate scientist for a book co-edited by Republican presidential candidate Newt Gingrich has been canned because its author asserts that humans are responsible for climate change.

  3. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  4. About the modern house - and the classical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....

  5. Technics of classical and digital photography comparsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kvapilová, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor work is aimed at basic principles of taking photos by classical and digital camera. Describes methods for achieving of required photos by digital way and also classical taking photos on cine-film. Compares the technology of classical and digital photography from the beginning, which is getting the camera and accessories. It also describes the construction and control of the camera. Processing of photo compares the quality of digital and classic photo.

  6. The new-classical contribution to macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    D. LAIDLER

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to assessing New-Classical ideas, and to asking what of lasting importance this school of macroeconomics has contributed since the early 1970s. It deals in turn with the relationship between New-Classical Economics and Monetarism, the relative explanatory power of these two bodies of doctrine over empirical evidence, and the claims of New-Classical Economics to embody a superior analytic method. The author argues that, although the particular ways in which New-Classical M...

  7. Classical equations for quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell-Mann, M. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group (T-6), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545) (United States) (Santa Fe Institute, 1660 Old Pecos Trail, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501); Hartle, J.B. (Department of Physics, University of California enSanta Barbara, Santa Barbara, (California) 93106)

    1993-04-15

    The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that [ital decohere], which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models.

  8. Entanglement-Enhanced Classical Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martí, David A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis will be focused on the classical capacity of quantum channels, one of the first areas treated by quantum information theorists. The problem is fairly solved since some years. Nevertheless, this work will give me a reason to introduce a consistent formalism of the quantum theory, as well as to review fundamental facts about quantum non-locality and how it can be used to enhance communication. Moreover, this reflects my dwelling in the spirit of classical information theory, and it is intended to be a starting point towards a thorough study of how quantum technologies can help to shape the future of telecommunications. Whenever it was possible, heuristic reasonings were introduced instead of rigorous mathematical proofs. This finds an explanation in that I am a self-taught neophyte in the field, and just about every time I came across a new concept, physical arguments were always more compelling to me than just maths. The technical content of the thesis is twofold. On one hand, a quadratic classific...

  9. Classical Black Holes Are Hot

    CERN Document Server

    Curiel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical temperature and its area as a true entropy only when quantum effects are taken into account; in the context of classical general relativity alone, one cannot cogently construe them so. Does the use of quantum field theory in curved spacetime offer the only hope for taking the analogy seriously? I think the answer is `no'. To attempt to justify that answer, I shall begin by arguing that the standard argument to the contrary is not physically well founded, and in any event begs the question. Looking at the various ways that the ideas of "tempe...

  10. Fluctuations in classical sum rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven

    2010-10-01

    Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

  11. Aportes de los "intermediarios culturales" en la conformación de los paisajes fronterizos del norte de la patagonia a fines del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Aylén Enrique

    2012-01-01

    A fines del siglo XVIII la Corona española envió expedicionarios a reconocer el norte de la Patagonia, un territorio dominado por grupos indígenas pero de importancia estratégica para los hispanocriollos. Los funcionarios del Virreinato del Río de la Plata que llevaron a cabo dichas exploraciones registraron sus impresiones en diarios de viaje que analizamos con el objetivo de examinar los modos en que el paisaje norpatagónico fue construido simbólicamente. Consideramos que dicho paisaje se c...

  12. De la cristiandad colonial a la Iglesia argentina. Perspectivas de investigación en historia religiosa de los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Di Stefano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda en su primera parte algunos conceptos significativos para el estudio de la Iglesia rioplatense colonial y de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En la segunda y tercera secciones se presenta un esquema general de las etapas del proceso de disolución del régimen de cristiandad indiano entre fines del siglo XVIII y la segunda mitad de la siguiente centuria, y se proponen algunas líneas de investigación que el autor considera importante desarrollar a partir del estado actual de los estudios.

  13. De la cristiandad colonial a la Iglesia argentina. Perspectivas de investigación en historia religiosa de los siglos XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Di Stefano

    2000-01-01

    Este artículo aborda en su primera parte algunos conceptos significativos para el estudio de la Iglesia rioplatense colonial y de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En la segunda y tercera secciones se presenta un esquema general de las etapas del proceso de disolución del régimen de cristiandad indiano entre fines del siglo XVIII y la segunda mitad de la siguiente centuria, y se proponen algunas líneas de investigación que el autor considera importante desarrollar a partir del estado actual de ...

  14. La educación pública en la España del siglo XVIII. Pervivencias en la actualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Aragoneses Alonso, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Este es un Trabajo de Fin de Grado de Educación Primaria, en el que se recogen las principales ideas ilustradas sobre la educación pública en el siglo XVIII en España y, además, se lleva a cabo una iniciación en investigación sobre las pervivencias de dichos principios en la actualidad. Se utiliza un método mixto, es decir, cualitativo y cuantitativo, ya que se realizan entrevistas y cuestionarios a profesionales de la educación actual, para terminar concluyendo que hay un alto...

  15. Arquitectura de madera en las misiones jesuíticas de chiquitos (Bolivia) del siglo XVIII y sus orígenes prehispánicos y europeos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Trujillo, Wilson Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Las actuales poblaciones de Concepción, San José, San Javier, San Miguel, Santa Ana y San Rafael, seis de las diez antiguas reducciones de las Misiones Jesuíticas de Chiquitos (Bolivia), fundadas a principios del siglo XVIII, representan el mejor ejemplo de pueblos vivos, por la conservación de su patrimonio tangible, como el conjunto religioso e intangible como sus tradiciones y costumbres adoptadas desde el periodo misional. Por este motivo fueron declaradas el año 1990, Patrimonio Cultural...

  16. Las exploraciones oceánicas españolas del siglo XVIII y los envíos de plantas y animales desde América

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Núñez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Las exploraciones oceánicas españolas del siglo XVIII y los envíos de plantas y animales desde América", en: De Beni, Matteo (ed.): De los descubrimientos a las taxonomías: La botánica y la zoología en la lengua española del Renacimiento a la Ilustración. Mantova: Universitas Studiorum (Pliegos Hispánicos. Serie Intersecciones; 1), pp. 229-260. ISBN 978-88-97683-88-9.

  17. Sotos con santos en lienzos y esculturas. La apropicación de la imagen religiosa en la Provincia de Antioquia, segunda mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Pérez Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone indagar la importancia de las imágenes religiosas para la Provincia de Antioquia en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, basándose fundamentalmente en dos ejes de análisis: los circuitos comerciales establecidos para el ingreso de objetos religiosos a la provincia y el valor de la imagen para la sociedad colonial. Con ello se pretende, además, hacer un acercamiento a un campo de estudio que ha sido poco explorado por la historiografía antioqueña, como lo es historia cultural del arte colonial.

  18. Dispensas y libros secretos de matrimonios en la segunda mitad del siglo xviii y la primera del xix en actuales territorios argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Siegrist, Nora

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analizan fuentes en archivos y obras de la bibliografía europea e Hispanoamericana vinculados al Derecho Canónico en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX. Los Libros Secretos de Matrimonios, escasamente conocidos, revelan la existencia de una realidad justamente secreta, de allí que pocos tuvieron acceso a un material guardado a través del tiempo por la Iglesia Católica. Motivaciones disímiles como consanguinidad directa, primer grado de afinidad en ...

  19. Dispensas y libros secretos de matrimonios en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX en actuales territorios argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Siegrist

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analizan fuentes en archivos y obras de la bibliografía europea e Hispanoamericana vinculados al Derecho Canónico en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX. Los Libros Secretos de Matrimonios, escasamente conocidos, revelan la existencia de una realidad justamente secreta, de allí que pocos tuvieron acceso a un material guardado a través del tiempo por la Iglesia Católica. Motivaciones disímiles como consanguinidad directa, primer grado de afinidad en ...

  20. Notas para una historia de la infancia en Buenos Aires : Fines del siglo XVIII-primeras décadas del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, Miguel Pablo

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo analizaremos principios a nuestro entender indispensables, a tener en cuenta como coadyuvantes para el conocimiento de la situación de la infancia porteña a fines del período Tardo Colonial y primeros años del siglo XVIII. Nos concentraremos en el análisis de: conceptos tenidos como universalmente válidos, pero de dudosa vigencia en sociedades distintas a las de Europa Occidental y América del Norte. En la problemática planteada por la búsqueda y selección de fuentes primarias...

