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Sample records for class ii-associated differences

  1. Mycosis fungoides: HLA class II associations among Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jewish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, E; Lapidoth, M; Kohn, K; David, D; Brautbar, B; Kfir, K; Narinski, N; Safirman, S; Maron, M; Klein, K

    2001-12-01

    An immunogenetic mechanism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides (MF). While results of studies on HLA class I associations haveproved inconsistent, two previous studies showed that certain HLA class II alleles were significantly increased among North American caucasian patients with MF: HLA-DRB1*11 and DQB1*03. To investigate the possible HLA class I and class II associations with MF among Jewish patients. The patient group comprised 68 Jewish patients with MF: 38 Ashkenazi and 30 non-Ashkenazi. The control group comprised 252 healthy Jewish volunteers: 132 Ashkenazi and 120 non-Ashkenazi. Tissue typing for HLA class I (A and B) was performed using the National Institutes of Health microlymphocytotoxicity technique. DNA-based low-medium resolution analysis for DRB1* and DQB1* alleles was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with sequence-specific primers. For those alleles found to have significantly increased frequency, high-resolution analysis was done by means of PCR sequence-specific oligotyping. The allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found to be significantly increased but only among Ashkenazi patients with MF (30% vs. 19% in the controls; P = 0.034). High-resolution analysis for DRB1*11, not previously performed, suggested that its greater frequency is due to the increased number of Ashkenazi MF patients with the DRB1*1104 allele (P corrected = 0.036). Analysed together, DQB1*03 alleles (DQB1*0301-0304) had a significantly greater frequency in MF as a group as compared with controls (47% vs. 33%, P = 0.003). DQB1*0301 was demonstrated to be the specific allele associated with MF in Jewish patients (allele frequency of 36% vs. 23% in controls; P corrected = 0.0068), which was not the case for North American caucasian patients with MF. No greater frequencies of any of the HLA class I A or B antigens were found. Our findings further demonstrate the 'universality' of MF HLA class II susceptibility

  2. HLA Class I and Class II Associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Nuha Mahmoud Hamdi; Fadel Hassan Al-Hababi; Amr Ekhlas Eid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated ...

  3. HLA class I and class II associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Mahmoud Hamdi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated control. Patients and control groups were typed by SSOP lumenix techniques. The alleles positively associated to the ESRD were: HLA-B*15, B*18, B*49 - DRB1*03, negatively associated alleles were A*26, HLA-B*39, B*50. The haplotypes positively associated with ESRD were: HLA-A*01-DRB1*13 and HLA-A*30-DRBI*03. The negatively associated haplotypes were: HLA-A*02-B*39, A*02-B*50, A*24-B*35, A*24-B*58, A*24-DRB1*16, A*68-DRB1*04, A*02-DQB1*03, A*29-DQB1*02, A*29-DOB1*05 and B*27-DRB1*07 and the last one is the most significant protective haplotypes. CONCLUSION: The high Relative Risk (RR observed and its statistical correlation reflect the strength of the described association between HLA antigens and ESRD.

  4. Class II-associated invariant chain peptide as predictive immune marker in minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van Luijn (Marvin M.); W. van den Ancker (Willemijn); S.M. van Ham (Marieke); A.A. van de Loosdrecht (Arjan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reach complete remission after high-dose chemotherapy. Still, half of these patients experience a relapse due to presence of minimal residual disease (MRD). Here we discuss the poor prognostic role of class II-associated

  5. Class II-associated invariant chain peptide as predictive immune marker in minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van Luijn (Marvin M.); W. van den Ancker (Willemijn); S.M. van Ham (Marieke); A.A. van de Loosdrecht (Arjan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reach complete remission after high-dose chemotherapy. Still, half of these patients experience a relapse due to presence of minimal residual disease (MRD). Here we discuss the poor prognostic role of class II-associated invarian

  6. Class II-associated invariant chain peptide as predictive immune marker in minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    van Luijn, Marvin M.; van den Ancker, Willemijn; van Ham, S Marieke; Arjan A. van de Loosdrecht

    2014-01-01

    The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reach complete remission after high-dose chemotherapy. Still, half of these patients experience a relapse due to presence of minimal residual disease (MRD). Here we discuss the poor prognostic role of class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression on residual leukemic cells.

  7. MHC class II-associated invariant chain linkage of antigen dramatically improves cell-mediated immunity induced by adenovirus vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Orskov, Cathrine

    2008-01-01

    The ideal vaccine induces a potent protective immune response, which should be rapidly induced, long-standing, and of broad specificity. Recombinant adenoviral vectors induce potent Ab and CD8+ T cell responses against transgenic Ags within weeks of administration, and they are among the most...... potent and versatile Ag delivery vehicles available. However, the impact of chronic infections like HIV and hepatitis C virus underscore the need for further improvements. In this study, we show that the protective immune response to an adenovirus-encoded vaccine Ag can be accelerated, enhanced......, broadened, and prolonged by tethering of the rAg to the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, adenovirus-vectored vaccines expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-derived glycoprotein linked to Ii increased the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell stimulatory capacity in vitro and in vivo...

  8. Anti-cofactor autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence, clinical and HLA class II associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Morozzi, Gabriella; Bellisai, Francesca; Fineschi, Irene; Bacarelli, Maria Romana; Simpatico, Antonella; Font, Josep; Cervera, Ricard; Houssiau, Frederic; Fernandez-Nebro, Antonio; De Ramon Garrido, Enrique; De Pità, Ornella; Smolen, Josef; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical and HLA-class II allele associations of some anti-cofactor antibodies in a homogeneous group of European patients with SLE. One hundred thirty-six patients with SLE, fulfilling four or more of the ACR 1997 revised criteria for the classification of the disease, coming from 7 European countries, were enrolled consecutively. Anti-prothrombin (anti-PT), anti-annexin V (anti-AnnV), anti-protein C (anti-Cprot) and anti-protein S (anti-Sprot) were determined by using commercial ELISA kits. Molecular typing of HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1 and DPB1 loci was performed by using PCR-SSOP method, carried out using digoxygenin (DIG) labeled probes. The prevalence of anti-AnnV, anti-PT, anti-Cprot and anti-Sprot was 19%, 10.4%, 4.4% and 8.1%, respectively. Twenty-seven % of anti-AnnV positive patients reported migraine vs 5.5% of anti-AnnV negatives (p = 0.003, but p not significant, odds ratio (OR) = 6.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2-21). Anti-PT, anti-AnnV and anti-Sprot were positively associated with some HLA alleles, but pc was not significant. In this study we have shown that some HLA alleles carry the risk to produce antibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins, but these association need confirmation in other studies, because they have never been reported and appear to be weak associations.

  9. MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschow, S.I.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Aalberts, M.; Heck, A.J.R. van; Wauben, M.; Stoorvogel, W.

    2010-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of th

  10. A four step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki eMurakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is thought autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases. In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II MHC alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and arthritis in F759 knock-in mouse line (F759 mice are such examples, even though evidences support a pathogenic role for CD4+ T cells in both diseases. We have recently shown local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice. For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induced such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non hematopoietic cells in the joint. We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier. Thus, certain class II MHC–associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a Four Step Model for MHC class II associated autoimmune diseases. The interaction of four local events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier, leading to the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, we have concluded the IL-6 amplifier is a critical regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  11. MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschow, Sonja I; van Balkom, Bas W M; Aalberts, Marian; Heck, Albert J R; Wauben, Marca; Stoorvogel, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of this compartment with the plasma membrane. We have previously shown that in contrast to the sorting of MHC II at lysosomally targeted multivesicular bodies, sorting of MHC II into exosomes does not rely on MHC II ubiquitination. In search for proteins that drive the incorporation of MHC II into exosomes or functionally discriminate exosomal from plasma membrane MHC II, we first analyzed the total proteome of highly purified B cell-derived exosomes using sensitive and accurate mass spectrometry (MS), and identified 539 proteins, including known and not previously identified constituents. Using quantitative MS, we then identified a small subset of proteins that were specifically co-immunoprecipitated with MHC II from detergent-solubilized exosomes. These include HSC71, HSP90, 14-3-3ɛ, CD20 and pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2), and we speculate on the functionality of their interaction with exosomal MHC II.

  12. A four-step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaaki; Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    short (Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Thus, certain class II MHC-associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases, including some RA subtypes, may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. In other words, in certain cases, the target tissue itself may determine the specificity of the autoimmune disease via activation of the IL-6 amplifier. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a four-step model for MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases (Murakami et al., 2011): (1) T cell activation regardless of antigen specificity; (2) local events inducing a tissue-specific accumulation of activated T cells; (3) transient activation of the IL-6 amplifier; and (4) enhanced sensitivity to cytokines in the target tissue. The interaction of these events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier and subsequent manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, the IL-6 amplifier, which is chronically activated by these four events, is a critical regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  13. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  14. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...

  15. Increased occurrence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity and unique HLA Class II associations with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), among Muslim Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Livnat; Mandel, Micha; Karussis, Dimitrios; Petrou, Panayiota; Miller, Keren; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Karni, Arnon; Paltiel, Ora; Israel, Shoshana; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2016-04-15

    Previous studies have revealed different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), further discriminating these two demyelinating pathological conditions. In worldwide analyses, NMO and opticospinal MS are represented at higher proportions among demyelinating conditions in African, East-Asian and Latin American populations. There are currently no data regarding the prevalence of NMO in Middle East Muslims. The population in Israel is diverse in many ways, and includes subpopulations, based on religion and ethnicity; some exhibit genetic homogeneity. In Israel, the incidence of MS is lower in the Muslim population than the Jewish population and Muslims carry different allele frequency distribution of HLA haplotypes. To evaluate the occurrence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity in the Israeli Muslim population among patients with central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating conditions; and to identify the HLA DR and DQ profiles of Muslim Arab Israeli patients with NMO spectrum of diseases (NMOSD). The prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity was analyzed in 342 samples, obtained from patients with various CNS demyelinating conditions and in a validation set of 310 samples. HLA class II alleles (HLA-DRB1 and DQB1) were examined in DNA samples from 35 Israeli Muslim Arabs NMO patients and compared to available data from 74 Israeli Muslim controls. Our data reveal a significantly increased prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity, indicative of NMOSD, in Muslim Arab Israeli patients with initial diagnosis of a CNS demyelinating syndrome. In this population, there was a positive association with the HLA-DRB1*04:04 and HLA-DRB1*10:01 alleles (p=0.03), and a strong negative association with the HLA-DRB1*07 and HLA-DQB1*02:02 alleles (p=0.003, p=0.002). Our findings indicate a possibly increased prevalence of NMOSD in Muslim Arabs in Israel with distinct (positive and negative) HLA associations. Further studies in patients with

  16. Class II-associated invariant chain peptide down-modulation enhances the immunogenicity of myeloid leukemic blasts resulting in increased CD4(+) T-cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijn, M.M.; Chamuleau, M.E.D.; Thompson, J.A.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, S.; Westers, T.M.; Souwer, Y.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Ham, S.M.; van de Loosdrecht, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Disease recurrence in patients with acute myeloid leukemia may be partially explained by the escape of leukemic blasts from CD4(+) T-cell recognition. The current study investigates the role of aberrant HLA class II antigen presentation on leukemic blasts by determining both the clinical

  17. Exploring social class differences at work

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a wider project that investigates how organisational and individual factors within the workplace contribute to social class differences and inequality by examining the relative impact of objective and subjective indicators of social class on explicit (e.g. salary, promotions) and implicit (e.g. career satisfaction, quality of working life, stress and well-being) career and work outcomes. \\ud There is increasing recognition that social class differences play a crucial rol...

