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Sample records for class labeling otc

  1. Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options What types of OTC antihistamines are available? Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines ...

  2. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of central clearing of over-the-counter (OTC) transactions on counterparty exposures in a market with OTC transactions across several asset classes with heterogeneous characteristics. The impact of introducing a central counterparty (CCP) on expected interdealer exposure...... is determined by the tradeoff between multilateral netting across dealers on one hand and bilateral netting across asset classes on the other hand. We find this tradeoff to be sensitive to assumptions on heterogeneity of asset classes in terms of `riskyness' of the asset class as well as correlation...... of exposures across asset classes. In particular, while an analysis assuming independent, homogeneous exposures suggests that central clearing is efficient only if one has an unrealistically high number of participants, the opposite conclusion is reached if differences in riskyness and correlation across asset...

  3. 7 CFR 201.74 - Labeling of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of all classes of certified seed. 201.74... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.74 Labeling of all classes of certified seed....

  4. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack of... repellent. Labeling claims for OTC orally administered insect repellent drug products are either...

  5. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking deterrent. 310.544 Section 310.544 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking deterrent. (a) Any product that bears labeling... or reduce smoking,” or similar claims is a smoking deterrent drug product. Cloves,...

  6. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The terms on the label include "nasal decongestants", "cough suppressants", "expectorants" and "antihistamines." Q. How did FDA arrive at its decision to issue these recommendations? A. FDA’s ... determined that OTC cough and cold medicines, which treat symptoms and not ...

  7. [Development of an Informative System for Consumers and Pharmacists Aimed at the Proper Use of Kampo OTCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yayoi; Saito, Mitsuo; Yuda, Yasukatsu

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicines must be used according to an individual's physical characteristics and symptoms to avoid lack of efficacy, adverse reactions or interactions with other drugs. As category-2 over-the-counter drugs (OTCs), Kampo OTCs are not targets of active explanations by pharmacists, and consumers usually decide to use OTCs by themselves on the basis of drug label information. However, information on the label is occasionally brief. To promote the proper use of Kampo OTCs, we herein propose an informative tool based on the Australian Shelf-Talker (information on the proper use of OTCs with a self-check questionnaire for consumers), the Self-Check Card (SCC). We also prepared the informative material, Information to the Pharmacist (IP), directed at pharmacists regarding these Kampo OTCs. We created SCCs and IPs for 16 prescriptions in the 5 most demanded categories (cold, cough/sore throat, urination problems, women's diseases, and shoulder stiffness or joint/nerve pain). The SCC with questions in a simplified language specifies individuals who should avoid the drug, or those who should consult a pharmacist before purchase, according to the safety information on the respective drug labels. The IP provides information to pharmacists on safety issues and those concerning recognition of the consumer's symptoms and physical characteristics needed for the selection of appropriate Kampo OTCs. Such SCCs and IPs are now in use in 2 pharmacies to know pharmacists' suggestions about improvements and consumer's opinions and degree of satisfaction. We believe these risk-benefit communication tools, SCC and IP, will contribute to improve the proper use of Kampo OTCs. PMID:26831805

  8. Cough Medicine: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The only expectorant available in OTC products is guaifenesin (2 brand names: Mucinex, Robitussin Chest Congestion). How ... fluids also helps keep mucus thin. Dextromethorphan and guaifenesin are sometimes combined with each other (1 brand ...

  9. Inter-Dealer OTC E-markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif ZIMAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global OTC markets have been very active in the past decade as many institutions have chosen to rely on growth in the OTC issuance to facilitate deal-making outside of the exchange regulated avenues. Products included in this category are bonds, converts, volatility and variance swaps, CDS contracts. This paper introduces the financial instruments used in connection with the OTC markets, presents and offers suggestions for setting up generic sell and buys side RFQ and market making systems and introduces the main concepts and compo-nents that need to be taken into account when developing such systems when targeting the growing E-Business focus of the market.

  10. OTC tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Earlier this year, tamsulosin, an alpha blocker previously only available on prescription, became available for sale by pharmacists as a treatment for functional symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men aged 45-75 years (Flomax Relief MR - Boehringer Ingelheim). A television advert for the over-the-counter (OTC) product claims that it is a "simple and effective" treatment that can relieve symptoms within 1 week, allowing the user to "take control of your annoying pee problems".¹ Here we review the evidence on tamsulosin and assess whether its availability as an OTC product confers worthwhile advantages. PMID:20926447

  11. 21 CFR 872.3570 - OTC denture repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC denture repair kit. 872.3570 Section 872.3570...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3570 OTC denture repair kit. (a) Identification. An OTC denture repair kit is a device consisting of a material, such as a resin monomer system...

  12. Importance of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in small intestine for urinary orotic acid excretion: analysis of OTC-deficient spf-ash mice with OTC transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Mori, K; Kobayashi, K; Horiuchi, M; Shige, T; Obara, T; Suzuki, S; Mori, M; Yamamura, K

    1995-01-25

    We report the effect of the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) transgene composed of 1.3 kb of the 5' flanking region of the rat OTC gene fused to rat OTC cDNA on urinary orotic acid excretion in OTC-deficient spf-ash (sparse-fur with abnormal skin and hair) mice during overnight-starvation and nitrogen loading. During starvation, spf-ash mice with about 6% and 2% of control levels of OTC activity in the liver and small intestine excreted a large amount of orotic acid in the urine. Transgenic spf-ash mice with about 10% and 30% of the control OTC activities in the liver and small intestine did not excrete more than the normal level of orotic acid. Accidental parasitization of transgenic spf-ash mice with ticks (Myocoptes musculinus) resulted in decrease of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine to the levels in spf-ash mice, and increased excretion of orotic acid. During extermination of the ticks, the mice showed varied levels of OTC activity and orotic acid excretion. On nitrogen loading, transgenic spf-ash mice as well as spf-ash mice excreted larger amounts of orotic acid, while control mice showed no increase in its excretion. The levels of urinary orotic acid were inversely correlated to the logarithms of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine, the correlation being significantly higher with intestinal OTC than with hepatic OTC activity. These results suggest that the level of OTC activity in the small intestine is important for production of orotic acid.

  13. Association of Risk Perception and Information Provided on the Labels of Over-the-Counter Drugs: Role of Race, Education, Age and Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of over-the-counter (OTC drugs has increased tremendously, however, information on risk perception regarding the use of OTC drugs and their potential toxicity is scarce. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of OTC drug safety and efficacy based on reading product packaging and the effect of race, education, age and income. Methods: We used the HINTS 2012 data set with total sample size of 2,554. Results: OTC drug users having some high school education had a lower chance of frequently reading information included in the product labeling with the OTC medication. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age were always likely to read drug information on the OTC drug labeling. Also, Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to read OTC drug labeling than Non-Hispanic whites.  OTC drug users less than 50 years of age consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs.  Conversely, OTC drug users with a high school, some college or bachelor’s degree consider OTC drugs less safe than prescription drugs.  Non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and subjects of lower income were less likely to consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs.  OTC drug users with a high school education and some college perceive OTC drugs to be less effective than prescription drugs.Conclusion: To conclude, age, education, race, and income affect risk perception on OTC drugs.  Consumer information programs need to be designed so that meaningful results can be incorporated into public policy. Providing information on the labeling of OTC drugs and likelihood of patients reading this information require further study.

  14. Atherosclerotic plaque component segmentation in combined carotid MRI and CTA data incorporating class label uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque composition can indicate plaque vulnerability. We segment atherosclerotic plaque components from the carotid artery on a combination of in vivo MRI and CT-angiography (CTA) data using supervised voxelwise classification. In contrast to previous studies the ground truth...... in the ground truth used for training: I) soft labels are created by Gaussian blurring of the original binary histology segmentations to reduce weights at the boundaries between components, and are weighted by the estimated registration accuracy of the histology and in vivo imaging data (measured by overlap......), II) samples are weighted by the local contour distance of the lumen and outer wall between histology and in vivo data, and III) 10% of each class is rejected by Gaussian outlier rejection. Classification was evaluated on the relative volumes (% of tissue type in the vessel wall) for calcified...

  15. EnzML: multi-label prediction of enzyme classes using InterPro signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Ferrari Luna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual annotation of enzymatic functions cannot keep up with automatic genome sequencing. In this work we explore the capacity of InterPro sequence signatures to automatically predict enzymatic function. Results We present EnzML, a multi-label classification method that can efficiently account also for proteins with multiple enzymatic functions: 50,000 in UniProt. EnzML was evaluated using a standard set of 300,747 proteins for which the manually curated Swiss-Prot and KEGG databases have agreeing Enzyme Commission (EC annotations. EnzML achieved more than 98% subset accuracy (exact match of all correct Enzyme Commission classes of a protein for the entire dataset and between 87 and 97% subset accuracy in reannotating eight entire proteomes: human, mouse, rat, mouse-ear cress, fruit fly, the S. pombe yeast, the E. coli bacterium and the M. jannaschii archaebacterium. To understand the role played by the dataset size, we compared the cross-evaluation results of smaller datasets, either constructed at random or from specific taxonomic domains such as archaea, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, plants and vertebrates. The results were confirmed even when the redundancy in the dataset was reduced using UniRef100, UniRef90 or UniRef50 clusters. Conclusions InterPro signatures are a compact and powerful attribute space for the prediction of enzymatic function. This representation makes multi-label machine learning feasible in reasonable time (30 minutes to train on 300,747 instances with 10,852 attributes and 2,201 class values using the Mulan Binary Relevance Nearest Neighbours algorithm implementation (BR-kNN.

  16. Issues and Prospects from the OTC Industry vis a vis Pharmaceutical Education and OTC Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Motohito

    2016-01-01

    In the amendment of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in 2013, a new category, Pharmacist Intervention Required Medicines (PIRM), was introduced, and other OTC medicines, which were classified after the 2006 amendment, were allowed to be sold via the Internet. Regarding PIRM, Japan's Ministry for Health, Labour and Welfare designates medicines which require special intervention by a pharmacist who explains their proper use to a patient through a face-to-face consultation, wherein the pharmacist provides guidance based on pharmaceutical knowledge and experience. This encourages consumers to approach their longer term personal healthcare with a rational knowledge of medicines, and dovetails with the direction described in "Japan is Back". Along with the 2006 amendment, an upgraded 6-year curriculum for the study of pharmacy in preparation for becoming a pharmacist was introduced. This allows student pharmacists to have more experience working in community pharmacies, thus supporting and providing pharmacists with the knowledge they need to better help the consumer to rationally use OTC medicines and self-select proper OTC medications. And this is not only restricted to OTC medicines, as there are many items sold in local pharmacies available to be utilized by the consumer with reasonable support by pharmacists. There is an expectation that the pharmacist be prepared to assist the consumer not only with prescriptions, but also with OTC medications, supplements, medical accessories, etc. using their knowledge and experience. PMID:27374957

  17. An investigative model evaluating how consumers process pictorial information on nonprescription medication labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S

    1997-01-01

    Currently, marketed over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels were simulated and tested in a controlled environment to understand consumer evaluation of OTC label information. Two factors, consumers' age (younger and older adults) and label designs (picture-only, verbal-only, congruent picture-verbal, and noncongruent picture-verbal) were controlled and tested to evaluate consumer information processing. The effects exerted by the independent variables, namely, comprehension of label information (understanding) and product evaluations (satisfaction, certainty, and perceived confusion) were evaluated on the dependent variable purchase intention. Intention measured as purchase recommendation was significantly related to product evaluations and affected by the factor label design. Participants' level of perceived confusion was more important than actual understanding of information on OTC medication labels. A Label Evaluation Process Model was developed which could be used for future testing of OTC medication labels. PMID:10168485

  18. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns. PMID:26944229

  19. How does consumer knowledge affect environmentally sustainable choices? Evidence from a cross-country latent class analysis of food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns.

  20. 77 FR 68132 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... the July 26, 2011, final rule (76 FR 44475) regarding OTC bronchodilator drug products, which makes... for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and Antiasthmatic Drug Products for Over... small business entities entitled ``Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy,...

  1. Rx for OTC Users: Improved Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shands, Virginia P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A survey of college students' perceptions and understanding of the directions and warnings on the labels of over-the-counter medicines was conducted at the University of Southern Mississippi at Hattiesburg. The results point to the need for increased emphasis in health education at all levels concerning self-medication. (Author/PP)

  2. Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention. PMID:11727293

  3. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended... Administrative Procedures § 330.13 Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC... recommendation and may instead adopt a different position that may require relabeling, recall, or...

  4. 一种新的兼类样本类增量学习算法%New Multi-label Sample Class Incremental Learning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉平; 伦淑娴; 王秀坤

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种基于超椭球的兼类样本类增量学习算法.对兼有同一类别的样本,在特征空间构建一个能包围该类尽可能多样本的最小超椭球,使各类样本之间通过超椭球球面分开.增量学习过程中,对新增样本中的每一新类别构建超椭球,对新增样本中的各历史类别重新构建超椭球,使得算法在很小的空间代价下实现了兼类样本类增量学习,同时保留了与新增样本类别无关的历史类训练结果.分类过程中,根据待分类样本是否在超椭球内或隶属度来确定其所属类别.实验结果表明,该算法较超球方法具有较快的分类速度和较高的分类精度.%To multi-label sample, a class incremental learning algorithm based on hyper ellipsoidals was proposed For every class, the smallest hyper ellipsoidal that contains most samples of the class was structured, which can divide the class samples from others. In the process of class incremental learning, the hyper ellipsoidals of new class were structured, and the historical hyper ellipsoidal that its class exists in the incremental samples was structured agaia The multi-label class incremental learning is realized in a small memory space,and the history results that has nothing to do with the new sample classes are saved at the same time. For the sample to be classified, its class is confirmed by the hyper ellipsoidal that it belongs to or its membership. The experimental results show that the algorithm has a higher performance on classification speed and classification precision compared with hyper sphere algorithm.

  5. Urticarial vasculitis induced by OTC diet pills: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chérrez Ojeda, Iván; Loayza, Enrique; Greiding, Leonardo; Calderón, Juan Carlos; Cherrez, Annia; Adum, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Background Urticarial Vasculitis (UV) is in most of the cases idiopathic; however it has been associated with several conditions and drugs. Over the counter (OTC) diet pills are widely available, even on-line, but they are rarely regulated by pharmaceutical control. Case presentation We present the case of a 35-year-old female patient suffering of pruriginous and painful wheals more than 1 cm in diameter, with a burning sensation. The eruption lasted more than 24 hours and was accompanied by ...

  6. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  7. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  8. Estimation of hospital emergency room data using otc pharmaceutical sales and least mean square filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magruder SF

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of Over-the-Counter pharmaceutical (OTC sales as a potential early indicator of developing public health conditions, in particular in cases of interest to Bioterrorism, has been suggested in the literature. The data streams of interest are quite non-stationary and we address this problem from the viewpoint of linear adaptive filter theory: the clinical data is the primary channel which is to be estimated from the OTC data that form the reference channels. Method The OTC data are grouped into a few categories and we estimate the clinical data using each individual category, as well as using a multichannel filter that encompasses all the OTC categories. The estimation (in the least mean square sense is performed using an FIR (Finite Impulse Response filter and the normalized LMS algorithm. Results We show all estimation results and present a table of effectiveness of each OTC category, as well as the effectiveness of the combined filtering operation. Individual group results clearly show the effectiveness of each particular group in estimating the clinical hospital data and serve as a guide as to which groups have sustained correlations with the clinical data. Conclusion Our results indicate that Multichannle adaptive FIR least squares filtering is a viable means of estimating public health conditions from OTC sales, and provide quantitative measures of time dependent correlations between the clinical data and the OTC data channels.

  9. The beginning of a new era - OTC's satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Erik

    OTC has developed a new range of digital services which will provide business organizations in Australia with high quality private international telecommunications. This range will be known as Satnet and the paper deals with Satnet 2 which is the service offerings using medium-size earth stations (nominally 5- and 7-meter antenna apertures), installed at customers' premises. These services will rely on the Intelsat 6/4 GHz space segment. Operation will be totally digital and will be integrated with no distinction between individual applications such as voice, data, video, etc. Carrier capacities between 64 kb/s and 8.448 Mb/s can be provided and ISDN performance requirements can be supported. The paper describes key service features, systems design and transmission analysis. Consideration is also given to operation, installation and frequency coordination aspects.

  10. Analysis of licensed over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Botgros, Radu; Cavaleri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognised as a growing problem that seriously threatens public health and requires prompt action. Concerns have therefore been raised about the potential harmful effects of making antibiotics available without prescription. Because of the very serious concerns regarding further spread of resistance, the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of antibiotics was analysed here. Topical and systemic OTC antibiotics and their indications were determined across 26 European Union (EU) countries and Norway by means of a European survey. We identified a total of 48 OTC products containing 20 different single antibiotics and three antibiotic combinations as active substances, used mainly as topical preparations in short treatment courses. Given the relevance of these medicines and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance, it is important to limit the availability of OTC antibiotics and to monitor their use. PMID:26530125

  11. South Africa; Financial Sector Assessment Program-Reforms in the OTC Derivatives Market-Technical Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Technical Note analyzes over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market reforms in South Africa and identifies vulnerabilities that may potentially impact financial stability. South Africa is committed to reform its OTC derivatives market to reduce vulnerabilities and increase transparency. Reforms are being implemented through the Financial Market Act and Regulations for banks, reflecting the Basel III capital requirements. Swift progress on the consultation and issuance of FMA regulations, t...

  12. Regulatory Requirements for Packaging and Labeling of Pharmaceuticals in India and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    In pharma industry Packaging and Labeling plays very important role for improvements of attraction to human beings. This study provides an overview of regulatory requirements and tests for Quality control and suitability of packaging and labeling of prescription and Over-The-Counter (OTC) Products in USA and India. The study had been in formative to understand the need and importance of the labeling requirements of pharmaceuticals to protect the consumers by providing the suitable instruction...

  13. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to regulatory action. (e) This section does not apply to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone acetate..., progesterone, pregnenolone, and pregnenolone acetate have been present as ingredients in OTC drug...

  14. Removals of non-analogous OTC and BaP in AMCBR with and without primary substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Hakan; Gök, Oğuzhan; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of mixed non-analogous two substrates was studied in a binary system with and without the primary substrate using an anaerobic multichamber bed (AMCBR). In the binary mixture, the biodegradation of less-degradable oxytetracycline (OTC) was restarted in the presence of more degradable benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the initial runs of the AMCBR, but enhanced biodegradation of the more recalcitrant OTC occurs in the later runs of the AMCBR due to enhanced biomass growth on dual substrates without the primary carbon source. The biodegradation yields of the OTC, BaP were discussed with sole-substrate systems and with the dual substrate system in the presence of the primary substrate. The maximum OTC and BaP yields were 93% in Run 3 with the primary substrate, while the maximum BaP and OTC yields were 95%, 98% in Run 3 without the primary substrate. A dual form of the Monod was found to adequately predict the substrate interactions in the binary mixture of OTC and BaP using only the parameters derived from batch experiments. At low BaP (4 mg L(-1)) and OTC (40 mg L(-1)) concentrations, a non-competitive inhibition does not affect the binding of the substrate and so the K(s) were was not affected while the µ(max) was lowered. At high BaP (10 mg L(-1)) and OTC (100 mg L(-1)) concentrations, the BaP and OTC were biodegraded according to competitive inhibition with increased K(s) while µ(max) was not affected. BaP and OTC were biodegraded according to Haldane at high concentrations (>10 mg L(-1) for BaP, 100 mg L(-1) OTC) where they were used as the sole substrate.

  15. A survey study on use of over the counter (OTC) drugs among medical students, nursing and clerical staff of a tertiary care teaching rural hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Devang Parikh; B. M. Sattigeri; Ashok Kumar; Shruti Brahmbhatt

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate use of over the counter (OTC) drugs among the medical students, nursing and clerical staff of tertiary care teaching rural hospital to determine the awareness and disadvantages on use of OTC. Methods: Responses to a feedback questionnaire covering various aspects on usage of OTC drugs were obtained from 100 medical students, 100 nursing and 100 clerical staff. Results: Among 300 respondents, 84% used OTC, commonly purchased by self. Majority of them st...

  16. Whole Xp Deletion in a Girl with Mental Retardation, Epilepsy, and Biochemical Features of OTC Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Joost, K.; Tammur, P.; Teek, R.; Žilina, O.; Peters, M; Kreile, M.; Lace, B.; Žordania, R.; Talvik, I.; Õunap, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Females with a total or partial deletion of the short arm of the X chromosome have variable features of Turner syndrome, but mental retardation (MR) rarely occurs. The haploinsufficiency of deleted genes that escape X-inactivation may explain the occurrence of MR and autism. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common urea cycle disorder and is inherited in an X-linked semi-dominant trait, and the OTC gene maps to Xp21. Methods: We report on a girl with MR, epil...

  17. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  18. Toxicity of OTC to Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and to microorganisms in a long-term sewage-irrigated farmland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Chen, Li'ke; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-08-01

    Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) was selected to investigate the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the toxicity of soil contaminated by long-term sewage irrigation. After acute toxicity test in petri dish at nine different OTC-spiked levels for 48 h, the germination rate was found to be generally inhibited in all treatments treated with OTC but the root elongation and activities of several antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were either forward or backward stimulated to varying extent. During a 60-day sub-chronic toxicity test by means of a pot experiment, activities of SOD, POD and CAT in both the leaf and root tissue at 25 mg OTC per kg soil (dry weight) and in root tissue at 1 mg OTC per kg soil (dry weight) were significantly different than those in other treatments, which also indicated the higher sensitivity of the root. The foliar photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were all gradually inhibited in spite of elevated water use efficiency under the pressure of the different OTC concentrations, which were highly significant different at 10 mg OTC per kg soil (dry weight). Indices of soil microbial diversity at 4 mg OTC kg(-1) soil were significantly different from those of the control, indicating the potential adverse effects of OTC to soil microorganisms. The results suggest that the introduction of OTC could damage both plants and soil microorganisms, and during sub-chronic incubation, the sensitivity of different indices generally followed the order of root tissue antioxidant enzyme activities, soil microbial diversity indices, leaf photosynthesis-related index and leaf tissue enzyme antioxidant activities. In addition, the application of livestock and poultry manure containing pollutants like OTC in farmland soil, especially if the soil has been contaminated before, should be taken more seriously in the context of the current pursuit of increased agricultural

  19. Over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints available on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wassell; L. Verhees; K. Lawrence; S. Davies; F. Lobbezoo

    2014-01-01

    Background Some individuals may now be bypassing their dentists for treatment of bruxism. Self-diagnosed, self-adjusted and self-monitored consumers can access over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints via the Internet. While some may regard this market as benefiting consumers there are potential pitfa

  20. Summary of: Over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints available on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wassell; L. Verhees; K. Lawrence; S. Davies; F. Lobbezoo

    2014-01-01

    Background Some individuals may now be bypassing their dentists for treatment of bruxism. Self-diagnosed, self-adjusted and self-monitored consumers can access over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints via the Internet. While some may regard this market as benefiting consumers there are potential pitfa

  1. 17 CFR 240.17a-12 - Reports to be made by certain OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at the decision-making level (i.e., between principal financial officers of the OTC derivatives... affirmation that, to the best knowledge and belief of the person making such oath or affirmation, the..., address, and telephone number of the certified public accounting firm; and (iii) The audit date of the...

  2. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other... derivatives dealer means any dealer that is affiliated with a registered broker or dealer (other than an OTC... securities activities; and (5) Engaging in such other securities activities that the Commission designates...

  3. 76 FR 7743 - Professional Labeling for Laxative Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... failure impaired renal function heart disease acute myocardial infarction unstable angina preexisting... monograph for OTC laxative drug products published January 15, 1985 (50 FR 2124), FDA proposed labeling for... increase in the number of reports of acute renal failure and nephrocalcinosis associated with the use...

  4. 75 FR 9767 - Classification of Benzoyl Peroxide as Safe and Effective and Revision of Labeling to Drug Facts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ..., resorcinol monoacetate, salicylic acid and/or sulfur to meet OTC drug labeling content and format... resorcinol, resorcinol monoacetate, salicylic acid, and/or sulfur subject to 21 CFR part 333 is March 4, 2015..., resorcinol, resorcinol monoacetate, salicylic acid, and/or sulfur be relabeled. We revised the warnings...

  5. 21 CFR 310.542 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application..., 1990, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction...