  1. Algunas propuestas didácticas sobre el teatro español del siglo XVIII / Some didactic studies on the Spanish theatre of the 18th century

    OpenAIRE

    Malén Álvarez Franco

    2009-01-01

    Resumen: Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las propuestas didácticas reales llevadas a cabo en distintos institutos de la comunidad extremeña y madrileña en torno al teatro del siglo XVIII. Desde este punto de partida, es nuestra intención proponer nuevas vías de trabajo que no se recogen en los manuales de aula al uso, amplificando de este modo la cultura teatral del alumnado para estos niveles.Abstract: This essay aims to analyze the actual didactic strategies carried out in different se...

  2. Fortines y pueblos en Buenos Aires del siglo XVIII. ¿Una política de urbanización para la frontera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Canedo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban development in America was not exclusive of the European colonization, the foundation of towns and cities constituted a specific politics of conquest and colonial dominance. During the second half of the XVIII century and under the government of the Borbones, the politics established seemed to accompany the increase and growth of the cities and the towns in Spanish America, and to incentivate the urbanization of the areas of frontier of their Empire. Two queries articulate this work. Can the proposals formulated by the colonial authorities for Buenos Aires be located inside the urbanization politics proposed by the Borbones for frontier areas in Spanish America ? If this was this way, what concretion level has this politics had during the last decades of colonial bond? The establishment of towns will be studied for the case of Buenos Aires during the last decades of the XVIII century.Aunque el desarrollo urbano en América no fue privativo de la colonización europea, la fundación de pueblos y ciudades constituyó una política específica de conquista y dominación colonial. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y bajo el gobierno de los Borbones, las políticas establecidas parecieron acompañar el aumento y crecimiento de las ciudades y los pueblos en Hispanoamérica, e incentivar la urbanización de las zonas de frontera de su Imperio. Dos interrogantes articulan este trabajo. ¿Pueden ubicarse las propuestas formuladas por las autoridades coloniales para Buenos Aires dentro de la política de urbanización propuesta por los Borbones para zonas de frontera en Hispanoamérica? Si esto fue así, ¿qué nivel de concreción ha tenido dicha política durante las últimas décadas de vínculo colonial? Se estudiará el establecimiento de pueblos para el caso de Buenos Aires durante las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII.

  3. Un corpus para la historia del español en Nicaragua: edición de documentos oficiales del siglo XVIII (1704-1756)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2011-01-01

    La historia lingüística de Nicaragua constituye todavía un auténtico hueco en blanco en la reconstrucción diacrónica del español americano. El presente trabajo pretende facilitar un primer corpus documental filológicamente fiable que contribuya al estudio del español nicara-güense del siglo XVIII. Se lleva a cabo aquí la edición de un conjunto de 22 documentos, en general breves y todos ellos hoy depositados en el Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla), escritos en los principales centros coloni...

  4. Claves para alcanzar la gracia: instrumentos de organización utilizados en la biblioteca del convento grande de San Francisco de México, siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Endean Gamboa

    2010-01-01

    En la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, la biblioteca del Convento Grande de San Francisco de la ciudad de México fue escenario de la experimentación realizada por un fraile, a quien se habían asignado las tareas de bibliotecario. Fray Francisco Antonio de la Rosa Figueroa, llevado por su celo religioso, emprendió el control de la biblioteca para evitar la herejía, aunque muy pronto sus afanes lo llevaron por los caminos de la organización bibliotecaria. Como resultado de sus esfuerzos, dejó con...

  5. La prefijación en gramáticas y diccionarios del español (siglos XVIII-XX)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Martínez, Marta

    2013-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo principal de esta tesis es revisar el tratamiento gramatical y lexicográfico de los prefijos y del procedimiento de prefijación en español desde una perspectiva histórica. Para ello, estudiamos una amplia nómina de gramáticas y diccionarios del español publicados a lo largo de los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX, pertenecientes tanto a la corriente no académica como a la tradición académica. Nuestro propósito se centra en revisar el tratamiento de los prefijos en los textos que for...

  6. ¿Activos desde cuándo? La edad de acceso al mercado de trabajo en la España del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Sarasúa, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo trata sobre la edad a la que niños y niñas accedían al trabajo remunerado en la España del siglo XVIII. Utilizando como fuente los Memoriales del Catastro de Ensenada (1751-1753), se propone la edad de diez años como edad media de acceso, a partir de la cual se puede calcular la tasa de actividad. La Mancha era una región rica en industria rural, sobre todo de manufacturas textiles, que abastecían al mercado madrileño, el de otras ciudades e incluso al colonial, y que generaban u...

  7. La poesía inglesa de la naturaleza en el siglo XVIII y su influencia en Meléndez Valdés

    OpenAIRE

    García Calderón, Ángeles

    2007-01-01

    ‘Nature’ es una palabra clave a comienzos del siglo XVIII que aparece en todos los campos del conocimiento; el término es repetido una y otra vez por los críticos literarios, y así Pope aconsejará a los poetas: «First follow Nature, and your Judgment frame/By her just Standards, which is still the same», Essay on Criticism. Bajo la influencia de Descartes, de Newton y de Locke, la belleza viene a significar armonía, equilibrio y orden perfecto. Durante el primer cuarto del XVII...

  8. The Russian Orthodox Church in Religious Space of Kazakhstan: Stages and Peculiarities of Institutional Model (XVIII – Beginning of ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features attempts on analyzing the cultural – historic situation, which conditioned the formation of orthodox population and institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in XVIII – beginning of XX centuries. The article also features the construction techniques of diocesan, parochial schools in the region and the main activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan. The results of complex analysis let determine the decree of integration effectiveness in cultural-religious space of the region, to reveal influential objective and subjective factors.

  9. Should We Abolish Chapter 11? Evidence from Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Timothy C G; Martel, Jocelyn

    1999-01-01

    Chapter 11 has been severely criticized over the last decade. Some American jurists arguing in favor of revising Chapter 11 have raised the possibility that the Canadian reorganization system might be a good alternative. This article examines data on firms undergoing reorganization under the Canadian bankruptcy system and argues that there are fruitful lessons to be learned from the Canadian experience with court-supervised reorganization. Canadian reorganization plans have very high rates of...

  10. Volume 3 Chapter 1: Mitigation and adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Nakicenovic, N.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the needs and opportunities as well as the constraints and barriers with respect to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While the chapter concentrates mainly on Austria, information is provided on the global and EU level to the extent they are relevant for Austria. Section 1.1 discusses the targets already specified for mitigation at the global level, as well as technologies that are already available or are emerging with the potential to meet the challenges a...

  11. Quantum electrodynamics in a classical approximation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodynamics is formulated in a classical approximation. A quantum mechanical proper-time is employed as a useful parameter, which enables us to elucidate the relationship between quantum electrodynamics and classical electrodynamics. The classical motion of a charged particle is realized as an asymptotic limit of quantum electrodynamics. (author)

  12. Collection of problems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kotkin, G L; ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Collection of Problems in Classical Mechanics presents a set of problems and solutions in physics, particularly those involving mechanics. The coverage of the book includes 13 topics relevant to classical mechanics, such as integration of one-dimensional equations of motion; the Hamiltonian equations of motion; and adiabatic invariants. The book will be of great use to physics students studying classical mechanics.

  13. Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…

  14. Dental chapters of Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu's (1385-1468?) illustrated surgical book Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, I

    1997-11-01

    From the 7th to the 11th centuries Arabic authors translated ancient Greek and Roman medical textbooks into their own languages. In the 11th and 12th centuries, noted authors used these early translations when writing other classical texts. One of these was that of the Andalusian surgeon, Albulcasis (936-1013), whose famous work is entitled, at-Tasrif (4,6). It has been used as a reference book for centuries and was translated into Latin in the 15th century and into Turkish by me when I discovered a manuscript of it in the Manisa Library in Turkey (14). The best interpreter of it, however, was Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu (1365-1468). He used the classification of at-Tasrif, but improved on it by adding original observations and three original chapters. His book is entitled, Cerrahiyyetu'l Haniyye which means The Imperial Surgery (15). PMID:9693599

  15. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R.P. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); CEFETEQ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, R.O. [RG Conservation and Restoration, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    the Main Chapel, revealed the original gold covering (hidden by commercial golden paint) and also the original layer of red color, at the bottom, obtained by the use of vermilion. In an altar table, presently covered with modern white paint, were found some layers of ancient paintings from different periods, and identified by the pigments used in each one. The analysis of 15 sculptures - dating from XVII and XVIII centuries - revealed the original pigments, the elemental composition of the clay and materials employed in recent restorations. In most of the cases the original gilding had been covered with commercial golden paint. The analysis of 14 wood panels (XVIII century), at the vault and side walls of the chapel - representing nine episodes of the saint's life - revealed original pigments and retouching regions. The original pigments used in the paintings were: lead white, vermilion, ochre (red, yellow and brown), umber, bone black, green earth, verdigris and Prussian blue. In some regions of retouching were identified: chromium yellow, viridian/chromium oxide and zinc white. (author)