  18. Dog leukocyte antigen class II-associated genetic risk testing for immune disorders of dogs: simplified approaches using Pug dog necrotizing meningoencephalitis as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels; Liu, Hongwei; Millon, Lee; Greer, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    A significantly increased risk for a number of autoimmune and infectious diseases in purebred and mixed-breed dogs has been associated with certain alleles or allele combinations of the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex containing the DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 genes. The exact level of risk depends on the specific disease, the alleles in question, and whether alleles exist in a homozygous or heterozygous state. The gold standard for identifying high-risk alleles and their zygosity has involved direct sequencing of the exon 2 regions of each of the 3 genes. However, sequencing and identification of specific alleles at each of the 3 loci are relatively expensive and sequencing techniques are not ideal for additional parentage or identity determination. However, it is often possible to get the same information from sequencing only 1 gene given the small number of possible alleles at each locus in purebred dogs, extensive homozygosity, and tendency for disease-causing alleles at each of the 3 loci to be strongly linked to each other into haplotypes. Therefore, genetic testing in purebred dogs with immune diseases can be often simplified by sequencing alleles at 1 rather than 3 loci. Further simplification of genetic tests for canine immune diseases can be achieved by the use of alternative genetic markers in the DLA class II region that are also strongly linked with the disease genotype. These markers consist of either simple tandem repeats or single nucleotide polymorphisms that are also in strong linkage with specific DLA class II genotypes and/or haplotypes. The current study uses necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs as a paradigm to assess simple alternative genetic tests for disease risk. It was possible to attain identical necrotizing meningoencephalitis risk assessments to 3-locus DLA class II sequencing by sequencing only the DQB1 gene, using 3 DLA class II-linked simple tandem repeat markers, or with a small single nucleotide polymorphism array

  19. HLA-class II-associated control of antigen recognition by T cells in leprosy: A prominent role for the 30/31-kDa antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.E.R.; Janson, A.A.M.; Cornelisse, Y.; Schreuder, G.M.T.; Wieles, B.; Naafs, B.; Vries, R.R.P. de; Ottenhoff, T.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition of 16 mycobacterial Ags by a panel of T cell lines from leprosy patients and healthy exposed individuals from an endemic population was examined within the context of expressed HLA-DR molecules. Although overall no significant differences were found between the frequencies of Ag reco

  20. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  1. A Study of Teacher Feedback in Different English Class Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huan

    2016-01-01

    This essay mainly focuses on the feedback move in IRF(initiate-response-feedback) to investigate the characters and functions of teacher feedback in different class types through classroom observation. The research finds that (1) teachers in dif-ferent class types prefer to adopt evaluative feedback and use more positive feedback .(2) the proportion of each feedback is dif-ferent in listening and speaking, reading and writing class. The implications are that English teachers in senior high school should adopt different feedback flexibly and consider what kind of feedback is more likely elicit the students’output in different class types.

  2. Age Differences Explain Social Class Differences in Students' Friendship at University: Implications for Transition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the hypotheses that (a) working-class students have fewer friends at university than middle-class students and (b) this social class difference occurs because working-class students tend to be older than middle-class students. A sample of 376 first-year undergraduate students from an Australian university completed an…

  3. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  4. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes

  5. In-Class vs. Online Experiments: Is There a Difference?

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    Carter, Linda K.; Emerson, Tisha L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom experiments in economics continue to increase in popularity. While early experiments were often hand-run in class, now computerized online experiments are also widely available. Using a quasiexperimental approach, the authors investigated whether any difference in student achievement (as measured by course scores and the "Test of…

  6. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).

  7. Class Counts: Exploring Differences in Academic and Social Integration between Working-Class and Middle/Upper-Class Students at Large, Public Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael J.; Huesman, Ronald L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This multi-institutional study examines differences between working-class and middle/upper-class students at large, public research universities. Significant differences in factors related to working-class students' social integration (including satisfaction, campus climate, and sense of belonging) and academic integration (including collaborative…

  8. New global stability conditions for a class of difference equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiaki MUROYA; Emiko ISHIWATA; Nicola GUGLIELMIa

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider some classes of difference equations,including the well-known Clark model,and study the stability of their solutions. In order to do that we introduce a property,namely semicontractivity,and study relations between 'semi-contractive' functions and sufficient conditions for the solution of the difference equation to be globally asymptotically stable.Moreover,we establish new sufficient conditions for the solution to be globally asymptotically stable,and we improve the '3/2criteria' type stability conditions.

  9. We are all ordinary people: perceptions of class and class differences in personal relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines people’s perceptions of class and class differences—in general and with regard to personal relationships. Data from an original survey on personal networks (n=195) shows that most people think they are middle class, although many lower class respondents classify themselves as

  10. We are all ordinary people: perceptions of class and class differences in personal relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines people’s perceptions of class and class differences—in general and with regard to personal relationships. Data from an original survey on personal networks (n=195) shows that most people think they are middle class, although many lower class respondents classify themselves as wor

  11. On the price of different classes of shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. CASTELLINO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neither the opponents nor the supporters of the efficiency proposition investigate whether stock prices may rationally reflect further elements in addition to future dividends. The experience of several countries, however, shows that market prices of different types of shares may diverge, and sometimes considerably so. Indeed, economic theory does not seem to have devoted sufficient attention to the magnitude and determinants of different valuations. The present paper analyses this issue in two steps. First, a stable situation is considered, where the distribution of shares between “majority” and “minority” shareholders is fixed. Second, and unstable situation where the possibility of changes in the distribution of shares is explicitly considered.  In both cases, two classes of shares are considered, one with full voting rights and another with no voting rights at all.  

  12. Class 1 integrons in environments with different degrees of urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Nardelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Class 1 integrons are one of the most successful elements in the acquisition, expression and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG among clinical isolates. Little is known about the gene flow of the components of the genetic platforms of class 1 integrons within and between bacterial communities. Thus it is important to better understand the interactions among "environmental" intI1, its genetic platforms and its distribution with human activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An evaluation of two types of genetic determinants, ARG (sul1 and qacE1/qacEΔ1 genes and lateral genetic elements (LGE (intI1, ISCR1 and tniC genes in a model of a culture-based method without antibiotic selection was conducted in a gradient of anthropogenic disturbances in a Patagonian island recognized as being one of the last regions containing wild areas. The intI1, ISCR1 genes and intI1 pseudogenes that were found widespread throughout natural communities were not associated with urbanization (p>0.05. Each ARG that is embedded in the most common genetic platform of clinical class 1 integrons, showed different ecological and molecular behaviours in environmental samples. While the sul1 gene frequency was associated with urbanization, the qacE1/qacEΔ1 gene showed an adaptive role to several habitats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high frequency of intI1 pseudogenes suggests that, although intI1 has a deleterious impact within several genomes, it can easily be disseminated among natural bacterial communities. The widespread occurrence of ISCR1 and intI1 throughout Patagonian sites with different degree of urbanization, and within different taxa, could be one of the causes of the increasing frequency of multidrug-resistant isolates that have characterized Argentina for decades. The flow of ARG and LGE between natural and clinical communities cannot be explained with a single general process but is a direct consequence of the interaction of multiple

  13. Nonlinear least square estimation using difference quotient instead of derivative containing different classes of measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶华学; 郭金运

    2002-01-01

    Using difference quotient instead of derivative, the paper presents the solution method and procedure of the nonlinear least square estimation containing different classes of measurements. In the meantime, the paper shows several practical cases, which indicate the method is very valid and reliable.

  14. Defining universality classes for three different local bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-10-01

    The convergence to the fixed point at a bifurcation and near it is characterized via scaling formalism for three different types of local bifurcations of fixed points in differential equations, namely: (i) saddle-node; (ii) transcritical; and (iii) supercritical pitchfork. At the bifurcation, the convergence is described by a homogeneous function with three critical exponents α, β and z. A scaling law is derived hence relating the three exponents. Near the bifurcation the evolution towards the fixed point is given by an exponential function whose relaxation time is marked by a power law of the distance of the bifurcation point with an exponent δ. The four exponents α, β, z and δ can be used to defined classes of universality for the local bifurcations of fixed points in differential equations.

  15. Social-Class Differences in Consumer Choices: Working-Class Individuals Are More Sensitive to Choices of Others Than Middle-Class Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; McDonough, Ian M; Chan, Micaela Y; Park, Denise C

    2016-04-01

    The present research shows that, when making choices, working-class Americans are more affected by others' opinions than middle-class Americans due to differences in independent versus interdependent self-construal. Experiment 1 revealed that when working-class Americans made decisions to buy products, they were more influenced by the choices of others than middle-class Americans. In contrast, middle-class Americans were more likely to misremember others' choices to be consistent with their own choices. In other words, working-class Americans adjusted their choices to the preference of others, whereas middle-class Americans distorted others' preferences to fit their choices. Supporting our prediction that this social-class effect is closely linked to the independent versus interdependent self-construal, we showed that the differences in self-construal across cultures qualified the social-class effects on choices (Experiment 2). Moreover, when we experimentally manipulated self-construal in Experiment 3, we found that it mediated the corresponding changes in choices regardless of social class. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Explaining Social Class Inequalities in Educational Achievement in the UK: Quantifying the Contribution of Social Class Differences in School "Effectiveness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Graham

    2016-01-01

    There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…

  17. Class Dismissed? Historical Materialism and the Politics of "Difference"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo-D'Annibale, Valerie; McLaren, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most taken-for-granted features of contemporary social theory is the ritual and increasingly generic critique of Marxism in terms of its alleged failure to address forms of oppression other than that of "class." Marxism is considered to be theoretically bankrupt and intellectually passe, and class analysis is often savagely…

  18. Ozone exposure and stomatal sluggishness in different plant physiognomic classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grulke, Nancy E. [US Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Gas exchange responses to static and variable light were tested in three species: snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, two cultivars), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), and blue oak (Q. douglasii). The effects of 1-month (snap beans) and 2-month (oaks) O{sub 3} (ozone) exposure (70 ppb over 8 h per day in open-top chambers) were investigated. A delay in stomatal responses (i.e., 'sluggish' responses) to variable light was found to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason for increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in snap bean cultivars, as it implied higher O{sub 3} uptake during times of disequilibrium. Sluggishness increased the time to open (thus limiting CO{sub 2} uptake) and close stomata (thus increasing transpirational water loss) after abrupt changes in light level. Similar responses were shown by snap beans and oaks, suggesting that O{sub 3}-induced stomatal sluggishness is a common trait among different plant physiognomic classes. - Sluggish stomatal responses are suggested to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason of increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in plants.

  19. Different classes of antibiotics differentially influence shiga toxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGannon, Colleen Marie; Fuller, Cynthia Ann; Weiss, Alison Ann

    2010-09-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 is encoded as a late gene product by temperate bacteriophage integrated into the chromosome. Phage late genes, including stx, are silent in the lysogenic state. However, stress signals, including some induced by antibiotics, trigger the phage to enter the lytic cycle, and phage replication and Stx production occur concurrently. In addition to the Stx produced by O157:H7, phage produced by O157:H7 can infect harmless intestinal E. coli and recruit them to produce Shiga toxin. To understand how antibiotics influence Stx production, Stx lysogens were treated with different classes of antibiotics in the presence or absence of phage-sensitive E. coli, and Stx-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis was monitored using luciferase-expressing Vero cells. Growth-inhibitory levels of antibiotics suppressed Stx production. Subinhibitory levels of antibiotics that target DNA synthesis, including ciprofloxacin (CIP) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, increased Stx production, while antibiotics that target the cell wall, transcription, or translation did not. More Stx was produced when E. coli O157:H7 was incubated in the presence of phage-sensitive E. coli than when grown as a pure culture. Remarkably, very high levels of Stx were detected even when growth of O157:H7 was completely suppressed by CIP. In contrast, azithromycin significantly reduced Stx levels even when O157:H7 viability remained high.

  20. Internet Gamblers Differ on Social Variables: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Monney, Gregoire; Thorens, Gabriel; Dufour, Magali; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane

    2016-12-27

    Online gambling has gained popularity in the last decade, leading to an important shift in how consumers engage in gambling and in the factors related to problem gambling and prevention. Indebtedness and loneliness have previously been associated with problem gambling. The current study aimed to characterize online gamblers in relation to indebtedness, loneliness, and several in-game social behaviors. The data set was obtained from 584 Internet gamblers recruited online through gambling websites and forums. Of these gamblers, 372 participants completed all study assessments and were included in the analyses. Questionnaires included those on sociodemographics and social variables (indebtedness, loneliness, in-game social behaviors), as well as the Gambling Motives Questionnaire, Gambling Related Cognitions Scale, Internet Addiction Test, Problem Gambling Severity Index, Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Social variables were explored with a latent class model. The clusters obtained were compared for psychological measures and three clusters were found: lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 1: 6.5%), not lonely not indebted gamblers (cluster 2: 75.4%), and not lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 3: 18%). Participants in clusters 1 and 3 (particularly in cluster 1) were at higher risk of problem gambling than were those in cluster 2. The three groups differed on most assessed variables, including the Problem Gambling Severity Index, the Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and the UPPS-P subscales (except the sensation seeking subscore). Results highlight significant between-group differences, suggesting that Internet gamblers are not a homogeneous group. Specific intervention strategies could be implemented for groups at risk.

  1. Social class differences in physical functions in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars Louis; Skotte, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women.......The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women....

  2. Different universality classes at the yielding transition of amorphous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagla, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    We study the yielding transition of a two-dimensional amorphous system under shear by using a mesoscopic elasto-plastic model. The model combines a full (tensorial) description of the elastic interactions in the system and the possibility of structural reaccommodations that are responsible for the plastic behavior. The possible structural reaccommodations are encoded in the form of a "plastic disorder" potential, which is chosen independently at each position of the sample to account for local heterogeneities. We observe that the stress must exceed a critical value σc in order for the system to yield. In addition, when the system yields a flow curve (relating stress σ and strain rate γ ˙) of the form γ ˙˜(σ-σc) β is obtained. Remarkably, we observe the value of β to depend on some details of the plastic disorder potential. For smooth potentials a value of β ≃2.0 is obtained, whereas for potentials obtained as a concatenation of smooth pieces a value β ≃1.5 is observed in the simulations. This indicates a dependence of critical behavior on details of the plastic behavior. In addition, by integrating out nonessential, harmonic degrees of freedom, we derive a simplified scalar version of the model that represents a collection of interacting Prandtl-Tomlinson particles. A mean-field treatment of this interaction reproduces the difference of β exponents for the two classes of plastic disorder potentials and provides values of β that compare favorably with those found in the full simulations.