  6. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the act and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug..., any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into...

  7. 21 CFR 310.541 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application..., 1990, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction...

  8. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application, such product is also..., 1990, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction...

  9. Multidisciplinary management of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in pregnancy: essential to prevent hyperammonemic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Stephanie; Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Murphy, Elaine; Mackillop, Lucy

    2013-01-02

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common inborn error in the metabolism of the urea cycle with an incidence of 1 in 14,000 live births. Pregnancy can trigger potentially fatal hyperammonemic crises. We report a successful pregnancy in a 29-year-old primiparous patient with a known diagnosis of OTC deficiency since infancy. Hyperammonemic complications were avoided due to careful multidisciplinary management which included a detailed antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal plan. Management principles include avoidance of triggers, a low-protein diet and medications which promote the removal of nitrogen by alternative pathways. Triggers include metabolic stress such as febrile illness, particularly gastroenteritis, fasting and any protein loading. In our case the patient, in addition to a restricted protein intake, was prescribed sodium benzoate 4 g four times a day, sodium phenylbutyrate 2 g four times a day and arginine 500 mg four times a day to aid excretion of ammonia and reduce flux through the urea cycle.

  10. Class Discovery in Galaxy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bazell, D; Bazell, David; Miller, David J.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, automated, supervised classification techniques have been fruitfully applied to labeling and organizing large astronomical databases. These methods require off-line classifier training, based on labeled examples from each of the (known) object classes. In practice, only a small batch of labeled examples, hand-labeled by a human expert, may be available for training. Moreover, there may be no labeled examples for some classes present in the data, i.e. the database may contain several unknown classes. Unknown classes may be present due to 1) uncertainty in or lack of knowledge of the measurement process, 2) an inability to adequately ``survey'' a massive database to assess its content (classes), and/or 3) an incomplete scientific hypothesis. In recent work, new class discovery in mixed labeled/unlabeled data was formally posed, with a proposed solution based on mixture models. In this work we investigate this approach, propose a competing technique suitable for class discovery in neural network...

  11. Push-Me Pull-You: Comparative Advertising in the OTC Analgesics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Simon; Ciliberto, Federico; Liaukonyte, Jura; Renault, Regis

    2015-01-01

    We derive equilibrium incentives to use comparative advertising that pushes up own brand perception and pulls down the brand image of targeted rivals. Data on content and spending for all TV advertisements in OTC analgesics 2001-2005 enable us to construct matrices of dollar rival targeting and estimate the structural model. Using brands' optimal choices, these attack matrices identify diversion ratios, from which we derive comparative advertising damage measures. We find that outgoing compar...

  12. Managing price risk in emerging electricity markets : OTC products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of power markets in the United States from traditional cost based rates to mature markets, characterized by significant specialization, high volume financial market and multiple futures/indices, is described. The meaning and characteristic features of the commodity market in electricity, OTC/futures products for the electricity markets, physical delivery vs. financial settlement, models for producer trading positions and consumer trading positions, long producer position, long spread option position, short consumer position, and long producer time spread position were explained

  13. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  14. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lindh

    Full Text Available The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice and "hårlöss" (lice in hair were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001 when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689. In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  15. Towards Multi Label Text Classification through Label Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Classifying text data has been an active area of research for a long time. Text document is multifaceted object and often inherently ambiguous by nature. Multi-label learning deals with such ambiguous object. Classification of such ambiguous text objects often makes task of classifier difficult while assigning relevant classes to input document. Traditional single label and multi class text classification paradigms cannot efficiently classify such multifaceted text corpus. Through our paper we are proposing a novel label propagation approach based on semi supervised learning for Multi Label Text Classification. Our proposed approach models the relationship between class labels and also effectively represents input text documents. We are using semi supervised learning technique for effective utilization of labeled and unlabeled data for classification. Our proposed approach promises better classification accuracy and handling of complexity and elaborated on the basis of standard datasets such as Enron, Slashdot and Bibtex.

  16. Regulatory Requirements for Packaging and Labeling of Pharmaceuticals in India and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Kashyap

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In pharma industry Packaging and Labeling plays very important role for improvements of attraction to human beings. This study provides an overview of regulatory requirements and tests for Quality control and suitability of packaging and labeling of prescription and Over-The-Counter (OTC Products in USA and India. The study had been in formative to understand the need and importance of the labeling requirements of pharmaceuticals to protect the consumers by providing the suitable instructions for the use of the drug product at suitable place and suitable format. Guidance provides the recommendations for submission.

  17. Factors influencing purchase of and counselling about prescription and OTC medicines at community pharmacies in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villako, Peeter; Volmer, Daisy; Raal, Ain

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current survey were to evaluate factors influencing purchase of prescription and OTC medicines of pharmacy customers in Tallinn, Estonia and to identify the role of community pharmacists in counselling of prescription and OTC medicines. Structured questionnaire was used to interview pharmacy customers (n = 1820) in six community pharmacies of Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. The survey instrument consisted of 15 multiple-choice items. According to the survey results, prescription and OTC medicines were bought from community pharmacies almost equally. The most popular OTC medicines were analgesics (38%), cold and cough medicines (21%). The older survey participants and these with lower income and with elementary school education bought more prescription medicines (p food supplements (p < 0.01). Before purchase of medicines recommendations were received mainly from physicians about prescription and from pharmacists about OTC medicines. However, the counselling provided by community pharmacists in selecting of both types of medicines was highly appreciated. Pharmacists as source for drug information were less trusted among the survey participants < 25 and 26-40 years (p < 0.01). Fast service and confidential counselling about medicines was less important for the respondents with elementary school education (p < 0.01). PMID:22568049

  18. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halila GC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0 for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05. Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97% and adverse effects (62.3% were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence

  19. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  20. Potentiometric studies on the complexes of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) with some metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Al(III), and UO2(II) ions with tetracycline (TC) were studied by potentiometric pH titrations. The formation constants of the different binary complexes formed in such systems have been determined at 25±0.1 deg C and μ=0.1 moll-1 (NaNO3). Potentiometric pH equilibrium measurements have been made under the same conditions for the interaction of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and UO2(II). The formation of (1:1) binary complexes are inferred from the potentiometric pH titration curves. The protonation constants of TC and OTC were also determined under the same conditions and refined (ESAB2M computer program). The transition metal stability constants are consistent with the Irving-Williams series. (authors)

  1. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do

  2. 21 CFR 341.70 - Labeling of OTC drug products containing ingredients that are used for treating concurrent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../cough suppressant” or “antihistamine/antitussive (cough suppressant).” The indications shall be combined... name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “cough suppressant/oral anesthetic” or “antitussive (cough suppressant)/oral anesthetic.” The indications shall be combined from § 341.74(b) and...

  3. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... style is limited to solid squares or solid circles, in the format set forth in paragraph (d)(4) of this... pressurized by gaseous propellants) to avoid while using the product. (vii) “Stop use and ask a doctor if... section shall be preceded by a solid square or solid circle bullet of 5-point type size. Bullets shall...

  4. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  5. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of...

  6. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. 310.543 Section...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is independent from business trading units;...

  8. Removal of oxytetracycline (OTC) in a synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater by a sequential anaerobic multichamber bed reactor (AMCBR)/completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system: biodegradation and inhibition kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Çelebi, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic multichamber bed reactor (AMCBR) was effective in removing both molasses-chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). The maximum COD and OTC removals were 99% in sequential AMCBR/completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at an OTC concentration of 300 mg L(-1). 51%, 29% and 9% of the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) was composed of acetic, propionic acid and butyric acids, respectively. The OTC loading rates at between 22.22 and 133.33 g OTC m(-3) d(-1) improved the hydrolysis of molasses-COD (k), the maximum specific utilization of molasses-COD (k(mh)) and the maximum specific utilization rate of TVFA (k(TVFA)). The direct effect of high OTC loadings (155.56 and -177.78 g OTC m(-3) d(-1)) on acidogens and methanogens were evaluated with Haldane inhibition kinetic. A significant decrease of the Haldane inhibition constant was indicative of increases in toxicity at increasing loading rates.

  9. Abuse of "BRON": a Japanese OTC cough suppressant solution containing methylephedrine, codeine, caffeine and chlorpheniramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigooka, J; Yoshida, Y; Murasaki, M

    1991-01-01

    1. The paper describes the mental disturbances of 44 abusive cases of "BRON," an over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant solution containing methylephedrine, codeine, caffeine, and chlorpheniramine. 2. Major psychiatric symptoms observed included hallucinatory-paranoid state and affective disorder. There also were groups which exhibited a combination of the two states and abuse only. 3. The hallucinatory-paranoid state group had a relatively small BRON usage amount, short usage term and few withdrawal symptoms. The affective disorder group, in contrast, had large usage amount, longer usage term, and showed significant autonomic nerve disorders during withdrawal. These tendencies were seen more clearly in the mixed state group. 4. The hallucinatory-paranoid state group showed little or no physical dependence, while that of the affective disorder group was thought to be firmly established. Thus, in the former group, methylephedrine was considered the major behavior modifying drug, while in the latter, it was thought to be codeine. PMID:1749828

  10. Food labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per serving to the right of the nutrient. Vitamins and minerals: Only two vitamins (A and C) and two ... are required on the food label. But, when vitamins or minerals are added to the food, or when a ...

  11. A survey study on use of over the counter (OTC drugs among medical students, nursing and clerical staff of a tertiary care teaching rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang Parikh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate use of over the counter (OTC drugs among the medical students, nursing and clerical staff of tertiary care teaching rural hospital to determine the awareness and disadvantages on use of OTC. Methods: Responses to a feedback questionnaire covering various aspects on usage of OTC drugs were obtained from 100 medical students, 100 nursing and 100 clerical staff. Results: Among 300 respondents, 84% used OTC, commonly purchased by self. Majority of them started self medication within 2 days of their illness. The frequently reported illness that prompted self-medication included headache, cough and cold, fever, generalised weakness, acidity, dysmenorrhoea, and sleep disturbances. Majority of them obtained OTC by mentioning name of drug (81%, 35% by telling symptom and 15% by showing old prescription. We found that 87% people share OTC among relatives and friends. Conclusions: Usage of OTC was highest amongst medical students and nursing staff. Time consumption for consultation, the consultation fees and frequent visits were the commonly mentioned reasons for self medication. It was analysed that none of the clerical staff were aware of the drug, dose, frequency of administration and adverse reactions. While very little awareness of medication was found even among nursing staff and medical students. Therefore it is suggested that the public has to be educated on the type of illnesses to be self-diagnosed and medicated, dangers of OTC on misuse which would possibly lead to delay in detection of more serious underlying ailment and timely medication. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 83-86

  12. Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome: the first Italian case of BCOR and co-occurring OTC gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, C; Lombardo, B; Fabbricatore, C; Munno, C; Caliendo, I; Gallo, F; Pastore, L

    2015-04-01

    Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder affecting ocular, facial, dental and cardiac systems. The syndrome is an X-linked dominant trait and it might be lethal in males. This syndrome is usually caused by mutations in the BCL6 interacting co-repressor gene (BCOR). We described a female child with mild phenotype of oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis revealed a de novo heterozygous deletion in the Xp11.4 region of approximately 2.3 Mb, involving BCOR and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OTC) genes. The deletion observed was subsequently confirmed by real time PCR. In this study we report a first case with co-occurrence of BCOR and OTC genes completely deleted in OFCD syndrome.

  13. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avisar, D., E-mail: droravi@post.tau.ac.il [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lester, Y. [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mamane, H. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2010-03-15

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  14. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  15. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  16. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  17. On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stephan Rosebrock

    2010-02-01

    We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.

  18. Label-Embedding for Attribute-Based Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Akata, Zeynep; Perronnin, Florent; Harchaoui, Zaid; Schmid, Cordelia

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Attributes are an intermediate representation, which enables parameter sharing between classes, a must when training data is scarce. We propose to view attribute-based image classification as a label-embedding problem: each class is embedded in the space of attribute vectors. We introduce a function which measures the compatibility between an image and a label embedding. The parameters of this function are learned on a training set of labeled samples to ensure that, gi...

  19. 17 CFR 240.3b-8 - Definitions of “Qualified OTC Market Maker, Qualified Third Market Maker” and “Qualified Block...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions of âQualified OTC... Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND..., and at his quoted prices with other brokers and dealers, and (iii) he has a reasonable average rate...

  20. Modeling, analysis and comparison of TSR and OTC methods for MPPT and power smoothing in permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Small signal modeling of PMSG wind turbine with two controllers are introduced. • Poles and zeroes analyzing of OTC and TSR methods is performed. • Generator output power with varying wind speed in PMSG wind turbine is studied. • MPPT capability of OTC and TSR methods to wind speed variations are compared. • Power smoothing capability and reducing mechanical stress of both methods are studied. - Abstract: This paper presents a small signal modeling of a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based on wind turbine which is connected to the grid via back-to-back converters. The proposed small signal model includes two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controllers: tip speed ratio (TSR) control and optimal torque control (OTC). These methods are analytically compared to illustrate MPPT and power smoothing capability. Then, to compare the MPPT and power smoothing operation of the mentioned methods, simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink software. From the simulation results, OTC is highly efficient in power smoothing enhancement and has clearly good performance to extract maximum power from wind; however, TSR control has definitely fast responses to wind speed variations with the expense of higher fluctuations due to its non-minimum phase characteristic

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control systems as described in its application, including any material change in the categories of non... measures must include the risks arising from the non-linear price characteristics of options positions and... risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1f...

  2. 关于OTC市场股权估值的思考%THE DISCUSSION ON STOCK VALUATION IN OTC MARKETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田辉; 尹志华

    2014-01-01

    A healthy equity valuation system will promote the long-term development of the OTC market, and will provide more national and transparent financing channels for those small and medium-sized enterprises. The stock valuation methods used in the OTC market of North America are based on those methods used in the main board markets. In practice, some adjustments are necessary and important. For those small and medium-sized enterprises in China, the stock valuation methods are determined by the characteristics of business. The stock value is inextricably bound to the trend of earnings. The combination of several valuation methods is necessary. It’s better to avoid too many assumptions and complex process. Discount or premium on valuation is the result of risk-return trade-off.%健康的股权估值体系会促进OTC市场的长期发展,为中小微型与创新企业提供全国性、富有透明度的融资渠道。北美OTC上柜公司估值以主板上市公司估值方法为基础,同时估值调整项非常重要。对于我国中小微企业,需要根据上柜公司盈利特点选择合适的估值方法。估值时需要注重企业盈利趋势,多种估值方法互为补充,避免过于复杂的过程及过多的主观假设。估值水平的折价和溢价是风险收益权衡的结果。

  3. MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCT REVIEWS USING STRUCTURED SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincy B. Chrystal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the text classification problems are associated with multiple class labels and hence automatic text classification is one of the most challenging and prominent research area. Text classification is the problem of categorizing text documents into different classes. In the multi-label classification scenario, each document is associated may have more than one label. The real challenge in the multi-label classification is the labelling of large number of text documents with a subset of class categories. The feature extraction and classification of such text documents require an efficient machine learning algorithm which performs automatic text classification. This paper describes the multi-label classification of product review documents using Structured Support Vector Machine.

  4. Technetium and rhenium complexes with modified fatty acid ligands 4. Evaluation of two new classes of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids as potential tracers for myocardial metabolism imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, A.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A. [TU Dresden, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus (Germany); Jung, C.M.; Spies, H.

    2002-01-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids were synthesized according to the '3+1' mixed-ligand approach and investigated as potential tracers for myocardial SPECT diagnostics on the model of the isolated guinea pig heart. The results indicate a low but specific myocardial uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc fatty acid derivatives subject to chain length and structure. (orig.)

  5. Simultaneous segmentation and statistical label fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi-atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  6. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  7. The effect of an Rx-to-OTC switch on medication prescribing patterns and utilization of physician services: the case of vaginal antifungal products.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurwitz, J H; McLaughlin, T. J.; Fish, L S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined the impact of over-the-counter (OTC) availability of vaginal antifungal products, beginning in January 1991, on medication prescribing patterns and utilization of physician services. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Data on utilization of health care services and prescription medications by female members (ages 11 and older) of the Fallon Community Health Plan (FCHP), a group model health maintenance organization and a component of the Fallon Health Care System of centra...

  8. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  9. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  10. Study on Supervision Strategy of OTC Advertisements%规范OTC广告监管的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱嘉亮; 白玉萍; 张驰

    2014-01-01

    目的 为规范非处方药(OTC)广告内容提供相应参考.方法 通过解读近期违法药品广告通报,分析OTC广告内容存在的具体问题.结果与结论 建议在广告内容审批环节,调整广告内容以说明书为准;在广告内容中添加相关安全性知识,完善明星代言的法律制度和索赔制度;在消费者方面,利用网络媒体使公众投诉渠道多元化,加强消费者的自我药疗教育等措施规范OTC广告内容.最后,提高发布违法广告主体的违法成本,加强行业自律.通过以上措施,增强OTC广告的真实性,减少违法广告,建立一个合规健康的OTC药品广告环境.

  11. [Self-testing using by OTC test kits and mail testing services--it's future prospect and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiichi

    2004-06-01

    Under the certification of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, OTC medicine (Over the counter medicine: medicine for general tests) such as test strips for urine protein and urine glucose as well as urinary pregnancy tests are presently available at pharmacies and drug stores for use as self-testing by ordinary people. Meanwhile, mail health check-up testing services have recently been making a rapid progress in the market. In this system, users purchase "sample collecting kits" at large-scale pharmacies, directly or indirectly, and then after collecting samples (urine, blood, etc) by themselves, they put the samples onto the mail testing service process consisting of the linkage of convenience stores--couriers--testing agencies affiliated with clinical facilities. The samples are tested in the testing agencies and the results of the testing are returned to individual user. This innovative system allows users to control and manage their own health conditions. Future prospects and problems over the system will be discussed here.

  12. Taxonomy grounded aggregation of classifiers with different label sets

    OpenAIRE

    SAHA, AMRITA; Indurthi, Sathish; Godbole, Shantanu; Rongali, Subendhu; Raykar, Vikas C.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the problem of aggregating the label predictions of diverse classifiers using a class taxonomy. Such a taxonomy may not have been available or referenced when the individual classifiers were designed and trained, yet mapping the output labels into the taxonomy is desirable to integrate the effort spent in training the constituent classifiers. A hierarchical taxonomy representing some domain knowledge may be different from, but partially mappable to, the label sets of the individua...

  13. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottle with a shrink band could say “For your protection, this bottle has an imprinted seal around the neck.” (d) Request for exemptions from packaging and labeling requirements. A manufacturer or...

  14. 49 CFR 172.404 - Labels for mixed and consolidated packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labels for mixed and consolidated packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.404 Labels for mixed and consolidated packaging. (a) Mixed packaging. When hazardous materials having different hazard classes are packed within...

  15. Labelling Fashion Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aspers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article discusses how an ethical and environmental labelling system can be implemented in fashion garment markets. Consumers act in markets that provide them with more information than their limited cognitive capacity allows them to handle. Ethical and environmental labelling in markets characterized by change, such as the fashion garment market, makes decision-making even more complicated. The ethical and environmental labelling system proposed here is designed to alleviate firms...

  16. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  17. Interval prediction for graded multi-label classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lastra, Gerardo; Bahamonde, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multi-label was introduced as an extension of multi-class classification. The aim is to predict a set of classes (called labels in this context) instead of a single one, namely the set of relevant labels. If membership to the set of relevant labels is defined to a certain degree, the learning task is called graded multi-label classification. These learning tasks can be seen as a set of ordinal classifications. Hence, recommender systems can be considered as multi-label classification tasks. In this paper, we present a new type of nondeterministic learner that, for each instance, tries to predict at the same time the true grade for each label. When the classification is uncertain for a label, however, the hypotheses predict a set of consecutive grades, i.e., an interval. The goal is to keep the set of predicted grades as small as possible; while still containing the true grade. We shall see that these classifiers take advantage of the interrelations of labels. The result is that, with quite narrow intervals, i...

  18. Energy efficient appliance choice under the EU labeling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This paper extends the existing empirical literature on consumers' choices when exposed to energy labeling schemes by allowing choices to depend on household socio-economic characteristics, technology-related factors, behavioral and motivational factors, and country conditions in a multi-country analysis. To account for a possible knowledge-based selection bias, the econometric model distinguishes label class knowledge from the energy class choice decision. As a general finding, most covariates show stronger relationships with knowledge of labeling class than with the choice of energy efficiency class. Four factors show particularly strong and expected influences on label class awareness. First, general awareness of household energy use and energy saving technologies spills over into awareness of the energy class of specific appliances. Second, socioeconomic characteristics mater, as education increases label class awareness and older age reduces awareness. Third, economic incentives matter, as stated economic importance of energy saving and higher country electricity prices both generate greater label awareness. By contrast, stated concerns about global warming do not appear to have a broad impact on awareness. Fourth, effective country implementation of the labeling scheme raises label awareness. More surprisingly, most factors that promote awareness of appliance energy classes have a limited influence on actual appliance energy class choice. Efficient energy behavior in the household is not strongly linked to appliance energy class choice. Socio-economic characteristics also have limited influence. This finding is inline with other studies that find that household socio-economic characteristics have relatively weak associations with the adoption of energy efficient technologies (Mills and Schleich 2010, Brohmann et al. 2009). In fact, with education it is vocational degrees rather than university degrees that are positively associated with the propensity to

  19. 基于老年人行为特征的OTC药品包装障碍性设计%OTC Drug Packaging Barrier Design Based on Behavior Characteristics of the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金萍

    2015-01-01

    Improve the elderly patients with usability for the security of the OTC medicines packaging. Based on the OTC medicines packaging and analysis of the characteristics of the elderly group behavior and the combination of u-sing inverse thinking-barrier design is put forward, to improve the safety and convenience of OTC drug packaging mainly from visual sense, other senses and man-machine design three aspects, .%为提高老年患者对OTC药品包装的安全使用性,本文通过对OTC药品包装和老年群体行为特点的分析,提出运用逆思维——障碍设计的方法进行设计,主要分别从视觉感官、其他感官及人机设计三方面,来提高OTC药品包装的安全便捷性.

  20. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  1. Label Fusion Strategy Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques—STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA—and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall.

  2. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  3. Facial Action Unit Recognition under Incomplete Data Based on Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongqiang

    2016-07-07

    Facial action unit (AU) recognition has been applied in a wild range of fields, and has attracted great attention in the past two decades. Most existing works on AU recognition assumed that the complete label assignment for each training image is available, which is often not the case in practice. Labeling AU is expensive and time consuming process. Moreover, due to the AU ambiguity and subjective difference, some AUs are difficult to label reliably and confidently. Many AU recognition works try to train the classifier for each AU independently, which is of high computation cost and ignores the dependency among different AUs. In this work, we formulate AU recognition under incomplete data as a multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML) problem. Most existing MLML methods usually employ the same features for all classes. However, we find this setting is unreasonable in AU recognition, as the occurrence of different AUs produce changes of skin surface displacement or face appearance in different face regions. If using the shared features for all AUs, much noise will be involved due to the occurrence of other AUs. Consequently, the changes of the specific AUs cannot be clearly highlighted, leading to the performance degradation. Instead, we propose to extract the most discriminative features for each AU individually, which are learned by the supervised learning method. The learned features are further embedded into the instance-level label smoothness term of our model, which also includes the label consistency and the class-level label smoothness. Both a global solution using st-cut and an approximated solution using conjugate gradient (CG) descent are provided. Experiments on both posed and spontaneous facial expression databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in comparison with several state-of-the-art works.

  4. Visual Graph Analysis for Quality Assessment of Manually Labelled Documents Image Database

    OpenAIRE

    Giot, Romain; Bourqui, Romain; Journet, Nicholas; Vialard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    International audience The context of this paper is the labelling of a document image database in an industrial process. Our work focuses on the quality assessment of a given labelled database. In most practical cases, a database is manually labelled by an operator who has to browse sequentially the images (presented as thumbnails) until the whole database is labelled. This task is very repetitive; moreover the filing plan defining the names and number of classes is often incomplete, which...