  16. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the Main Chapel, revealed the original gold covering (hidden by commercial golden paint) and also the original layer of red color, at the bottom, obtained by the use of vermilion. In an altar table, presently covered with modern white paint, were found some layers of ancient paintings from different periods, and identified by the pigments used in each one. The analysis of 15 sculptures - dating from XVII and XVIII centuries - revealed the original pigments, the elemental composition of the clay and materials employed in recent restorations. In most of the cases the original gilding had been covered with commercial golden paint. The analysis of 14 wood panels (XVIII century), at the vault and side walls of the chapel - representing nine episodes of the saint's life - revealed original pigments and retouching regions. The original pigments used in the paintings were: lead white, vermilion, ochre (red, yellow and brown), umber, bone black, green earth, verdigris and Prussian blue. In some regions of retouching were identified: chromium yellow, viridian/chromium oxide and zinc white. (author)

  17. Usos y acepciones de chino, china en el norte del Perú, siglos XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrade Ciudad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe estudian los usos de la palabra chino, china en el norte peruano, entre los siglos XVIII y XIX, a partir de documentos históricos y coplas de la lírica popular. En contra de propuestas anteriores, se confirma el uso efectivo del término, sobre todo en su forma femenina, y se postulan dos acepciones: la primera, vinculada a la terminología de castas, alude a un tipo de mestizaje que une los troncos indio y africano, con un componente menor, variable, de “sangre blanca”, mientras que la segunda hace referencia a una mujer joven, generalmente campesina. Se estudia también el uso de la palabra como una fórmula de apelación a la amada en la lírica popular y se concluye que, aunque probablemente esta fórmula se derivó de la terminología racial, la palabra rápidamente adquirió matices afectivos positivos, con lo cual permitió aludir a la mujer cercana, aquella que era posible cortejar. Se sugiere que la antigua acepción ‘criada’, central en las fuentes coloniales del XVI y el XVII, se empezó a desdibujar en el período estudiado y, en línea con trabajos previos, se postula una competencia entre este lexema y la palabra homófona referida a las migrantes asiáticas desde fines del XIX.Palabras clave: categorización racial de seres humanos, lexicología, norte del Perú, siglos XVIII y XIXAbstractThis paper studies the uses of the word chino, china in northern Peru in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, via historical documents and popular poetry couplets. Contrary to previous proposals, we corroborate the actual use of this term, especially in its feminine form, and we propose two possible meanings for it: the first, linked to caste terminology, refers to a type of “racial mix” between “Indian” and “African”, with a minor and variable component of “white blood”, while the second refers to a young woman, usually a peasant. We also examine the use of the word as a formulaic

  18. DE ESPIRITUALES A HISTÉRICAS: LAS BEATAS DEL SIGLO XVIII EN LA NUEVA ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA ARAYA ESPINOZA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos inquisitoriales a beatas por ilusas y alumbradas en la Nueva España, durante el siglo XVIII, muestran cómo la "anormalidad" del modelo de espiritualidad místico y ascético, al que las mujeres fueron tan proclives en dicha centuria, pasó al campo del discurso médico. La mirada masculina se desconcierta con la continuidad de los signos exteriores de la espiritualidad femenina, son sus cuerpos el medio por el cual dan cuenta de que algo fuera de lo normal las identifica: arrobamientos, posesiones, ataques, temblores y mal de corazón, entre otros. En las beatas, estos fenómenos desconciertan y son considerados más sospechosos, por cuanto ellas suelen ser mujeres pobres y simples -al decir de los religiosos- que viven de forma indenpendiente y hacen de la vida religiosa una forma de subsistencia. Este trabajo muestra cómo los inquisidores se suman a la lógica racionalista del siglo institucionalizando la asociación entre fenómenos místicos, locura e histeria en las mujeres. El cuerpo femenino, su extrañeza y la incomodidad que provoca en toda sociedad, permite en la sociedad occidental y en el espacio colonial realizar los primeros usos legales de la histeria como devaluación del verbo y la acción de las mujeres en el gran relato de la historiaThe inquisitorial trials of pious women on the charges of being deluded and spellbound in the New Spain, during the XVIII century, show how the ""abnormality" of the mistic and ascetic model of spirituality to which women were so fond of in said century moved in to the realm of the medical discourse. The male look is bewildered by the continuity of the external signs of female sprirituality, their bodies are the means through which they account for something out the normalcy that identifies them: raptures, possessions, fits, shudders, and melancholy, among others. In the pious women, these phenomena puzzle the mind and are suspiciously considered in that they used to be poor and

  19. Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleine, Adrian

    2010-11-08

    In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of

  20. CUANDO LAS AFRENTAS SE LAVABAN CON SANGRE: HONOR, MASCULINIDAD Y DUELOS DE ESPADAS EN EL SIGLO XVIII CHILENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Undurraga Schüler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la relación entre honor y prácticas sociales en el siglo XVIII chileno, analizando la figura de los duelos o expresiones de violencia masculina formalizada. Junto con indagar en los mecanismos restitutorios del honor y su vinculación a los fundamentos de una masculinidad tradicional, reflexiona sobre las gamas de manejo social de dicho valor en el período señalado. Teóricamente se rescatan los aportes de la antropología y se hace un balance del tratamiento historiográfico del problema. Desde los registros judiciales se plantea el carácter transversal del honor en términos sociales y se aborda su "doble naturaleza" en cuanto espacio relacional y ámbito de confrontación de los individuos.This works deals with the relationship between honor and social practices in Chile's eighteenth century and analyzes formal duels or expressions of legalized masculine violence. This article explores various manifestations of the social ways used to deal with honor at that time, together with the inquiries about mechanisms used to restore honor and its links with traditional masculinity. Theoretically, this work rescues contributions made by anthropologists and provides an overview of how honor and masculinity have been examined in the historiography. Starting from judicial records, the article considers the transversal character of honor in social terms and approaches its "double significance" as both a relational space for people and as a sphere for the confrontation of individuals.

  1. Diálogos con la Reina de los Cielos. Visiones y locuciones de una monja chilena del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar Carvacho, René

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses an unpublished text written by a nun in Santiago of Chile around the mid-eighteenth century. The text, written by her confessor’s command, recounts the visions and locutions that she had with the Virgin Mary, which revolved around the figure of the confessor. This makes quite a special report because the priest appears as a central character of the visions, and the one who benefits from the intercession of the nun before the heavenly beings. At the same time, the account gives evidence of the nun’s awareness of her role, her limitations as a woman and her mediator power. On the other hand, the nun’s narrative shows not only the way of living her faith, but also allows us to get nearer to the ‘religious mentality’ of her time.El artículo analiza un texto inédito escrito por una monja de Santiago de Chile, a mediados del siglo XVIII, por mandato de su confesor. En él se refieren las visiones y locuciones tuvo con la Virgen, las que giran en torno a la figura del confesor. Esto hace bastante especial el relato, pues el sacerdote aparece como un personaje central de las visiones, que se beneficia de la intercesión de la religiosa ante los seres celestiales. Pero al mismo tiempo, la narración deja en evidencia a una religiosa muy consciente de su papel, de sus limitaciones como mujer y de su poder mediador. Por otra parte, el relato de la monja muestra no sólo su manera de vivir la fe, sino también nos permite acercarnos a la mentalidad religiosa de su época.

  2. Contrabando, ilegalidade e medidas políticas no Rio de Janeiro do século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Pijning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda o contrabando no século XVIII, em especial em relação ao Rio de Janeiro e ao Atlântico Sul. Neste artigo discuto não apenas a mecânica do contrabando e os participantes deste comércio ilegal, mas os vários fatores que ocasionaram as medidas portuguesas, metropolitanas e coloniais para impedir o comércio clandestino. Estudo particularmente como tais medidas representaram um compromisso entre diferentes interesses, tais como: o papel do monarca, a integridade ou a maleabilidade da autoridade real, a aplicação dessa legislação e os tipos de penalidades impostas aos infratores, trazendo questões sobre o que constituíam ações legais ou ilegais, assim como questões mais amplas relativas à ética e à moralidade pública no Brasil colônia.This article focuses on contraband in the eighteenth century, with special reference to Rio de Janeiro and the South Atlantic. It discusses not merely the mechanics of contraband and the participants in this illegal trade, but the many factors that contributed to Portuguese metropolitan and colonial measures to curb clandestine trade. I am particularly intrigued by the degree to which such measures represented a compromise between different interests. The role of the monarch, the integrity or malleability of royal authority, the latitude in enforcement of such legislation and the range of penalties imposed on infractors raise questions as to what constituted legal or illegal actions, as well as broader issues of ethics and public morality in colonial Brazil.