  3. A Comparison of Dental Fitness Classification Using Different Class 3 Criteria: A Report of Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    soldiers put into Class 3 under the new system. The major source of this difference was partically erupted or pericoronally involved third molars. The...into Class 3 under the new system. The major source of this difference was partically erupted or pericoronally involved third molars. The increase in the...Class 3 under the new system. The major source of this difference was partially erupted or pericoronally involved third molars. The increase in the Class

  4. E. coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase reveals structural and functional distinctions between different classes of dihydroorotate dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, Sofie; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Björnberg, Olof

    2002-01-01

    . The structure of class 2 E. coli DHOD, determined by MAD phasing, showed that the N-terminal extension forms a separate domain. The catalytic serine residue has an environment differing from the equivalent cysteine in class 1 DHODs. Significant differences between the two classes of DHODs were identified...... by comparison of the E. coli DHOD with the other known DHOD structures, and differences with the class 2 human DHOD explain the variation in their inhibitors....

  5. Middle School Choreography Class: Two Parallel but Different Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This research explored how middle school students construct meaning from their dance-making experiences in comparison to the meaning attached to these experiences by an outside observer, the researcher. An interpretive methodology was used to study two nine-week-long dance classes taught at a private K-12 school. Eleven students enrolled in the…

  6. Gender Differences in the Effectiveness of Google Forms in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-gook; Park, Chongwoo

    2012-01-01

    A classroom response system (CRS) involves the use of remote devices allowing all students in a class to respond to questions displayed on a projection screen. A CRS instantly collects, tallies, and shows students' answers to a question on a classroom projection screen--a similar system used in the TV show "Who wants to be a millionaire"…

  7. Effects of Word Class Differences on L2 Pronunciation Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni-Komshian, Grace H.; Robbins, Medina; Flege, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effect of word class (nouns vs. verbs) on second language pronunciation accuracy of Korean-English adult bilinguals whose age of arrival in the United States ranged from 6 to 23 years. Transcriptions of their productions of English indicated they were more accurate in pronouncing verbs than nouns and were more accurate in detecting…

  8. Summary of an Analysis of Pupil-Teacher Ratio and Class Size: Differences That Make a Difference and Its Implications on Staffing for Class-Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark A.

    The purpose of this paper was to share findings from an earlier study and to provide a framework for administrators to use in the implementation of class-size reduction (CSR) in their buildings. The study examined actual and average class size (CS), pupil-teacher ratios (PTR), and their differences. A primary goal was to clarify the ramifications…

  9. Dentin infiltration ability of different classes of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Alina; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the dentin infiltration ability of various types of adhesives and compares four classes of adhesive systems with regard to this property. The infiltration is determined quantitatively, characterized as tag length and ratio of infiltration, and qualitatively, characterized as homogeneity, regularity, and continuity of the resin tags. Flat dentin surfaces from 140 halves of caries-free molars were bonded with four classes of adhesive systems. The adhesives (n = 20) were labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate and applied on the occlusal dentin following the manufacturer's recommendations and were subsequently light cured, 20 s. Then a 2-mm thick composite layer was applied and light cured, 20 s. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C, 24 h. Two slices were sectioned mesio-distally from each sample and were investigated with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The measurements were done at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm from the enamel-dentin junction. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and the general linear model. The class of adhesive, the composition, and the dentin position were significant factors affecting the investigated parameters. The use of etch and rinse adhesives in comparison to self-etch adhesives provided the formation of longer, more homogeneous, very regularly distributed but mostly fractured tags. A comparison of adhesives confirmed that etch and rinse systems remain better in bond infiltration. While the importance of tags formation on bonding is still controversially discussed, adhesive systems with a high ratio of infiltration might better protect the tooth against microorganism contamination.

  10. Competitive antagonism of AMPA receptors by ligands of different classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogner, Anders; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    that ATPO and DNQX stabilize an open form of the ligand-binding core by different sets of interactions. Computational techniques are used to quantify the differences between these two ligands and to map the binding site. The isoxazole moiety of ATPO acts primarily as a spacer, and other scaffolds could......-(phosphonomethoxy)-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ATPO) in complex with the ligand-binding core of the receptor. Comparison with the only previous structure of the ligand-binding core in complex with an antagonist, 6,7-dinitro-2,3-quinoxalinedione (DNQX) (Armstrong, N.; Gouaux, E. Neuron 2000, 28, 165-181), reveals...

  11. A comparative evaluation of dermatoglyphics in different classes of malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jindal

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Dermatoglyphic analysis can be used as an indicator of malocclusion at an early age, thereby aiding the development of treatments aiming to establish favorable occlusion. Inheritance and twin studies, as well as those conducted in different ethnic groups, are required to examine these relationships further.

  12. Intimate Relationship Development during the Transition to Adulthood: Differences by Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This article examines differences in young adults' intimate relationships by social class. Lower-class adolescents are more likely to engage in intimate-relationship practices such as cohabitation, early marriage, and sexual activity that may lead to further economic and educational deprivation. Such adolescents have limited access to the special…

  13. Quadrature formulas for classes of functions with bounded mixed derivative or difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪和平

    1997-01-01

    Quadrature formulas are considered for classes of smooth functions Wpr, Bpr,(?) with bounded mixed derivative or difference. For the classes of functions indicated above, the result that quadrature formulas constructed with the help of number-theoretic methods are optimal (in the sense of order) is proved, and the optimal order of the error estimates is obtained.

  14. Waiting to be Cinderella’d?: Attitudes on Class Differences Among Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Wood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the way in which college students construct attitudes about class differences among women. Social work student researchers interviewed 30 college students at a Midwestern public university and asked them to tell stories about women in two different social class positions. The results revealed that social class differences are constructed based on factors related to family of origin, personality, structural inequities, personal choices and relationships, as well as other intersecting experiences. In addition, participant stories highlighted gendered attitudes towards women in poverty. Implications for social science teaching, practice, and research are discussed.

  15. The relationship between heart problems and mortality in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kåreholt, I

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze how relative mortality risk varies between persons with and without heart problems in different social classes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze relative mortality risk for the period 1968-1996 for a Swedish nationally representative sample of 4585 persons born between 1892 and 1942, and interviewed 1968. Survivors from the original sample were also interviewed in 1974, 1981 and 1991 or 1992. "Heart problems" is defined as the presence of three mild or one severe symptom associated with circulatory problems. Social class is based on occupation. The relative mortality risk varied significantly between social classes and between persons with and without heart problems, among both men and women. These differences were smaller among women than among men. The main results are that there are significant additive interactions between social class and heart problems among men. Men from lower social classes have a more elevated mortality risk than men from higher social classes when they have a heart problem. Among white-collar workers the coefficient of the difference between men with and without heart problems was 0.53. The corresponding difference was significantly larger among workers (1.59, P = 0.01), thus demonstrating an additive interaction. The difference was even greater (1.86) among "unclassifiable" men--those who could not report an occupation that could be coded into a social class, mainly because they were long-term unemployed or on early-retirement pensions. Among women, the mortality difference between white-collar workers with and without heart problems was 0.85. None of the mortality differences between those with and without heart problems in other social classes differed significantly from those of white-collar workers. The mortality difference between women with and without heart problems was, however, large (2.34) among the "unclassifiable". This difference is even larger than the corresponding

  16. Changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahelma Eero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%. The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET. Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers. The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Results At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of

  17. Axial variation of basic density of Araucaria angustifolia wood in different diameter classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Trevisan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the wood characteristics is of fundamental importance for the correct use of this raw material and, among its properties, the basic density is a major, being reference in the quality of this material. This study aimed to evaluate the axial variation of basic density of the wood of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze in different diameter classes. For this, three trees were selected in six diameter classes, called class 1 (20-30cm, class 2 (30.1-40cm, class 3 (40.1-50cm, class 4 (50.1-60cm, class 5 (60.1-70cm and class 6 (70.1-80cm. From each individual sampled was withdrawn a disc at 0.1m (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the height of the first live branch and in the diameter at 1.30m from the ground (DBH, which were used for determining basic density. The weighted average basic density was equal to 0.422g cm-3 and, regardless of the diameter class analyzed, this property decreased in the axial direction. Diameter induced variation of basic density, but has not been verified a positive or negative systematic tendency in relation to the sampled interval.

  18. Solar flare count periodicities in different X-ray flare classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng-Xin; Xu, Jing-Chen

    2016-04-01

    Using the Morlet wavelet transform and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we investigate the periodic behaviours of C, M and X-class flare counts, respectively, recorded by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) from 1983 May to 2014 December, which cover the two complete solar cycles (SCs) 22 and 23 as well as the part of declining phase of SC 21 and rise and maximum phases of SC 24. Analyses show that the periodic behaviours of various class flare counts are different. (1) Not all periods of various class flare counts appear dominant during the cycle maxima. For C-class flares, during SC 23, periods appear dominant during the maximum phase, however, compared to those during SC 23, there are more periods during the declining phase of SC 22; for M-class flares, during SCs 22 and 23, periods appear dominant during the cycle maxima; for X-class flares, during SC 22, almost all periods appear during the maximum phase; however, during SC 23, there are more periods during the declining phase compared to those during SC 22. (2) For C-class flares, the appearance of periods do not follow the amplitude of C-class flare cycles; while, for M and X-class flares, the appearance of periods follows the amplitude of the investigated corresponding class flare cycles. (3) From the overall trends, the 10 yr and longer time-scale trends of the monthly numbers of M and X-class flares, we can infer that the maximum values of the monthly M and X-class flare numbers would increase during SC 25.

  19. Social class differences in physical functions in middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen; Christensen, Ulla; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Molbo, Drude; Lund, Rikke; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women. This study used traditionally used physical performance tests and we added several tests of vigorous physical functioning (trunk muscle strength and power and sagittal flexibility). We measured reaction time, one-legged balance, sagittal flexibility, jump height, chair rise ability, trunk muscle- and handgrip strength in 5,412 participants aged 50 to 60 years (68.5% men). We found gender differences and social class gradients for all physical performance tests. We did not find an interaction between social class and gender, indicating that the social gradient in physical functions did not differ between men and women. Including measures of vigorous physical functioning may add to the existing knowledge on development of functional limitation and poorer functional health later in life.

  20. New spectral estimations for a class of integral-difference operators and generalisation to higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Yuri B.

    2016-09-01

    Quadratic form approach allows for new results in the analysis of a class of integral-difference operators in finite domains: non-negativity, spectral estimations, a new property of Legendre polynomials, and establishing links with weighted mean-square deviation functionals and with infinite Jacobi matrices with not-bounded coefficients. Generalisation of integral-difference operators to higher dimensions is provided and application to matter relaxation in a field is considered. A new class of special functions naturally appears.

  1. The Impact of Different Scheduling Policies on Traffic Class Dependent Routing in Intersatellite Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandus, Gorazd; Svigelj, Ales; Mohorcic, Mihael

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we analyse the impact of different scheduling policies on traffic class dependent routing in intersatellite link network of a packet switched non-geostationary satellite system. We used different unfair (first come first served and priority) and fair (weighted round robin, deficit round robin and surplus round robin) scheduling mechanisms. Specifically developed software to model the ISL network was used to evaluate the performance of different combinations of scheduling and routing procedures. The analysis was done in terms of average packet delay and average data throughput for different traffic scenarios. The results imply that there is a small impact of different fair scheduling mechanisms on traffic class depending on routing.

  2. Loss of Control as a Discriminating Factor Between Different Latent Classes of Disordered Gambling Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J

    2016-12-01

    Analyses of disordered gambling assessment data have indicated that commonly used screens appear to measure latent categories. This stands in contrast to the oft-held assumption that problem gambling is at the extreme of a continuum. To explore this further, we report a series of latent class analyses of a number of prevalent problem gambling assessments (PGSI, SOGS, DSM-IV Pathological Gambling based assessments) in nationally representative British surveys between 1999 and 2012, analysing data from nearly fifty thousand individuals. The analyses converged on a three class model in which the classes differed by problem gambling severity. This identified an initial class of gamblers showing minimal problems, a additional class predominantly endorsing indicators of preoccupation and loss chasing, and a third endorsing a range of disordered gambling criteria. However, there was considerable evidence to suggest that classes of intermediate and high severity disordered gamblers differed systematically in their responses to items related to loss of control, and not simply on the most 'difficult' items. It appeared that these differences were similar between assessments. An important exception to this was one set of DSM-IV criteria based analyses using a specific cutoff, which was also used in an analysis that identified an increase in UK problem gambling prevalence between 2007 and 2010. The results suggest that disordered gambling has a mixed latent structure, and that present assessments of problem gambling appear to converge on a broadly similar construct.