  5. My Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传怡

    2006-01-01

    My name is Zhao Chuanyi.I am in Class Ten Grade seven.There are 61 students in our class.And 26 are girls and 35 are boys.One is from America.Boys like football and basketball.Girls like singing and dancing.We are all

  6. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  7. Comparative Study of Chinese and Foreign OTC Market%中外场外交易市场比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高松; 陈泽楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to review china's OTC market development, on the present situation of china's market, understand the market development and the status quo American, Taiwan and other regions, will Chinese instead of two in the aspect of market structure, regulation, transactions are studied, in order to see the development of china's OTC market principal contradiction and future prospects, hope to be able to the historical experience and lessons of developed countries and areas that remain in the construction of capital market, for our country to seek own mar-ket system bring some help and suggestions.%通过回顾中国场外交易市场发展,思考中国市场现状,了解美国、中国台湾地区的市场发展与现状,将中国与其二者在市场结构、监管、交易等方面进行比较研究,以求看清中国场外交易市场发展的主要矛盾与未来前景,希望能够利用发达国家地区在建设资本市场时所遗留的历史经验教训,为中国寻求符合自身国情的市场体系带来些许帮助与建议。

  8. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  9. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  10. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...... actors and institutions to develop practices associated with the NNC label. Third, organized dissemination allowed the excitement and engagement with the new label to spread quickly....

  11. OTC Medicines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other active ingredients, such as decongestants or antihistamines. Drug Recall Information View information on recent drug ... in nursing babies. Limit long-term use of antihistamines. Just like other medicines you take, antihistamines will ...

  12. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  13. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off. PMID:21539053

  14. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    labelling schemes. Mass communication such as TV commercials will have very different impact on each of the four segments. It might be possible to increase the knowledge of 'the labelling blind' from 52% to 75%, but the use of the label would only rise from 16% to 18%. The awareness percentage of 'the...... to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do....... If there is discrepancy between their perceptions of the contents of the schemes, this might be the reason why the scheme is not observed when they shop....

  15. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  16. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and...

  17. Certified Rule Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nagele, Julian; Zankl, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The rule labeling heuristic aims to establish confluence of (left-)linear term rewrite systems via decreasing diagrams. We present a formalization of a confluence criterion based on the interplay of relative termination and the rule labeling in the theorem prover Isabelle. Moreover, we report on the integration of this result into the certifier CeTA, facilitating the checking of confluence certificates based on decreasing diagrams for the first time. The power of the method is illustrated by ...

  18. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  19. N=1 theories of class S_k

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiotto, Davide; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2015-01-01

    We construct classes of ${\\cal N}=1$ superconformal theories elements of which are labeled by punctured Riemann surfaces. Degenerations of the surfaces correspond, in some cases, to weak coupling limits. Different classes are labeled by two integers (N,k). The k=1 case coincides with A_{N-1} ${\\cal N}=2$ theories of class S and simple examples of theories with k>1 are Z_k orbifolds of some of the A_{N-1} class S theories. For the space of ${\\cal N}=1$ theories to be complete in an appropriate...

  20. 27 CFR 4.34 - Class and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class and type. 4.34 Section 4.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.34...

  1. Class distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  2. Off-Label Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  3. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constr

  4. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  5. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  6. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists Performance in Management of Cough, Diarrhea and Common Cold using OTC Medication Requests in Hamadan in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pharmacists usually encounter requests for over the counter drugs. How a pharmacist performs in evaluating patients' signs and symptoms, treating them, and moreover his or her approach in prescribing over the counter (OTC medications were the main goals of this study. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional study, the scenarios of cough, diarrhea and com-mon cold were obtained from questionnaires. These scenarios were then designed by deter-mining key questions. From the overall pharmacies in Hamadan, for each of the three scenar-ios, 46 pharmacies were randomly selected and analyzed. Performance of pharmacists, includ-ing their interventions on over the counter counseling, asking key questions, explaining drugs' side effects and interactions, and their approach of prescribing medications, were measured. Moreover, the influence of pharmacists' gender and type of the pharmacy were determined. Results: In 41 out of 179 visits, pharmacists were not present in the pharmacy (22.9%, mostly in suburban pharmacies. The pharmacists' performances in explaining drug interactions were significantly better in urban pharmacies in comparison with suburban ones. Moreover, subur-ban pharmacies and male pharmacists, in comparison with urban pharmacies and female pharmacists, prescribed more drugs. Conclusion: This study shows that despite the pharmacists asking the key questions ,the major-ity of pharmacists made weak recommendations. In order to improve pharmacists perform-ances, modification of educational system for pharmacy students in addition to the continu-ous and effective supervision of authorities on pharmacists' performance in OTC drugs is suggested. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:164-171

  7. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1-13C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose-13C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13CO2 and galactose-13C from galactosylglycerol-13C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate-13C

  8. Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-08-01

    Automatic behavior analysis from video is a major topic in many areas of research, including computer vision, multimedia, robotics, biology, cognitive science, social psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. Two major problems are of interest when analyzing behavior. First, we wish to automatically categorize observed behaviors into a discrete set of classes (i.e., classification). For example, to determine word production from video sequences in sign language. Second, we wish to understand the relevance of each behavioral feature in achieving this classification (i.e., decoding). For instance, to know which behavior variables are used to discriminate between the words apple and onion in American Sign Language (ASL). The present paper proposes to model behavior using a labeled graph, where the nodes define behavioral features and the edges are labels specifying their order (e.g., before, overlaps, start). In this approach, classification reduces to a simple labeled graph matching. Unfortunately, the complexity of labeled graph matching grows exponentially with the number of categories we wish to represent. Here, we derive a graph kernel to quickly and accurately compute this graph similarity. This approach is very general and can be plugged into any kernel-based classifier. Specifically, we derive a Labeled Graph Support Vector Machine (LGSVM) and a Labeled Graph Logistic Regressor (LGLR) that can be readily employed to discriminate between many actions (e.g., sign language concepts). The derived approach can be readily used for decoding too, yielding invaluable information for the understanding of a problem (e.g., to know how to teach a sign language). The derived algorithms allow us to achieve higher accuracy results than those of state-of-the-art algorithms in a fraction of the time. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and datasets, including multimodal data. PMID:26415154

  9. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  10. Labeling of herbicide femesafen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-[2-chroo-4-(trifluoromethyl ) phenoxy]-N-(methyl sulphonyl )-2-niorobenzamide [femesafen] was labeled by six steps. Radio-chemical yield was 19.15%. TLC analysis of the final product showed that the radiochemical purity is not less than 99%. (authors)

  11. Waisda?: video labeling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  12. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constraints, which pose more demands on how the labels should be placed in relation to their surroundings. For example, a label is preferably placed above and to the right of a city. These two aspects (comb...

  13. Image classification using a set of labeled and unlabeled images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphade, Milind R.; Zhou, Xiang S.; Huang, Thomas S.

    2000-10-01

    Image classification into meaningful classes is essentially a supervised pattern recognition problem. These classes include indoor, outdoor, landscape, urban, faces, etc. The recognition problem necessitates a large set of labeled examples for training the classifier. Any stratagem, which reduces the burden of labeling, is therefore very important to the deployment of such classifiers in practical applications. In this paper we show that the labeled training set can be augmented by an unlabeled set of examples in order to boost the performance of the classifier. In general, the set of unlabeled examples is not guaranteed to improve the classifier performance. We show that if the actual examples to be labeled are automatically selected through an unsupervised clustering step, the performance is more likely to improve with the unlabeled set. In this paper, we first present a modified EM algorithm, which combined labeled and unlabeled sets for training. We then apply this algorithm to image classification. Using mutually exclusive classes we show that the clustering step is crucial to the improvement in classifier performance.

  14. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  15. Elaboration likelihood and the perceived value of labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the increasingly popular method of choice based on conjoint analysis is used and data are collected by pairwise comparisons. A latent class model is formulated allowing that the resulting data can be analyzed with segmentation in mind. The empirical study is on food labeling...

  16. Labeling 3D scenes for Personal Assistant Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Koppula, Hema Swetha; Joachims, Thorsten; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive RGB-D cameras that give an RGB image together with depth data have become widely available. We use this data to build 3D point clouds of a full scene. In this paper, we address the task of labeling objects in this 3D point cloud of a complete indoor scene such as an office. We propose a graphical model that captures various features and contextual relations, including the local visual appearance and shape cues, object co-occurrence relationships and geometric relationships. With a large number of object classes and relations, the model's parsimony becomes important and we address that by using multiple types of edge potentials. The model admits efficient approximate inference, and we train it using a maximum-margin learning approach. In our experiments over a total of 52 3D scenes of homes and offices (composed from about 550 views, having 2495 segments labeled with 27 object classes), we get a performance of 84.06% in labeling 17 object classes for offices, and 73.38% in labeling 17 object classe...

  17. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to...

  18. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  19. Myocardial arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, c...

  20. On the Power of Labels in Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of labels in transition systems with regard to bisimilarity and model checking problems. We suggest a general reduction from labelled transition systems to unlabelled ones, preserving bisimilarity and satisfiability of μ-calculus formulas. We apply the reduction ...... the class of transition systems generated by Petri nets and pushdown automata, and obtain several decidability/complexity corollaries for unlabelled systems. Probably the most interesting result is undecidability of strong bisimilarity for unlabelled Petri nets.......In this paper we discuss the role of labels in transition systems with regard to bisimilarity and model checking problems. We suggest a general reduction from labelled transition systems to unlabelled ones, preserving bisimilarity and satisfiability of μ-calculus formulas. We apply the reduction to...

  1. Determination of Trace OTC in Environmental Water by Hydrophilic Organic Solvent Gas Floatation-Spectrophotometry%水中痕量土霉素的亲水溶剂浮选-分光光度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯延民; 谢吉民; 闫永胜; 王良

    2009-01-01

    A novel and green method for separating and enriching trace OTC in environmental water by hydrophilic organic solvent gas flotation has been proposed. The hydrophobic complex composed of Fe(Ⅲ) and OTC was floated into organic phase under the optimal conditions with home-made floatation equipment. The linear range was from 6.6×10~(-7) to 3.4×10~(-5) mol/L, the detection limit was 3.86×10~(-8) mol/L, and the average recoveries was 99.95%. The method has many advantages such as simple, fast, sensitive, easy separation and no contamination, and can be applied to the trace OTC analysis in water.%本文利用自制的浮选装置,选择四氢呋喃和无水乙醇(4+1)混合溶液作溶剂,氯化钠作分相剂,将Fe(Ⅲ)与土霉素(OTC)形成的疏水性缔合物浮选至有机相,然后采用分光光度法测定,方法线性线性范围为6.6×10~(-7)~3.4×10~(-5) mol/L;检出限为3.63×10~(-7) mol/L;平均回收率为99.95%;表观摩尔吸光系数ε=2.028×10~5 L·5moL~(-1)·5cm~(-1).该方法设备简单、测定快速、灵敏度高、分离物质易于提取和不产生二次污染,可用于环境水样中痕量土霉素的快速测定.

  2. An Analysis on the Design of China's OTC Market Legal Supervision System in the Perspective of the Game Theory%场外交易市场法律监管制度设计的博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠建军; 高晓燕

    2014-01-01

    利用博弈论分析方法,对影响场外交易市场建设的监管制度、交易制度、信息披露、市场准入等进行分析,认为我国场外交易市场法律监管制度设计应从提高场外交易市场的法律地位着手,合理界定市场主体准入与退出标准,制定与场外交易市场特点相适应的信息披露制度,审慎引入做市商制度,建立顺畅的转板机制,采用灵活性、动态化的监管方式。%This article carried out an analysis of the OTC market supervision system,transac-tion system,information disclosure,market access in the perspective of game theory.It sugges-ted that China's OTC market legal supervision system design should improve the legal status of the OTC market firstly,define the market access and exit criteria for the main market partici-pants reasonably,formulate information disclosure system which adapt to the characteristics of the OTC market,introduce market-making system prudently,set up a smooth mechanism for transition to main securities exchanges,and adopt flexible,dynamic regulations.

  3. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  4. Label-Guided Graph Exploration with Adjustable Ratio of Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Meng; Tang, Jijun

    2012-01-01

    The graph exploration problem is to visit all the nodes of a connected graph by a mobile entity, e.g., a robot. The robot has no a priori knowledge of the topology of the graph or of its size. Cohen et al. \\cite{Ilcinkas08} introduced label guided graph exploration which allows the system designer to add short labels to the graph nodes in a preprocessing stage; these labels can guide the robot in the exploration of the graph. In this paper, we address the problem of adjustable 1-bit label guided graph exploration. We focus on the labeling schemes that not only enable a robot to explore the graph but also allow the system designer to adjust the ratio of the number of different labels. This flexibility is necessary when maintaining different labels may have different costs or when the ratio is pre-specified. We present 1-bit labeling (two colors, namely black and white) schemes for this problem along with a labeling algorithm for generating the required labels. Given an $n$-node graph and a rational number $\\rh...

  5. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  6. Interactive Segmentation with Super-Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Andrew; Gorelick, Lena; Schmidt, Frank R; Veksler, Olga; Boykov, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    In interactive segmentation, the most common way to model object appearance is by GMM or histogram, while MRFs are used to encourage spatial coherence among the object labels. This makes the strong assumption that pixels within each object are i.i.d. when in fact most objects have multiple distinct appearances and exhibit strong spatial correlation among their pixels. At the very least, this calls for an MRF-based appearance model within each object itself and yet, to the best of our knowledge, such a "two-level MRF" has never been proposed. We propose a novel segmentation energy that can model complex appearance. We represent the appearance of each object by a set of distinct spatially coherent models. This results in a two-level MRF with "super-labels" at the top level that are partitioned into "sub-labels" at the bottom. We introduce the hierarchical Potts (hPotts) prior to govern spatial coherence within each level. Finally, we introduce a novel algorithm with EM-style alternation of proposal, α-expansion and re-estimation steps. Our experiments demonstrate the conceptual and qualitative improvement that a two-level MRF can provide. We show applications in binary segmentation, multi-class segmentation, and interactive co-segmentation. Finally, our energy and algorithm have interesting interpretations in terms of semi-supervised learning. PMID:25309973

  7. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  8. Waisda?: video labeling game

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Michiel; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, Van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the same tags as one of the other players. As a result each video that is played in the game is annotated with tags that are anchored to a time point in the video. Waisda? has been deployed in two projec...

  9. A Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... " ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎت واﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ " [ Nutrition Labeling and Education Act ... ﻟﻠﻌﺼﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻜﻮن ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء إﻟﻰ ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻣﺮآﺰة : ﻳﺠﺮى اﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪول Brix ﻓﻲ 21 CFR 101.30(h)(1) ...

  10. Does Class Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  11. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  12. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    , not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original......Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  13. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  14. MHC class I molecules are enriched in caveolae but do not enter with simian virus 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H A; Chen, Y; Norkin, L C

    1998-06-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) binds to MHC class I molecules anywhere on the cell surface and then enters through caveolae. The fate of class I molecules after SV40 binding is not known. Sensitivity of 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules to papain cleavage was used to distinguish internalized class I molecules from class I molecules remaining at the cell surface. Whereas the caveolae-enriched membrane microdomain was found to also be enriched for class I molecules, no internalized papain-resistant 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules could be detected at any time in either control cells or in cells preadsorbed with saturating amounts of SV40. Instead, 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules, as well as preadsorbed 125I-labelled anti-class I antibodies, accumulated in the medium, coincident with the turnover of class I molecules at the cell surface. The class I heavy chains that accumulated in the medium were truncated and their release was specifically prevented by the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. Thus, whereas class I molecules mediate SV40 binding, they do not appear to mediate SV40 entry.

  15. 非处方药转换申报资料存在的问题分析及建议%Problem Analysis and Suggestion on Application Materials of OTC Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明节; 夏东胜

    2015-01-01

    目的:促进企业对非处方药转换申报工作的理解和资料准备,促进非处方药转换评价工作的顺利进行。方法结合我国非处方药转换的政策要求,对药品评价中心给企业发送的111份非处方药转换《不予立卷通知书》的内容进行统计,分析目前企业申报非处方药转换资料中存在的主要问题,并提出改进建议。结果111份《不予立卷通知书》中涉及各类问题较多,表现为资料缺如、不完整或不符合相关要求。由统计结果可见,综述资料和药学资料的问题均较突出,安全性研究资料也有较多问题。“其他”资料项主要涉及未报送电子文档问题,如不良反应资料、药品质量资料、最小销售单位样品、拟使用非处方药说明书,以及电子文档等。结论企业在非处方药转换申报中的资料缺如或不完整、不规范现象普遍,主要原因包括不了解有关政策、对政策理解不充分、实际经验不足、重视不够、态度马虎等,建议企业重视非处方药转换申报的资料准备工作,认真学习,积累经验,逐步改进。%Objective To promote enterprises' comprehension and data preparation to OTC switch application, and to promote the work of OTC switch smoothly. Methods According to the policy requirements of OTC switch, 111 "No Filing Notices" that CDR sent to enterprises about OTC switch application materials were analyzed, to identify the main problems on the OTC switch application materials, and propose recommendations for improvement. Results Various problems are involved in 111 "No Filing Notices", including the materials absence, incomplete or incompatible with the relevant requirements. From the statistics results, the problems of review data and pharmacy data are as outstanding as safety studies data. "Other item" is mainly related that the electronic document data is not submitted. Specific outstanding problems are as

  16. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.;

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  17. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product's relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product's relative performance....

  18. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents partic...... participated in an in home test. The results indicate that catch time alone is not enough to work as an efficient predictor of actual perceived quality.......A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  19. Classification and Labelling for Biocides

    OpenAIRE

    Rubbiani, Maristella

    2015-01-01

    CLP and biocides The EU Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures, the CLP-Regulation, entered into force on 20th January, 2009. Since 1st December, 2010 the classification, labelling and packaging of substances has to comply with this Regulation. For mixtures, the rules of this Regulation are mandatory from 1st June, 2015; this means that until this date classification, labelling and packaging could either be carried out according to D...

  20. Aggregating Labels in Crowdsourcing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Priisalu, Maria; Grey, Francois; Segal, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Project Specification Crowdsourcing is gaining popularity in academia with the launch of crowdsourcing platforms such as Crowdcrafting [Lombraña, 2015] and GeoTagX [UNOSAT, 2015]. There have been a number of proposed algorithms for the aggregation of true labels and a confusion matrix from crowdsourced labels for ordinal, nominal and binary labels. The work here consists of an implementation of the Dawid Skene [Dawid 1979] adaptation of the Expectation Maximization algorithm [D...

  1. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Wayne L; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of proteins. These include new classes of spin labels, advances in measurement of long range distances and distance distributions, methods for identifying backbone and conformational fluctuations, and new strategies for determining the kinetics of protein motion.

  2. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  3. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  4. Bayesian Joint Modelling for Object Localisation in Weakly Labelled Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiyuan; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    We address the problem of localisation of objects as bounding boxes in images and videos with weak labels. This weakly supervised object localisation problem has been tackled in the past using discriminative models where each object class is localised independently from other classes. In this paper, a novel framework based on Bayesian joint topic modelling is proposed, which differs significantly from the existing ones in that: (1) All foreground object classes are modelled jointly in a single generative model that encodes multiple object co-existence so that "explaining away" inference can resolve ambiguity and lead to better learning and localisation. (2) Image backgrounds are shared across classes to better learn varying surroundings and "push out" objects of interest. (3) Our model can be learned with a mixture of weakly labelled and unlabelled data, allowing the large volume of unlabelled images on the Internet to be exploited for learning. Moreover, the Bayesian formulation enables the exploitation of various types of prior knowledge to compensate for the limited supervision offered by weakly labelled data, as well as Bayesian domain adaptation for transfer learning. Extensive experiments on the PASCAL VOC, ImageNet and YouTube-Object videos datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our Bayesian joint model for weakly supervised object localisation. PMID:26340253

  5. Using Label Noise Robust Logistic Regression for Automated Updating of Topographic Geospatial Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, A.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    Supervised classification of remotely sensed images is a classical method to update topographic geospatial databases. The task requires training data in the form of image data with known class labels, whose generation is time-consuming. To avoid this problem one can use the labels from the outdated database for training. As some of these labels may be wrong due to changes in land cover, one has to use training techniques that can cope with wrong class labels in the training data. In this paper we adapt a label noise tolerant training technique to the problem of database updating. No labelled data other than the existing database are necessary. The resulting label image and transition matrix between the labels can help to update the database and to detect changes between the two time epochs. Our experiments are based on different test areas, using real images with simulated existing databases. Our results show that this method can indeed detect changes that would remain undetected if label noise were not considered in training.

  6. Deep learning for multi-label land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalas, Konstantinos; Tsagkatakis, Grigorios; Zervakis, Michalis; Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    2015-10-01

    Whereas single class classification has been a highly active topic in optical remote sensing, much less effort has been given to the multi-label classification framework, where pixels are associated with more than one labels, an approach closer to the reality than single-label classification. Given the complexity of this problem, identifying representative features extracted from raw images is of paramount importance. In this work, we investigate feature learning as a feature extraction process in order to identify the underlying explanatory patterns hidden in low-level satellite data for the purpose of multi-label classification. Sparse auto-encoders composed of a single hidden layer, as well as stacked in a greedy layer-wise fashion formulate the core concept of our approach. The results suggest that learning such sparse and abstract representations of the features can aid in both remote sensing and multi-label problems. The results presented in the paper correspond to a novel real dataset of annotated spectral imagery naturally leading to the multi-label formulation.

  7. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  8. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the type of packaging material on which the label is printed; n. Brand name changes, provided that... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features..., location, and indication of final color. To obtain sketch label approval, domestic meat and...

  9. Oxygen labelled CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C16O18O and 2.8 percent C18O2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s-1 and 0.12s-1 for C18O2 and 2.5s-1 and 0.87s-1 for C16O18O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C18O2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C16O18O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C16O18O as well as by C18O2. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Semi-supervised dimensionality reduction using estimated class membership probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ruan, Qiuqi; Wan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    In solving pattern-recognition tasks with partially labeled training data, the semi-supervised dimensionality reduction method, which considers both labeled and unlabeled data, is preferable for improving the classification and generalization capability of the testing data. Among such techniques, graph-based semi-supervised learning methods have attracted a lot of attention due to their appealing properties in discovering discriminative structure and geometric structure of data points. Although they have achieved remarkable success, they cannot promise good performance when the size of the labeled data set is small, as a result of inaccurate class matrix variance approximated by insufficient labeled training data. In this paper, we tackle this problem by combining class membership probabilities estimated from unlabeled data and ground-truth class information associated with labeled data to more precisely characterize the class distribution. Therefore, it is expected to enhance performance in classification tasks. We refer to this approach as probabilistic semi-supervised discriminant analysis (PSDA). The proposed PSDA is applied to face and facial expression recognition tasks and is evaluated using the ORL, Extended Yale B, and CMU PIE face databases and the Cohn-Kanade facial expression database. The promising experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  11. Limitations of Label-Free Sensors in Serum Based Molecular Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Manoj M

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassay formats applicable for clinical or point-of-care diagnostics fall into two broad classes. One which uses labeled secondary antibodies for signal transduction and the other which does not require the use of any labels. Comparison of the limits of detection (LoD) reported by these two sensing approaches over a wide range of detection techniques and target molecules in serum revealed that labeled techniques achieve 2-3 orders of magnitude better LoDs. Further, a vast majority of commercial tests and recent examples of technology translations are based on labeled assay formats. In light of this data, it is argued that extension of traditional labeled approaches and enhancing their functionality may have better clinical impact than the development of newer label-free techniques.

  12. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  13. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Standards and Labels: The Facts Labeling and Marketing Information [ Top of Page ] OVEN PREPARED: Product is fully cooked and ready to eat. [ Top of Page ] YOUNG TURKEY: Turkeys of either sex that are less than 8 months of age according to present regulations. [ Top of Page ] Last ...

  14. Brief Introduction on Adolescent Over-the-Counter(OTC) Drug Product Use Research in the United States and the Inspiration Provided to Our Country%美国青少年非处方药品使用研究简述及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏东胜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide the reference for the consumer research on adolescent OTC drug use in our country.Methods Providing the inspiration for OTC drug research and work through brief introduction the research and the relevant advice on adolescent OTC drug product use in the United States.Results and Conclusion We may do research on adolescent OTC drug use in our country, providing basis for decision making and interventions for ensuring adolescent using OTC drug safely and effectively, and standardizing gradually based on carrying out in a deep-going way.%目的 为我国青少年非处方药使用的消费者研究提供借鉴.方法 通过简述美国青少年非处方药品使用研究及其相关建议,提出对我国非处方药相关工作与研究的启示.结果 与结论我国可进行青少年非处方药的使用研究,为切实保障青少年安全有效使用非处方药提供决策依据和干预措施,并在深入开展基础上逐步规范.