  3. El núcleo de instituciones científicas matritenses en el Paseo del Prado desde el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratas Díaz, Luis Alfredo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout second half of 18th century was constituted a scientific institutions centre around the “Paseo del Prado” (Royal Botanical Garden, Sciences Academy, Astronomic Observatory, General Hospital,.... The development of this scientific area suffered the vicissitudes and limitations that affected to the illustrated scientific policy. In 19th century the new educational and research centers establishment was scarce and laking of clear guidelines; the various projects to build a Sciences Faculty or the Arts and Trades School limited considerably the extension of the Royal Garden. In the first third of 20th century the constructing activity would be limited to the works in the Cajal Institute (plagued by misundestanding and upsetting and some constant remodeling works in the Velasco Museum and Royal Garden.

    A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII se constituyó en torno al actual Paseo del Prado un importante núcleo de instituciones científicas (Real Jardín Botánico, Academia de Ciencias, Observatorio Astronómico, Hospital General,.... El desarrollo de este foco científico sufrió las vicisitudes y limitaciones que afectaron a la política científica ilustrada. En el siglo XIX el establecimiento de nuevos centros docentes en esta zona fue escaso y carente de una idea directriz; los diversos proyectos para edificar una Facultad de Ciencias o la Escuela de Artes y Oficios limitaron considerablemente la extensión del Real Jardín. En el primer tercio del siglo XX la actividad constructora se limitaría a las obras en el Instituto Cajal (plagadas de malentendidos y desajustes y unas constantes obras de remodelación en el Museo Velasco y el Jardín Botánico.

  4. Ascetismo en imágenes: los ermitaños del desierto del sordo en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Peña Velasco, Concepción

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pictorial portrayals of Thebais were common during the Modern Age. However, we find very few images that show hermit activities with different habits and from different places. Thus the importance of the XVIIIth century picture subject of this paper, that depicts religious forms associated to cave life which had a long tradition on the site of La Luz in Murcia. We study the locus amoenus which is symbolic but inspired on a real environment of hermit inhabited caves, whose practices were regulated by the prelate of the Diocese of Cartagena, as proven by an inscription and by historic records. We look at the uniqueness of the picture and relate it to historic and literary sources on the subject.Las representaciones pictóricas de Tebaidas fueron comunes en la Edad Moderna. Sin embargo, apenas se conocen imágenes que muestren actividad eremítica con monjes de diversa procedencia y con distintos hábitos. De ahí la importancia del cuadro analizado del siglo XVIII, que plasma formas de religiosidad, vinculadas a la vida rupestre, de larga tradición en el paraje mostrado de La Luz en Murcia. Se estudia el locus amoenus pintado, que se inspira en un lugar simbólico y en un entorno real, con las cuevas que habitaron anacoretas, cuyas prácticas fueron reglamentadas por el prelado de la Diócesis de Cartagena, como prueban una inscripción y datos de archivo. Se aborda la singularidad del lienzo, relacionándolo con fuentes documentales y literarias alusivas al tema.

  5. Valeurs bibliophiles dans la langue française presentes en Bucovine (XVII-eme-XVIII-eme siecles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Mitric

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Comme on le sait, la Moldavie a été la plus réceptive des trois provinces roumaines à la culture française. Dans cette province-ci, les contacts avec le mouvement d'idées européen ont été plus puissants. La lutte d'affirmation nationale a mené à l'augmentation de la conscience politique de la société moldave et à une participation plus accentuée à la vie politique. Le goût pour la lecture a évolue, aussi, pendant que la mentalité a commencé se transformer; on sollicite et ensuite traduit les oeuvres dans lesquelles apparaissent les idées sociales politiques, l'histoire universelle, la géographie, les conquêtes de la technique ou la littérature philosophique-moralisatrice. Les plus anciennes copies en roumain des oeuvres traduites du français, qui se trouvent dans nos bibliothèques datent de la fin du XVIII-ème siècle. Celles-ci sont des traductions de Voltaire, Marmontel, Ambrosius Marlianus, Francesco Loredano, Fénélon, Johan Thuresson Oxenstiern, Gabriel Pérau, Alain Réné Lesage, André Guillaume Constant d' Orville. Le livre imprimé (inclusivement jusqu' en 1800 provient des ateliers typographiques de Paris, Londres, Genève, Regensburg, Basel et Berlin. Le plus ancien exemplaire, Le tableau de L'Europe, est imprimé à Paris, en 1651. Pour ceux qui s'y intéressent, nous avons organisé la liste de ces livres, sur catégories de détenteurs.

  6. High-resolution measurements, line identification, and spectral modeling of K{alpha} transitions in Fe XVIII-XXV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Phillips, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jacobs, V.L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Condensed Matter and Radiation Sciences Div.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Kahn, S.M. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The iron K{alpha} emission spectrum covering the wavelength region from 1.840 to 1.940 {Angstrom} is analyzed. Measurements are made with a high-resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak for plasma conditions which closely resemble those of solar flares. A total of 40 features are identified consisting of either single or multiple lines from eight charge states in iron, Fe XVIII through Fe XXV, and their wavelengths are determined with an accuracy of 0.1--0.4 m{Angstrom}. Many of these features are identified for the first time. In the interpretation of our observations we rely on model calculations that determine the ionic species abundances from electron density and temperature profiles measured independently with non-spectroscopic techniques and that incorporate theoretical collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination rates resulting in the excitation of the 1s2s{sup r}2p{sup s} configurations. The model calculations also include the effect of diffusive ion transport. Good overall agreement between the model calculations and the observations is obtained, which gives us confidence in our line identifications and spectral modeling capabilities. The results are compared with earlier analyses of the K{alpha} emission from the Sun. While many similarities are found, a few differences arise from the somewhat higher electron density in tokamak plasmas (10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}), which affects the fine-structure level populations of the ground states of the initial ion undergoing electron-impact excitation or dielectronic recombination. We also find that several spectral features are comprised of different transitions from those reported in earlier analyses of solar data.

  7. High-resolution measurements, line identification, and spectral modeling of K[alpha] transitions in Fe XVIII-XXV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Phillips, T. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Jacobs, V.L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Condensed Matter and Radiation Sciences Div.); Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kahn, S.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The iron K[alpha] emission spectrum covering the wavelength region from 1.840 to 1.940 [Angstrom] is analyzed. Measurements are made with a high-resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak for plasma conditions which closely resemble those of solar flares. A total of 40 features are identified consisting of either single or multiple lines from eight charge states in iron, Fe XVIII through Fe XXV, and their wavelengths are determined with an accuracy of 0.1--0.4 m[Angstrom]. Many of these features are identified for the first time. In the interpretation of our observations we rely on model calculations that determine the ionic species abundances from electron density and temperature profiles measured independently with non-spectroscopic techniques and that incorporate theoretical collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination rates resulting in the excitation of the 1s2s[sup r]2p[sup s] configurations. The model calculations also include the effect of diffusive ion transport. Good overall agreement between the model calculations and the observations is obtained, which gives us confidence in our line identifications and spectral modeling capabilities. The results are compared with earlier analyses of the K[alpha] emission from the Sun. While many similarities are found, a few differences arise from the somewhat higher electron density in tokamak plasmas (10[sup 13] cm[sup [minus]3]), which affects the fine-structure level populations of the ground states of the initial ion undergoing electron-impact excitation or dielectronic recombination. We also find that several spectral features are comprised of different transitions from those reported in earlier analyses of solar data.

  8. La crueldad ibérica a través de los relatos de viaje franceses del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma CARRÈRE-LARA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La crueldad o barbarie ibérica alimenta la Leyenda Negra antihispánica desde el siglo XVI. En el siglo XVIII, Siglo de las Luces, los viajeros franceses llegan a España con la idea de que los españoles son seres violentos, bárbaros y crueles e intentan demostrarlo, basándose en el examen de tres aspectos de la sociedad española: las corridas de toros, el tribunal de la Inquisición y los crímenes con navaja. No obstante, las reacciones no serán unánimes como se podía pensar: unos seguirán condenando a los crueles ibéricos, otros adoptarán una actitud más moderada, intentando analizar la situación con objetividad y sentido crítico.ABSTRACT: Iberian cruelty or barbarity has been fueling the anti-hispanic Black Legend since the 16th century. In the 18th century, the Age of the Enlightenment, French travellers arrived in Spain bearing in mind that the Spaniards were violent, barbarian and cruel beings and they attempted to demostrate that this was so by taking a close look at three aspects of Spanish society: bullfighting, the Inquisition and bloody murders. However, the reactions were not as identical as one might think: some relentlessly condemned the cruel Spaniards, while others adopted a more moderate attitude, trying to analyse the situation objectively and critically.