  3. The Drosophila gene Medea demonstrates the requirement for different classes of Smads in dpp signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P; Maduzia, L L; Wang, H; Finelli, A L; Cho, S H; Smith, M M; Padgett, R W

    1998-04-01

    Signals from transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) ligands are transmitted within the cell by members of the Smad family, which can be grouped into three classes based on sequence similarities. Our previous identification of both class I and II Smads functioning in a single pathway in C. elegans, raised the issue of whether the requirement for Smads derived from different classes is a general feature of TGF-beta signaling. We report here the identification of a new Drosophila class II Smad, Medea, a close homolog of the human tumor-suppressor gene DPC4. Embryos from germline clones of both Medea and Mad (a class I Smad) are ventralized, as are embryos null for the TGF-beta-like ligand decapentaplegic (dpp). Loss of Medea also blocks dpp signaling during later development, suggesting that Medea, like Mad, is universally required for dpp signaling. Furthermore, we show that the necessity for these two closely related, non-redundant Smads, is due to their different signaling properties - upon activation of the Dpp pathway, Mad is required to actively translocate Medea into the nucleus. These results provide a paradigm for, and distinguish between, the requirement for class I and II Smads in Dpp/BMP signaling.

  4. Exploring the Expectation Differences of Teachers' Roles in English MA Class Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gao, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    Students' presentation is a research-based in-class activity to present views, supporting details or research results on a given topic. Undoubtedly, teachers play important roles in presentations and teachers' roles are quite different from students' roles in this activity due to the different role expectations between them. However, in most…

  5. The Anthropological Implications of Sex Role Differences: Class and Ethnic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jerome W.

    The implications of physical and biological sex differences on sex role behavior cannot be understood without analyzing the complementary role of the sociocultural meaning of sex roles. The normative aspect of gender role behavior is fluid and can be affected by culture, class, and ethnicity. All societies recognize differences between the sexes.…

  6. Identifying differences in the experience of (in)authenticity: a latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Alison P; Slabu, Letitia; Bruder, Martin; Sedikides, Constantine

    2014-01-01

    Generally, psychologists consider state authenticity - that is, the subjective sense of being one's true self - to be a unitary and unidimensional construct, such that (a) the phenomenological experience of authenticity is thought to be similar no matter its trigger, and (b) inauthenticity is thought to be simply the opposing pole (on the same underlying construct) of authenticity. Using latent class analysis, we put this conceptualization to a test. In order to avoid over-reliance on a Western conceptualization of authenticity, we used a cross-cultural sample (N = 543), comprising participants from Western, South-Asian, East-Asian, and South-East Asian cultures. Participants provided either a narrative in which the described when they felt most like being themselves or one in which they described when they felt least like being themselves. The analysis identified six distinct classes of experiences: two authenticity classes ("everyday" and "extraordinary"), three inauthenticity classes ("self-conscious," "deflated," and "extraordinary"), and a class representing convergence between authenticity and inauthenticity. The classes were phenomenologically distinct, especially with respect to negative affect, private and public self-consciousness, and self-esteem. Furthermore, relatively more interdependent cultures were less likely to report experiences of extraordinary (in)authenticity than relatively more independent cultures. Understanding the many facets of (in)authenticity may enable researchers to connect different findings and explain why the attainment of authenticity can be difficult.

  7. Explaining occupational class differences in sickness absence: results from middle-aged municipal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Lahelma, E

    2010-09-01

    Low socioeconomic position is consistently associated with higher rates of sickness absence. We aimed to examine whether working conditions, health-related behaviours and family-related factors explain occupational class differences in medically certified sickness absence. The study included 5470 women and 1464 men employees of the City of Helsinki, surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were prospectively linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression was used to examine the occurrence of medically certified sickness absence episodes lasting 4 days or more. Medically certified sickness absence was roughly three times more common among manual workers than among managers and professionals in both women and men. Physical working conditions were the strongest explanatory factors for occupational class differences in sickness absence, followed by smoking and relative weight. Work arrangements and family-related factors had very small effects only. The effects of psychosocial working conditions were heterogeneous: job control narrowed occupational class differences in sickness absence while mental strain and job demands tended to widened them. Overall, the findings were quite similar in women and men. Physical working conditions provided strongest explanations for occupational class differences in sickness absence. Smoking and relative weight, which are well-known determinants of health, also explained part of the excess sickness absence in lower occupational classes. Applying tailored work arrangements to employees on sick leave, reducing physically heavy working conditions and promoting healthy behaviours provide potential routes to narrow occupational class differences in sickness absence.

  8. Social class differences in coronary heart disease in middle-aged British men: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Jonathan R; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Walker, Mary

    2004-04-01

    Though social class differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) are well recognized, few studies have assessed the effect of imprecision in social class assessment on the relationship or the overall contribution of social class to attributable CHD risk. Prospective observational study of the relationship between occupational social class (assessed at baseline and after 20 years), major CHD (coronary death and non-fatal myocardial infarction) and all-cause mortality rates over 20 years among 5628 middle-aged British men with no previous evidence of CHD. The age-adjusted hazard of major CHD for manual men relative to non-manual men was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.64) before correction and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.79) after correction for imprecision of social class measurement. The imprecision-corrected estimate was attenuated to 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.54) after adjustment for the adult coronary risk factors (blood cholesterol, blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and lung function) and to 1.20 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.45) following further adjustment for height. The population attributable risk fraction of major CHD for social class (manual versus non-manual) was 22% after correction for imprecision in social class, which was reduced to 14% after adjustment for the adult coronary risk factors, and 10% after further adjustment for height. Similar results were obtained for all-cause mortality. Even taking account of measurement imprecision, the contribution of social class to overall CHD risk is modest. Population-wide strategies to reduce major CHD risk factors are likely to have greater potential benefits for CHD prevention than strategies designed specifically to reduce social inequalities in CHD.

  9. Value differences between social workers and members of the working and middle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2003-01-01

    Although significant differences in values between social workers and clients are widely understood to affect the efficacy of service provision, no studies have sought to examine how the values affirmed by social workers may differ from those held by members of the working and middle classes. Therefore, this study examines the degree of value similarity between social workers and consumers. Based on "new-class" theory, two hypotheses are proposed. First, graduate social workers affirm value positions to the left of working- and middle-class clients. Second, bachelor's-level social workers affirm value positions in between those of graduate workers and clients. Both hypotheses were supported. The implications for the divergence in value frameworks for advocacy, practice, and education are discussed.

  10. Questions of Degree? Middle-Class Rejection of Higher Education and Intra-Class Differences in Educational Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article is an analysis of middle-class rejection of higher education. The author uses accounts of the educational decision-making of three female students, all identified to be from broadly middle-class backgrounds, from within full-time vocational further education in the United Kingdom, as a means to consider two issues. First, the author…

  11. DIFFERENT ROLES OF CLASS-I AND CLASS-II CLOSTRIDIUM-HISTOLYTICUM COLLAGENASE IN RAT PANCREATIC-ISLET ISOLATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTERS, GHJ; VOSSCHEPERKEUTER, GH; LIN, HC; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1995-01-01

    Crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase was purified by gel filtration and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into class I with high collagen digestion activity (CDA) and low FALGPA (2-furanacryloyl-L-leucylglycyl-L-prolyI-L-alanine )hydrolysis activity (FHA), class II with low CDA and

  12. Oscillatory behavior of a class of fractional difference equations with damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maria Selvam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the oscillation of a class of fractional difference equations with damping term of the form   where denotes the Riemann-Liouville difference operator of order  is a quotient of odd positive integers. Based on a generalized Riccati transformation and some inequalities, we establish some sufficient conditions of oscillation criteria for it. Some applications are also presented for the established results.Keywords: Difference Equations, Oscillation, Fractional Order, Damping.

  13. 19 CFR 19.31 - Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to be commingled in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to... CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.31 Bulk wheat of different classes and grades not to be commingled in storage. All wheat shall be stored by class and grade...

  14. Class Differences in Family Problem Solving: The Effects of Verbal Ability, Hierarchical Structure, and Role Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Irving; Miller, Gary

    1974-01-01

    Reports on a study which used propositions drawn from small group problem-solving research, combined and modified, to explain social class differences in family problem solving with externally generated, rule-bound, conjunctive, puzzle-like problems. (Author/SF)

  15. Are All "Adolescent Econometricians" Created Equal? Racial, Class, and Gender Differences in College Enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Irenee R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether economic conditions similarly influence the college enrollment of adolescents from different groups. Indicates effects of income returns varies systematically by race, class, gender, and cognitive skills. Argues that college enrollment of white males from lower socioeconomic origins with lower cognitive skills is most consistent…

  16. Distribution of a Population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii among Different Size Classes of Soil Aggregates†

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Ieda C.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of the plant infection-soil dilution technique (most-probable-number [MPN] technique) and immunofluorescence direct count (IFDC) microscopy was used to examine the effects of three winter cover crop treatments on the distribution of a soil population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii across different size classes of soil aggregates (

  17. The Differences in Academic Achievement between Single-Sex Education and Coeducation Classes in Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggins, Donna K.

    2009-01-01

    Single-sex education is an instructional innovation implemented to improve student academic achievement by teaching to the learning styles and interests of boys and/or girls. This ex post facto quantitative study examined the differences in academic achievement between single-sex education and coeducation classes on students' achievement in…

  18. Study to Minimize Learning Progress Differences in Software Learning Class Using PLITAZ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Jie; Hwang, Wu-Yuin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a system using two-phased strategies called "Pause Lecture, Instant Tutor-Tutee Match, and Attention Zone" (PLITAZ). This system was used to help solve learning challenges and to minimize learning progress differences in a software learning class. During a teacher's lecture time, students were encouraged to anonymously express…

  19. Comparing Different Classes of Reinforcement to Increase Expressive Language for Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen H.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John J.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic principles of applied behavior analysis is that behavior change is largely due to that behavior being reinforced. Therefore the use of positive reinforcement is a key component of most behavioral programs for individuals diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared four different classes of reinforcers (i.e., food, praise,…

  20. Heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after IFRS adoption: evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Black

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to investigate the existence of heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. IFRS adoption is generally associated with an increase in the quality of financial statements. However, companies within the same country are likely to have different economic incentives regarding the disclosure of information. Thus, treating companies equally, without considering the related economic incentives, could contaminate earnings quality investigations. The case of Brazil is analyzed, which is a country classified as code-law, in which tax laws determined accounting practice and in which IFRS adoption is mandatory. First, Brazilian companies listed on the São Paulo Stock, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA were separated into two classes: companies issuing American Depositary Receipts (ADRs before IFRS adoption and companies that did not issue ADRs until the adoption of IFRS. Then, this second class of companies was grouped, using cluster analysis, into two different subclasses according to economic incentives. Based on the groups identified, the quality of accounting earnings is tested for each class of the companies before and after IFRS adoption. This paper uses timely recognition of economic events, value relevance of net income, and earnings management as proxies for the quality of accounting earnings. The results indicate that a particular class of companies began showing conditional conservatism, value relevance of net income, and lower earnings management after IFRS adoption. On the other hand, these results were not found for the two other classes of companies.

  1. Effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Yıkılgan, İhsan; Akgül, Sinem; Kuşoğlu, Aslı; Bala, Oya; Ömürlü, Hüma; Türköz, Mehmet Emin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations.Materials and Method: In this study 60 extracted non-cavitated human molar teeth were used. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces in 4 mm mesio-distal, 3 mm gingivo-occlusal width and 3 mm depth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1: resin-modified calcium silicate material (TheraCal LC), Group 2: self-a...

  2. Effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations

    OpenAIRE

    İhsan Yıkılgan; Sinem Akgül; Aslı Kuşoğlu; Oya Bala; Hüma Ömürlü; Mehmet Emin Türköz

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations. Materials and Method: In this study 60 extracted non-cavitated human molar teeth were used. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces in 4 mm mesio-distal, 3 mm gingivo-occlusal width and 3 mm depth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1: resin-modified calcium silicate material (TheraCal LC), Group 2: s...

  3. Integrative Molecular Analysis of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Reveals 2 Classes That Have Different Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIA, DANIELA; HOSHIDA, YUJIN; VILLANUEVA, AUGUSTO; ROAYAIE, SASAN; FERRER, JOANA; TABAK, BARBARA; PEIX, JUDIT; SOLE, MANEL; TOVAR, VICTORIA; ALSINET, CLARA; CORNELLA, HELENA; KLOTZLE, BRANDY; FAN, JIAN–BING; COTSOGLOU, CHRISTIAN; THUNG, SWAN N.; FUSTER, JOSEP; WAXMAN, SAMUEL; GARCIA–VALDECASAS, JUAN CARLOS; BRUIX, JORDI; SCHWARTZ, MYRON E.; BEROUKHIM, RAMEEN; MAZZAFERRO, VINCENZO; LLOVET, JOSEP M.