  15. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a...

  16. THE INNER-SYSTEM LABELING ALGORITHM AND ITS FAIRNESS ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guodong; Li Yinhai; Wu Jiangxing

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of inner-system labeling signaling used in the integrated access system,a kind of inner-system labeling algorithm is introduced in this paper, and the fairness of the algorithm for each traffic stream in the integrated-services is analyzed. The base of this algorithm is Class of Services (CoS), and each packet entering the relative independent area (an autonomous system) would be labeled according to the service type or Quality of Service (QoS) in demand,and be scheduled and managed within the system (the system can be enlarged if conforming to the same protocol). The experimental results show that each of the stream rate in the integratedservices would converge to a stable value if the rates of transmitting converge to that of the receiving exponentially, that is, the effective traffic of each stream would be fair.

  17. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  18. El concepto de “productos similares” bajo el artículo 2.1 del Acuerdo OTC: una mirada desde los criterios de interpretación de la OMC

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Esteban Tovar

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende evaluar la interpretación realizada por el Órgano de Solución de Diferencias (OSD) de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) sobre el concepto de “productos similares” bajo el artículo 2.1 del Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC) en los recientes casos (Estados Unidos-Cigarrillos de clavo de olor, Estados Unidos-Atún II y Estados Unidos-EPO), con el fin de plantear ciertos elementos de interpretación, de conformidad con la Convención de Viena s...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact ...

  20. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  1. Homosexual Labeling by University Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Kenneth L.; Alston, Jon P.

    1977-01-01

    Details the responses of young, urban, college-educated people on their attitudes toward homosexuals, specifically focusing on issues of public identification and negative labeling as it effects homosexual persons and their behaviors. (Author/RK)

  2. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (131I, 14C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  3. Supervised neural network modeling: an empirical investigation into learning from imbalanced data with labeling errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgoftaar, Taghi M; Van Hulse, Jason; Napolitano, Amri

    2010-05-01

    Neural network algorithms such as multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and radial basis function networks (RBFNets) have been used to construct learners which exhibit strong predictive performance. Two data related issues that can have a detrimental impact on supervised learning initiatives are class imbalance and labeling errors (or class noise). Imbalanced data can make it more difficult for the neural network learning algorithms to distinguish between examples of the various classes, and class noise can lead to the formulation of incorrect hypotheses. Both class imbalance and labeling errors are pervasive problems encountered in a wide variety of application domains. Many studies have been performed to investigate these problems in isolation, but few have focused on their combined effects. This study presents a comprehensive empirical investigation using neural network algorithms to learn from imbalanced data with labeling errors. In particular, the first component of our study investigates the impact of class noise and class imbalance on two common neural network learning algorithms, while the second component considers the ability of data sampling (which is commonly used to address the issue of class imbalance) to improve their performances. Our results, for which over two million models were trained and evaluated, show that conclusions drawn using the more commonly studied C4.5 classifier may not apply when using neural networks.

  4. Variable-Voltage Class-E Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    The Class-E power amplifier is widely used due to its high efficiency, resulting from switching at zero voltage and zero slope of the switch voltage. In this paper, we extend general analytical solutions for the Class-E power amplifier to the ideal single-ended Variable-Voltage Class-E (Class-EVV) p

  5. 27 CFR 5.35 - Class and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of whiskies in mixtures. In the case of any of the types of whisky defined in § 5.22(b), Class 2, which contains any whisky or whiskies produced in a country other than that indicated by the type designation, there shall be stated on the brand label the percentage of such whisky and the country or...

  6. Semisimple Classes of Semirings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Hebisch; H.J. Weinert

    2002-01-01

    A famous result of Sands states that a class S of associative rings is semisimple if and only if S is regular, coinductive, and extensionally closed. Here,we investigate semisimple classes in a Kurosh-Amitsur radical theory for semirings. We show that such a class S is regular, K-coinductive, and K-extensionally closed. But a characterization of semisimple classes of semirings needs a fourth condition, namely that S is inverse semi-isomorphically closed. We also obtain other characterizations and results for semisimple classes and for subdirect products of semirings.

  7. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  8. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  9. Laxatives: OTC Products for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their expiration dates. Do not store medicines in bathrooms or bathroom cabinets, which are often hot and humid. What ... Nausea Stomach pain Sudden change in your bowel habits that lasts 2 weeks or longer Vomiting Stop ...

  10. A brief history of cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. [Royal Sussex Country Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling.

  11. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes is the...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting the...

  12. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  13. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  14. ABS 497 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

    ABS 497 Complete Class   To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ABS-497/ABS-497-Complete-Class-Guide   For more classes visit   www.assignmentcloud.com   ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 1 Fabian's Story ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 2 Doug's Story ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 1 Parenting Styles ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 2 Ethnicity and Learning Theory ABS 497 Week 3 ...

  15. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.

  16. Fibrinogen labelling with I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seminario, C.; Capillo, T.; Montanez, J. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Of the different techniques of labelling liophylized human fibrinogen, the technique of mono-chloride with modified iodine was selected. The labelling of the molecule was performed in alkali media of buffalo glycine in which the solution of stable iodine will react as well as on a later stage will the radioactive isotope. The labelling processes which were undertaken with different activities had an efficiency of over 40%; when purification with resins amberlite was carried through, in none of the cases were the impurities over 5%. Daily controls till the seventh day showed that the average values of radiochemical purity decrease were lower than 1%. The specific activity as well as the concentration of I/sup 131/, the fibrinogen and other characteristics come up to the norms of the pharmacopoeia which are applied.

  17. Controllable labelling of stem cells with a novel superparamagnetic iron oxide-loaded cationic nanovesicle for MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ruo Mi; Zhang, Fang; Wen, Xue Hua; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Cao, Nuo; Wang, Yi Ru; Shuai, Xin Tao [Sun Yat-Sen University, BME Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    To investigate the feasibility of highly efficient and controllable stem cell labelling for cellular MRI. A new class of cationic, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)-loaded nanovesicles was synthesised to label rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells without secondary transfection agents. The optimal labelling conditions and controllability were assessed, and the effect of labelling on cell viability, proliferation activity and multilineage differentiation was determined. In 18 rats, focal ischaemic cerebral injury was induced and the rats randomly injected with 1 x 10{sup 6} cells labelled with 0-, 8- or 20-mV nanovesicles (n = 6 each). In vivo MRI was performed to follow grafted cells in contralateral striata, and results were correlated with histology. Optimal cell labelling conditions involved a concentration of 3.15 {mu}g Fe/mL nanovesicles with 20-mV positive charge and 1-h incubation time. Labelling efficiency showed linear change with an increase in the electric potentials of nanovesicles. Labelling did not affect cell viability, proliferation activity or multilineage differentiation capacity. The distribution and migration of labelled cells could be detected by MRI. Histology confirmed that grafted cells retained the label and remained viable. Stem cells can be effectively and safely labelled with cationic, SPION-loaded nanovesicles in a controllable way for cellular MRI. (orig.)

  18. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  19. Configuration spaces with summable labels

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Let M be an n-manifold, and let A be a space with a partial sum behaving as an n-fold loop sum. We define the space C(M;A) of configurations in M with summable labels in A via operad theory. Some examples are symmetric products, labelled configuration spaces, and spaces of rational curves. We show that C(I^n,dI^n;A) is an n-fold delooping of C(I^n;A), and for n=1 it is the classifying space by Stasheff. If M is compact, parallelizable, and A is path connected, then C(M;A) is homotopic to the ...

  20. Investigation of Bias in Continuous Medical Image Label Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-01-01

    Image labeling is essential for analyzing morphometric features in medical imaging data. Labels can be obtained by either human interaction or automated segmentation algorithms, both of which suffer from errors. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for both discrete-valued and continuous-valued labels has been proposed to find the consensus fusion while simultaneously estimating rater performance. In this paper, we first show that the previously reported continuous STAPLE in which bias and variance are used to represent rater performance yields a maximum likelihood solution in which bias is indeterminate. We then analyze the major cause of the deficiency and evaluate two classes of auxiliary bias estimation processes, one that estimates the bias as part of the algorithm initialization and the other that uses a maximum a posteriori criterion with a priori probabilities on the rater bias. We compare the efficacy of six methods, three variants from each class, in simulations and through empirical human rater experiments. We comment on their properties, identify deficient methods, and propose effective methods as solution. PMID:27258158

  1. Investigation of Bias in Continuous Medical Image Label Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangxu Xing

    Full Text Available Image labeling is essential for analyzing morphometric features in medical imaging data. Labels can be obtained by either human interaction or automated segmentation algorithms, both of which suffer from errors. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE algorithm for both discrete-valued and continuous-valued labels has been proposed to find the consensus fusion while simultaneously estimating rater performance. In this paper, we first show that the previously reported continuous STAPLE in which bias and variance are used to represent rater performance yields a maximum likelihood solution in which bias is indeterminate. We then analyze the major cause of the deficiency and evaluate two classes of auxiliary bias estimation processes, one that estimates the bias as part of the algorithm initialization and the other that uses a maximum a posteriori criterion with a priori probabilities on the rater bias. We compare the efficacy of six methods, three variants from each class, in simulations and through empirical human rater experiments. We comment on their properties, identify deficient methods, and propose effective methods as solution.

  2. Correlative microscopy of densely labeled projection neurons using neural tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Oberti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional morphological information about neural microcircuits is of high interest in neuroscience, but acquiring this information remains challenging. A promising new correlative technique for brain imaging is array tomography (Micheva and Smith, 2007, in which series of ultrathin brain sections are treated with fluorescent antibodies against neurotransmitters and synaptic proteins. Treated sections are repeatedly imaged in the fluorescence light microscope (FLM and then in the electron microscope (EM. We explore a similar correlative imaging technique in which we differentially label distinct populations of projection neurons, the key routers of electrical signals in the brain. In songbirds, projection neurons can easily be labeled using neural tracers, because the vocal control areas are segregated into separate nuclei. We inject tracers into areas afferent and efferent to the main premotor area for vocal production, HVC, to retrogradely and anterogradely label different classes of projection neurons. We optimize tissue preparation protocols to achieve high fluorescence contrast in the FLM and good ultrastructure in the EM (using osmium tetroxide. Although tracer fluorescence is lost during EM preparation, we localize the tracer molecules after fixation and embedding by using fluorescent antibodies against them. We detect signals mainly in somata and dendrites, allowing us to classify synapses within a single ultrathin section as belonging to a particular type of projection neuron. The use of our method will be to provide statistical information about connectivity among different neuron classes, and to elucidate how signals in the brain are processed and routed among different areas.

  3. Sufficient Conditions for Labelled 0-1 Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Burris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available If F(x = e G(x, where F(x = Σf(nx n and G(x = Σg(nx n, with 0≤g(n = O(n θn /n!, θ∈(0,1, and gcd(n: g(n >0=1, then f(n= o(f(n-1. This gives an answer to Compton's request in Question 8.3 [Compton 1987] for an ``easily verifiable sufficient condition'' to show that an adequate class of structures has a labelled first-order 0-1 law, namely it suffices to show that the labelled component count function is O(n θn for some θ∈(0,1. It also provides the means to recursively construct an adequate class of structures with a labelled 0-1 law but not an unlabelled 0-1 law, answering Compton's Question 8.4.

  4. Investigation of Bias in Continuous Medical Image Label Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-01-01

    Image labeling is essential for analyzing morphometric features in medical imaging data. Labels can be obtained by either human interaction or automated segmentation algorithms, both of which suffer from errors. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for both discrete-valued and continuous-valued labels has been proposed to find the consensus fusion while simultaneously estimating rater performance. In this paper, we first show that the previously reported continuous STAPLE in which bias and variance are used to represent rater performance yields a maximum likelihood solution in which bias is indeterminate. We then analyze the major cause of the deficiency and evaluate two classes of auxiliary bias estimation processes, one that estimates the bias as part of the algorithm initialization and the other that uses a maximum a posteriori criterion with a priori probabilities on the rater bias. We compare the efficacy of six methods, three variants from each class, in simulations and through empirical human rater experiments. We comment on their properties, identify deficient methods, and propose effective methods as solution.

  5. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Rakhmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  6. Multi-Instance Learning with Any Hypothesis Class

    CERN Document Server

    Sabato, Sivan

    2011-01-01

    In the supervised learning setting termed Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL), the examples are bags of instances, and the bag label is a function of the labels of its instances. Typically, this function is the Boolean OR. The learner observes a sample of bags and the bag labels, but not the instance labels that determine the bag labels. The learner is then required to emit a classification rule for bags based on the sample. MIL has numerous applications, and many heuristic algorithms have been used successfully on this problem, each adapted to specific settings or applications. In this work we provide a unified theoretical analysis for MIL, which holds for any underlying hypothesis class, regardless of a specific application or problem domain. We show that the sample complexity of MIL is only poly-logarithmically dependent on the size of the bag, for any underlying hypothesis class. In addition, we introduce a new PAC-learning algorithm for MIL, which employs a regular supervised learning algorithm as an oracle...

  7. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  8. Universality classes of inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hillto

  9. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    China's cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009ot 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.In China's main urban centers,Beijing and Shanghai,the middle class accounted for 46 percent and 38 percent,respectively,of the local population.

  10. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  11. The Last Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  12. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy...

  13. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.

  14. Manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization with label information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huirong; Zhang, Jiangshe; Wang, Changpeng; Liu, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as a popular technique for finding parts-based, linear representations of non-negative data has been successfully applied in a wide range of applications, such as feature learning, dictionary learning, and dimensionality reduction. However, both the local manifold regularization of data and the discriminative information of the available label have not been taken into account together in NMF. We propose a new semisupervised matrix decomposition method, called manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization (MRNMF) with label information, which incorporates the manifold regularization and the label information into the NMF to improve the performance of NMF in clustering tasks. We encode the local geometrical structure of the data space by constructing a nearest neighbor graph and enhance the discriminative ability of different classes by effectively using the label information. Experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods on theCOIL20, PIE, Extended Yale B, and MNIST databases demonstrate the effectiveness of MRNMF.

  15. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  16. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  17. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  18. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome;

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions...

  19. A label propagation approach for detecting buried objects in handheld GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Graham; Frigui, Hichem

    2016-05-01

    Detection of buried landmines and other explosive objects using ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been investigated for almost two decades and several classifiers have been developed. Most of these methods are based on the supervised learning paradigm where labeled target and clutter signatures are needed to train a classifier to discriminate between the two classes. Typically, large and diverse labeled training samples are needed to improve the performance of the classifier by overcoming noise and adding robustness and generalization to unseen examples. Unfortunately, even though unlabeled GPR data may be abundant, labeled data are often available in small quantities as the labeling process is tedious and can be ambiguous for most of the data. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for detecting landmines and buried objects that uses unlabeled data to help labeled data in the classification process. Our algorithm is graph-based and propagates the nodes labels to neighboring nodes according to their proximity in the feature space. For labeled data, we use a set of prototypes that are extracted from a small set of labeled training samples. For unlabeled data, we use a collection of signatures that are extracted from the vicinity of the alarm being tested. This choice is based on the assumption that many spatially close signatures are expected to have similar features and thus, unlabeled samples can create dense regions that link different regions of the labeled samples and propagate their labels to test samples. In other words, unlabeled samples are explored to create a context for each test alarm. To validate the proposed label propagation based classifier, we use it to detect buried explosive objects in GPR data collected by an experimental hand held demonstrator. We show that our approach is robust and computationally efficient to be used for both target discrimination and prescreening.

  20. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  1. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  2. Labeling of the cerebellar peduncles using a supervised Gaussian classifier with volumetric tract segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bogovic, John A.; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2012-02-01

    The cerebellar peduncles are white matter tracts that play an important role in the communication of the cerebellum with other regions of the brain. They can be grouped into three fiber bundles: inferior cerebellar peduncle middle cerebellar peduncle, and superior cerebellar peduncle. Their automatic segmentation on diffusion tensor images would enable a better understanding of the cerebellum and would be less time-consuming and more reproducible than manual delineation. This paper presents a method that automatically labels the three fiber bundles based on the segmentatin results from the diffusion oriented tract segmentation (DOTS) algorithm, which achieves volume segmentation of white matter tracts using a Markov random field (MRF) framework. We use the DOTS labeling result as a guide to determine the classification of fibers produced by wild bootstrap probabilistic tractography. Mean distances from each fiber to each DOTS volume label are defined and then used as features that contribute to classification. A supervised Gaussian classifier is employed to label the fibers. Manually delineated cerebellar peduncles serve as training data to determine the parameters of class probabilities for each label. Fibers are labeled ad the class that has the highest posterior probability. An outlier detection ste[ re,pves fober tracts that belong to noise of that are not modeled by DOTS. Experiments show a successful classification of the cerebellar peduncles. We have also compared results between successive scans to demonstrate the reproducibility of the proposed method.

  3. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K

    2016-10-01

    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data. PMID:27405864

  4. A Multi-Label Classification Approach Based on Correlations Among Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alazaidah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi label classification is concerned with learning from a set of instances that are associated with a set of labels, that is, an instance could be associated with multiple labels at the same time. This task occurs frequently in application areas like text categorization, multimedia classification, bioinformatics, protein function classification and semantic scene classification. Current multi-label classification methods could be divided into two categories. The first is called problem transformation methods, which transform multi-label classification problem into single label classification problem, and then apply any single label classifier to solve the problem. The second category is called algorithm adaptation methods, which adapt an existing single label classification algorithm to handle multi-label data. In this paper, we propose a multi-label classification approach based on correlations among labels that use both problem transformation methods and algorithm adaptation methods. The approach begins with transforming multi-label dataset into a single label dataset using least frequent label criteria, and then applies the PART algorithm on the transformed dataset. The output of the approach is multi-labels rules. The approach also tries to get benefit from positive correlations among labels using predictive Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been evaluated using two multi-label datasets named (Emotions and Yeast and three evaluation measures (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, and Harmonic Mean. The experiments showed that the proposed approach has a fair accuracy in comparison to other related methods.

  5. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  6. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    . A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very......Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes...

  7. PSYCH 515 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

      PSYCH 515 Advanced Abnormal Psychology To purchase this material click on below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSYCH-515/PSYCH-515-Complete-Class-Guide For more details www.assignmentcloud.com

  8. Raradox of class description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光

    2004-01-01

    We have a more active class atmophere, but more passive self-study situations. We are too talktive when we should bury ourselves in books, but too less efficient when we spend too much time. We complain teachers

  9. IELP Class Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈了了

    2010-01-01

    @@ As an exchange student majoring in English, I am curious about how English is taught to international students here in America. Therefore, I observed an IELP (Intensive English Learning Program) class in Central Connecticut State University where I study.

  10. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  11. How Single or Multiple Pitch Labels Affect Young Children's Identification of Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…

  12. A class in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S. A.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.

  13. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  14. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  15. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Geers, Alexie

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  16. ANTIMAGIC LABELING OF GENERALIZED SAUSAGE GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudone Phanalasy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An antimagic labeling of a graph with q edges is a bijection from the set of edges to the set of positive integers {1,2,...,q} such that all vertex weights are pairwise distinct, where the vertex weight of a vertex is the sum of the labels of all the edges incident with that vertex. A graph is antimagic if it has an antimagic labeling. In this paper we construct antimagic labeling for the family of generalized sausage graphs.

  17. Do Consumers Really Use Food Labels?

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Ronald W.; Jauregui, Carlos E.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered Probit models are used to estimate the probabilities of consumers reading food labels for harmful ingredients and for using labels to assist with food purchasing decisions. Demographics, health concerns, attitudes, and eating habits are shown to influence the likelihood of using food labels. Effects from over 25 variables are ranked in terms of their relative impacts on the use of food labels. Dieting, concerns about calories, foreign foods, and many other variable effects on the use ...

  18. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  19. 21 CFR 225.80 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Packaging and Labeling § 225.80 Labeling. (a... adhered to, will assure that the article is safe and effective for its intended purposes. (b)(1) Labels... medicated feed and includes adequate information for the safe and effective use of the medicated feed....

  20. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit

  1. IMAGE LABELING FOR LIDAR INTENSITY IMAGE USING K-NN OF FEATURE OBTAINED BY CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umemura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an image labeling method for LIDAR intensity image obtained by Mobile Mapping System (MMS using K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN of feature obtained by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. Image labeling assigns labels (e.g., road, cross-walk and road shoulder to semantic regions in an image. Since CNN is effective for various image recognition tasks, we try to use the feature of CNN (Caffenet pre-trained by ImageNet. We use 4,096-dimensional feature at fc7 layer in the Caffenet as the descriptor of a region because the feature at fc7 layer has effective information for object classification. We extract the feature by the Caffenet from regions cropped from images. Since the similarity between features reflects the similarity of contents of regions, we can select top K similar regions cropped from training samples with a test region. Since regions in training images have manually-annotated ground truth labels, we vote the labels attached to top K similar regions to the test region. The class label with the maximum vote is assigned to each pixel in the test image. In experiments, we use 36 LIDAR intensity images with ground truth labels. We divide 36 images into training (28 images and test sets (8 images. We use class average accuracy and pixel-wise accuracy as evaluation measures. Our method was able to assign the same label as human beings in 97.8% of the pixels in test LIDAR intensity images.

  2. Image Labeling for LIDAR Intensity Image Using K-Nn of Feature Obtained by Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Masaki; Hotta, Kazuhiro; Nonaka, Hideki; Oda, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    We propose an image labeling method for LIDAR intensity image obtained by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) using K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) of feature obtained by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Image labeling assigns labels (e.g., road, cross-walk and road shoulder) to semantic regions in an image. Since CNN is effective for various image recognition tasks, we try to use the feature of CNN (Caffenet) pre-trained by ImageNet. We use 4,096-dimensional feature at fc7 layer in the Caffenet as the descriptor of a region because the feature at fc7 layer has effective information for object classification. We extract the feature by the Caffenet from regions cropped from images. Since the similarity between features reflects the similarity of contents of regions, we can select top K similar regions cropped from training samples with a test region. Since regions in training images have manually-annotated ground truth labels, we vote the labels attached to top K similar regions to the test region. The class label with the maximum vote is assigned to each pixel in the test image. In experiments, we use 36 LIDAR intensity images with ground truth labels. We divide 36 images into training (28 images) and test sets (8 images). We use class average accuracy and pixel-wise accuracy as evaluation measures. Our method was able to assign the same label as human beings in 97.8% of the pixels in test LIDAR intensity images.

  3. Radiochromatographic Determination of 131I Labeled Eugenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zümrüt Biber Müftüler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for medicinal potential. Eugenol, a phenolic natural compound available in the essential oils primarily extracted from clove plants, has been exploited for various medicinal applications. It possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The goal of current study was to extract Eugenol compound from clove plant and radiolabel the eugenol with 131I which is a well known radioisotope for imaging and therapy in Nuclear Medicine by utilizing iodogen method. The yield of radiolabeling of Eugenol (131I-E was calculated over 80% by Thin Layer Radio Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Radio Chromatograpy methods. Structural analysis of Eugenol was confirmed by Liguid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy. Lipophilicity and stability studies were performed. Due to the attachment of iodine to Eugenol, radioiodinated Eugenol was more lipophilic. Stability of 131I-E was appropriate for study period. All experimental results suggest that 131I labeled Eugenol compound may be used in the applications of Nuclear Medicine as a radiolabeled agent for imaging and therapy on various cancer types.

  4. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13C, 15N, and 2H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2H, 13C, and 15N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  5. Fluorescent Labeling of Nanometer Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Yuan YUAN; Changsheng LIU

    2008-01-01

    A novel surface treatment method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMPTES), was developed to immobilize the fluorescein molecule on nano-HAP (nanometer hydroxyapatite) powders. By pretreating the nano-HAP powders surface with AMPTES, fluorescein, chosen on the basis of the chemical structure of the nano- HAP powders, could be bound to the nano-HAP powders surface. The chemical compositions of nano-HAP before and after being labeled were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology, phase composition, and the fluorescence characteristics of the nano-HAP powders with and without staining were also investigated. The FTIR and XPS results revealed that fiuorescein had been successfully immobilized on the surface of AMPTES-bound nano-HAP powders via the acylamide bond formation between the -COOH of fluorescein and the -NH2 of AMPTES. The labeled nano-HAP powders possessed strong fluorescent intensity with a little deviation from the maximum emission wavelength of fluorescein. But the morphology and phase composition had no obvious alteration. Under fluorescence microscopy, the labeled nano-HAP powders., even after 24 h cell incubation, exhibited strong fluorescence.