  9. Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter updates information taken from Chapters 3 to 6 of the IPCC Working Group I Third Assessment Report. It concerns itself with trends in forcing agents and their precursors since 1750, and estimates their contribution to the radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. Discussion of the understanding of atmospheric composition changes is limited to explaining the trends in forcing agents and their precursors. Areas where significant developments have occurred since the TAR are highlighted. The chapter draws on various assessments since the TAR, in particular the 2002 World Meteorological Organization (WMO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (2003) and the IPCC Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) special report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (2005). The chapter assesses anthropogenic greenhouse gas changes, aerosol changes and their impact on clouds, aviation-induced contrails and cirrus changes, surface albedo changes and natural solar and volcanic mechanisms. The chapter reassesses the 'radiative forcing' concept (Sections 2.2 and 2.8), presents spatial and temporal patterns of RF, and examines the radiative energy budget changes at the surface. For the long-lived greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluoro-carbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hereinafter collectively referred to as the LLGHGs; Section 2.3), the chapter makes use of new global measurement capabilities and combines long-term measurements from various networks to update trends through 2005. Compared to other RF agents, these trends are considerably better quantified; because of this, the chapter does not devote as much space to them as previous assessments (although the processes involved and the related budgets are further discussed in Sections 7.3 and 7

  10. Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Scivetti, I

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  11. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  12. Classical databases and knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    examines this claim and argues for the continued value of Boolean systems, which suggests two further considerations: (1) the important role of human expertise in searching (expert searchers and “information literate” users) and (2) the role of library and information science and knowledge organization (KO......This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...... into (ranked) sets of relevant documents, whereas the latter aims to increase the “selection power” of users. The Boolean retrieval model is valuable in providing users with the power to make informed searches and have full control over what is found and what is not. These issues may have significant...

  13. Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ömer, Bernhard

    2005-07-01

    The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control, and structured programming can be used in quantum computing. The experimental language QCL will be introduced as an example, how elements like irreversible functions, local variables, and conditional branching, which have no direct quantum counterparts, can be implemented, and how nonclassical features like the reversibility of unitary transformation or the nonobservability of quantum states can be accounted for within the framework of a procedural programming language.

  14. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  15. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a identify the most frequent postural changes; (b determine the postural pattern; (c verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a questionnaire; (b a checkerboard; (c postural chart; (d measure tape; (e camera and (f pedoscope were used as instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis. The results revealed the most frequent postural changes such as hyperlordosis, unleveled shoulders and pronated ankles. Ballet seems to have negative implications in the postural development , affecting especially the vertebral spine, trunk and feet. The practice time was not a parameter to indicate the increase in postural changes. In conclusion, ballet may be associated with postural changes and determining a characteristic postural pattern.

  16. Classical scattering from oscillating targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L

    2002-12-30

    We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.

  17. Inflation and classical scale invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Racioppi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    BICEP2 measurement of primordial tensor modes in CMB suggests that cosmological inflation is due to a slowly rolling inflaton taking trans-Planckian values and provides further experimental evidence for the absence of large $M_{\\rm P}$ induced operators. We show that classical scale invariance solves the problem and allows for a remarkably simple scale-free inflaton model without any gauge group. Due to trans-Planckian inflaton values and VEVs, a dynamically induced Coleman-Weinberg-type inflaton potential of the model can predict tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ in a large range. Precise determination of $r$ in future experiments will allow to test the proposed field-theoretic framework.

  18. Scientific Realism and Classical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Virendra

    2008-01-01

    We recount the successful long career of classical physics, from Newton to Einstein, which was based on the philosophy of scientific realism. Special emphasis is given to the changing status and number of ontological entitities and arguments for their necessity at any time. Newton, initially, began with (i) point particles, (ii) aether, (iii) absolute space and (iv) absolute time. The electromagnetic theory of Maxwell and Faraday introduced `fields' as a new ontological entity not reducible to earlier ones. Their work also unified electricity, magnetism and optics. Repeated failure to observe the motion of earth through aether led Einstein to modify the Newtonian absolute space and time concepts to a fused Minkowski space-time and the removal of aether from basic ontological entities in his special theory of relativity. Later Einstein in his attempts to give a local theory of gravitation was led to further modify flat Minkowski space-time to the curved Riemannian space time. This reduced gravitational phenome...

  19. Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  20. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  1. Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

    2010-05-01

    Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in pre-college science classes, or in public science education setting.

  2. An Analysis of Chapter XXXI of Oliver Twist From the Perspective of the Violating of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Oliver Twist, or The Parish Boy’s Progress (1837), one of Charles Dickens’s masterpieces, has occupied an important position in literature. As a classical work,Oliver Twist has enjoyed great popularity since its publication. Charles Dickens describes, in this work, the tragic life and experiences of the orphan boyOliver Twist who was born in an inhuman workhouse and cruelly treated there in his childhood. This paper attempts to make a detailed analysis of chapter XXXI ofOliver Twist from the perspective of the violating of Cooperative Principle.

  3. Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJAGOPAL A K; GHOSE PARTHA

    2016-06-01

    Classical electrodynamics is reformulated in terms of wave functions in the classical phase space of electrodynamics, following the Koopman–von Neumann–Sudarshan prescription for classical mechanics on Hilbert spaces sans the superselection rule which prohibits interference effects in classical mechanics. This is accomplished by transforming from a set of commutingobservables in one Hilbert space to another set of commuting observables in a larger Hilbert space. This is necessary to clarify the theoretical basis of the much recent work on quantum-like features exhibited by classical optics. Furthermore, following Bondar et al, {\\it Phys. Rev.} A 88, 052108 (2013), it is pointed out that quantum processes that preserve the positivity or nonpositivity of theWigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics.

  4. Colônia do Sacramento: a situação na fronteira platina no século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Pereira Prado

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Colônia do Sacramento, no atual Uruguai, na primeira metade do século XVIII, constituiu uma cidade de pródigo comércio na região platina. Inseridos tanto nas rotas comerciais e sociais portuguesas quanto nas castelhanas, os habitantes de Sacramento materializavam uma fronteira múltipla, onde coexistiam espanhóis, portugueses e diferentes grupos indígenas. O presente estudo analisa os vínculos sociais e comerciais existentes entre os habitantes de Sacramento e os de Buenos Aires. No interior do espaço platino as redes sociais estabelecidas através do rio da Prata, ligando Sacramento e Buenos Aires, eram vias de acúmulo de prestígio, poder e riqueza em uma sociedade de antigo regime.The Sacramento Colony, currently Uruguayan territory, in the first half of the XVIII century, was a city with great commerce on the River Plate Region. Placed in both Portuguese and Spanish social and commercial routes, the Sacramento habitants formed a multiple frontier where Spanish, Portuguese and different indigenous groups coexisted. The present study analyses the social and commercial links that existed between the Sacramento and Buenos Aires inhabitants. In the River Plate region, the social networks developed connecting Sacramento and Buenos Ayers were gateways to social status, power and wealth in an old regime society.

  5. ¿Lealtad al estado o al monarca?: Los juramentos de fidelidad del siglo XVIII a la luz de la historia conceptual. El caso ruso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sergio Ingerflom

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La inclusión del término "Estado" en algunos juramentos de lealtad al monarca ruso a principios del siglo XVIII ha sido frecuentemente interpretada como un índice de la existencia del Estado. En este artículo se estudian los textos de los juramentos, la significación de la palabra "Estado" en esa época y la concepción que el emperador se hacía de su poder y de su relación con el país. Este análisis va más allá del caso ruso: a se observa como fenómenos similares en la historia occidental y en la historia rusa desembocan sobre representaciones del poder totalmente divergentes; b se toma en cuenta la diferencia entre la palabra "Estado" y el concepto "Estado" en el cauce abierto por la historia conceptual, lo que es un requisito indispensable para toda investigación sobre el tema. Se defiende aquí la tesis de que el Imperio ruso del siglo XVIII no era un Estado

  6. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.