    2013-01-01

    of ICC. The proliferation class has specific copy number alterations, many features of the poor-prognosis signatures for HCC, and is associated with worse outcome. Different classes of ICC, based on molecular features, therefore might require different treatment approaches. PMID:23295441

  4. Morbidity differences by occupational class among men in seven European countries: an application of the Erikson-Goldthorpe social class scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.J.M. Cavelaars (Adrienne); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.E. Kunst (Anton); J.J.M. Geurts (José); U. Helmert (Uwe); O. Lundberg; A. Mielck; J. Matheson; A. Mizrahi; N. Rasmussen; T. Spuhler

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This paper describes morbidity differences according to occupational class among men from France, Switzerland, (West) Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden. METHODS: Data were obtained from national health interview surveys

  5. Tannins gravimetric yield condensed in Anadenanthera peregrina bark in different diameter classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Junqueira Sartori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the gravimetric yield of condensed tannins in the Anadenanthera peregrina bark in different diameter classes. Fifty-nine trees samples were collected of Anadenanthera peregrina, at 1.30m of the ground (diameter at breast height - DBH, distributed in seven diameter classes. The barks were dried and crushed in mill of hammer. Composite sample was made to prepare the extract. The extraction was done using water in the ratio 15:1 (v/w, added 3% sodium sulfite (w/w in water-bath at 70°C for 4 hours. The material was filtered using fine cloth strainer and concentrated on a heating plate at approximately 150 g. It was determined the extract mass and removed 10 g for obtaining solids content and 20g for the Stiasny's index. The average values of total solids content, Stiasny's index, condensed tannin content and the compound content non-tannin were 11.34%; 75.79%; 12.76% and 4.07%, respectively. The content of solids, Stiasny's index, compound content non-tannin show significant differences between diameter classes. For the condensed tannins production, the diameter class parameter there was no influence.

  6. Development of Generic Field Classes for Finite Element and Finite Difference Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane A. Verner

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the development of a reusable object-oriented array library, as well as the use of this library in the construction of finite difference and finite element codes. The classes in this array library are also generic enough to be used to construct other classes specific to finite difference and finite element methods. We demonstrate the usefulness of this library by inserting it into two existing object-oriented scientific codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories. One of these codes is based on finite difference methods, whereas the other is based on finite element methods. Previously, these codes were separately maintained across a variety of sequential and parallel computing platforms. The use of object-oriented programming allows both codes to make use of common base classes. This offers a number of advantages related to optimization and portability. Optimization efforts, particularly important in large scientific codes, can be focused on a single library. Furthermore, by encapsulating machine dependencies within this library, the optimization of both codes on different architec-tures will only involve modification to a single library.

  7. Thermal Loading and Reliability of 10 MW Multilevel Wind Power Converter at Different Wind Roughness Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    of the converter. Furthermore, the increment of the wind roughness class causes a larger dispersion of the mean values and the variation of the junction temperatures, which also affect the lifetime of the converter. Hence, the cycle lifetime largely decreases considering the variable-wind-speed profile. In fact......This paper focuses on the design, thermal loading, and reliability of a three-level neutral-point-clamped back-to-back full-scale converter for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine equipped with a permanent-magnet synchronous generator. The reliability performance of the three-level converter...... of the system using different kinds of modulation strategies and analyzing the different wind-load conditions that are dependent on roughness classes. This paper shows that the 60 ° discontinuous pulsewidth-modulation strategies allow better thermal performance and increase the estimated lifetime...

  8. Thermal loading and reliability of 10 MW multilevel wind power converter at different wind roughness classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    . Furthermore, the increment of the wind roughness class causes a larger dispersion of the mean values and the variation of the junction temperatures, also affecting the lifetime of the converter. Hence, the cycles lifetime largely decreases considering variable wind speed profile. In fact, the results show......This paper focuses on the design, thermal loading and reliability of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (3-L NPC) back-to-back full scale converter for a 10 MW direct-drive wind turbine equipped with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The reliability performance of the three...... the dynamics of the system using different kinds of modulation strategies and analyzing different wind load conditions dependent on roughness classes. It is concluded that 60° discontinuous PWM modulation strategies show better thermal performance and increase the estimated lifetime of the converter...

  9. Self-appraisal of hockey players of high class of different playing position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Mikhnov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to expose the features of display of self-appraisal for the hockey players of high class of different playing position. Material and Methods: for the exposure of level of self-appraisal for hockey players, information of sportsmen of high class, taking part in the matches of the Kontinental hockey league (KHL in a season 2013–2014 was probed sixteen hockey players, having a sporting digit MS and MSWC, took part in researches. Methods were used: pedagogical supervision, pedagogical analysis and generalization of front-rank experience, psychological testing, analysis of data of the special scientific-methodical literature, expert questioning, an analysis of data is the Internet. Results: findings allowed to set that the players of line of attack (central and extreme forward have more high level of self-appraisal for certain, than players of defence and hockey goalkeepers. This tendency is looked over both on the separate constituents of self-appraisal and on the whole on all spectrums of the studied indexes. The got results of researches rotined that the hockey players of high class had or middle or high level of self-appraisal. Among testable hockey players, players were not exposed with the low level of self-appraisal. Conclusions: the exposed distinctions in the level of self-appraisal of hockey players of high class can be used for diagnostics of playing predisposition and choice of playing line of business in a command.

  10. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (pmiddle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  11. A solution form of a class of higher-order rational difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We obtain in this paper the expressions of solutions of the following class of difference equations xn+1=xn-2k+1±1±Πi=1kxn-2i+1,n=0,1,2,… with conditions posed on the initial values x−j, j = 0, 1, 2, … , 2k − 1, where k ∈ {1, 2, …}.

  12. Antihypertensive drug classes have different effects on short-term blood pressure variability in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Marpillat, Natacha; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle; Tropeano, Anne-Isabelle; Parati, Gianfranco; Maison, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Increased blood pressure variability (BPV) contributes to end-organ damage, cardiovascular events and mortality associated with hypertension. In a cohort of 2780 hypertensive patients treated by either calcium channel blockers (CCBs), diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or β-blockers alone or in combination, we compared indices of short-term BPV according to the different treatments. Short-term BPV was calculated as the standard deviation (s.d.) of 24 h, daytime or nighttime systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Short-term BPV was compared between patients treated with a given antihypertensive class of interest (alone or in combination) and those not treated with this class, after controlling for ambulatory average blood pressure, heart rate, age, gender, propensity scores and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Patients treated with CCBs (n=1247) or diuretics (n=1486) alone, or in addition to other drugs had significant lower s.d. of 24-h SBP compared with those not treated with these classes (mean differences in s.d. -0.50±0.50 mm Hg, P=0.001 and -0.17±0.15 mm Hg, P=0.05, respectively). There was no significant difference regarding treatment with or without ARBs, ACEIs and β-blockers. The combinations of CCBs with diuretics or ARBs on top of other treatments resulted in a lower 24-h SBP variability (mean differences in s.d. -0.43±0.17 mm Hg, P=0.02 and -0.44±0.19 mm Hg, P=0.005 vs. other combination uses, respectively). Antihypertensive drug classes have differential effects on short-term BPV with a greater reduction in patients treated with CCBs and diuretics. The combinations of CCBs with diuretics may be the most efficient treatments in lowering BPV.

  13. Employing Different Ways to Provide Large Class Formative Feedback in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Lihua; Yang Bo; Ou Ying

    2015-01-01

    Formative feedback is usually regarded as crucial for encouraging and consolidating students’ learning. Appropriate and timely formative feedback can help motivate and develop student’s knowledge, skills and understanding in some content area or general skills. In this paper, the authors provide college English instructors with different ways of offering flexible, prompt, effective and directive formative feedback to large class in college English teaching.

  14. A Latent Class Analysis of Behavioral and Psychosocial Dimensions of Adolescent Sexuality: Exploring Race Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Maggie L

    2016-12-16

    Adolescent sexuality is a multidimensional concept involving sexual behavior as well as aspects of youth's sexual self-concept and sexual socialization. The current study used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of adolescent sexuality, with data from a nationally representative sample of youth (Add Health; n = 13,447), incorporating information on behavioral and psychosocial dimensions of adolescent sexual experiences. LCA results highlighted that youth may exhibit similar sexual behaviors but vary on psychosocial dimensions, including sexual self-efficacy, knowledge, and views about sex. Sociodemographic characteristics, family factors, mental health, and substance use emerged as predictors of membership into different latent classes of sexuality. Given persistent racial differences in sexual outcomes and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, the current study also examined how adolescent patterns of sexuality may help mediate racial differences in sexual outcomes by young adulthood. Results suggested that racial differences in adolescent patterns of sexuality help mediate racial differences in the number of sexual partners by young adulthood but not differences in STI diagnosis. Findings highlight the need for research on multiple aspects of adolescent sexuality to understand linkages with later outcomes and group differences.

  15. Time and Money Explain Social Class Differences in Students' Social Integration at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.

    2017-01-01

    Working-class students tend to be less socially integrated at university than middle-class students. The present research investigated two potential reasons for this working-class social exclusion effect. First, working-class students may have fewer finances available to participate in social activities. Second, working-class students tend to be…

  16. Time and Money Explain Social Class Differences in Students' Social Integration at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.

    2017-01-01

    Working-class students tend to be less socially integrated at university than middle-class students. The present research investigated two potential reasons for this working-class social exclusion effect. First, working-class students may have fewer finances available to participate in social activities. Second, working-class students tend to be…

  17. No differences in morphological characteristics between hyperplastic condyle and class III condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, D R; Muñoz, P; Olate, S; de Moraes, M; Fariña, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the condylar morphology of patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) and patients with a class III skeletal relationship using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A prospective study was conducted on patients with facial asymmetry attending the division of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the study university in Chile. Fifteen patients with UCH and 15 with a class III skeletal relationship were selected. Linear measurements of the condylar processes were obtained at a scale of 1:1 using the software Ez3D Viewer Plus. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the paired t-test were used, considering Pclass III skeletal relationship showed no differences between the right and left sides; the morphology of their condyles was similar to the condyles with hyperplasia and presented statistical differences when compared with the non-hyperplastic condyles (one-way ANOVA, Pclass III skeletal relationship. These findings provide an insight into the possibility of some class III patients presenting bilateral condylar hyperplasia.

  18. Effect of cyclic loading on the bond strength of class II restorations with different composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega; Mitsui, Fabio Hiroyuki Ogata; Silva, Flávia; Peris, Alessandra Rezende; Bedran-Russo, Ana; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cyclic loading on the bond strength of Class II restorations using different composite materials. Class II preparations with gingival margins located in dentin were performed on the mesial surface of 80 bovine incisors. The teeth were randomly allocated to eight groups (n=10) according to resin composite (Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, Tetric Ceram HB and Esthet-X) and use of cyclic loading. The restorations were bonded with the Single Bond adhesive system. Simulated aging groups were cyclic loaded for 200,000 cycles with 80N load (2Hz). The specimens were vertically sectioned (two slabs per restoration) and further trimmed into an hour-glass shape at the adhesive interface to obtain a final bonded area 1 mm2. Samples were placed in an apparatus and tested under tension using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test with a 95% confidence level. Aged groups presented significantly lower means when compared to the groups that were not aged (p=0.03). However, significant differences among composite materials were not observed (p=0.17). Regardless of the restorative composite material used, it could be concluded that the bond strength of Class II restorations at the gingival wall was affected by simulated cyclic loading.

  19. Physical development of primary class students with different level of educational achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Y.I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research results show that the length, weight and chest circumference are within age norms. Indicators of pupil's physical development are constantly but unevenly growing, which is conditioned by physiological mechanisms of pubescent period. Physical development of pupils with different level of educational achievements does not differ significantly. Therefore, we may state that the indicators of height and weight of primary class pupils do not significantly affect the grades in physical training and do not regulate the quality of exercises performance.

  20. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Przystas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB, Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa, RWP17 (Polyporus picipes and Fusarium oxysporum (G1 was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH, which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the

  1. Differences between students and teachers in perception of classroom climate during sport classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Zabukovec

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation about perception of classroom climate during sport's lessons. In this research, 1152 primary and secondary school students, from fifth, seventh grade of primary school and first and third grade of secondary school and 89 sports teachers, both sexes, participated. The questionnaire Classroom climate in sport classes was applied (actual and preferred form, which included seven dimensions: satisfaction, competitiveness, methods, students' activity, difficulty, adequateness and personal relationship. The differences in perception of classroom climate during sport's lessons were confirmed between teachers and students. Teachers evaluated it higher than students, both actual and preferred climate. Besides, the differences between actual and preferred climate were analysed. On the most dimensions, the differences were moderate, but on the dimension competitiveness were small, as teachers and students evaluated. Among teachers small difference was also confirmed on the dimension personal relationship. Detailed analyses lead to program for changing classroom climate in a direction to moderate differences between actual and preferred classroom climate.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhma Syed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach.These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical.Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05.Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance.

  3. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Herr, David W. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  4. Measuring social class differences in cancer patient survival: is it necessary to control for social class differences in general population mortality? A Finnish population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Dickman, P W; Auvinen, A; Voutilainen, E. T.; Hakulinen, T

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Estimation of cancer patient survival by social class has been performed using observed, corrected (cause specific), and relative (with expected survival based on the national population) survival rates. Each of these measures are potentially biased and the optimal method is to calculate relative survival rates using social class specific death rates to estimate expected survival. This study determined the degree to which the choice of survival measure affects the esti...