  6. Radioimmunoassay for anticollagen-antibodies using 14C-labelled collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for anticollagen antibodies is described. 14C-labelled human acid-soluble collagen of high specific activity (5 x 106 dpm/mg) is used as antigen either in native or denatured state. Experimentally induced anticollagen antibodies or RA synovial fluids containing antibodies to collagen are reacted with the labelled antigen. The immune complexes formed are precipitated with goat antiserum to rabbit globulins ('second antibody'). A systematic investigation of the labelled collagen in regard to cleavage by enzymes, fibril formation and specificity showed that no gross alteration had been caused by the labelling procedure. The assay furnishes information on the avidity, specificity and immunoglobulin class of experimental or pathological anticollagen antibodies. It can also be used as sensitive assay for collagen in biological fluids

  7. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01

    In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new

  8. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  9. Equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices and their similarity properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, N.; Vittadello, L.; Bazzan, M.; Dell'Anna, L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate, theoretically and experimentally, the properties of Fibonacci lattices with arbitrary spacings. Different from periodic structures, the reciprocal lattice and the dynamical properties of Fibonacci lattices depend strongly on the lengths of their lattice parameters, even if the sequence of long and short segment, the Fibonacci string, is the same. In this work we show that by exploiting a self-similarity property of Fibonacci strings under a suitable composition rule, it is possible to define equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices. We show that the diffraction patterns generated by Fibonacci lattices belonging to the same equivalence class can be rescaled to a common pattern of strong diffraction peaks thus giving to this classification a precise meaning. Furthermore we show that, through the gap labeling theorem, gaps in the energy spectra of Fibonacci crystals belonging to the same class can be labeled by the same momenta (up to a proper rescaling) and that the larger gaps correspond to the strong peaks of the diffraction spectra. This observation makes the definition of equivalence classes meaningful also for the spectral and therefore dynamical and thermodynamical properties of quasicrystals. Our results apply to the more general class of quasiperiodic lattices for which similarity under a suitable deflation rule is in order.

  10. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  11. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  12. Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schmiedl

    Full Text Available Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children. Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%. Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3% and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%. The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0% and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%. Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections

  13. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  14. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  15. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

                The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...

  16. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  17. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo; 諏訪, 立雄

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle E over a manifold M, certain Chern classes of E are localized at the singular set S, i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When S is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of S by the Alexander duality. If M itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is also developed for ...

  18. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle $E$ over a manifold $M$ , certain Chern classes of $E$ are localized at the singular set $S$ , i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When $S$ is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of $S$ by the Alexander duality. If $M$ itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is als...

  19. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  20. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  1. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China, the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China’s urban development,

  2. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  3. Teaching Very Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  4. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01

    In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new

  5. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  6. Multi-class open set recognition for SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherreik, Matthew; Rigling, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Supervised multi-class target recognition algorithms label an input pattern according to the most similar training class. Typically, the number of training classes is fixed and known a priori. In practice, however, a classifier may encounter novel targets that were not seen in training and label them incorrectly. Recent work in open set recognition (OSR) develops classifiers that can identify training targets as well as previously unknown targets. This results in a reduced number of forced misclassifications by "ejecting" targets that were not present in training. Several OSR algorithms are based on support vector machines (SVMs), namely, the 1-vs-set machine, W-SVM, and POS-SVM. The 1-vs-set machine, a linear classifier, forms a "lab" around each training class to discriminate it from the remaining training classes and limit the risk of labeling open space as target space. The W-SVM uses a novel dual-calibration technique to map the SVM outputs to posterior probabilities, which are then subjected to a pair of user-specified thresholds. The POS-SVM relies on a single calibration step, but features data-driven posterior probability thresholds that are chosen automatically. Both the W-SVM and POS-SVM have the capability to use nonlinear SVM kernel functions and perform particularly well with the popular Gaussian RBF kernel. Past works have shown that these algorithms can be effective for classifying ladar and IR images with a rejection option. In this paper, we apply these algorithms to the MSTAR SAR dataset and analyze their performance for classifying known targets and rejecting unknown targets in the presence of clutter.

  7. 土霉素和金霉素在土壤中的吸附-解吸行为%Adsorption-desorption behavior of oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 王东升; 张婷

    2015-01-01

    Choosing two typical northeast soil — cinnamon soil and black soil as tetracycline antibiotics adsorbents, using OECD Guideline batch equilibrium method to study adsorption-desorption behavior and thermodynamics behavior of two kinds of tetracycline antibiotics (OTC and CTC) in cinnamon soil and black soil. The results show that OTC and CTC exhibited high adsorption rates. By comparing the size of adsorption quantity, TCs in black soil is better than that of in cinnamon soil. Tetracycline antibiotics adsorption isotherms in cinnamon soil and black soil are consistent with the Freundlich equation model and Langmuir equation model. The Freundlich equation is superior to the Langmuir equation. The adsorption process of antibiotics is a double speed process that has fast diffusion and slow diffusion. Tetracycline antibiotics adsorption isotherms resemble the linear curves according to adsorption strength (1/n). Oxytetracycline in soil belongs to "S" type, isothermal adsorption and adsorption of chlortetracycline "L" isothermal adsorption. OTC has the bigger adsorption in the two soils and the faster desorption rate. Along with the antibiotic substances gradually accumulated in the soil environment, the harm of soil ecological to environment would grow.%选择黑土和褐土两种典型东北地区土壤为吸附体,采用批平衡实验的方法,研究了四环素类抗生素(TCs)——土霉素(OTC)和金霉素(CTC)在褐土和黑土的吸附和解吸行为。结果表明:OTC和CTC都表现出较强的吸附性,且TCs在黑土上的吸附效果优于褐土。TCs在褐土和黑土上的吸附等温线均能较好地与Freundlich和Langmuir吸附方程相拟合,且Freundlich方程(R2=0.994)拟合效果优于Langmuir方程(R2=0.989)。四环素类抗生素的吸附过程是一个由迅速扩散和缓慢扩散组成的双速过程。CTC在褐土和黑土中属于“L型”等温吸附线;OTC在褐土和黑土中属于“S型”等温吸

  8. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  9. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon;

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  10. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131IDZ (131I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  11. Irradiation test of bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation test of bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was done to determine the effect of radiation. Low and medium radioactive waste is that below total activity of 4,000Bq/g according to the Korean nuclear law. The irradiation amount to radiate bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was calculated by MCNP-4b computer code. The nuclide such as Co-60 and Cs-137 was assumed to contribute 50 % of total activity. Real irradiation amount for bar code label was finally calculated by the dimensions of the container and the bar code label. The identification of post and the physical deflection of irradiated bar code label was tested by the bar code reader. The coated bar code label was suitable to use on low and medium radioactive waste container

  12. Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jesse S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc. in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

  13. Analysis of Market Supervision Necessity of OTC Financial Derivatives Based on Game Theory%基于博弈论的OTC金融衍生品市场监管必要性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦磊

    2013-01-01

      基于博弈论的OTC金融衍生品市场监管必要性分析表明:在政府行政监管、行业协会自律管理及市场参与者内部控制的博弈中,单凭市场本身的内部调节机制并不能完全发挥持续稳定市场的效力,政府监管职能对规范市场行为有重大作用;行业自律组织监管是市场监管中不可替代的有机组成。应加强OTC衍生品市场内部控制与风险管理,完善行政监管机制,提高行业协会自律监管能力,特别是加强金融机构表外业务风险的监管,以保证金融机构的稳健经营。%  The analysis of the market supervision necessity of OTC financial derivatives based on game theory proves that in the game be-tween government administrative supervision, industrial association self-discipline management and internal control of market partici-pants, internal regulatory mechanism of the market itself does not give full play to the effectiveness of sustained and stable market. Govern-ment regulatory functions have great influence in regulating market behavior. Supervision of the industrial self-discipline organizations is the irreplaceable organic composition of market supervision. In order to ensure the sound operation of financial institutions, the government should strengthen internal control and risk management of the OTC derivatives market, improve the administrative supervision mechanism, improve the self-discipline ability of industrial associations, and especially, strengthen the risk supervision over off-balance-sheet activi-ties of financial institutions.

  14. Improving Recurrent Neural Networks For Sequence Labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Dinarelli, Marco; Tellier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study different types of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) for sequence labeling tasks. We propose two new variants of RNNs integrating improvements for sequence labeling, and we compare them to the more traditional Elman and Jordan RNNs. We compare all models, either traditional or new, on four distinct tasks of sequence labeling: two on Spoken Language Understanding (ATIS and MEDIA); and two of POS tagging for the French Treebank (FTB) and the Penn Treebank (PTB) corpora. The...

  15. Alternative ways for private label manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemen, Zita; Némethné Tömő, Zsuzsa

    2010-01-01

    Private labels are a growing phenomenon globaly. retatlers become stronger and stronger by offering their own quality private label product for customers in all segments. Certainly they do not open factories to produce these items but rather search for dedicated private label producers or pressure branded goods manufacturers to produce it for them. The article deals with the strategic choiches manufacturers can have and suggest the necessary factors that need to be evaluated to decide on the ...

  16. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  17. Traffic Flow Analysis Model based Routing Protocol For Multi-Protocol Label Switching Network

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Naganathan; Rajagopalan, S.; P. H. Raj

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism which is used in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. Traffic management is still an issue in MPLS network as it involves high speed internet. Approach: This study proposed a traffic flow analysis of the real time MPLS traffic and segregates the MPLS traffic as three major class based on the outcome of traffic flow analysis. U...

  18. Off-label psychopharmacologic prescribing for children: History supports close clinical monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegert Joerg M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The review presents pediatric adverse drug events from a historical perspective and focuses on selected safety issues associated with off-label use of medications for the psychiatric treatment of youth. Clinical monitoring procedures for major psychotropic drug classes are reviewed. Prior studies suggest that systematic treatment monitoring is warranted so as to both minimize risk of unexpected adverse events and exposures to ineffective treatments. Clinical trials to establish the efficacy and safety of drugs currently being used off-label in the pediatric population are needed. In the meantime, clinicians should consider the existing evidence-base for these drugs and institute close clinical monitoring.

  19. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  20. Novel Properties of Fuzzy Labeling Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoor Gani, A.; Muhammad Akram; D. Rajalaxmi (a) Subahashini

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of fuzzy labeling and fuzzy magic labeling graph are introduced. Fuzzy magic labeling for some graphs like path, cycle, and star graph is defined. It is proved that every fuzzy magic graph is a fuzzy labeling graph, but the converse is not true. We have shown that the removal of a fuzzy bridge from a fuzzy magic cycle with odd nodes reduces the strength of a fuzzy magic cycle. Some properties related to fuzzy bridge and fuzzy cut node have also been discussed.

  1. (d,1)-total labelling of graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Havet, Frédéric; Yu, Min-Li

    2002-01-01

    A $(d,1)$-total labelling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of integers to $V(G)\\cup E(G)$ such that: (i) any two adjacent vertices of $G$ receive distinct integers, (ii) any two adjacent edges of $G$ receive distinct integers, and (iii) a vertex and its incident edge receive integers that differ by at least $d$ in absolute value. The {\\it span} of a $(d,1)$-total labelling is the maximum difference between two labels. The minimum span of a $(d,1)$-total labelling of $G$ is denoted by $\\lambda_...

  2. Classifier Risk Estimation under Limited Labeling Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anurag; Raj, Bhiksha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose strategies for estimating performance of a classifier when labels cannot be obtained for the whole test set. The number of test instances which can be labeled is very small compared to the whole test data size. The goal then is to obtain a precise estimate of classifier performance using as little labeling resource as possible. Specifically, we try to answer, how to select a subset of the large test set for labeling such that the performance of a classifier estimated ...

  3. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  4. A escolarização das classes abastadas The schooling of the affluent classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio David Cattani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Após indicar a inadequação do termo elite ou burguesia para designar os detentores de grandes fortunas, este artigo sustenta que as classes dominantes se constroem continuamente e se mobilizam de todas as formas para assegurar sua reprodução ampliada, sua existência cotidiana com vistas à preservação e à transmissão das posições dominantes para seus descendentes. A formação ideológica na família e o período de formação nas instituições escolares são parte importantes do processo de construção de classe. O artigo considera que os estudos sobre a escolarização das classes dedicam-se, de modo geral, à formação universal, com ênfase nos problemas que acometem a população menos privilegiada. Os estudos sobre a formação da classe dominante são recentes e apresentam resultados inusitados tais como a relação instrumental com a educação o que distinguiria o caso brasileiro das estratégias das classes abastadas dos países economicamente mais avançados. Entretanto, como as classes dominantes são heterogêneas elas podem se valer de outras estratégias de escolarização para garantir suas posições e a reprodução de classe.After pointing out the inadequacy of the terms elite or bourgeoisie to label those in possession of great wealth, this article maintains that the dominant classes are constantly constructing and mobilizing themselves in every way to assure their extended reproduction and their everyday coexistence with the aim of preserving and transmitting dominant positions to their descendents. Ideological development within the family and the school years are important elements in the process of class construction. Studies on schooling of class generally address universal education, stressing the problems that afflict the underprivileged population. The education of the dominant class is not often explored as a topic and the few studies available present original results, such as the instrumental

  5. Principles of food product labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Krysztofiak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the label of the food product is to provide information on ingredients and additionally on its origin, production method, storage conditions, date tagging, as well as to enable to identify the producer or distributor of this product. Legal regulations precisely give instructions on the range and the way of the presentation of these data, so they could be clear and understandable for the average consumer. Since 25th of November 2005, the information about allergens’ presence must be placed on the label, regardless of their content in the product (Directive 2003/89/WE... 2003 – Off. J. L 308: 15-18. The Regulation (WE No 1924/2006 about placing the nutritional information and medicinal claims concerning foods (Regulation (WE No 1924/2006... 2006 a is valid in all countries of European Union since 1st of July 2007 (Off. J. L 404: 9-25. It coordinates the legislative, executive and administrative regulations connected with this labelling. According to these regulations, “nutritional information” states, suggests or gives to understand that the food product has special properties concerning its ingredients. Those statements are of type: “the source of...”, “no... content”, “high content of...”, “low content of...”, “reduced content of...” with reference to calorie or selected ingredients’ content. “Medicinal claims” state, suggest or give to understand, that there is a connection between the food product or one of its ingredients and the health condition of the consumer. First type of these medicinal claims refers to the influence of the ingredient on the physiology. Such a statement is based on generally accepted scientific conclusions and could be properly understood by the average consumer, e.g. “calcium takes part in the process of building of strong bones”. “Statements about decreasing the risk of a disease” give information, that food product or one of its ingredients efficiently

  6. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [131I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  7. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I]epidepride was stable under 4℃, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exihibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection.All these results suggest that[131I]epidepride may be usedd widely as a useful dopamineD2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  8. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label... substance. The symbol on labels shall be clear and large enough to afford easy identification of...

  9. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pickar

    Full Text Available Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively, mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  10. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickar, David; Vinik, Jessie; Bartko, John J

    2008-09-10

    Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively), mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  11. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickar, David; Vinik, Jessie; Bartko, John J

    2008-01-01

    Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively), mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs. PMID:18781198

  12. Perceived barriers and motives to reading nutrition label among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ranilović, Jasmina; Colić Barić, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine barriers and motives associated with reading nutrition information among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia and relationship with demographic and health factors of recruited sample.Label ‘non-users’ are subjects reported that had never or do not know or wish to tell aboutreading nutrition label during food purchasing (n=375) and were recruited from representative sample telephone interviewed Croatian, for assessing nutrition label attitudes. It is found that ...

  13. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  14. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  15. Class Origin, Family Culture, and Intergenerational Correlation of Education in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Hiroshi; Shi, Li

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the intergenerational correlation of education in rural China. The focus is on the influence of family class origin (jiating chengfen), the political label hung on every family throughout the Maoist era. A nationally representative cross-sectional household survey for 2002 is used. It is shown that the effects of family class origin on family members' educational attainment varies across historical periods. Regarding the educational level of male heads of household with la...

  16. Class Participation: Promoting In-Class Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Class participation has long been valued by faculty members interested in engaging students in the learning process. This paper discusses class participation and shares participation techniques that promote active student engagement during class meetings. Emphasis is placed on techniques that invite a larger number of students into a course's…

  17. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  18. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Longo-Silva; Maysa Helena de Aguiar Toloni; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quanti...

  19. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  1. Synthesis of deuterium labeled plant ethylene precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, K.C. [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Rapoport, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of {beta}-deuterium labeled 2-keto-4-methylbutyric acid were investigated. Vinyl chloride was first reacted with the ethyl oxalyl chloride moiety using aluminum chloride as condensing agent and the addition of methyl mercaptan followed. Deuterium labeling was achieved by using NaBD{sub 4} reduction in pyridine. (author).

  2. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  3. 7 CFR 65.400 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 65.400 Labeling. (a) Country of... tag, or other format that allows consumers to identify the country of origin. The declaration of...

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Growth How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON ...

  5. 78 FR 2200 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... ensure consumers can view the labels when they are shopping online. In particular, it will provide retail... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16..., clarifying testing requirements and enforcement provisions, improving online energy label disclosures,...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions...

  7. 9 CFR 112.3 - Diluent labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diluent labels. 112.3 Section 112.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.3...

  8. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1982-03-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of (1,2-/sup 3/H)fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described.

  9. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  10. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  11. Alternatives to radioimmunoassay: labels and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, R.F. Jr.; Tenoso, H.J.

    1981-07-01

    The following labels used as substitutes for radioisotopes in immunoassay systems are reviewed bacteriophages, chemiluminescence precursors, fluorochromes, fluorogens, fluorescence quenchers, enzymes, coenzymes, inhibitors, substrates, various particulates, metal atoms, and stable free radicals. New methods for performing immunoassays with these labels are described where appropriate. Methods that require no separation steps and offer special promise for easy automation are noted. 69 references cited.

  12. Medicines in My Home: Information for Students on the Safe Use of Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC medicine has a Drug Facts Label. The Drug Facts label is there to help you and your family choose and use OTC medicines correctly and safely. All medicines, even OTC medicines, can cause side effects (unwanted or unexpected effects). But if you follow ...

  13. A Review of the Ingredients Contained in Over the Counter (OTC Cough Syrup Formulations in Kenya. Are They Harmful to Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kigen

    Full Text Available Cough syrups are widely used in the developing world, but safety of their use in infants and children less than two years has not been well documented. Some syrups contain multiple combinations of such drugs as promethazine, diphenhydramine and ephedrine; which are individually now contraindicated in children less than two years. Despite this, the syrups are available as over the counter drugs and may be dispensed to mothers who are unaware of the potentially hazardous effects to their infants. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to investigate suitability of cough syrups sold within Eldoret municipality for use in children less than two years of age based on their formulations and available literature.Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to pharmacy attendants and mothers attending sick child clinic at a referral hospital to establish whether cough syrups containing more than one active ingredient of compounds, now contraindicated in children are administered to infants, and awareness of potential serious adverse effects. Data from labeled contents of cough syrups from retail pharmacies was recorded and corroborated with information from literature to determine those deemed to contain the ingredients. The second questionnaire was administered to mothers with children less than two years to ascertain whether they had used the identified syrups. A total of 260 mothers and 55 pharmacy attendants were interviewed.There was widespread use of the syrups in children, including infants, with 192 (74% of the respondents having used identified syrups and over 90% of these on children less than 2 years including those less than three months.146 (76% mothers had administered the syrup at double the recommended dose.The regulatory authorities should make concerted efforts to discourage use of cough syrups containing ingredients that pose adverse events to infants, including campaigns to educate pharmacy workers and mothers.

  14. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... capitalist relations, the exact social processes under which they were having to make a living, and what had only recently—and still largely ambiguously—made them ready to identify themselves politically as ‘Adivasi’. Demonstrating the usefulness of ethnographic curiosity driven by an ‘expanded’ class...

  15. The Class of '34

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, incl...

  16. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty

    2004-07-01

    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  17. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  18. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF3-Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 700C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  19. Learning Hypergraph Labeling for Feature Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Parag, Toufiq; Elgammal, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This study poses the feature correspondence problem as a hypergraph node labeling problem. Candidate feature matches and their subsets (usually of size larger than two) are considered to be the nodes and hyperedges of a hypergraph. A hypergraph labeling algorithm, which models the subset-wise interaction by an undirected graphical model, is applied to label the nodes (feature correspondences) as correct or incorrect. We describe a method to learn the cost function of this labeling algorithm from labeled examples using a graphical model training algorithm. The proposed feature matching algorithm is different from the most of the existing learning point matching methods in terms of the form of the objective function, the cost function to be learned and the optimization method applied to minimize it. The results on standard datasets demonstrate how learning over a hypergraph improves the matching performance over existing algorithms, notably one that also uses higher order information without learning.

  20. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23286072

  1. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  2. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2013-01-01

    We consider NCA labeling schemes: given a rooted tree $T$, label the nodes of $T$ with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the label of their nearest common ancestor. For trees with $n$ nodes we present upper and lower bou...

  3. Mining Java Class Naming Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon; Wermelinger, Michel; Yu, Yijun; Sharp, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Class names represent the concepts implemented in object-oriented source code and are key elements in program comprehension and, thus, software maintenance. Programming conventions often state that class names should be noun-phrases, but there is little further guidance for developers on the composition of class names. Other researchers have observed that the majority of Java class identifier names are composed of one or more nouns preceded, optionally, by one or more adjectives. However, no ...

  4. Characterizing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Binding to Human Serum Albumin by Spin-Labeling and EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenschild, Till; Reichenwallner, Jörg; Enkelmann, Volker; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-08-26

    Drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) has been characterized by a spin-labeling and continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectroscopic approach. Specifically, the contribution of functional groups (FGs) in a compound on its albumin-binding capabilities is quantitatively described. Molecules from different drug classes are labeled with EPR-active nitroxide radicals (spin-labeled pharmaceuticals (SLPs)) and in a screening approach CW-EPR spectroscopy is used to investigate HSA binding under physiological conditions and at varying ratios of SLP to protein. Spectral simulations of the CW-EPR spectra allow extraction of association constants (KA ) and the maximum number (n) of binding sites per protein. By comparison of data from 23 SLPs, the mechanisms of drug-protein association and the impact of chemical modifications at individual positions on drug uptake can be rationalized. Furthermore, new drug modifications with predictable protein binding tendency may be envisaged. PMID:27460503

  5. The Nutritional Labeling of the Dairy Products in Romania, Tendencies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Ramona Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present essay is to improve the degree of information through more efficient labeling of the alimentary products. The observation method has been used for the establishment of the offer of milk and dairy products class on the Romanian market during 2013, and the investigation stage consisted of data collection from labels and their graphical interpretation. The 3 concern groups regarding the classification of the chosen products have been: Any special storage conditions and/or conditions of use, % of Saturated fat specified on product and % of Salt specified on product. The label of the products has to offer the consumer the necessary, sufficient, veritable and easy to compare information, which will allow them to chose their alimentary product according to their exigency, financial possibilities, to know the eventual risks they may be subject to, so that they will not be mislead.

  6. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, E. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glebe, NSW (Australia). Div. of Animal Health, McMaster Lab.); Dawson, M. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Pharmacy); Long, M.A.; Than, C. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Chemistry)

    1989-12-01

    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 60{sup 0}C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author).

  7. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...

  8. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  9. Traffic Flow Analysis Model based Routing Protocol For Multi-Protocol Label Switching Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Naganathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS is a mechanism which is used in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. Traffic management is still an issue in MPLS network as it involves high speed internet. Approach: This study proposed a traffic flow analysis of the real time MPLS traffic and segregates the MPLS traffic as three major class based on the outcome of traffic flow analysis. Using the traffic class. This study proposed a reliable transmission methodology which provides traffic free routing in the MPLS networks. Results: The proposed traffic flow analysis based reliable routing model overcomes the network traffic and provides effective routing by offering traffic free path. Conclusion: The proposed traffic flow analysis model outperforms existing routing protocol and offers comparatively negligible packet loss.