  7. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  8. Classical universes are perfectly predictable!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan Hendrik

    I argue that in a classical universe, all the events that ever happen are encoded in each of the universe's parts. This conflicts with a statement which is widely believed to lie at the basis of relativity theory: that the events in a space-time region R determine only the events in R's domain of dependence but not those in other space-time regions. I show how, from this understanding, a new prediction method (which I call the 'Smoothness Method') can be obtained which allows us to predict future events on the basis of local observational data. Like traditional prediction methods, this method makes use of so-called ' ceteris paribus clauses', i.e. assumptions about the unobserved parts of the universe. However, these assumptions are used in a way which enables us to predict the behaviour of open systems with arbitrary accuracy, regardless of the influence of their environment-which has not been achieved by traditional methods. In a sequel to this paper (Schmidt, 1998), I will prove the Uniqueness and Predictability Theorems on which the Smoothness Method is based, and comment in more detail on its mathematical properties.

  9. Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Joseph; Alinari, Lapo

    2016-09-01

    Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a key immune-inhibitory molecule expressed on T cells and implicated in CD4+ T-cell exhaustion and tumor immune-escape mechanisms. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a unique B-cell malignancy in the sense that malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells represent a small percentage of cells within an extensive immune cell infiltrate. PD-1 ligands are upregulated on RS cells as a consequence of both chromosome 9p24.1 amplification and Epstein-Barr virus infection and by interacting with PD-1 promote an immune-suppressive effect. By augmenting antitumor immune response, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, another monoclonal antibody against PD-1, have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL as well as an acceptable toxicity profile with immune-related adverse events that are generally manageable. In this review, we explore the rationale for targeting PD-1 in cHL, review the clinical trial results supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, and present future directions for investigation in which this approach may be used.

  10. Rebrightening Phenomenon in Classical Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kiyota, Seiichiro

    2009-01-01

    Two classical novae V1493 Aql and V2362 Cyg were known to exhibit unprecedented large-amplitude rebrightening during the late stage of their evolution. We analyzed common properties in these two light curves. We show that these unusual light curves are very well expressed by a combination of power-law decline, omnipresent in fast novae, and exponential brightening. We propose a schematic interpretation of the properties common to these rebrightenings can be a consequence of a shock resulting from a secondary ejection and its breakout in the optically thick nova winds. This interpretation has an advantage in explaining the rapid fading following the rebrightening and the subsequent evolution of the light curve. The exponential rise might reflect emerging light from the shock front, analogous to a radiative precursor in a supernova shock breakout. The consequence of such a shock in the nova wind potentially explains many kinds of unusual phenomena in novae including early-stage variations and potentially dust f...

  11. Classical topology and quantum states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Balachandran

    2001-02-01

    Any two infinite-dimensional (separable) Hilbert spaces are unitarily isomorphic. The sets of all their self-adjoint operators are also therefore unitarily equivalent. Thus if all self-adjoint operators can be observed, and if there is no further major axiom in quantum physics than those formulated for example in Dirac’s ‘quantum mechanics’, then a quantum physicist would not be able to tell a torus from a hole in the ground. We argue that there are indeed such axioms involving observables with smooth time evolution: they contain commutative subalgebras from which the spatial slice of spacetime with its topology (and with further refinements of the axiom, its - and ∞ - structures) can be reconstructed using Gel’fand–Naimark theory and its extensions. Classical topology is an attribute of only certain quantum observables for these axioms, the spatial slice emergent from quantum physics getting progressively less differentiable with increasingly higher excitations of energy and eventually altogether ceasing to exist. After formulating these axioms, we apply them to show the possibility of topology change and to discuss quantized fuzzy topologies. Fundamental issues concerning the role of time in quantum physics are also addressed.

  12. Locking classical correlation in quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Di Vincenzo, D P; Leung, D; Smolin, J A; Terhal, B M; Vincenzo, David Di; Horodecki, Michal; Leung, Debbie; Smolin, John; Terhal, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    We show that there exist bipartite quantum states which contain large hidden classical correlation that can be unlocked by a disproportionately small amount of classical communication. In particular, there are $(2n+1)$-qubit states for which a one bit message doubles the optimal classical mutual information between measurement results on the subsystems, from $n/2$ bits to $n$ bits. States exhibiting this behavior need not be entangled. We study the range of states exhibiting this phenomenon and bound its magnitude.

  13. A Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, Rebekah F.; Ryan, Emily L.; Sefton, Jennifer M. I.; Rebecca D Sanders; Lucioni, Patricia Jumbo; Kenneth H Moberg; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal disorder that results from profound impairment of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). Despite decades of research, the underlying pathophysiology of classic galactosemia remains unclear, in part owing to the lack of an appropriate animal model. Here, we report the establishment of a Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia; this is the first whole-animal genetic model to mimic aspects of the patient phenotype. Analogous t...

  14. Classical Underpinnings of Gravitationally Induced Quantum Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, P D

    1996-01-01

    We show that the gravitational modification of the phase of a neutron beam (the COW experiment) has a classical origin, being due to the time delay which classical particles experience in traversing a background gravitational field. Similarly, we show that classical light waves also undergo a phase shift in traversing a gravitational field. We show that the COW experiment respects the equivalence principle even in the presence of quantum mechanics.

  15. Delayed Choice Between Purely Classical States

    OpenAIRE

    Jason A. C. Gallas

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that Wheeler's insightful idea of delayed choice experiments may be explored at a classical level, arising naturally from number-theoretical conjugacies always necessarily present in the equations of motion. For simple and representative systems, we illustrate how to cast the equations of motion in a form encoding all classical states simultaneously through a ``state parameter''. By suitably selecting the parameter one may project the system into any desired classical state.

  16. The relation between classical and quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2012-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an ex...

  17. Baluartes, mosquetes y reclutas: cuestiones en torno a la historiografía militar modernista (siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Almela, Luis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We have selected some questions of military historiography from XVIth to XVIIIth century according to their influence on the global comprehension of the early modern history. From this subject we have evaluated dificulties and goals in the last decades. We have specially paid attention to the British and French historiographycal traditions because of their development and significance on the Spanish way of facing the military history. In conclution, we suggest that the main methodological and conceptual contributions of the special field that concerns us in this article have to be related to the last years. This matched with the moment in which these historians have changed their attempt to focus the most important changes in the early modern period from their specialism. Best results have been achieved when they have recognized a more modest status for the military history.

    Dentro del campo de la historiografía militar —en un sentido amplio— de los siglos XVI al XVIII, se han seleccionado algunas cuestiones que por su influencia e innovación conceptual han supuesto mayores aportaciones a la comprensión general del período moderno en su conjunto. A partir de ellas, se ha tratado de valorar los principales logros y los escollos más enconados que los historiadores de la especialidad han ido ofreciendo y encontrando en las últimas décadas. Las escuelas historiográficas de lo militar que, en función precisamente de su desarrollo, han encontrado mayor cabida en estas páginas son la británica y, en menor medida, la francesa. Ambas, por otro lado, son las que más han influido en los historiadores españoles. Como conclusión, el autor sugiere que las principales aportaciones metodológicas y conceptuales de la historiografía militar modernista se han producido precisamente en el momento en el que se ha abandonado la pretensión de hacer de lo específicamente militar el factor clave en el desarrollo histórico de las sociedades

  18. Censura y prensa periódica a finales del siglo XVIII: El caso del Semanario erudito (1787-1791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland, Madeline

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How did censorship operate in Spain in the last decades of the eighteenth century? This article considers one periodical—the Semanario Erudito—as a case study. Extant correspondence between the editor (Antonio Valladares de Sotomayor, the Consejo de Castilla, and the censors (primarily Ignacio López de Ayala and Santos Díez González allow us to view the censorship process and the attitudes of the participants in the process. After introducing Valladares and reviewing the laws that regulated the printing of periodicals, we examine requests for printing licenses made by the editor and the justifications of the censors and the Consejo for their decisions. While the censors and the Consejo sought to maintain ideological and legal control over what was published, the correspondence shows that they were also interested in making important, useful documents available to the reading public and in insuring that what was printed was correct and accurate.¿Cómo operaba la censura periodística en España en las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII? Este trabajo considera el caso de un periódico en particular, el Semanario Erudito. La correspondencia existente entre el editor (Antonio Valladares de Sotomayor, el Consejo de Castilla, y los censores (principalmente Ignacio López de Ayala y Santos Díez González nos permite ver el proceso censorio y las actitudes de los participantes en el proceso. Tras describir las actividades editoras de Valladares y repasar las leyes que regulaban la imprenta de periódicos, se examinan las peticiones del editor y las justificaciones de los censores y el Consejo con respecto a sus decisiones. La correspondencia nos permite concluir que mientras los censores y el Consejo se interesaban en ejercer un control ideológico y jurídico sobre lo que se publicaba, les importaba también hacer posible la publicación de documentos importantes o útiles y asegurar la calidad de ellos haciendo correcciones y exigiendo precisi

  19. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  20. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  1. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibort, A., E-mail: albertoi@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); López-Yela, A., E-mail: alyela@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.it [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G., E-mail: marmo@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Simoni, A., E-mail: simoni@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G., E-mail: bhamathig@gmail.com [Physics Department, Center for Particle Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, F., E-mail: ventriglia@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2012-03-26

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  2. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Sudarshan, E C G; Ventriglia, F

    2012-01-01

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so called Gauss--Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  3. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Sachs disease; (xviii) Thalassemia; and (xix) Wilson's disease. (3) Conditions that are congenital...) Congenital heart disease; (iv) Congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot); (v) Esophageal and intestinal atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease...