  5. Comparison of different classes of radionuclides for potential use in radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Tom C

    2007-01-01

    Currently, beta-emitting radionuclides are used almost exclusively in the clinic and in clinical radioimmunotherapy studies. The main advantage of beta-emitters is the relatively long path length in biological tissue (in the mm range), which is sufficient to irradiate cancer cells that do not have bound radiolabelled antibody (cross-fire effect). This alleviates problems with inadequate uptake and heterogeneous distribution of radiolabelled antibodies in tumours. Hence, beta-emitters provide a relatively uniform radiation dose to the tumour and it is generally accepted that this class of radionuclides is more appropriate for radioimmunotherapy of solid tumours and large tumour burdens (> 0.5 cm). However, the shorter-range alpha-emitters (50-100 mm) and the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting radionuclides (the majority of electrons traverse a few nm), have been shown to be more efficient than beta-emitters at inducing lethal lesions in single cells. It has been suggested that these classes of radionuclides may have the potential to provide a more favourable therapeutic index than beta-emitters for radioimmunotherapy of single tumour cells in the circulation, micrometastases and in certain cases, minimal residual disease. The aim of this article is to discuss the different classes of radionuclides with potential for clinical use in radioimmunotherapy.

  6. Singularity confinement for a class of m-th order difference equations of combinatorics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Mark; van Moerbeke, Pierre; Vanhaecke, Pol

    2008-03-28

    In a recent publication, it was shown that a large class of integrals over the unitary group U(n) satisfy nonlinear, non-autonomous difference equations over n, involving a finite number of steps; special cases are generating functions appearing in questions of the longest increasing subsequences in random permutations and words. The main result of the paper states that these difference equations have the discrete Painlevé property; roughly speaking, this means that after a finite number of steps the solution to these difference equations may develop a pole (Laurent solution), depending on the maximal number of free parameters, and immediately after be finite again ("singularity confinement"). The technique used in the proof is based on an intimate relationship between the difference equations (discrete time) and the Toeplitz lattice (continuous time differential equations); the point is that the Painlevé property for the discrete relations is inherited from the Painlevé property of the (continuous) Toeplitz lattice.

  7. Regulation of synaptic vesicle docking by different classes of macromolecules in active zone material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szule, Joseph A; Harlow, Mark L; Jung, Jae Hoon; De-Miguel, Francisco F; Marshall, Robert M; McMahan, Uel J

    2012-01-01

    The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Dense networks of macromolecules, called active zone material, (AZM) are attached to the presynaptic membrane next to docked vesicles. Electron tomography has shown that some AZM macromolecules are connected to docked vesicles, leading to the suggestion that AZM is somehow involved in the docking process. We used electron tomography on the simply arranged active zones at frog neuromuscular junctions to characterize the connections of AZM to docked synaptic vesicles and to search for the establishment of such connections during vesicle docking. We show that each docked vesicle is connected to 10-15 AZM macromolecules, which fall into four classes based on several criteria including their position relative to the presynaptic membrane. In activated axon terminals fixed during replacement of docked vesicles by previously undocked vesicles, undocked vesicles near vacated docking sites on the presynaptic membrane have connections to the same classes of AZM macromolecules that are connected to docked vesicles in resting terminals. The number of classes and the total number of macromolecules to which the undocked vesicles are connected are inversely proportional to the vesicles' distance from the presynaptic membrane. We conclude that vesicle movement toward and maintenance at docking sites on the presynaptic membrane are directed by an orderly succession of stable interactions between the vesicles and distinct classes of AZM macromolecules positioned at different distances from the membrane. Establishing the number, arrangement and sequence of association of AZM macromolecules involved in vesicle docking provides an anatomical basis for testing and extending concepts of docking mechanisms provided by biochemistry.

  8. Effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıkılgan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations. Materials and Method: In this study 60 extracted non-cavitated human molar teeth were used. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces in 4 mm mesio-distal, 3 mm gingivo-occlusal width and 3 mm depth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1: resin-modified calcium silicate material (TheraCal LC, Group 2: self-adhesive flowable composite resin (Fusio Liquid Dentin, Group 3: flowable composite resin liner (Tetric N Flow, Group 4: resin-modified glass ionomer liner (Ketac N100, Group 5: control group. Materials in the experimental groups were placed in 1 mm thickness as liner. Then, a nanohybrid composite resin (Grandio was placed and restorations were completed. In the control group, no base material was applied. After finishing and polishing procedures, thermocycling was performed 5000 times between 5-55 °C. Microleakage of restorations was evaluated by using dye penetration method (basic fuchsin. Results were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis with Bonferroni correction and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Regarding occlusal microleakage, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p=0.267; however significant difference was found between the gingival microleakage scores (p=0.004. Compared to Fusio Liquid Dentin and control groups, significantly less dye penetration was found in Theracal LC, Tetric N-Flow and Ketac N-100 groups (p0.01. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, the conclusion was that the use of a liner (except Fusio Liquid Dentin under composite resin in a class V cavity reduced the microleakage of the restoration.

  9. Effect of Different Placement Techniques on Microleakage of Class V Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moezyzadeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Various techniques of composite placement have been used to decrease microleakage around the composite restorations. Due to controversial results, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different placement techniques on microleakage in class V composite restorations.Materials and Methods: Sixty class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 extracted healthy human premolars. The teeth were randomly assigned to five groups, and were restored with composite resin, using five different techniques:(1 horizontal increments (gingivo-occlusal, (2 horizontal increments (occluso-gingival,(3 oblique increments (gingivo-occlusal, (4 oblique increments (occluso-gingival, and(5 bulk placement. After thermocycling, 500 cycles of between 5°C and 55°C (SD=2,and immersion in 0.5% alcoholic Fuschin, the teeth were then sectioned and evaluated for microleakage by stereomicroscope (×16. Microleakage was scored on a 0-4 scale. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests served for statistical analysis.Results: Gingival margins of class V cavities showed microleakage regardless of the placement technique. Oblique (gingivo-occlusal technique showed less microleakage in gingival margins of the restorations compared to bulk technique. The least microleakagein gingival margins was related to group 3 while the most microleakage was related to group 5. Bulk and oblique (gingivo-occlusal incremental techniques produced significantlydifferent rate of microleakage (P<0.003. Group 3 showed the most difference with groups 5, 1, 2, and 4, respectively.Conclusion: Among four incremental techniques, the gingivo-occlusal oblique filling technique resulted in a lower leakage value, when compared to the bulk filling technique.

  10. Comparison of different methods to quantify fat classes in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Min; Hwang, Young-Ok; Tu, Ock-Ju; Jo, Han-Bin; Kim, Jung-Hun; Chae, Young-Zoo; Rhu, Kyung-Hun; Park, Seung-Kook

    2013-01-15

    The definition of fat differs in different countries; thus whether fat is listed on food labels depends on the country. Some countries list crude fat content in the 'Fat' section on the food label, whereas other countries list total fat. In this study, three methods were used for determining fat classes and content in bakery products: the Folch method, the automated Soxhlet method, and the AOAC 996.06 method. The results using these methods were compared. Fat (crude) extracted by the Folch and Soxhlet methods was gravimetrically determined and assessed by fat class using capillary gas chromatography (GC). In most samples, fat (total) content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lower than the fat (crude) content determined by the Folch or automated Soxhlet methods. Furthermore, monounsaturated fat or saturated fat content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lowest. Almost no difference was observed between fat (crude) content determined by the Folch method and that determined by the automated Soxhlet method for nearly all samples. In three samples (wheat biscuits, butter cookies-1, and chocolate chip cookies), monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was higher than that obtained by the Folch method. The polyunsaturated fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was not higher than that obtained by the Folch method in any sample.

  11. Sarcoidosis HLA class II genotyping distinguishes differences of clinical phenotype across ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroe; Woodhead, Felix A.; Ahmad, Tariq; Grutters, Jan C.; Spagnolo, Paolo; van den Bosch, Jules M.M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Newman, Lee S.; Nagai, Sonoko; Izumi, Takateru; Wells, Athol U.; du Bois, Roland M.; Welsh, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    The HLA class II (DRB1 and DQB1) associations with sarcoidosis have been studied by several groups but often without consistent results. In this paper, we consider the hypothesis that observed inconsistencies relate to distinct, genetically encoded disease phenotypes which differ in prevalence between centres. We therefore typed HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 in 340 UK, 139 Dutch and 163 Japanese sarcoidosis patients and, respectively, 354, 218 and 168 healthy controls from these populations. We applied consistent phenotyping and genotyping and investigated associations between HLA class II alleles and distinct disease phenotypes within and between ethnic groups. DRB1*01 and DQB1*0501 are protective against all manifestations of sarcoidosis. Lung-predominant sarcoidosis is associated with DRB1*12 and *14. Löfgren's syndrome is a common sarcoidosis phenotype in the Dutch and is strongly associated with the DRB1*0301 allele. This phenotype is not seen among the Japanese in whom DRB1*0301 is absent. The same allele is protective for UK uveitis. Sarcoid uveitis is common in Japan. The DRB1*04–DQB1*0301 haplotype is a risk factor for this disease manifestation in Japanese and UK subjects but protective for sarcoidosis overall. We show that distinct sarcoidosis phenotypes have similar genetic associations across ethnic groups. The disease case mix differs between centres and may be explained by different ethnic allelic frequencies. PMID:20685690

  12. Abiotic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Fubo; Xie, Li; Li, Jun; Zhou, Qi

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides (goethite, hematite and magnetite) and humic acid. The reduction rate of nitrobenzene decreased in the order of Fe(II) associated with magnetite>Fe(II) associated with goethite>Fe(II) associated with hematite. We proposed a four-step model (adsorption, electron transfer to conduction band, electron transfer to nitrobenzene and electron transfer to crystal lattice) for nitrobenzene reduction by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides. Fe(II)-humic acid complexes did not present reduction capability of nitrobenzene. Furthermore, Humic acid significantly inhibited nitrobenzene reduction by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides. The inhibitory effect of humic acid toward the reduction of nitrobenzene decreased in the order of magnetite>goethite>hematite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medos infantis, cidade e violência: expressões em diferentes classes sociais Children’s fears, city and violence as expressed in different social classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia de Vilhena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é ilustrar manifestações do medo infantil, considerando a classe social como um possível balizador. Tomando como eixo condutor uma pesquisa realizada em três escolas na zona sul do Rio de Janeiro, buscamos mostrar o efeito da violência nas produções subjetivas infantis, mais especificamente o medo, em crianças de diferentes classes sociais. Para isto, foi utilizado o desenho como ferramenta de análise. Evidenciaram-se diferentes produções de crianças pertencentes a diferentes classes sociais. Por fim, buscamos, igualmente, ressaltar o papel da mídia como um potente agenciador de subjetividade no tocante ao estímulo a uma cultura do medo.The objective is to illustrate children’s expressions of fear, as far as social classes are concerned. Based on a research conducted in three schools in the southern area of ​​Rio de Janeiro, we show the effects of violence on children’s subjective productions. Using their drawings as a tool of analysis, we enhance the different productions of children belonging to different social classes as far as fear is concerned. We seek also to emphasize the role of media as a powerful agent in the production of subjectivity, encouraging a culture of fear.

  14. Lectin histochemistry of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in representatives of different classes of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk R.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glycoproteins (including mucin of vertebrate’s intestine play an important role in its protection against chemical and mechanical damage and bacterial attacks. Their diversity was described by many authors, but understanding of their chemical structure remains far from complete. These data can be extended by methods of lectin histochemistry. Objective. To investigate the rearrangement of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in the context of vertebrate evolution. Methods. Distal and proximal segments of small and large intestines of humans (Homo sapiens, laboratory (Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus f. Domesticus, rock pigeon (Columba livia, smooth snake (Coronella austriaca, common frog (Rana temporaria, common carp (Cyprinus carpio that belong to different classes of vertebrates were taken for the experiment. Nine lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: wheat germ (WGA, potato (STA, elderberry bark (SNA, golden rain bark (LABA, locust bark (RPBA, roe carp (CCRA, Phaseolus vulgaris erytroagglutinin (PHA-E, peanut (PNA and jack fruit (AIA – were included into the panel. Results. Differences in lectin staining between small and large intestine were more pronounced in higher (human, rat than in lower (frog, carp vertebrates. Lectin receptors were more diverse in frog intestine in comparison with carp. Lectin interaction with mucin secretory granules of smooth snake revealed lack of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues and abundance of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine determinants. Conclusion. Intestines of all studied vertebrate species demonstrate high content of secretory mucins that exposed terminal acidic carbohydrates including sialic acid. The diversity and differences in the structure of glycans of the digestive tract of vertebrates is apparently determined by several factors – diet, environmental and living conditions, intestinal microbiota interactions etc. Citation: Antonyuk RV, Lutsyk AD. [Lectin histochemistry of intestinal

  15. Influence of different restorative techniques on marginal seal of class II composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gingival marginal seal in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Class II box cavities were prepared in both proximal faces of 32 sound human third molars with gingival margins located in either enamel or dentin/cementum. Restorations were performed as follows: G1 (control: composite, conventional light curing technique; G2: composite, soft-start technique; G3: amalgam/composite association (amalcomp; and G4: resin-modified glass ionomer cement/composite, open sandwich technique. The restored specimens were thermocycled. Epoxy resin replicas were made and coated for scanning electron microscopy examination. For microleakage evaluation, teeth were coated with nail polish and immersed in dye solution. Teeth were cut in 3 slices and dye penetration was recorded (mm, digitized and analyzed with Image Tool software. Microleakage data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Leakage in enamel was lower than in dentin (p<0.001. G2 exhibited the lowest leakage values (p<0.05 in enamel margins, with no differences between the other groups. In dentin margins, groups G1 and G2 had similar behavior and both showed less leakage (p<0.05 than groups G3 and G4. SEM micrographs revealed different marginal adaptation patterns for the different techniques and for the different substrates. CONCLUSION: The soft-start technique showed no leakage in enamel margins and produced similar values to those of the conventional (control technique for dentin margins.