  10. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  11. Large-Scale Automatic Labeling of Video Events with Verbs Based on Event-Participant Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Andrei; Coroian, Dan; Dickinson, Sven; Mussman, Sam; Narayanaswamy, Siddharth; Salvi, Dhaval; Schmidt, Lara; Shangguan, Jiangnan; Siskind, Jeffrey Mark; Waggoner, Jarrell; Wang, Song; Wei, Jinlian; Yin, Yifan; Zhang, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach to labeling short video clips with English verbs as event descriptions. A key distinguishing aspect of this work is that it labels videos with verbs that describe the spatiotemporal interaction between event participants, humans and objects interacting with each other, abstracting away all object-class information and fine-grained image characteristics, and relying solely on the coarse-grained motion of the event participants. We apply our approach to a large set of 22 distinct verb classes and a corpus of 2,584 videos, yielding two surprising outcomes. First, a classification accuracy of greater than 70% on a 1-out-of-22 labeling task and greater than 85% on a variety of 1-out-of-10 subsets of this labeling task is independent of the choice of which of two different time-series classifiers we employ. Second, we achieve this level of accuracy using a highly impoverished intermediate representation consisting solely of the bounding boxes of one or two event participants as a function of ...

  12. A General Approach to L(h, k)-Label Interconnection Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiziana Calamoneri; Saverio Caminiti; Rossella Petreschi

    2008-01-01

    Given two non-negative integers h and k, an L(h, k)-labelin9 of a graph G = (V, E) is a function from the set V to a set of colors, such that adjacent nodes take colors at distance at least h, and nodes at distance 2 take colors at distanceat least k. The aim of the L(h, k)-labeling problem is to minimize the greatest used color. Since the decisional version of this problem is NP-complete, it is important to investigate particular classes of graphs for which the problem can be efficiently solved. It is well known that the most common interconnection topologies, such as Butterfly-like, Benes, CCC, Trivalent Cayley networks, are all characterized by a similar structure: they have nodes organized as a matrix and connections are divided into layers. So we naturally introduce a new class of graphs, called (l×n)-multistage graphs, containing the most common interconnection topologies, on which we study the L(h, k)-labeling. A general algorithm for L(h, k)-labeling these graphs is presented, and from this method an efficient L(2, 1)-labeling for Butterfly and CCC networks is derived. Finally we describe a possible generalization of our approach.

  13. A New F-18 Labeled PET Agent For Imaging Alzheimer's Plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advances in development of imaging agents have focused on targeting amyloid plaques. Notable success has been the development of C-11 labeled PIB (Pittsburgh Compound) and a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of this agent. However, the short half life of C-11 (t1/2: 20 min), is a limitation, thus has prompted the development of F-18 labeled agents. Most of these agents are derivatives of amyloid binding dyes; Congo red and Thioflavin. Some of these agents are in clinical trials with encouraging results. We have been exploring new class of agents based on 8-hydroxy quinoline, a weak metal chelator, targeting elevated levels of metals in plaques. Iodine-123 labeled clioquinol showed affinity for amyloid plaques however, it had limited brain uptake and was not successful in imaging in intact animals and humans. We have been successful in synthesizing F-18 labeled 8-hydroxy quinoline. Small animal PET/CT imaging studies with this agent showed high (7-10% ID/g), rapid brain uptake and fast washout of the agent from normal mice brains and delayed washout from transgenic Alzheimer's mice. These promising results encouraged us in further evaluation of this class of compounds for imaging AD plaques.

  14. Separation of Points and Interval Estimation in Mixed Dose-Response Curves with Selective Component Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Flake, Darl D.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation develops, applies, and investigates new methods to improve the analysis of logistic regression mixture models. An interesting dose-response experiment was previously carried out on a mixed population, in which the class membership of only a subset of subjects (survivors) were subsequently labeled. In early analyses of the dataset, challenges with separation of points and asymmetric confidence intervals were encountered. This dissertation extends the previous analyses by char...

  15. Gene Expression Data Analysis Using Closed Itemset Mining for Labeled Data

    OpenAIRE

    Toplak, Nataša; Blejec, Andrej; Lavrač, Nada; Kralj Novak, Petra; Baebler, Špela; Gruden, Kristina; Rotter, Ana

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an approach to microarray data analysis using discretised expression values in combination with a methodology of closed itemset mining for class labeled data (RelSets). A statistical 2 × 2 factorial design analysis was run in parallel. The approach was validated on two independent sets of two-color microarray experiments using potato plants. Our results demonstrate that the two different analytical procedures, applied on the same data, are adequate for solving two differ...

  16. Label-Free Direct Electronic Detection of Biomolecules with Amorphous Silicon Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, John; Mehta, Ranjana; Parviz, Babak A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of a nano-scale sensor made of amorphous silicon for the label-free, electronic detection of three classes of biologically important molecules: ions, oligonucleotides, and proteins. The sensor structure has an active element which is a 50 nm wide amorphous silicon semicircle and has a total footprint of less than 4 μm2. We demonstrate the functionalization of the sensor with receptor molecules and the electronic detection of three targets: H+ io...

  17. Label-dependent Feature Extraction in Social Networks for Node Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kajdanowicz, Tomasz; Kazienko, Przemyslaw; Doskocz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    A new method of feature extraction in the social network for within-network classification is proposed in the paper. The method provides new features calculated by combination of both: network structure information and class labels assigned to nodes. The influence of various features on classification performance has also been studied. The experiments on real-world data have shown that features created owing to the proposed method can lead to significant improvement of classification accuracy.

  18. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines. PMID:6631228

  19. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T2O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  20. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of...

  1. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  2. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  3. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the brand label or separate front label, or on a back or side label, separate and apart from all other... of alcoholic beverages impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery, and may cause...

  4. 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金赫; 徐海峰; 邵秋菊; 袁梦晖; 周润锁; 周亮飞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin (AS) and investigate the stability and bioactivity of the 99Tcm-labeled AS in vitro. Methods: AS was extracted, validated, and then labeled with 99Tcm after having been reduced by 2-ME or SnCl2. The best labeling condition was screened by cross design. The labeling efficiency was measured by TLC and column chromatography. The stability of 99Tcm-AS was observed and compared when BSA, saline and different molar ratios of Cys∶AS were separately added. The bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (CEV304). Results: The labeling efficiency can reach (97±1.5)% for the 2-ME-reducing approach. Its best experimental condition was as follows: AS 100 μg,PB(0.5 mol/L, pH 7.3)1 ml, 2-ME 100 μg, MDP (dissolved in 1 ml saline) 10 μl, and 99TcmO4- 185 MBq. The labeling efficiency using SnCl2-reducing method can reach (90±3.0)%. The best experimental procedure was as follows: AS 100 μg,boric acid buffer(0.1 mol/L, pH 9.0)1 ml, 2%SnCl2 (dissolved in 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid) 20 μl, was added into MDP, which was diluted with 1 ml deoxygenized water, and then 20 μl, 99TcmO4- 185 MBq was added. The product of 99Tcm labeled AS was stable in vitro and had the same bioactivity as AS. Conclusion: 99Tcm direct labeling of AS is simple and efficient. And the bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS has no significant change compared with AS.

  5. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted...... not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed....... categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were...

  6. Network class superposition analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  7. Sublinear distance labeling for sparse graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;

    2015-01-01

    between pairs of nodes that are at distance at least $D$ from each other. In this paper we consider distance labeling schemes for the classical case of unweighted and undirected graphs. We present the first distance labeling scheme of size $o(n)$ for sparse graphs (and hence bounded degree graphs......). This addresses an open problem by Gavoille et. al. [J. Algo. 2004], hereby separating the complexity from general graphs which require $\\Omega(n)$ size Moon [Proc. of Glasgow Math. Association 1965]. As an intermediate result we give a $O(\\frac{n}{D}\\log^2 D)$ $D$-preserving distance labeling scheme, improving...

  8. Private Labels, Price Rivalry, and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Sørgard, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The article examines how the existence of a retailer owned brand, private label, aspects the price setting of a national brand. We …nd that the potential for a private label introduction may lead to price concessions from the national brand producer, but that actual private label introduction as such may very well lead to higher retail prices on national brands. We argue that this may have important implications for the interpretation of empirical results and the public policy towards natio...

  9. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  10. Preparation of 11C labelled tamoxifen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The syntheses and HPLC analysis of N-desmethyltamoxifen and carbon-11labelled tamoxifen are described. In order to obtain the N-desmethyltamoxifen,tamoxifencitrate was first converted to tamoxifen free base.N-desmethyltamoxifen wasprepared by reacting tamoxifen free base with 1-chloroethyl-chloroformate(ACE.Cl).For 11C labeling, N-desmethyltamoxifen was heated with 11Cmethyl iodide for 10min at 130℃,and the 11Clabelled compound was purifiedby HPLC on a μBonapak TM C18 column.Injectable 11C-tamoxifen was obtained within 50~60min from EOB (end-of-bombardment) with a labeling yield of 60%~70%.

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  14. Alternative methods of synthesizing 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. We synthesized Infecton by modifying the procedure described by Keith Britton's group (Lancet 1996; 347: 233-235) and reported our findings at the ANZSNM meeting last year. Since the methodology was cumbersome, we investigated simpler alternative ways of labelling ciprofloxacin with 99Tcm-pertechnetate for routine imaging. There were several limitations in the previously described method: (1) Need to prepare pure ciprofloxacin which was unstable on storage. (2) Synthetic procedure using formimidine sulphinic acid (FSA) was complicated and required boiling step. (3) The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the product was low (45-50%) requiring purification. (4) Biodistribution studies showed a marked uptake by the liver which could interfere with scan interpretation in this region. The results of our present studies showed that Infecton could be prepared by a simple two-step method: (1) Reduce 99Tcm-pertechnetate with stannous salt (SnCl2 or Sn-tartrate). (2) Mix with Ciproxin IV-100. The RCP of the product was up to 98%, which obviates the need for further purification. Infecton synthesized by the above method showed avid localization in abscesses induced with Staphylococcus aureus in rats. The biodistribution studies showed that Infecton was renally excreted with minimal accumulation in the liver or other organs

  15. Generation, Quantification, and Tracing of Metabolically Labeled Fluorescent Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Carolina; Parolini, Isabella; Sanchez, Massimo; Biffoni, Mauro; Boussadia, Zaira; Zanetti, Cristiana; Fiani, Maria Luisa; Sargiacomo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the constant progression in exosome (Exo)-related studies highlighted the importance of these cell-derived nano-sized vesicles in cell biology and pathophysiology. Functional studies on Exo uptake and intracellular trafficking require accurate quantification to assess sufficient and/or necessary Exo particles quantum able to elicit measurable effects on target cells. We used commercially available BODIPY(®) fatty acid analogues to label a primary melanoma cell line (Me501) that highly and spontaneously secrete nanovesicles. Upon addition to cell culture, BODIPY fatty acids are rapidly incorporated into major phospholipid classes ultimately producing fluorescent Exo as direct result of biogenesis. Our metabolic labeling protocol produced bright fluorescent Exo that can be examined and quantified with conventional non-customized flow cytometry (FC) instruments by exploiting their fluorescent emission rather than light-scattering detection. Furthermore, our methodology permits the measurement of single Exo-associated fluorescence transfer to cells making quantitative the correlation between Exo uptake and activation of cellular processes. Thus the protocol presented here appears as an appropriate tool to who wants to investigate mechanisms of Exo functions in that it allows for direct and rapid characterization and quantification of fluorescent Exo number, intensity, size, and eventually evaluation of their kinetic of uptake/secretion in target cells. PMID:27317184

  16. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://www.mindboggle.info/data/ website.

  17. Towards Automatic Semantic Labelling of 3D City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, M.; Biljecki, F.; Diakité, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The lack of semantic information in many 3D city models is a considerable limiting factor in their use, as a lot of applications rely on semantics. Such information is not always available, since it is not collected at all times, it might be lost due to data transformation, or its lack may be caused by non-interoperability in data integration from other sources. This research is a first step in creating an automatic workflow that semantically labels plain 3D city model represented by a soup of polygons, with semantic and thematic information, as defined in the CityGML standard. The first step involves the reconstruction of the topology, which is used in a region growing algorithm that clusters upward facing adjacent triangles. Heuristic rules, embedded in a decision tree, are used to compute a likeliness score for these regions that either represent the ground (terrain) or a RoofSurface. Regions with a high likeliness score, to one of the two classes, are used to create a decision space, which is used in a support vector machine (SVM). Next, topological relations are utilised to select seeds that function as a start in a region growing algorithm, to create regions of triangles of other semantic classes. The topological relationships of the regions are used in the aggregation of the thematic building features. Finally, the level of detail is detected to generate the correct output in CityGML. The results show an accuracy between 85 % and 99 % in the automatic semantic labelling on four different test datasets. The paper is concluded by indicating problems and difficulties implying the next steps in the research.

  18. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  19. 21 CFR 310.517 - Labeling for oral hypoglycemic drugs of the sulfonylurea class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... structure and mode of action, the Food and Drug Administration also believes it is prudent from a safety... cardiovascular mortality as compared to treatment with diet alone or diet plus insulin. This warning is based on... vascular complications in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The study involved 823 patients...

  20. A Study on Standards System of Chinese Environmental Labeling Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Implementing Outlines for the Chinese Environmental Labeling Program By awarding certificates and labels to related manufacturers in accordance with certain environmental labeling standards, environmental labeling,also called "Green Label"or "Eco-label", certifies via governmental departments or public and private organizations that the whole process of producing,using, recalling and disposing of manufacturers'products is in compliance with certain environmental requirements. Many countries are establishing and promoting environmental labeling plans. Environmental labeling, as an important promotion means for prevention and control of pollution in a market-oriented manner, is being extended and developed constantly across the world.

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring ...

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes ... Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, ...

  4. Synthesis of tritium-labelled natural prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most suitable method for the preparation of tritium-labelled prostaglandins is the biosynthetic procedure. Polyunsaturated labelled fatty acids are converted into prostaglandins by a prostaglandin synthetase enzyme system produced from sheep seminal vesicule, and the crude product is purified using thin layer chromatography. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are prepared in a reaction series. Tritium is introduced at the very last step. A very little amount (10-20 mg) of tritium-labelled prostaglandin E2 can be converted into A2, B2 and F2 respectively, conversion and separation being carried out simultaneously on the same silica plate. After the separation on thin layer silica gel the obtained tritium-labelled prostaglandin (PC) was chemically and radiochemically pure, its activity was 3700 GBq/mmol (100 Ci/mmol) and it was suitable for RIA kits. (author)

  5. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  6. 9 CFR 317.4 - Labeling approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is a printer's proof or equivalent which clearly shows all labeling features, size, location, and... carcass ink brands and meat food product ink and burning brands, which comply with parts 312 and 316...

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ...

  8. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Have Food Allergies? Read the Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... These foods account for 90 percent of all food allergies: milk egg fish, such as bass, flounder, or ...

  9. Labels in PURE - Til gavn eller hindring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurcher, Sacha; Sass, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er baseret på en usability test af anvendelse af labels i PURE, et vidensregistreringssystem. Formålet var at undersøge om hvorvidt de anvendte labels i PURE understøtter forskernes inddatering af forskellige publikationstyper. Pilot testen viste at man skal være opmærksom på, at de...... anvendte labels ikke nødvendigvis dækker over et kontrolleret fagsprog der modsvarer alle faglige domæner. PURE understøtter således ikke intuitivt alle forskeres forståelse af registrering af publikationstyper. Endvidere kan det skabe forvirring når sproget ikke er konsistent, som det er tilfælde i PURE...... resultaterne kun bruges som en indikator på, hvorvidt de brugte labels i PURE er tydelige og genkendelige for forskere....

  10. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  12. Automated segmentation of thyroid gland on CT images with multi-atlas label fusion and random classification forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Chang, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The thyroid gland plays an important role in clinical practice, especially for radiation therapy treatment planning. For patients with head and neck cancer, radiation therapy requires a precise delineation of the thyroid gland to be spared on the pre-treatment planning CT images to avoid thyroid dysfunction. In the current clinical workflow, the thyroid gland is normally manually delineated by radiologists or radiation oncologists, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, a system for automated segmentation of the thyroid is desirable. However, automated segmentation of the thyroid is challenging because the thyroid is inhomogeneous and surrounded by structures that have similar intensities. In this work, the thyroid gland segmentation is initially estimated by multi-atlas label fusion algorithm. The segmentation is refined by supervised statistical learning based voxel labeling with a random forest algorithm. Multiatlas label fusion (MALF) transfers expert-labeled thyroids from atlases to a target image using deformable registration. Errors produced by label transfer are reduced by label fusion that combines the results produced by all atlases into a consensus solution. Then, random forest (RF) employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled thyroids to recognize features. The trained forest classifier is then applied to the thyroid estimated from the MALF by voxel scanning to assign the class-conditional probability. Voxels from the expert-labeled thyroids in CT volumes are treated as positive classes; background non-thyroid voxels as negatives. We applied this automated thyroid segmentation system to CT scans of 20 patients. The results showed that the MALF achieved an overall 0.75 Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the RF classification further improved the DSC to 0.81.

  13. A triarylmethyl spin label for long-range distance measurement at physiological temperatures using T1 relaxation enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongyu; Bridges, Michael D.; López, Carlos J.; Rogozhnikova, Olga Yu.; Trukhin, Dmitry V.; Brooks, Evan K.; Tormyshev, Victor; Halpern, Howard J.; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2016-08-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has become an important tool for measuring distances in proteins on the order of a few nm. For this purpose pairs of spin labels, most commonly nitroxides, are site-selectively introduced into the protein. Recent efforts to develop new spin labels are focused on tailoring the intrinsic properties of the label to either extend the upper limit of measurable distances at physiological temperature, or to provide a unique spectral lineshape so that selective pairwise distances can be measured in a protein or complex containing multiple spin label species. Triarylmethyl (TAM) radicals are the foundation for a new class of spin labels that promise to provide both capabilities. Here we report a new methanethiosulfonate derivative of a TAM radical that reacts rapidly and selectively with an engineered cysteine residue to generate a TAM containing side chain (TAM1) in high yield. With a TAM1 residue and Cu2+ bound to an engineered Cu2+ binding site, enhanced T1 relaxation of TAM should enable measurement of interspin distances up to 50 Å at physiological temperature. To achieve favorable TAM1-labeled protein concentrations without aggregation, proteins are tethered to a solid support either site-selectively using an unnatural amino acid or via native lysine residues. The methodology is general and readily extendable to complex systems, including membrane proteins.

  14. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tavares, Leoberto C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Departamento de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2000-07-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  15. Improved electrochemiluminescence labels for heterogeneous microbead immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linpo; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Ruthenium(II) complexes with carboxylic acid as a bioconjugatable group, i.e., [Ru(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)(2,2'-bipyridine)(4-methyl-4'-(3-carboxypropyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)](0), (C49H38N6O8S2Ru), and [Ru(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)2(4-methyl-4'-(3-carboxypropyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)](2-) · 2Na(+), (C63H44N6O14S4RuNa2) were characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically. As potential labels for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays, the ECL intensities of the free labels in homogenous aqueous buffer solutions were compared under a condition that is similar to the one employed by a commercial clinical immunoassay system. The two labels were found to be more emissive and, thus, can be detected at 10(- 12) pM compared with 5× 10(-12) pM of the label currently used in the commercial ECL system. Furthermore, the improved ECL emission of the free labels in homogenous solutions was proven to be translated into more intense ECL signal in heterogeneous sandwich immunoassay and, thus, leading to a lower limit of detection in immunoassay. The data obtained from these ECL labels shed light on the further development of ECL-based clinical immunoassay technology. Graphical abstract Electrochemiluminescence immunoassays were carried out with three different ruthenium(II) complex labels. It was proved that the higher signal intensities found with the novel labels in homogeneous solutions were maintained in heterogeneous sandwich format. PMID:27178555

  16. A method for labeling polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever struggled with the identification of your polyacrylamide gels after running a few of them at once? Here is a new method for labeling gels which is easy, free and does not interfere with your protein samples. You will be intrigued once you learn how you can add a label to your laboratory-made gels and will have no problem identifying your gels any more.

  17. Labelling of electricity; Kennzeichnung von Elektrizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Markard, J. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed.

  18. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  19. Hierarchical Label Fusion with Multiscale Feature Representation and Label-Specific Patch Partition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patch-based label fusion methods have achieved many successes in medical imaging area. After registering atlas images to the target image, the label at each target image point can be subsequently determined by checking the patchwise similarities between the underlying target image patch and all atlas image patches. Apparently, the definition of patchwise similarity is critical in label fusion. However, current methods often simply use entire image patch with fixed patch size through...

  20. Background suppression in arterial spin labeling MRI with a separate neck labeling coil

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2011-01-01

    In arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF), pair-wise subtraction of temporally adjacent non-labeled and labeled images often can not completely cancel the background static tissue signal because of temporally fluctuating physiological noise. While background suppression (BS) by inversion nulling improves CBF temporal stability, imperfect pulses compromise CBF contrast. Conventional BS techniques may not be applicable in small animals because the arterial transit...

  1. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Fooksman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.

  2. Experiencing a Flipped Mathematics Class

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, A. Judy

    2013-01-01

    The flipped classroom is an old concept that has recently been redefined through the emergence of new technologies that allow teachers to deliver content out of class time. As such, various approaches for implementation exist. Most prominently, teachers are able to use class time in a student-centered manner, which allows students to experience the classroom in diverse ways. This study focuses on describing these experiences in a particular flipped adult upgrading mathematics class. Students ...

  3. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because i...

  4. Borrowings - a source of innovation in the class of interjections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    2006-01-01

    The present article is part of a larger project investigating the various types of linguistic change that affected and might affect the word class traditionally known under the label of interjection. The results of our research, as outlined here, concern the inter-linguistic mobility of units, i.......e., borrowings, which in the source language can be (but not necessarily) interjections, and which are still categorized - or re-categorized - as interjections in the target language. The inventory of interjections which constituted the corpus of the present study is therefore collected mainly from normative...

  5. Food Retailers’ Objectives of Developing Private Label Products and their Perspectives to Private Label Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive competitive environment, retailers incline to develop their own branded products (private label products to make a differentiation over their rivals and to gain a market share. On the other side, retailers’ have some objectives in developing private label products. At this point, this study put forwards the differences between retailers’ some characteristics and objectives of developing private label products and investigates the tendencies and expectations towards private label products. The results of the research present that there are no differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ ownership of private label. However, it is found that there are some differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ level of activity, number of branches and scale. In the study, it is also put forward that food retailers expect an increase in the demand of private label products at nearly terms and inclining to develop private labels more than before.

  6. Multi-hop optical label switching with coherent detected spectral amplitude code labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongsheng

    Based on label stacking principles and coherent detection, we present a two-hop, coherent detected spectral amplitude code (SAC) labeled system to accomplish ultrafast packet forwarding for packet-switched metropolitan area networks. An optical switching network with two forwarding nodes, two 156 Mb/s SAC labels, and 40 Gb/s differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) payloads is demonstrated by computer simulation. The bit error rate (BER) performances of coherent detected SAC labels and high speed payload over 160 km fiber after two hops transmission are accessed, respectively.

  7. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be explai......Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...... with surface scattering is presented. Each of the two scattering effects is modeled as frequency dependent functions....

  8. An information theoretic approach for non-rigid image registration using voxel class probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emiliano; Maes, Frederik; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

    2006-06-01

    We propose two information theoretic similarity measures that allow to incorporate tissue class information in non-rigid image registration. The first measure assumes that tissue class probabilities have been assigned to each of the images to be registered by prior segmentation of both of them. One image is then non-rigidly deformed to match the other such that the fuzzy overlap of corresponding voxel object labels becomes similar to the ideal case whereby the tissue probability maps of both images are identical. Image similarity is assessed during registration by the divergence between the ideal and actual joint class probability distributions of both images. A second registration measure is proposed that applies in case a segmentation is available for only one of the images, for instance an atlas image that is to be matched to a study image to guide the segmentation thereof. Intensities in one image are matched to the fuzzy class labels in the other image by minimizing the conditional entropy of the intensities in the first image given the class labels in the second image. We derive analytic expressions for the gradient of each measure with respect to individual voxel displacements to derive a force field that drives the registration process, which is regularized by a viscous fluid model. The performance of the class-based measures is evaluated in the context of non-rigid inter-subject registration and atlas-based segmentation of MR brain images and compared with maximization of mutual information using only intensity information. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of class information in the registration measure significantly improves the overlap between corresponding tissue classes after non-rigid matching. The methods proposed here open new perspectives for integrating segmentation and registration in a single process, whereby the output of one is used to guide the other.

  9. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions...