  4. Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-09-01

    Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease. Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Primary mediastinal NS-CHL consists of nodules of polymorphous inflammatory cells surrounded by broad fibrous bands extending from a thickened lymph node capsule. The cellular nodules contain variable numbers of large Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, required for diagnosis. Primary thymic CHL may exhibit prominent cystic changes. The histopathologic recognition of NS-CHL can be challenging in cases with prominent fibrosis, scant cellularity, artifactual cell distortion, or an exuberant granulomatous reaction. The differential diagnosis includes primary mediastinal non-HLs, mediastinal germ cell tumors, thymoma, and metastatic carcinoma or melanoma to the mediastinum. Distinction from primary mediastinal non-HLs is crucial for adequate therapeutic decisions. Approximately 95% of patients with primary mediastinal CHL will be alive and free of disease at 10 years after treatment with short courses of combined chemoradiotherapy. In this review, we discuss the history, classification, epidemiology, clinicoradiologic features, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and treatment of primary mediastinal CHL. PMID:27441757

  5. Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, S.K.

    1982-08-01

    Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H/sub 2/C/sub 2/ ..-->.. HC/sub 2/H, HNC ..-->.. HCN, and H/sub 2/CO ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I ..-->.. Na /sup +/ + I/sup -/ is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features. (WHM)

  6. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  7. From Literacy Activities to Entrepreneurship in Siete Pilas. Chapter 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Antonio; Polo, Angel

    This chapter describes a community development project in Siete Pilas (Spain), a village whose economy is based primarily on small family farms and unskilled labor. The project grew out of the Sierra Education Program, which in 1980 sent adult-education teachers to five villages in the Sierra de Ronda region. The goal was to stimulate a socially…

  8. Instructional Interventions to Improve Social Competence. Chapter Eighteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Laurence R.

    A conceptual framework of social competence is presented to formulate actions that will enhance the social competence of learners with mental disabilities. This chapter discusses the individual's culturally determined inputs; the processes of social affects, social skills, and social thinking; and the desired social outcomes. The history of social…

  9. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the structure of the atom, elementary nuclear physics, the nature of electromagnetic radiation and the production of X rays is fundamental to the understanding of the physics of medical imaging and radiation protection. This, the first chapter of the handbook, summarizes those aspects of these areas which, being part of the foundation of modern physics, underpin the remainder of the book

  10. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Humphrey, Alan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Berzins, Martin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  11. "Preescolar Na Casa": Teaching Parents To Teach Children. Chapter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ermitas

    This chapter describes a school readiness program that has been implemented in rural Galicia (Spain) since 1977. Data reveal that 70 percent of Galicia's population lives in rural areas, the economy remains primarily agricultural, Galicians earn less than the national average and have the largest number of public assistance recipients, and there…

  12. Functional Literacy in Romania: Between Myth & Reality. Chapter 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Florentina

    This chapter reviews the history of literacy training in Romania through the pretotalitarian period (1890-1945), the totalitarian period (1945-1989), and the posttotalitarian period (1989-present). Current literacy development efforts face many challenges including the facts that 592 classrooms do not have indoor plumbing, that more than 1,700…

  13. 41 CFR Appendix D to Chapter 301 - Glossary of Acronyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Standards and Technology NTE: Not to Exceed OBE: Online Self-service Booking Tool OCONUS: Outside... Appendix D to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...: Automated Teller Machine CAS: Commercial Aviation Service(s) CDW: Collision Damage Waiver CFR: Code...

  14. O Suicídio: reavaliando um clássico da literatura sociológica do século XIX Durkheim's Suicide: reassessment of a classic from 19th-century sociological literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Na marca dos cem anos da publicação de O Suicídio, é realizada uma revisão detalhada dessa obra de Durkheim, clássico da literatura sociológica. Na primeira parte do artigo são considerados os motivos que teriam levado o autor a interessar-se pelo tema, dentro das preocupações que, desde o século XVIII, situaram a importância do estudo do suicídio. Em seguida, a obra é revisada de forma circunstanciada, considerando todos os seus capítulos. Esta parte é precedida por rápidas considerações sobre a colocação desse clássico no conjunto da produção do autor, até a data da sua publicação, 1897. Na terceira parte do artigo, são feitos os comentários sobre a obra, recorrendo-se aos principais autores que a estudaram. Sobressai, entre outros aspectos, a importância desse trabalho, que associa elaborada construção teórica aos dados empíricos, trabalhando dentro das possibilidades que as estatísticas morais ofereciam no final do século XIX. Salienta-se a perspectiva de Durkheim de tratar o impacto das macroestruturas sobre os fenômenos de nível micro. Revisa-se, também, a distribuição dos suicídios, atualizando-se algumas informações e as relações que se evidenciam entre, por exemplo, suicídios e grupos profissionais. Introduz-se, ainda, a crítica de autores que salientam a importância dos 'significados' na análise dos suicídios e algumas anotações sobre a relação suicídios/doença mental.This paper presents a detailed review of Suicide, the sociological classic by Durkheim, 100 years after it was first published. The first part of the article focuses on the author's interest in the theme, within the scope of concerns on the importance of studying suicide dating from the 18th century. The article then presents a circumstantial review of the various chapters, preceded by brief remarks on the book's place within Durkheim's work as a whole. The third part of the article comments on the book with

  15. КАРТОГРАФИЧЕСКИЕ РАБОТЫ ЗЕМЛЕМЕРОВ В ЯКУТИИ В XVIII-XIX ВВ

    OpenAIRE

    Катионов, О.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents cartographic works in Yakutia (XVIII XIX centuries), necessitated by the foundation of the new administrative district, that required land management and legal land use. An interesting personality is introduced.

  16. Classical Hamiltonian Dynamics and Lie Group Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Aycock, B; Silverberg, J L; Widom, A

    2008-01-01

    The classical Hamilton equations of motion yield a structure sufficiently general to handle an almost arbitrary set of ordinary differential equations. Employing elementary algebraic methods, it is possible within the Hamiltonian structure to describe many physical systems exhibiting Lie group symmetries. Elementary examples include magnetic moment precession and the mechanical orbits of color charged particles in classical non-abelian chromodynamics.

  17. Classical data compression with quantum side information

    OpenAIRE

    Devetak, I.; Winter, A.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of classical data compression when the decoder has quantum side information at his disposal is considered. This is a quantum generalization of the classical Slepian-Wolf theorem. The optimal compression rate is found to be reduced from the Shannon entropy of the source by the Holevo information between the source and side information.

  18. On entanglement-assisted classical capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2002-09-01

    We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities.

  19. Classical Conditioning: Eliciting the Right Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Classical conditioning is responsible for students' positive and negative feelings, whether directed toward subject matter, peers, teachers, or education in general. This article explains how educators can use classical conditioning principles (such as reinforcement, extinction, and paired stimuli) to create an anxiety-free learning environment.…

  20. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…

  1. Three Approaches to Classical Thermal Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the Closed-Time Path (CTP) formalism, the Thermofield Dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.

  2. Three approaches to classical thermal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the closed-time path (CTP) formalism, the thermofield dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.

  3. Modal analysis of a classical guitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-11-01

    Using holographic interferometry, we have determined the modes of vibration of a classical guitar (by the first author) having an asymmetrically-braced top plate and a crossed braced back of unique design. The vibrational modes and acoustical properties are compared with other classical guitars.

  4. Classic and Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John M.

    Through an analysis of several stories, this paper defines the similarities and differences between classic and hard-boiled detective fiction. The characters and plots of three stories are discussed: "The Red House" by A. A. Milne; "I, The Jury" by Mickey Spillane; and "League of Frightened Men" by Rex Stout. The classic detective story is defined…

  5. Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.