  16. Effects of two different types of physics learning on the results of CLASS test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Marušić1

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During a one-semester-long research project with high school students, we deployed and gauged efficiency of two different reform teaching methods: reading, presenting, and questioning (RPQ and experimenting and discussion (ED. In this paper we report on changes in students’ attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. We used the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS v3 to assess the relative effectiveness of the two methods. The data show that both methods improved student attitudes and beliefs but to different extents. The RPQ group (91 students achieved an overall improvement of +5.8% in attitudes and beliefs, while the ED group (85 students attained an improvement of +25.6%. These results suggest that both methods may have a substantial potential for improving students’ attitudes and beliefs about physics and physics learning, with the ED method being more promising than the RPQ. method

  17. Academic Achievement Differences between Title I Students Enrolled in Music Classes and Title I Students Who Are Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to determine academic achievement differences between those Title I students enrolled in music classes and Title I students who are not enrolled in music classes. A second purpose was to determine educators' perceptions regarding the educational justice implications of excluding nonproficient Title I students…

  18. Regional differences in the risk of triple class failure in European patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy after 1 January 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Horban, A; Clotet, B

    2008-01-01

    Regional differences across Europe in triple class failure (TCF; the failure of each of the three separate main classes of antiretrovirals (ARVs) with a viral load >1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL for >4 months) have not been described. A total of 1956 patients started combination ARV therapy after 1...

  19. Academic Achievement Differences between Title I Students Enrolled in Music Classes and Title I Students Who Are Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to determine academic achievement differences between those Title I students enrolled in music classes and Title I students who are not enrolled in music classes. A second purpose was to determine educators' perceptions regarding the educational justice implications of excluding nonproficient Title I students…

  20. Characterization of Different Land Classes and Disaster Monitoring Using Microwave Land Emissivity for the Indian Subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Korak; Raju, Suresh; Antony, Tinu; Krishna Moorthy, K.

    Despite the ability of satellite borne microwave radiometers to measure the atmospheric pa-rameters, liquid water and the microphysical properties of clouds, they have serious limitations over the land owing its large and spatially heterogeneous emissivity compared to the relatively low and homogenous oceans. This calls for determination of the spatial maps of land-surface emissivity with accuracies better than ˜2%. In this study, the characterization of microwave emissivity of different land surface classes over the Indian region is carried out with the forth-coming Indo-French microwave satellite program Megha-Tropiques in focus. The land emissivity is retrieved using satellite microwave radiometer data from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) at 10, 19, 22, 37 and 85 GHz. After identify-ing the clear sky daily data, the microwave radiative transfer computation, is applied to the respective daily atmospheric profile for deducing the upwelling and downwelling atmospheric radiations. This, along with the skin temperature data, is used to retrieve land emission from satellites data. The emissivity maps of placecountry-regionIndia for three months representing winter (January) and post-monsoon (September-October) seasons of 2008 at V and H polar-izations of all the channels (except for 22 GHz) are generated. Though the land emissivity values in V-polarization vary between 0.5 and ˜1, some land surface classes such as the desert region, marshy land, fresh snow covered region and evergreen forest region, etc, show distinct emissivity characteristics. On this basis few typical classes having uniform physical properties over sufficient area are identified. Usually the Indian desert region is dry and shows low emis-sivity (˜0.88 in H-polarisation) and high polarization difference, V-H (˜0.1). Densely vegetated zones of tropical rain forests exhibit high emissivity values (˜0.95) and low polarization dif-ference (lt;0.01). The

  1. 浅析课后说课区别于课前说课%Analysis of speaking lesson after class different from before the class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区庆耀

    2014-01-01

    说课,作为新的教研形式,对于教育观念的改革、教育理论的理解和掌握,对于教学的研究、反思、评价无疑是一种可取的有效途径。由于说课的目的不同,说课可以是课前说,也可以是课后说。文章分析课后说课的特点,与课前说课区别开来,从而走出课后说课的误区。%Speaking lesson, as a new form of teaching research, for education reform, understanding and grasp of education theory, teaching research, reflection, evaluation is an effective way of desirable. Because of the different purposes, speaking lesson can be before class, can also be after class. This article analyzes the characteristics of speaking lesson after class, and distinction of speaking lesson after class, so walk out of speaking lesson error after class.

  2. A Different Class of Care: the Benefits Crisis and Low-Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trina

    When compared to other developed nations, the United States fares poorly with regard to benefits for workers. While the situation is grim for most U.S. workers, it is worse for low-wage workers. Data show a significant benefits gap between low-wage and high-wage in terms of flexible work arrangements (FWAs), paid leave, pensions, and employer-sponsored health-care insurance, among other things. This gap exists notwithstanding the fact that FWAs and employment benefits produce positive returns for employees, employers, and society in general. Despite these returns, this Article contends that employers will be loath to extend FWAs and greater employment benefits to low-wage workers due to (1) concerns about costs, (2) a surplus of low-wage workers in the labor market, (3) negative perceptions of the skill of low-wage workers and the value of low-wage work, (4) other class-based stereotypes and biases, and (5) structural impediments in some low-wage jobs. Given the decline of unions and limited legislative action to date, the Article maintains that low-wage workers are in a "different class of care" with little hope for meaningful change on the horizon.

  3. S-index and soybean root growth in different soil textural classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study tested the hypothesis that the limiting values of S-index, proposed in the literature can not be used to determine the degradation condition of soils under soybean cultivation in the state of Pará, Brazil. The objective was to determine limiting values of S-index using soil physical attributes and validate it with soybean root growth, in soils with different textural classes. For the experimental design, the following treatments were established: five compaction levels for sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils and three levels for clayey and very clayey soils. The following physical parameters were analysed: particle-size distribution, soil bulk density, critical soil bulk density, degree of compaction, soil-water retention curve, S-index and relative root length of soybean. The limiting values of S-index varied according to soil textural class and were equal to 0.037, 0.020 and 0.056 for sandy loam, sandy clay loam and clay, respectively. The S-index does not apply to soils with clay content > 71%, because it does not vary with the degree of compaction of the soil or the root growth of the evaluated crop.

  4. Effectiveness of Different Classes of Fungicides on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold on Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Oh Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen causing a major problem in the export and post-harvest of strawberries. Inappropriate use of fungicides leads to resistance among fungal pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of B. cinerea to various classes of fungicide and to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of commonly used fungicides. We thus evaluated the effectiveness of six classes of fungicide in inhibiting the growth and development of this pathogen, namely, fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, fenpyrazamine, and boscalid. Fludioxonil was the most effective (EC₅₀ < 0.1 μg/ml, and pyrimethanil was the least effective (EC₅₀ = 50 μg/ml, at inhibiting the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Fenpyrazamine and pyrimethanil showed relatively low effectiveness in inhibiting the germination and conidial production of B. cinerea. Our results are useful for the management of B. cinerea and as a basis for monitoring the sensitivity of B. cinerea strains to fungicides.

  5. Prevalence of Sarcopenic Obesity in Adults with Class II/III Obesity Using Different Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene A. Johnson Stoklossa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. Sarcopenic obesity (SO is a hidden condition of reduced lean soft tissue (LST in context of excess adiposity. SO is most commonly reported in older adults and both its risk and prevalence increase with age. A variety of body composition indices and cut points have been used to define this condition, leading to conflicting prevalence and risk prediction. Here, we investigate variability in the prevalence of SO in an adult sample of individuals with class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using different diagnostic criteria. Methods. SO definitions were identified from a literature review of studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA to assess LST. Demographics, anthropometrics, and body composition (by DXA were measured in n=120, 86% female (46.9 ± 11.1 years. Results. LST was extremely variable in individuals, even with similar body sizes, and observed across the age spectrum. The prevalence of SO ranged from 0 to 84.5% in females and 0 to 100% in males, depending upon the definition applied, with higher prevalence among definitions accounting for measures of body size or fat mass. Conclusion. SO is present, yet variable, in adults with class II/III obesity. Accounting for body mass or fat mass may identify a higher number of individuals with SO, although risk prediction remains to be studied.

  6. Investigation of Residual Stresses and Distortion in Welded Pipe-Flange Joint of Different Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pipe and flange joints are commonly used in petrochemical, nuclear and process industries. Commonly, welding is used to make these joints which produces residual stresses and distortions. These stresses have detrimental effects on the structural integrity and service performance of the welded pipe joints. The objective of this study is to investigate the residual stresses and distortions during Gas Metal Arc Welding of pipe of schedule 40, nominal diameter 200 mm with different ANSI flanges of class numbers 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500. Welding parameters including: voltage, current and heat as inputs were selected based on the literature available. The behaviour of the flanges of different classes is also discussed. In addition, the finite element methodology presented, in this paper, can be helpful for developing welding procedures for a range of pipe flange welded joint sizes in order to control the residual stresses and deformations. This will lead to optimised performance during bolt up and operating conditions.ABSTRAK: Paip dan sambungan flan biasanya digunakan dalam industri petrokimia, nuklear dan proses. Kimpalan menghasilkan tegasan sisa dan herotan, yang memberikan kesan yang merbahaya ke atas integriti struktur dan prestasi servis sambungan kimpalan paip. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji tegasan sisa dan herotan ketika kimpalan arka logam gas paip berjadual 40, diameter nominal 200mm dengan flan ANSI yang berbeza kelas # 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, dan 2500. Parameter kimpalan termasuklah; voltan, arus dan haba input yang dipilih berdasarkan literatur sediada. Kelakuan flan yang berbeza kelas telah dibincangkan. Kaedah elemen finit yang dibentangkan adalah berguna dalam membangunkan prosedur kimpalan bagi julat saiz kimpalan flan paip unutk mengawal tegasan sisa dan canggaan i.e. bagi mengoptimakan prestasi ketika bolt up dan sedang beroperasi.                                 

  7. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  8. Discriminating different classes of biological networks by analyzing the graphs spectra distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Daniel Yasumasa; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo; Fujita, André

    2012-01-01

    The brain's structural and functional systems, protein-protein interaction, and gene networks are examples of biological systems that share some features of complex networks, such as highly connected nodes, modularity, and small-world topology. Recent studies indicate that some pathologies present topological network alterations relative to norms seen in the general population. Therefore, methods to discriminate the processes that generate the different classes of networks (e.g., normal and disease) might be crucial for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of the disease. It is known that several topological properties of a network (graph) can be described by the distribution of the spectrum of its adjacency matrix. Moreover, large networks generated by the same random process have the same spectrum distribution, allowing us to use it as a "fingerprint". Based on this relationship, we introduce and propose the entropy of a graph spectrum to measure the "uncertainty" of a random graph and the Kullback-Leibl...

  9. Knowledge-based object recognition for different morphological classes of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Thorsten; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1995-01-01

    Micropropagation of plants is done by cutting juvenile plants and placing them into special container-boxes with nutrient-solution where the pieces can grow up and be cut again several times. To produce high amounts of biomass it is necessary to do plant micropropagation by a robotic syshoot. In this paper we describe parts of the vision syshoot that recognizes plants and their particular cutting points. Therefore, it is necessary to extract elements of the plants and relations between these elements (for example root, shoot, leaf). Different species vary in their morphological appearance, variation is also immanent in plants of the same species. Therefore, we introduce several morphological classes of plants from that we expect same recognition methods. As a result of our work we present rules which help users to create specific algorithms for object recognition of plant species.