  10. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-07-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr{sup 3}]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with {sup 99m} using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of {approx}80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for {sup 99m}Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG{sub 3}) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel {sup 188}Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O

  11. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If...

  12. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  13. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  14. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  15. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  16. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    establishing that labels of size (2 ± ε)log n, ε Bille, and Rauhe (SIDMA'05) showed that ancestor and NCA labeling schemes have labels of size log n + Ω(log log n). Our lower bound increases this to log n + Ω(log n) for NCA labeling schemes. Since Fraigniaud...

  17. 27 CFR 4.32 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the bottle. (c) There shall be stated on the brand label or on a back label a statement that the..., strip label or neck label, the statement “Contains sulfites” or “Contains (a) sulfiting agent(s)” or...

  18. 21 CFR 341.72 - Labeling of antihistamine drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antihistamine drug products. 341.72... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.72 Labeling of antihistamine drug products. (a) Statement of... product as an “antihistamine.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the...

  19. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  20. Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngrok [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

  1. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  2. Incremental multi-class semi-supervised clustering regularized by Kalman filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkanoon, Siamak; Agudelo, Oscar Mauricio; Suykens, Johan A K

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces an on-line semi-supervised learning algorithm formulated as a regularized kernel spectral clustering (KSC) approach. We consider the case where new data arrive sequentially but only a small fraction of it is labeled. The available labeled data act as prototypes and help to improve the performance of the algorithm to estimate the labels of the unlabeled data points. We adopt a recently proposed multi-class semi-supervised KSC based algorithm (MSS-KSC) and make it applicable for on-line data clustering. Given a few user-labeled data points the initial model is learned and then the class membership of the remaining data points in the current and subsequent time instants are estimated and propagated in an on-line fashion. The update of the memberships is carried out mainly using the out-of-sample extension property of the model. Initially the algorithm is tested on computer-generated data sets, then we show that video segmentation can be cast as a semi-supervised learning problem. Furthermore we show how the tracking capabilities of the Kalman filter can be used to provide the labels of objects in motion and thus regularizing the solution obtained by the MSS-KSC algorithm. In the experiments, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on synthetic data sets and real-life videos where the clusters evolve in a smooth fashion over time.

  3. Incremental multi-class semi-supervised clustering regularized by Kalman filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkanoon, Siamak; Agudelo, Oscar Mauricio; Suykens, Johan A K

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces an on-line semi-supervised learning algorithm formulated as a regularized kernel spectral clustering (KSC) approach. We consider the case where new data arrive sequentially but only a small fraction of it is labeled. The available labeled data act as prototypes and help to improve the performance of the algorithm to estimate the labels of the unlabeled data points. We adopt a recently proposed multi-class semi-supervised KSC based algorithm (MSS-KSC) and make it applicable for on-line data clustering. Given a few user-labeled data points the initial model is learned and then the class membership of the remaining data points in the current and subsequent time instants are estimated and propagated in an on-line fashion. The update of the memberships is carried out mainly using the out-of-sample extension property of the model. Initially the algorithm is tested on computer-generated data sets, then we show that video segmentation can be cast as a semi-supervised learning problem. Furthermore we show how the tracking capabilities of the Kalman filter can be used to provide the labels of objects in motion and thus regularizing the solution obtained by the MSS-KSC algorithm. In the experiments, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on synthetic data sets and real-life videos where the clusters evolve in a smooth fashion over time. PMID:26319050

  4. The Paradox of Paperless Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Describes paperless classes developed at Carleton College that augment traditional classes by giving students and faculty the ability to share digital course-related materials via the campus computer network. Presents a case study of a managerial economics course, and includes problems with various aspects of the course and solutions. (LRW)

  5. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  6. A Touch of...Class!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  7. Social Class and the Extracurriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Will

    2012-01-01

    Social class is a powerful and often unrecognized influence on student participation in the extracurriculum. Spontaneous student-created extracurricular experiences depend on students affiliating and interacting with each other; student social class is a powerful influence on student affiliations. Students tend to exercise consciousness of kind-…

  8. Class, Identity, and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of working with White, working-class teacher education students to explore the "complex social trajectory" (Reay in Women's Stud Int Forum 20(2):225-233, 1997a, p. 19) of class border crossing as they progress through college. Through analysis of a course that I have developed, "Education and the American…

  9. Dynamic class methods in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Heinlein, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The concept of dynamic class methods in Java, constituting a specialization of a general new programming language concept called dynamic routines, is introduced and applied to a simple case study. Its advantages over standard object-oriented programming techniques including design patterns are demonstrated. Furthermore, an implementation of dynamic class methods as a precompiler-based language extension to Java is described.

  10. Relations among tautological classes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    We give a simple generalisation of a theorem of Morita (1989) [10] and [11], which leads to a great number of relations among tautological classes on moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces......We give a simple generalisation of a theorem of Morita (1989) [10] and [11], which leads to a great number of relations among tautological classes on moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces...

  11. Tautological Classes on Projective Towers

    CERN Document Server

    Negut, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    When one has a tower of projective bundles over an algebraic variety and wishes to compute the push-forward of any cohomology class down this tower, one needs to recursively compute the Segre classes corresponding to each level. In this paper, we give a closed combinatorial formula that encodes this recursive procedure.

  12. First class models from linear and nonlinear second class constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghani, Mehdi; Monemzadeh, Majid; Abarghooeinejad, Salman

    2014-01-01

    Two models with linear and nonlinear second class constraints are considered and gauged by embedding in an extended phase space. These models are the free non-relativistic particle on a hyperplane and hyper sphere in configuration space. For the first model we construct its gauged corresponding by the condition of converting second class system to first class one, directly. In contrast the first class system related to the free particle on hyper sphere is derived by the BFT embedding procedure, where its steps are infinite. We give a practical formula for gauging linear and some of the nonlinear second class systems, based on the simplified BFT method. As a result of the gauging two models, we show that in the conversion of second class to the first class constraints the minimum number of phase space degrees of freedom for both systems is a pair of phase space coordinate. This pair for first system is a coordinate and its momentum conjugate, but Poisson structure of embedded non-relativistic particle on hyper...

  13. 基于SVG的Google用户地图文本标注方法%SVG-Based Text Labeling Method for Google Custom Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立法

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,a new method of dynamic text label for Google custom map is proposed.In this meth-od,HTML5 SVG element and Google maps overlay class OverlayView are combined to form a new JavaScript class SVGMapLabel.With the powerful expression of SVG′s Text element,SVGMapLabel in practice can create text labels for point,polyline and polygon features on Google maps like Google base maps.When the method is applied to label KML Layers on Google Maps,the labeling process can be automated and the number of labels can be adjusted to adapt to the features on any map zoom.%提出一种新的Google地图文本标注方法.该方法将HTML5 SVG元素与Google地图自定义叠加层OverlayView类相结合,构成新类SVGMapLabel.该类借助于SVG中TEXT的丰富表现力,可以为Google地图上点、线、面对象建立文本标注.与KML图层结合,可以实现Google用户地图的自动标注,其效果类似于Google基础地图.

  14. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... closure design (December 13, 2012, 77 FR 74196), and the third guidance will focus on minimizing risks... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for...

  15. Selenium as an alternative peptide label - comparison to fluorophore-labelled penetratin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyrup Møller, Laura; Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact on peptide properties of labelling peptides with the fluorophore TAMRA or the selenium (Se) containing amino acid SeMet was evaluated. Three differently labelled variants of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin (Pen) were synthesized, PenMSe, TAMRA...

  16. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 RIN 0910-ZA26 Food Labeling; Gluten-Free... considers other practical factors related to the needs of individuals with celiac disease and their food... establishing labeling thresholds for gluten (as well as for the major food allergens), including the data...

  17. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  18. Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Binbin; Lai, Jianhuang; Shen, Lixin

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently.

  19. Improved specificity of hippocampal memory trace labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzulino, Alejandro S; Martinez, Randy; Tomm, Nicole K; Denny, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on the identification and manipulation of memory traces in rodent models. The two main mouse models utilized are either a CreER(T2) /loxP tamoxifen (TAM)- or a tetracycline transactivator/tetracycline-response element doxycycline-inducible system. These systems, however, could be improved to label a more specific population of activated neurons corresponding to behavior. Here, we sought to identify an improved selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) in which we could label an individual memory trace in ArcCreER(T2) mice. We found that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is a selective SERM in the ArcCreER(T2) × Rosa26-CAG-stop(flox) -channelrhodospin (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) mice. The half-life of 4-OHT is shorter than TAM, allowing for more specificity of memory trace labeling. Furthermore, 4-OHT allowed for context-specific labeling in the dentate gyrus and CA3. In summary, we believe that 4-OHT improves the specificity of memory trace labeling and will allow for refined memory trace studies in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26662713

  20. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  1. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  2. A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label product

  3. LabelTranslator: A Tool to Automatically Localize an Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, M; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; E. Mena

    2008-01-01

    This demo proposal briefly presents LabelTranslator, a system that suggests translations of ontology labels, with the purpose of localizing ontologies. LabelTranslator takes as input an ontology whose labels are described in a source natural language and obtains the most probable translation of each ontology label into a target natural language.Our main contribution is the automatization of this process, which reduces human efforts to localize manually the ontology.

  4. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  5. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing....... An example of a nearterm application is given, and a comparison of routing technologies is made regarding their cost and reliability aspects....

  6. Global Monitoring of Tropical Forest Fires Using A New Predictive Modeling Approach for Rare Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, V.; Nayak, G.; Khandelwal, A.; Kumar, V.; Oza, N.; Nemani, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional classification approaches use labeled training data to select the best classification model from a family of models. Since collecting labeled samples is often tedious and sometimes even infeasible, recent research in machine learning has focused on developing algorithms to train classification models in scarcity of labeled training samples. In contrast, the focus of our research is to address problem settings where acquiring even a small number of expert-annotated labeled samples for supervision is infeasible. I will present RAPT, a new predictive modeling framework for identifying rare classes when there is a complete absence of labeled data. The RAPT framework is designed to use imperfectly annotated training data to learn classification models in the absence of expert-annotated training samples. Our results show that, under some reasonable assumptions, the classifiers trained from imperfectly labeled training data using the RAPT approach have performance comparable to the classification models trained using expert-annotated training data. This capability of learning from imperfect supervision is advantageous in a wide range of applications where the target class of interest is relatively rare and obtaining a precise labeling of even a small number of training samples is infeasible. I will also present the application of the RAPT framework for creating historical maps of forest fires from satellite data for the tropical forests. This new forest fire product identifies approximately 1 million sq. km. of burned areas in the tropical forests in South America and South-east Asia during years 2001-2014, which is more than three times the total burned area reported by the state-of-art NASA products. We show validation of these results using burn-scars visible in satellite images, including high resolution Landsat images, to confirm the veracity of the previously unreported forest fires.

  7. Housewives’ Compliance in Reading Food Labels in Gorontalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Tumenggung

    2016-06-01

    Di Indonesia, masalah label pada kemasan makanan kurang mendapat perhatian konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari determinan kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan oleh ibu rumah tangga di Kota Gorontalo. Penelitian dengan metode survei ini dilakukan dari bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2013. Data dikumpulkan secara potong lintang dengan menggunakan angket. Variabel terikat adalah kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan yang terdiri dari label informasi nilai gizi, komposisi makanan, masa kedaluwarsa, harga, dan status halal. Variabel bebas adalah usia, tingkat pendidikan, dan keterpaparan dengan media informasi. Besar sampel 262 orang ditentukan secara accidental technique. Analisis data menggunakan uji kai kuadrat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden patuh membaca label kedaluwarsa, label harga, dan label halal. Faktor usia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label kedaluwarsa dan label harga. Tingkat pendidikan berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label komposisi, label harga, dan lebel halal. Keterpaparan dengan media informasi berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label komposisi, kedaluwarsa, harga, dan halal. Disarankan kepada institusi terkait, yaitu dinas kesehatan untuk melakukan upaya meningkatkan pemahaman pentingnya membaca label kemasan makanan, terutama yang berkaitan dengan informasi nilai gizi dan komposisi bahan makanan.

  8. [Globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) and its implementation in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Muneyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a set of recommendations by the United Nations, first issued in 2003 as a communication tool for the sound management of chemicals, comprising harmonized classification criteria for physical, health and environmental hazards, a unified format for material safety data sheets (MSDS), and labeling elements including pictograms and hazard statements preassigned to each classification category. The GHS has been introduced into Japan and implemented in the regulatory framework for chemical safety. The Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) adopted the GHS, and the GHS-based JIS rules have become the Japanese standards for labels and MSDS. The use of the JIS format for labels and MSDS is recommended by several competent authorities in Japan although mostly on a voluntary basis. In the workplace, however, GHS-based JIS labels and MSDS have become legal requirements by the Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2006; namely, issuing MSDS in such a format is mandatory for the 640 specified chemicals and also labeling for the 99 targeted chemicals*. Although the GHS provides definitions and classification criteria for 10 classes of health hazards (acute toxicity, skin and eye corrosion/irritation, sensitization, germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, specific target organ toxicity single/repeated exposures, and aspiration hazard), it does not provide actual classification of chemicals, so that competent authorities and industries need to classify a number of chemicals and/or mixtures. Weight-of-evidence judgment and/or expert judgment would be necessary in many cases. In this paper, the outline of the GHS classification is described and problems of the GHS and its implementation are discussed. PMID:20134103

  9. Multi-label multi-kernel transfer learning for human protein subcellular localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyu Mei

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in computational modelling for protein subcellular localization. However, the existing sequence-based predictive models demonstrate moderate or unsatisfactory performance, and the gene ontology (GO based models may take the risk of performance overestimation for novel proteins. Furthermore, many human proteins have multiple subcellular locations, which renders the computational modelling more complicated. Up to the present, there are far few researches specialized for predicting the subcellular localization of human proteins that may reside in multiple cellular compartments. In this paper, we propose a multi-label multi-kernel transfer learning model for human protein subcellular localization (MLMK-TLM. MLMK-TLM proposes a multi-label confusion matrix, formally formulates three multi-labelling performance measures and adapts one-against-all multi-class probabilistic outputs to multi-label learning scenario, based on which to further extends our published work GO-TLM (gene ontology based transfer learning model for protein subcellular localization and MK-TLM (multi-kernel transfer learning based on Chou's PseAAC formulation for protein submitochondria localization for multiplex human protein subcellular localization. With the advantages of proper homolog knowledge transfer, comprehensive survey of model performance for novel protein and multi-labelling capability, MLMK-TLM will gain more practical applicability. The experiments on human protein benchmark dataset show that MLMK-TLM significantly outperforms the baseline model and demonstrates good multi-labelling ability for novel human proteins. Some findings (predictions are validated by the latest Swiss-Prot database. The software can be freely downloaded at http://soft.synu.edu.cn/upload/msy.rar.

  10. Detection and Analysis of Clones in UML Class Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhavleesh Rattan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is quite frequent to copy and paste code fragments in software development. The copied source code is called a software clone and the activity is referred to as code cloning. The presence of code clones hamper maintenance and may lead to bug propagation. Now-a-days, model driven development has become a standard industry practice. Duplicate parts in models i.e. model clones pose similar challenges as in source code. This paper presents an approach to detect clones in Unified Modeling Language class models. The core of our technique is the construction of a labeled, ranked tree corresponding to the UML class model where attributes with their data types and methods with their signatures are represented as subtrees. By grouping and clustering of repeating subtrees, the tool is able to detect duplications in a UML class model at different levels of granularity i.e. complete class diagram, attributes with their data types and methods with their signatures across the model and cluster of such attributes/methods. We propose a new classification of model clones with the objective of detecting exact and meaningful clones. Empirical evaluation of the tool using open source reverse engineered and forward designed models show some interesting and relevant clones which provide useful insights into software modeling practice.

  11. Detection and Analysis of Clones in UML Class Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhavleesh Rattan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite frequent to copy and paste code fragments in software development. The copied source code is called a software clone and the activity is referred to as code cloning. The presence of code clones hamper maintenance and may lead to bug propagation. Now-a-days, model driven development has become a standard industry practice. Duplicate parts in models i.e. model clones pose similar challenges as in source code. This paper presents an approach to detect clones in Unified Modeling Language class models. The core of our technique is the construction of a labeled, ranked tree corresponding to the UML class model where attributes with their data types and methods with their signatures are represented as subtrees. By grouping and clustering of repeating subtrees, the tool is able to detect duplications in a UML class model at different levels of granularity i.e. complete class diagram, attributes with their data types and methods with their signatures across the model and cluster of such attributes/methods. We propose a new classification of model clones with the objective of detecting exact and meaningful clones. Empirical evaluation of the tool using open source reverse engineered and forward designed models show some interesting and relevant clones which provide useful insights into software modeling practice.

  12. Psychiatric comorbidity among adults with schizophrenia: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-11-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that often co-occurs with and can be exacerbated by other psychiatric conditions. There have not been adequate efforts to examine schizophrenia and psychiatric comorbidity beyond pairwise examination using clusters of diagnoses. This study used latent class analysis to characterize patterns of 5-year psychiatric comorbidity among a national sample of adults with schizophrenia. Baseline data from 1446 adults with schizophrenia across 57 sites in the United States were analyzed. Three latent classes were identified labeled Solely Schizophrenia, Comorbid Anxiety and Depressive Disorders with Schizophrenia, and Comorbid Addiction and Schizophrenia. Adults in the Solely Schizophrenia class had significantly better mental health than those in the two comorbid classes, but poorer illness and treatment insight than those with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. These results suggest that addiction and schizophrenia may represent a separate latent profile from depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. More research is needed on how treatment can take advantage of the greater insight possessed by those with schizophrenia and comorbid anxiety and depression.

  13. A latent class analysis of parental bipolar disorder: Examining associations with offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D; Tompson, Martha C; Otto, Michael W; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Henin, Aude

    2015-12-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heterogeneous, and course variations are associated with patient outcomes. This diagnostic complexity challenges identification of patients in greatest need of intervention. Additionally, course variations have implications for offspring risk. First, latent class analysis (LCA) categorized parents with BD based on salient illness characteristics: BD type, onset age, polarity of index episode, pole of majority of episodes, rapid cycling, psychosis, anxiety comorbidity, and substance dependence. Fit indices favored three parental classes with some substantively meaningful patterns. Two classes, labeled "Earlier-Onset Bipolar-I" (EO-I) and "Earlier-Onset Bipolar-II" (EO-II), comprised parents who had a mean onset age in mid-adolescence, with EO-I primarily BD-I parents and EO-II entirely BD-II parents. The third class, labeled "Later-Onset BD" (LO) had an average onset age in adulthood. Classes also varied on probability of anxiety comorbidity, substance dependence, psychosis, rapid cycling, and pole of majority of episodes. Second, we examined rates of disorders in offspring (ages 4-33, Mage=13.46) based on parental latent class membership. Differences emerged for offspring anxiety disorders only such that offspring of EO-I and EO-II parents had higher rates, compared to offspring of LO parents, particularly for daughters. Findings may enhance understanding of BD and its nosology. PMID:26394919

  14. Visualizing dengue virus through Alexa Fluor labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Summer; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2011-01-01

    The early events in the interaction between virus and cell can have profound influence on the outcome of infection. Determining the factors that influence this interaction could lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and thus influence vaccine or therapeutic design. Hence, the development of methods to probe this interaction would be useful. Recent advancements in fluorophores development and imaging technology can be exploited to improve our current knowledge on dengue pathogenesis and thus pave the way to reduce the millions of dengue infections occurring annually. The enveloped dengue virus has an external scaffold consisting of 90 envelope glycoprotein (E) dimers protecting the nucleocapsid shell, which contains a single positive strand RNA genome. The identical protein subunits on the virus surface can thus be labeled with an amine reactive dye and visualized through immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we present a simple method of labeling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in a sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labeling. There is no standardized procedure for the labeling of live virus and existing manufacturer's protocol for protein labeling usually requires the reconstitution of dye in dimethyl sulfoxide. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, even in minute quantities, can block productive infection of virus and also induce cell cytotoxicity. The exclusion of the use of dimethyl sulfoxide in this protocol thus reduced this possibility. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labeled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.

  15. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga SB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanne B Haga, Rachel Mills, Jivan Moaddeb Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug's package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration's Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21% of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, US Food and Drug Administration, drug safety, patient education

  16. Classified management discussion on prescription medicine and OTC of retail pharmacies%零售药店关于处方药与非处方药分类管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康健

    2016-01-01

    采用随机抽样法抽取零售药店2014年1——12月200条处方药销售记录,另随机抽取2015年同期200条处方药销售记录,2014年、2015年销售记录抽样作为研究资料,对销售记录进行调查,分类统计各类不规范销售行为发生率,评估质量控制管理模式实施效果。抽样调查结果显示:2015年不规范售药行为发生率为2.00%,显著低于2014年(9.00%),差异 p<0.05,认为有统计学意义。说明零售药店实施处方药与非处方药分类质量控制管理模式,可有效降低不规范售药行为发生率,有助于提高分类管理成效,应推广使用该管理模式。%200 prescription drug sales records of retail pharmacies were selected randomly from January to December in 2014, another 200 OTC sales records were randomly selected over the same period in 2015.Taking sales records in 2014 and 2015 as research data, incidence rate of irregular drug sales was made classified statistic to assess the effectiveness of quality control management. The results showed that the incident rate of irregular drug sales in 2015 was 2.00% , significantly lower than in 2014(9.00%), the difference was p<0.05, which was considered significant in statistics. Classified quality control management can effectively reduce the incidence of irregular drug sales and help improve management performance, which should be promoted.

  17. Class in Metropolitan India: The Rise of the Middle Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Jos; Lama-Rewal, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt is almost a cliché to say that India’s appearance and image (internationally as well as self-image) have changed dramatically in the last fifteen years. Instead of being associated with rural poverty, India is now associated with high rates of economic growth, a booming Information Technology (IT) sector and, particularly, an increasingly expanding middle class that consumes and behaves like elites and middle classes elsewhere in the world. Considering that cities concentrate m...

  18. NMR studies of isotopically labeled RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardi, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In summary, the ability to generate NMR quantities of {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs has led to the development of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques for simplifying the resonance assignment and structure determination of RNAs. These methods for synthesizing isotopically labeled RNAs are only several years old, and thus there are still relatively few applications of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques to RNA. However, given the critical role that RNAs play in cellular function, one can expect to see an increasing number of NMR structural studies of biologically active RNAs.

  19. HOW SOY LABELING INFLUENCES PREFERENCE AND TASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Wansink, Brian; Park, Sea Bum; Sonka, Steven T.; Morganosky, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    Using a “Phantom Ingredient” taste test, this article demonstrates how the use of soy labels and health claims on a package negatively biased taste perceptions and attitudes toward a food erroneously thought to contain soy. Consumers who ate products which mentioned soy on the package described the taste more grainy, less flavorful, and as having a strong aftertaste compared to those who ate the product but saw no soy label. Yet, while putting “soy” on a package negatively influenced tast...

  20. Conditional Random Fields for Image Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development and application of CRFs (Conditional Random Fields in computer vision, many researchers have made some outstanding progress in this domain because CRFs solve the classical version of the label bias problem with respect to MEMMs (maximum entropy Markov models and HMMs (hidden Markov models. This paper reviews the research development and status of object recognition with CRFs and especially introduces two main discrete optimization methods for image labeling with CRFs: graph cut and mean field approximation. This paper describes graph cut briefly while it introduces mean field approximation more detailedly which has a substantial speed of inference and is researched popularly in recent years.

  1. Electrochemical Label-Free Nucleotide Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Numerous researchers have devoted a great deal of effort over the last few decades to the development of electrochemical oligonucleotide detection techniques, owing to their advantages of simple design, inherently small dimensions, and low power requirements. Their simplicity and rapidity of detection makes label-free oligonucleotide sensors of great potential use as first-aid screening tools in the analytical field of environmental measurements and healthcare management. This review article covers label-free oligonucleotide sensors, focusing specifically on topical electrochemical techniques, including intrinsic redox reaction of bases, conductive polymers, the use of electrochemical indicators, and highly ordered probe structures.

  2. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applications in cell biology of label-free biosensors. Future perspectives are also discussed.

  3. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  4. Fluorescent labels and their use in separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Glazer, Alexander; Ju, Jingyue

    1997-01-01

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids.