    2016-07-01

    Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almost-ideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.

  6. Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…

  7. Introducing quantum effects in classical theories

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, J C; Rodrigues, D C; Daouda, M H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore two different ways of implementing quantum effects in a classical structure. The first one is through an external field. The other one is modifying the classical conservation laws. In both cases, the consequences for the description of the evolution of the universe are discussed.

  8. Classical transport in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  9. Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hajicek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is ...

  10. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    XVIII International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Being one of the oldest technical higher education institutions which trains specialists who contribute to scientific research in geosciences, The Institute of Natural Resources of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU INR) was chosen to hold the symposium. In 2014 The Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 113th anniversary. It was founded in 1901 by V.A. Obruchev, the first geologist in Siberia, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and the first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized all over the world as a prominent scientist in the area of geology. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in the Asian part of Russia. Siberian Mining and Geological Schola, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has been retaining its significance for discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, in the Far East and North-East of the country, but also in Central Asia. There are a lot of outstanding scientists, engineers and manufacturers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of M.A. Usov, the student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the development of the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, the founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, the discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the north of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective for oil-gas exploration. There are over 35 000 graduates of the institute and

  11. El poder y la gloria: élites y asientos militares en el astillero de La Habana durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel SERRANO ÁLVAREZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El astillero de la Habana reflejaba muy bien a lo largo del siglo XvIII las luchas de intereses entre las élites locales y las necesidades imperiales de España en el Caribe. El poder, asociado al dinero, y la gloria, vinculada a la posición social, fueron los grandes caballos de batalla de la poderosa élite habanera en su colaboración con las autoridades políticomilitares enviadas desde España. los asientos militares fueron uno de los canales para alcanzar ambos objetivos, y provocaron una continua lucha en torno al vital arsenal militar, fuente de riqueza, poder e intrigas permanentes. Este trabajo dibuja un panorama de una cooperación tan necesaria como forzosa.

  12. Engenho e temperamentos nos catálogos e no pensamento da Companhia de Jesus nos séculos XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Massimi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa entender as relações entre a potência psíquica do "engenho", algumas qualidades temperamentais específicas e as funções a serem exercidas pelo indivíduo possuidor destas características delineadas nos Catálogos da Companhia de Jesus ao longo dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Evidencia a presença destas associações como lugar-comum na literatura jesuítica da época, a importância do engenho como qualidade exigida para exercer ministérios relevantes na Ordem, e necessidade do indivíduo possuir uma complexão física adequada a estas exigências.

  13. Memorias del paisaje cordillerano: la travesía de los Andes en la Gobernación de Chile durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vega Palma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analizan diferentes escritos del siglo XVIII para relevar la herencia multisecular de un imaginario asociado a los peligros del cruce cordillerano, que atraviesa transformaciones políticas y culturales de envergadu-ra. La noción de peligro, y el temor asociado al mismo, se despliega en los textos que informan o describen la travesía de la cordillera en el Reino de Chile, apelando a las amenazas de caer en el abismo o de congelarse de frío. Los ecos de estas marcas, establecidas tempranamente en la cultura colonial de Chile, se pueden rastrear también en los llamados escritos ilustrados, en que estos tópicos se funden con los de la montaña sublime.

  14. Moterų vienuolynų reformos LDK XVIII a. II p.: dviejų atvejų analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Janulevičiūtė, Justė

    2010-01-01

    Darbe analizuojamos Gardino brigičių ir Vilniaus Šv. Mykolo bernardinių vienuolynų reformos, kurios laikytinos ryškiausiais bandymais atnaujinti moterų vienuolinį gyvenimą LDK XVIII amžiuje. Gardino brigičių reforma kilo pačių vienuolių iniciatyva. Šia reforma buvo siekiama grįžti prie pirminės regulos ir ordino įkūrėjos dvasios. Vienuolyno abatė siekė reformuoti visų pirma dvasinį vienuolyno gyvenimą. Ji taip pat reikalavo griežtai laikytis neturto įžado, vienuolinės disciplinos ir klauzūros...

  15. Algunas propuestas didácticas sobre el teatro español del siglo XVIII / Some didactic studies on the Spanish theatre of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malén Álvarez Franco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las propuestas didácticas reales llevadas a cabo en distintos institutos de la comunidad extremeña y madrileña en torno al teatro del siglo XVIII. Desde este punto de partida, es nuestra intención proponer nuevas vías de trabajo que no se recogen en los manuales de aula al uso, amplificando de este modo la cultura teatral del alumnado para estos niveles.Abstract: This essay aims to analyze the actual didactic strategies carried out in different secondary schools within the Extremadura and Madrid areas concerning the 18th century theatre. Under these premises, it is our intention to propose new learning and teaching methodologies, which are not gathered in regular classroom textbooks . By so doing we aim to enhance student´s theatrical knowledge and background at those levels.

  16. Leitura do pensamento bioético de Paulo da Cruz (século XVIII), no seu epistolário

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, João Alírio Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertação centra-se, como o título indica, na “Leitura do Pensamento Bioético de Paulo da Cruz (século XVIII), no seu epistolário”. É um trabalho original, de pesquisa hermenêutica, debruçada sobre o epistolário de um pensador humanista, porque místico. Este recuo diacrónico é coadjuvante na sincronia do pensamento bioético, porque o pensamento de Paulo da Cruz, revelado no seu epistolário, enriquece-o, precisamente porque visa o agir ético, ora dos agentes da saúde, ora...

  17. Violations of Law in the Bureaucrats Community and Their Perception by the Ukrainian and Russian People in the Late XVIII – First Half of XIX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Degtyarev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies the problem of service violations and abuses, which were extremely common in the bureaucratic environment of the Russian Empire in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The author attempts to answer the question of how these negative phenomena were perceived various population groups in different regions of the empire? It was concluded, that range of offenses, which were committed officials, was extremely broad. In doing so they affected the interests of society regardless of ethnic, social or professional affiliation of its members. This contributed to occurrence of a negative image of officials at all levels of society and in all regions of the empire. Inability and unwillingness of the government fight the offense in the environment of bureaucracy during many decades has led to the creation a negative image of the official. It was display in numerous literary works and poetry of Ukrainian and Russian authors, the memoirs of contemporaries, official documents.

  18. LOS GRUPOS ÉTNICOS Y SUS TERRITORIOS EN LAS FRONTERAS DEL RÍO SALADO DE BUENOS AIRES (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIA R. NACUZZI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos las interrelaciones de los funcionarios hispanocriollos con caci-ques y grupos étnicos que circulaban y se asentaban en las cercanías de losfuertes localizados desde mediados del siglo XVIII en las inmediaciones delrío Salado para conformar la frontera sur. El corpus documental conservadobajo el rótulo “Comandancia de Fronteras” brinda datos sobre las localiza-ciones habituales de los caciques y los parajes que controlaban, sus circuitosde abastecimiento y transacciones comerciales, las negociaciones que encara-ban con diversos agentes del estado, las afinidades y los conflictos con otroscaciques/grupos. El análisis de estas cuestiones nos permite avanzar en ladiscusión sobre las territorialidades y la etnicidad de los grupos indígenasde la Pampa.

  19. La Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos y el ejercicio de la agrimensura en la Valencia del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faus Prieto, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century the land surveying knew in Spain an unfinished process of institutionalizacion that laid the foundations of its further development. This process, which began in the ancient Reign of Valencia, provoked the successive aparition of local employment and the academic title of land-surveyor. The present work is focused on the circumstances wich took place in this process, as well as its limitations.

    En el siglo XVIII la agrimensura conoció, en España, un proceso inacabado de institucionalización que sentó las bases para su posterior desarrollo. Este proceso se inició en el antiguo Reino de Valencia y provocó la aparición sucesiva del empleo municipal y el título académico de agrimensor. En este trabajo se estudian las circunstancias que concurrieron en dicho proceso, así como sus limitaciones.

  20. Formación y desarrollo del léxico de la electricidad en español (siglos XVIII-XIX)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Villanueva, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El objeto de esta investigación es el estudio de las vías de penetración, desarrollo y difusión en español del léxico relativo a la electricidad desde mediados del siglo XVIII hasta finales del siglo XIX a partir del análisis de los textos científicos aparecidos en España durante ese periodo. La tesis consta de ocho capítulos, más un anexo en el que se da detalle del corpus de estudio, integrado por un total de 1015 términos. Los dos primeros se destinan a la presentación del estudio y a l...