  5. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides

  6. Conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Medical Research Council presented this conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements with application in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The conference was held in Bloemfontein from 3-6 February 1986. This work only consists of the abstracts of the seminars that were delivered on the conference. The radioisotopes that occur most of the time in the abstracts include Indium 111, Indium 114, Chromium 51, Iodine 125, Iodine 131 and Carbon 14. Especially Indium 111 seems to be the method of choice for all labelling

  7. New Ramsey Classes from Old

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Let C_1 and C_2 be strong amalgamation classes of finite structures, with disjoint finite signatures sigma and tau. Then C_1 wedge C_2 denotes the class of all finite (sigma cup tau)-structures whose sigma-reduct is from C_1 and whose tau-reduct is from C_2. We prove that when C_1 and C_2 are Ramsey, then C_1 wedge C_2 is also Ramsey. We also discuss variations of this statement, and give several examples of new Ramsey classes derived from those general results.

  8. Lipschitz classes on local fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-yi SU; Guo-xiang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The Lipschitz class Lipα on a local field K is defined in this note, and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipα and the Holder type space Cα (K) is proved. Then, those important characteristics on the Euclidean space Rn and the local field K are compared, so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on Rn and K. Finally, the Cantor type fractal function (V)(x) is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip (m, K), m < ln2/ln3.

  9. Management of Classes with Breaches of Discipline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海军

    2009-01-01

    As an only child is pampered and spoiled by parents, the contemporary student easily breaches class discipline. Class management appears more concerned than ever because breaches of class discipline have great impact on teaching. The author clarifies the necessity to study the management of classes with breaches of class discipline, numerates the phenomena of breaches of class discipline, precisely analyzes the causes from teachers and students and especially submits several measures to effectively prevent breaches of class discipline.

  10. Generalized analytical design equations for variable slope class-e power amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    The Class-E power amplifier is widely used because of its high efficiency, resulting from switching at zero voltage and zero slope of the switch voltage. In this paper, we extend our general analytical solutions for the Class-E power amplifier to the ideal single-ended Variable Slope Class-E (Class-

  11. A study on improvement for risk management of OTC derivatives in China——Based on the framework of COSO company risk management%关于完善我国场外衍生品风险管理机制的思考——一个基于COSO企业风险管理的框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯文

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with the introduction of OTC derivatives market,this paper analyzed the risk features of OTC derivatives,such as high leverage,opaque activity,risk asymmetry,blank space of regulation and multi-risk exposures.Finally,based on the framework of COSO company risk management,the paper put some advices on risk management system for Chinese companies,including objective setting,internal environment control,event identification,risk assessment,risk response,control activities,information and communication,and monitoring.%本文以场外衍生品市场为出发点,分析了包括产品交易高杠杆、交易活动不透明、产品风险不对称、外部监管空白点、风险暴露多元化等在内的场外衍生品的风险特征,最后运用COSO企业风险管理的框架,从控制目标、控制环境、事项识别、风险评估、风险应对、控制活动、信息与沟通以及监督等方面入手,提出完善我国场外衍生品风险管理机制的建议。

  12. Standard practice for labeling ceramic art materials for chronic adverse health hazards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a procedure for developing precautionary labels for ceramic art materials and provides hazard and precautionary statements based upon knowledge that exists in the scientific and medical communities. This practice concerns those chronic adverse health hazards known to be associated with a product or product component(s), when the component(s) is present in a physical form, volume, or concentration that in the opinion of a toxicologist has the potential to produce a chronic adverse health effect(s). 1.2 This practice is intended to apply exclusively to ceramic art materials which are packaged in sizes intended for use by artists or crafts people, either individually, or in a small group or class. 1.3 This practice applies to developing precautionary labeling for ceramic art materials intended for adult usage. Conformance to this practice does not imply that ceramic art materials will necessarily be labeled adequately or safe for use by children. Labeling determinations should conside...

  13. Tumor imaging with novel radiogallium (67/68Ga) labeled agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P. V.; Antich, P. P.; Constantinescu, A.; Ranney, D. F.; Fernando, J. L.; Xiong, R.; Oz, O.; Parkey, R. W.

    1997-02-01

    Gallium-67 (t1/2: 78 h) has played an important role in tumor imaging. It is produced in a cyclotron and is commercially available for routine clinical use. 68Ga (t1/2: 68 min), a positron emitter, suitable for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, is obtained from a generator with long lived parent 68Ge (t1/2: 288 d). Radiogallium has been used mostly, as gallium citrate in imaging studies. Recently, receptor specific agents labeled with gallium have been developed. These include, agents to image somatostatin and folate receptors. We have shown that a new class of agents based on glycosaminoglycoans (GLYCOS) target a variety of tumors. Gallium labeled deferroxamine (DF) bound to sulfated glycosaminoglycans has the ability to rapidly target and permeate a wide variety of solid animal tumors and also undergo rapid blood clearance almost exclusively by the renal route. We have been able to image (within 5 min to 1 hr), prostate adenocarcinoma (AT-1 tumor) grown in surgically prepared pedicles of Copenhagen male rats and breast tumor in pedicles of Fisher female rats. 67Ga labeled agent was used in single photon imaging mode and 68Ga labeled agent was used in PET mode with a small animal PET imaging device built in our laboratory with plastic scintillating optical fibers.

  14. Simpler, faster and shorter labels for distances in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gavoille, Cyril; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup;

    We consider how to assign \\emph{labels} to any undirected graph with $n$ nodes such that, given the labels of two nodes and no other information regarding the graph, it is possible to determine the distance between the two nodes. The challenge in such a \\emph{distance labeling scheme} is primarily...... to minimize the maximum label length and secondarily to minimize the time needed to answer distance queries (decoding). Previous schemes have offered different trade-offs between label lengths and query time. This paper presents a simple algorithm with shorter labels and shorter query time than any previous...... solution, thereby improving the state-of-the-art with respect to both label length and query time in one single algorithm. Our solution addresses several open problems concerning label length and decoding time and is the first improvement of label length for more than three decades. More specifically, we...

  15. NMR studies of two spliced leader RNAs using isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapham, J.; Crothers, D.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Spliced leader RNAs are a class of RNA molecules (<200 nts) involved in the trans splicing of messenger RNA found in trypanosomes, nematodes, and other lower eukaryotes. The spliced leader RNA from the trypanosome Leptomonas Collosoma exists in two alternate structural forms with similar thermal stabilities. The 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the SL molecule is structurally independent from the 3{prime} half of the RNA, and displays the two structural forms. Furthermore, the favored of the two structures was shown to contain anomalous nuclease sensitivity and thermal stability features, which suggests that there may be tertiary interactions between the splice site and other nucleotides in the 5{prime} end. Multidimensional NMR studies are underway to elucidate the structural elements present in the SL RNAs that give rise to their physical properties. Two spliced leader sequences have been studied. The first, the 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the L. Collosoma sequence, was selected because of earlier studies in our laboratory. The second sequence is the 5{prime} end of the trypanosome Crithidia Fasciculata, which was chosen because of its greater sequence homology to other SL sequences. Given the complexity of the NMR spectra for RNA molecules of this size, we have incorporated {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled nucleotides into the RNA. One of the techniques we have developed to simplify the spectra of these RNA molecules is isotope labeling of specific regions of the RNA. This has been especially helpful in assigning the secondary structure of molecules that may be able to adopt multiple conformations. Using this technique one can examine a part of the molecule without spectral interference from the unlabeled portion. We hope this approach will promote an avenue for studying the structure of larger RNAs in their native surroundings.

  16. Nanostructured plasmonic interferometers for ultrasensitive label-free biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongkang

    Optical biosensors that utilize surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to analyze the biomolecular interactions have been extensively explored in the last two decades and have become the gold standard for label-free biosensing. These powerful sensing tools allow fast, highly-sensitive monitoring of the interaction between biomolecules in real time, without the need for laborious fluorescent labeling, and have found widely ranging applications from biomedical diagnostics and drug discovery, to environmental sensing and food safety monitoring. However, the prism-coupling SPR geometry is complex and bulky, and has severely limited the integration of this technique into low-cost portable biomedical devices for point-of-care diagnostics and personal healthcare applications. Also, the complex prism-coupling scheme prevents the use of high numerical aperture (NA) optics to increase the spatial resolution for multi-channel, high-throughput detection in SPR imaging mode. This dissertation is focused on the design and fabrication of a promising new class of nanopatterned interferometric SPR sensors that integrate the strengths of miniaturized nanoplasmonic architectures with sensitive optical interferometry techniques to achieve bold advances in SPR biosensing. The nanosensor chips developed provide superior sensing performance comparable to conventional SPR systems, but employing a far simpler collinear optical transmission geometry, which largely facilitates system integration, miniaturization, and low-cost production. Moreover, the fabricated nanostructure-based SPR sensors feature a very small sensor footprint, allowing massive multiplexing on a chip for high-throughput detection. The successful transformation of SPR technique from bulky prism-coupling setup into this low-cost compact plasmonic platform would have a far-reaching impact on point-of-care diagnostic tools and also lead to advances in high-throughput sensing applications in proteomics, immunology, drug

  17. Study of tritium labeling of complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for tritium labeling of technical mixture (commercial mark - SOVOL, USSR) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The influence of procedure of labeling by thermally activated tritium on the nativity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied. The method of labeling by thermally activated tritium has some factors, which are able to destroy organic compounds - photodegradation, thermo-degradation and degradation caused by reaction of substitution of organic compounds hydrogen atoms by activated tritium atoms. To develop a method of labeling of every organic compound by thermally activated tritium it is necessary to determine and optimize the conditions of labeling. In our case procedure of labeling is complicated because of technical mixture of PCBs consist from more than 20 isomers, chlorinated with different degree. We studied the dependence of appearance of products of degradation PCBs from duration of labeling procedure. It was found that some part of PCBs and product of its degradation were evaporated under vacuum and were collected on the glass flask cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that correlation between labeled of PCBs and products of degradation did not changed with increasing time of labeling, and radiochemical yield of tritium labeled of PCBs was stable - about 15-20 %. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. It was found that purification of labeled PCBs by TLC on silica gel with hexane allows obtaining tritium-labeled PCBs purified from by-products. Thus, TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled PCBs

  18. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Merwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review of the relevant literature of mostly quantitative research, but also includes qualitative and mixed method studies. The article examines such aspects as the trustworthiness of claims on food labels, intelligibility of label information, listing of food additives on labels, and labelling of genetically modified foods. As negative perspectives on food labelling are likely to affect consumers’ decision making regarding the purchasing of food products, the food industry must realise their responsibility to provide ethical food labels. The food industry and regulators should aim to provide risk communication and intelligible information through ethical food labels and consumer education programmes on food labelling. Consumers need to be aware of their right to know what they are purchasing through ethical food labels and take a stand in this regard.

  19. Class attendance and university performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Anna-Lena; Lerche, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Using survey data collected at Göttingen University, Germany, this paper evaluates the effect of attending the lecture and/or tutorial on the grade achieved in two basic courses in business administration and economics. The analysis shows that going to class has no significant impact on student performance in most specifications. Although the identification of a causal effect may not be possible with the data at hand, the results suggest that, in the given framework, attending class and study...

  20. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-03-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data from the whole class. This pedagogical method was reported earlier, and the present article offers a few more examples of such "whole class" laboratories.

  1. Less than a Class Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  2. Internet service classes under competition

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbens, R.; R. Mason; Steinberg, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes competition between two Internet service providers (ISPs), either or both of which may choose to offer multiple service classes. In the model analyzed, a social planner who maximizes the total benefit from network usage and a profit maximizing monopolist will both form multiple service classes; but two networks competing to maximize profits will not. The reason is that a competition effect always outweighs a segmentation effect. Networks wish to offer multiple service clas...

  3. Fluorescent Labeling of Plasmid DNA and mRNA: Gains and Losses of Current Labeling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, K; Braeckmans, K; Remaut, K

    2016-02-17

    Live-cell imaging has provided the life sciences with insights into the cell biology and dynamics. Fluorescent labeling of target molecules proves to be indispensable in this regard. In this Review, we focus on the current fluorescent labeling strategies for nucleic acids, and in particular mRNA (mRNA) and plasmid DNA (pDNA), which are of interest to a broad range of scientific fields. By giving a background of the available techniques and an evaluation of the pros and cons, we try to supply scientists with all the information needed to come to an informed choice of nucleic acid labeling strategy aimed at their particular needs. PMID:26670733

  4. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.28 Section 660.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... adequate mixing when reconstituting. (9) Recommended storage temperature in degrees Celsius. (10) Source...

  5. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations that will be published under this part; (c) Comparative acoustic rating information, which EPA... consisting of: (1) The Company name, and (2) The City and State of the principal office; (e) A product model number or type identification; (f) The phrase “Federal law prohibits removal of this label prior...

  6. 40 CFR 86.413-2006 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 86.449 the statement must also include the phrase “is certified to an HC+NOX emission standard... motorcycle shall, at the time of manufacture, affix a permanent, legible label, of the type and in the manner... catalyst; TWC Three-way catalyst; AIR Secondary air injection (pump); PAIR Pulsed secondary air...

  7. Ranking with uncertain labels and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuicheng; WANG Huan; LIU Jianzhuang; TANG Xiao'ou; Thomas S.Huang

    2007-01-01

    The techniques for image analysis and classification generally consider the image sample labels fixed and without uncertainties.The rank regression problem studied in this paper is based on the training samples with uncertain labels,which often is the case for the manual estimated image labels.A core ranking model is designed first as the bilinear fusing of multiple candidate kernels.Then,the parameters for feature selection and kernel selection are learned simultaneously by maximum a posteriori for given samples and uncertain labels.The provable convergency Expectation Maximization(EM)method is used for inferring these parameters in an iterative manner.The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is finally validated by the extensive experiments on age ranking task and human trackingtask.The popular FG-NET and the large scale Yamaha aging database are used for the age estimation experiments,and our algorithm outperforms those state-of-the-art algorithms ever reported by other interrelated literatures significantly.The experiment result of human tracking task also validates its advantage over conventional linear regression algorithm.

  8. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biodiesel, biomass-based diesel, biodiesel blends, and biomass-based diesel blends. The label is 3 inches (7... biodiesel blends containing more than 5 percent and no greater than 20 percent biodiesel by volume. (i) The...” followed immediately by the numerical value representing the volume percentage of biodiesel in the fuel...

  9. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...; (d) The expiration date; (e) The preservative used and its concentration, or if no preservative...

  10. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  11. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxylamine succinate, N,N-dimethyl-2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)-ethoxy]ethanamine succinate is an antihistamine used primarily as a sedative. Carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate, required for toxicological studies, was synthesized in two steps starting from 2-benzoyl pyridine. (author)

  12. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  13. Distributed Representations for Unsupervised Semantic Role Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Woodsend, Kristian; Lapata, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach for unsupervised semantic role labeling that leverages distributed representations. We induce embeddings to represent a predicate, its arguments and their complex interdependence. Argument embeddings are learned from surrounding contexts involving the predicate and neighboring arguments, while predicate embeddings are learned from argument contexts. The induced representations are clustered into roles using a linear programming formulation of hierarchical clustering,...

  14. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling terminology. 101.4 Section 101.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS §...

  15. Chemical labeling of electrochemically cleaved peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, Julien; Alting, Niels F. A.; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer P. H.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Cleavage of peptide bonds C-terminal to tyrosine and tryptophan after electrochemical oxidation may become a complementary approach to chemical and enzymatic cleavage. A chemical labeling approach specifically targeting reactive cleavage products is presented here and constitutes a promisi

  16. Academic Deficiency: Student Experiences of Institutional Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch-Gilbert, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Limited existing research examines how undergraduate students in the United States experience the process of being identified as deficient due to their academic performance. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of college students on academic probation who were labeled academically deficient. Students…

  17. Status of potassium permanganate label claim - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on cat...

  18. 16 CFR 1505.3 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... labeling shall be prominently and conspicuously displayed under customary conditions of purchase, storage... amperes and/or watts. (2) If a toy utilizes a single motor as its only electric energy consuming component... lamp replacement with the statement: “WARNING—Do not use light bulbs larger than __ watts”, the...

  19. Atomoxetine Open-Label Trial in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine (originally named tomoxetine, a new therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD marketed by Eli Lilly, was compared to methylphenidate in a prospective, randomized, open-label study for 10 weeks duration, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Carolinas Medical Center, and Lilly Research Laboratories.

  20. Neuropeptides labelled with [sup 35]S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Nispen, J.W. van; Sperling, E.M.G.; Vader, J.F. (Organon Int BV, Oss (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    Methionine and cysteine containing peptides can be labelled with [sup 35]S by coupling of [sup 35]S-cysteine or [sup 35]S-methionine with a large excess of suitability protected peptide precursors. This is illustrated for [pGlu[sup 4], Cyt[sup 6

  1. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... donor code in the product labeling each donor of peripheral blood used for detection or identification... IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES” or “NOT FOR USE IN DETECTION OR IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES... antibodies shall identify the number of donors contributing to the pool. Products designed exclusively...

  2. 75 FR 81943 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... of the work, presumably at greater cost. Fourth, as discussed above, the long supply chain for CFLs... on manufacturers, and, thus, requires more time to implement. Second, the supply chain to U.S. retail... extended supply chains make implementation of labeling changes much more logistically challenging....

  3. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling. 701.11 Section 701.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS...) An appropriately descriptive name or, when the nature of the cosmetic is obvious, a fanciful...

  4. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other information on the label is given in percentages . Food contains fat, protein, carbohydrates, and fiber. Food also contains vitamins, ... grams contained in one serving of the food. Fat is an important nutrient that your body uses for growth and development, but you don' ...

  5. A New Complete Class Complexity Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vinay; Bhattacherjee, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Software complexity metrics is essential for minimizing the cost of software maintenance. Package level and System level complexity cannot be measured without class level complexity. This research addresses the class complexity metrics. This paper studies the existing class complexity metrics and proposes a new class complexity metric CCC (Complete class complexity metric). The CCC metric is then analytically evaluated by Weyuker's property.

  6. Labeling design effort for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is particularly concerned with developing a proposed energy guide label for household refrigerator-freezers through consumer research. Survey work conducted throughout Malaysia to develop a comprehensive energy guide label. A simple labeling design with different features and colors was also performed using the labeling concept of other countries (such as Australia, Thailand, and from the EU). There are many steps to implement a labeling program for a particular energy consuming appliance, such as consumer/stakeholder involvement, design, policy makers' involvement and so on. So, this is a vast area of work. This paper mainly focuses on consumer research in designing or shaping a comprehensive label

  7. Advantages and versatility of fluorescence-based methodology to characterize the functionality of LDLR and class mutation assignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Etxebarria

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a common autosomal codominant disease with a frequency of 1:500 individuals in its heterozygous form. The genetic basis of FH is most commonly mutations within the LDLR gene. Assessing the pathogenicity of LDLR variants is particularly important to give a patient a definitive diagnosis of FH. Current studies of LDLR activity ex vivo are based on the analysis of 125I-labeled lipoproteins (reference method or fluorescent-labelled LDL. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of these two methods to assess LDLR functionality in order to validate a functional assay to analyse LDLR mutations. LDLR activity of different variants has been studied by flow cytometry using FITC-labelled LDL and compared with studies performed previously with 125I-labeled lipoproteins. Flow cytometry results are in full agreement with the data obtained by the 125I methodology. Additionally confocal microscopy allowed the assignment of different class mutation to the variants assayed. Use of fluorescence yielded similar results than 125I-labeled lipoproteins concerning LDLR activity determination, and also allows class mutation classification. The use of FITC-labelled LDL is easier in handling and disposal, cheaper than radioactivity and can be routinely performed by any group doing LDLR functional validations.

  8. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  9. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  10. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  11. The Tunisian standards and labelling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunisia has recently implemented a standards and labelling programme for household appliances and other energy using equipment. This programme, which is the fruit of six years labour supported by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and executed by l'Agence Nationale pour la Maitrise de l'Energie (ANME), led to the issue of energy labelling and minimum energy efficiency standards regulations for refrigerators in 2004. This paper reports on the design and implementation of the programme that not only serves as a role model for how such programmes can be conducted in developing countries, but also matches or exceeds the design and implementation of similar programmes in developed countries. Findings are presented on the following elements: consumer research used to design the Tunisian energy label, the establishment and accreditation of national test facilities, the energy performance certification, verification and compliance process, the development of refrigerator energy efficiency and labelling criteria, public communications and outreach strategy projected programme impacts Results are also presented from a detailed and sophisticated refrigerator techno-economic energy engineering analysis that provided much of the analytical basis for the choice of labelling and efficiency standards thresholds. As a result of its careful design and implementation it is forecast that by 2030 the programme will have saved 3.4 Mt of CO2 emissions at a cost to the GEF of just 20 USc/tonne. The cost of conserved electricity for Tunisian consumers is projected to be less than 1 USc/kWh, which compares very favourably with the current tariff of 7.4 USc/kWh

  12. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Cruise, K M; Mitchell, G F; Watt, S M

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 X 10(7) eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where necessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10(8) eosinophils (purity > 95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 X 10(4) cells/minute, purity > 99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (bwtween 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation by using 125I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3 alpha, 6 alpha-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights > 50,000). No 125I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). PMID:7409032

  13. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; NIKOLOVA, IRINA; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers...

  14. Nifuroxazide in acute diarrhoea: OTC preparation. Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    (1) Nifuroxazide, an intestinal antibacterial agent, is now available in France, without a prescription, for the treatment of acute diarrhoea in adults. (2) According to the only available comparative randomised trial, there is no effect on dehydration. Relative to a placebo, the mean number of stools is reduced by about one per day during the first two days of treatment, with no significant difference thereafter. PMID:11503813

  15. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  16. Classes subalternas, lutas de classe e hegemonia: uma abordagem gramsciana Subaltern classes, class struggles and hegemony: a gramscian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura resgatar, no pensamento de Antonio Gramsci, a concepção de classes subalternas e a sua relação com outras categorias, especialmente, o Estado, a sociedade civil e a hegemonia, como suportes da luta de classes na realidade contemporânea. Aborda, ainda, as relações entre classes subalternas, senso comum e ideologia, bem como as formas de superação tematizadas por Gramsci, através da cultura e da filosofia da práxis. Nesse sentido, num movimento de totalidade, busca recuperar a discussão das classes subalternas, a partir da original formulação gramsciana no âmbito do marxismo, mediante a interação dialética entre estrutura e superestrutura, economia e política. Além do resgate conceitual, apontam-se alguns elementos como subsídios à discussão das formas de subalternidade presentes na realidade contemporânea e as possibilidades de fortalecimento das lutas de tais camadas de classe, sobretudo em momentos de forte desmobilização da participação popular.This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of "overcoming" conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  17. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  18. Basic evaluation of [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative as a metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takemura, Yasutaka; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira

    1993-11-01

    To develop metal-labeled digoxin radiopharmaceuticals with affinity with anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase, a digoxin derivative conjugated with deferoxamine was synthesized. The derivative had a high binding affinity with [sup 67]Ga at deferoxamine introduced to the terminal sugar ring of digoxin. The [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative showed enough in vitro binding affinity and selectivity to anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. The [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative is considered to be a potential metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical for digoxin RIA as well as myocardial Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase imaging. (author).

  19. An Algorithm for Connected-Component Labeling, Hole Labeling and Euler Number Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Feng He; Yu-Yan Chao; Kenji Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Labeling connected components and holes and computing the Euler number in a binary image are necessary for image analysis,pattern recognition,and computer (robot) vision,and are usually made independently of each other in conventional methods.This paper proposes a two-scan algorithm for labeling connected components and holes simultaneously in a binary image by use of the same data structure.With our algorithm,besides labeling,we can also easily calculate the number and the area of connected components and holes,as well as the Euler number.Our method is very simple in principle,and experimental results demonstrate that our method is much more efficient than conventional methods for various kinds of images in cases where both labeling and Euler number computing are necessary.

  20. A General Method for the Rapid Determination of Carbon-14- and Hydrogen-3-Labelled Substances by Gas Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the determination of 14C- and 3H- labelled substances by gas chromatography using different size flow counters. The method of cracking substances in a current of hydrogen gas is especially suitable for 3H-labelled compounds because it is free from the disadvantages encountered when the substances are first oxidized and the water formed subsequently converted. The general applicability of this method is shown for different classes of compounds. The analysis is independent of the chemical composition of the compound. By using a part oi the apparatus very rapid analyses of vaporizable 14C- and apparently all 3H-labelled substances can be made by direct injection into the reaction chamber. The apparatus can also be used for the oxidation procedure. (author)