  10. Susceptibility of Anopheles maculipennis to different classes of insecticides in West Azarbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Reza; Chavshin; Farrokh; Dabiri; Hassan; Vatandoost; Mulood; Mohammadi; Bavani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles maculipennis(An. maculipennis) against the major insecticides used in the health sectors in West Azarbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.Methods: Unfed 3-5 days old adult females of An. maculipennis were collected across the West Azarbaijan Province and were subjected to evaluation of their susceptibility following World Health Organization recommended protocol against six insecticides(permethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, bendiocarb, malathion and dieldrin) belonging to four different classes. Results: In this study, 916 specimens of An. maculipennis were examined against the insecticides which indicated that An. maculipennis was tolerant to permethrin, deltamethrin and dielderin, but displayed resistance against propoxur, bendiocarb and malathion. Conclusions: The pattern of resistance in An. maculipennis could be attributed to the agricultural landscapes, agricultural pesticides used and the exposure of the mosquitoes to insecticides. Logical cooperation is needed between the agriculture and health sectors to ensure the judicious use of pesticides in each sector and the management of probable resistance.

  11. Dynamics of an HIV Model with Multiple Infection Stages and Treatment with Different Drug Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Song, Xinyu; Tang, Sanyi; Rong, Libin

    2016-02-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy can effectively control HIV replication in infected individuals. Some clinical and modeling studies suggested that viral decay dynamics may depend on the inhibited stages of the viral replication cycle. In this paper, we develop a general mathematical model incorporating multiple infection stages and various drug classes that can interfere with specific stages of the viral life cycle. We derive the basic reproductive number and obtain the global stability results of steady states. Using several simple cases of the general model, we study the effect of various drug classes on the dynamics of HIV decay. When drugs are assumed to be 100% effective, drugs acting later in the viral life cycle lead to a faster or more rapid decay in viremia. This is consistent with some patient and experimental data, and also agrees with previous modeling results. When drugs are not 100% effective, the viral decay dynamics are more complicated. Without a second population of long-lived infected cells, the viral load decline can have two phases if drugs act at an intermediate stage of the viral replication cycle. The slopes of viral load decline depend on the drug effectiveness, the death rate of infected cells at different stages, and the transition rate of infected cells from one to the next stage. With a second population of long-lived infected cells, the viral load decline can have three distinct phases, consistent with the observation in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy containing the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. We also fit modeling prediction to patient data under efavirenz (a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor) and raltegravir treatment. The first-phase viral load decline under raltegravir therapy is longer than that under efavirenz, resulting in a lower viral load at initiation of the second-phase decline in patients taking raltegravir. This explains why patients taking a raltegravir-based therapy were faster to achieve

  12. Discriminating different classes of biological networks by analyzing the graphs spectra distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yasumasa Takahashi

    Full Text Available The brain's structural and functional systems, protein-protein interaction, and gene networks are examples of biological systems that share some features of complex networks, such as highly connected nodes, modularity, and small-world topology. Recent studies indicate that some pathologies present topological network alterations relative to norms seen in the general population. Therefore, methods to discriminate the processes that generate the different classes of networks (e.g., normal and disease might be crucial for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of the disease. It is known that several topological properties of a network (graph can be described by the distribution of the spectrum of its adjacency matrix. Moreover, large networks generated by the same random process have the same spectrum distribution, allowing us to use it as a "fingerprint". Based on this relationship, we introduce and propose the entropy of a graph spectrum to measure the "uncertainty" of a random graph and the Kullback-Leibler and Jensen-Shannon divergences between graph spectra to compare networks. We also introduce general methods for model selection and network model parameter estimation, as well as a statistical procedure to test the nullity of divergence between two classes of complex networks. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methods by applying them to (1 protein-protein interaction networks of different species and (2 on networks derived from children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and typically developing children. We conclude that scale-free networks best describe all the protein-protein interactions. Also, we show that our proposed measures succeeded in the identification of topological changes in the network while other commonly used measures (number of edges, clustering coefficient, average path length failed.

  13. Gene mutations differently impact the prognosis of the myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative classes of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Nathalie; Itzykson, Raphael; Coppin, Emilie; Prebet, Thomas; Murati, Anne; Legall, Stevan; Vey, Norbert; Solary, Eric; Birnbaum, Daniel; Gelsi-Boyer, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    Initially classified in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is currently considered as a MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm. Two classes-myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative-have been distinguished upon the level of the white blood cell count (threshold 13 G/L). We analyzed mutations in 19 genes reported in CMML to determine if and how these mutations impacted the respective prognosis of the two classes. We defined four major mutated pathways (DNA methylation, ASXL1, splicing, and signaling) and determined their prognostic impact. The number of mutated pathways impacted overall survival in the myelodysplastic class but not in the myeloproliferative class. The myeloproliferative class had a worse prognosis than the myelodysplastic class and was impacted by RUNX1 mutations only. Our results argue for a reclassification of CMML based on the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative status. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Occupational class differences in suicide: evidence of changes over time and during the global financial crisis in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alison J; Niven, Heather; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-09-21

    Previous research showed an increase in Australian suicide rates during the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). There has been no research investigating whether suicide rates by occupational class changed during the GFC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the GFC-associated increase in suicide rates in employed Australians may have masked changes by occupational class. Negative binomial regression models were used to investigate Rate Ratios (RRs) in suicide by occupational class. Years of the GFC (2007, 2008, 2009) were compared to the baseline years 2001-2006. There were widening disparities between a number of the lower class occupations and the highest class occupations during the years 2007, 2008, and 2009 for males, but less evidence of differences for females. Occupational disparities in suicide rates widened over the GFC period. There is a need for programs to be responsive to economic downturns, and to prioritise the occupational groups most affected.

  15. Microleakage of Class II Combined Amalgam-Composite Restorations Using Different Composites and Bonding Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharafeddin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the microleakage of composite restorations with and without a cervical amalgam base and to compare the results of dif-ferent composites and bonding agents.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty mesio-occlusal (MO and disto-occlusal (DO Class II cavities were prepared on sixty extracted permanent premolar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 30 and restored as follows:In group A, the mesio-occlusal cavity (MO, Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 and in the disto-occlusal (DO cavity, Prompt-L-Pop + Z250 were applied. As for group B, in the MO and DO cavities, Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX, and varnish + amalgam (In box + Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX were used respectivelywhile in group C; the teeth were restored with amalgam and varnish mesio-occlusally and with amalgam only disto-occlusally. As for group D, varnish + amalgam (in box + Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 were applied mesio-occlusally and Varnish + Amalgam (in box + Prompt–L–Pop + Z250 disto-occlusally.Marginal leakage was assessed by the degree of dye penetration into various sections of the restored teeth. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis.Results: Microleakage in gingival margin was more than that in occlusal margin (P<0.05 and microleakage of combined amalgam-composite restorations was significantly lower than that of conventional composite and amalgam restorations.Conclusion: Marginal microleakage decreased by using amalgam at the base of the box in Class II composite restorations.

  16. The effectiveness of different polymerization protocols for class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.C.G. de; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Geitenbeek, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of reduced light exposure times on Vickers hardness (VH) of class II composite resin restorations. METHODS: Class II restorations were made in vitro in three 2mm thick increments in a human molar. Two composite resins (Clearfil AP-X; Esthet-X) were polymerized w

  17. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  18. Identification of Different Classes of Luminal Progenitor Cells within Prostate Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Agarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostate cancer almost always has a luminal phenotype. However, little is known about the stem/progenitor properties of transformed cells within tumors. Using the aggressive Pten/Tp53-null mouse model of prostate cancer, we show that two classes of luminal progenitors exist within a tumor. Not only did tumors contain previously described multipotent progenitors, but also a major population of committed luminal progenitors. Luminal cells, sorted directly from tumors or grown as organoids, initiated tumors of adenocarcinoma or multilineage histological phenotypes, which is consistent with luminal and multipotent differentiation potentials, respectively. Moreover, using organoids we show that the ability of luminal-committed progenitors to self-renew is a tumor-specific property, absent in benign luminal cells. Finally, a significant fraction of luminal progenitors survived in vivo castration. In all, these data reveal two luminal tumor populations with different stem/progenitor cell capacities, providing insight into prostate cancer cells that initiate tumors and can influence treatment response.

  19. Function and value of water conservation in different age classes of Acacia mangium plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bin; QIN Wuming; WU Qingbiao; DAI Jun; HUANG Yong; LIU Feng

    2007-01-01

    For this paper,we studied the water-holding capacity of canopy,vegetation layer under canopy and litter layer,the water-holding capacity and permeability of soil as well as their changes with growth of stands in Acacia mangium plantations of three different age classes(four-,seven-and 11-year-old).Results show that total waterholding above ground in the order of 11-year stand age(52.86 t/hm2)>seven-year stand age(41.90 t/hm2)>seven-year stand age(25.78 t/hm2),the increment tendency increased with stand age.Similar sequence also obtained on the water-holding capacity and permeation capacity of soil (0-=40cm).The total water-storage capacity both above ground and soil in four-year-old,seven-year-old and 11year-old of A.mangium plantations were 2,023.0,2,158.4 and 2,260.4 t/hm2,respectively,and the all value of water conservation were 1,372.70,1,474.42 and 1,549.91 yuan (RMB)/hm2,respectively.Therefore,A.mangium plantation had a good ability to modify soil structure and good water conservation function.

  20. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm, microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm, and mineral fractions (MF, MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05. The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05 suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001, with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1, followed by MF (976 μg g-1 and MI (879 μg g-1. These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  1. Learning Danish(ness: Constructing Cultural Difference in Danish Language Classes in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “problem of immigrant integration” is a recurrent topic in public discourse in Denmark. One attempt to manage this has been the establishment of mandatory Danish language classes, a sizeable component of a comparably extensive integration program. While language instruction is ostensibly aimed at equipping immigrants with language skills, culture, in an essentialized form, is foregrounded during instruction, where differences between Danes and foreigners are highlighted. With culture mapping neatly onto place, diversity within “a culture” is downplayed, creating homogenizing discourses regarding both Danes and immigrants, with immigrants portrayed as ill-suited for life in Denmark. This focus on culture is a prominent component of state-wide efforts to manage a group of individuals conceptualized as problematic- non-EU immigrants. Interventions aimed at altering the conduct of immigrants serve to alleviate the threat originating in what is imagined to be a risky group of individuals, thereby securing the well-being of the greater population.

  2. Health care consumption and consumer social class: a different look at the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S

    1989-09-01

    Both the need and potential for market segmentation in the health care industry have grown substantially. Social class, a consumer behavior construct applied widely in other marketing contexts, may be useful as a basis for health care segmentation. Using a random sample of 997 households in the Pacific Northwest, the author investigates health care attitudes and behaviors across social class groups. Social class is found to be related positively and significantly to several aspects of health care, including personal health, interest, expenditures, satisfaction, and switching behavior.

  3. Comportamento da linha do solo obtida por espectrorradiometria laboratorial para diferentes classes de solo Soil line behavior obtained by laboratorial spectroradiometry for different soil classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rafael Nanni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com vistas em avaliar o comportamento da linha do solo para diferentes classes de solos, este trabalho foi realizado, utilizando-se dados de reflectância por meio de um espectrorradiômetro em laboratório. Amostras representativas dos horizontes superficiais e subsuperficiais de 18 classes coletadas em uma área piloto no Município de Rafard, sudoeste de São Paulo, foram secas, peneiradas e acondicionadas para leitura espectral. Os dados foram tabulados, para simularem as bandas 3 e 4 do TM-Landsat e construção dos gráficos. Os resultados demonstraram que as linhas de solo obtidas para as amostras de ambas as camadas comportaram-se de maneira semelhante, estando dispostas ortogonalmente aos eixos de um gráfico, com valores de R² próximos a 1,0 para todas as classes avaliadas. Não se observou uma única linha de solo, embora os dados revelem que cada solo apresenta uma linha individual e característica. De modo complementar, destacou-se a utilização deste índice como método auxiliar na discriminação de classes de solos, uma vez que os solos com textura arenosa e com menores teores de Fe total discriminaram-se daqueles mais argilosos e com maiores teores de Fe, além de apresentarem valores de reflectância mais elevados. Por fim, constatou-se que a matéria orgânica não constituiu fator determinante no comportamento espectral em relação à linha do solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the soil line for different soil classes by using reflectance data with a spectroradiometer in the laboratory. Representative samples of the surface and subsurface horizons of 18 soil classes collected in a pilot area in Rafard county, southwest São Paulo state, were dried, sieved and accomodated for spectral reading. Data were computed in order to simulate TM-Landsat 3 and 4 bands and to draw the graphs. The findings showed that the soil lines obtained for the samples of both soil layers behave similarly and are

  4. The Magnitude of Occupational Class Differences in Sickness Absence: 15-Year Trends among Young and Middle-Aged Municipal Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-06-09

    Background: Our aim was to examine the magnitude of relative occupational class differences in sickness absence (SA) days over a 15-year period among female and male municipal employees in two age-groups. Methods: 18-34 and 35-59-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki from 2002 to 2016 were included in our data (n = ~37,500 per year). Occupational class was classified into four groups. The magnitude of relative occupational class differences in SA was studied using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results: The relative occupational class differences were larger among older than younger employees; the largest differences were among 35-59-year-old men. Among women in both age-groups the relative class differences remained stable during 2002-2016. Among younger and older men, the differences were larger during the beginning of study period than in the end. Among women in both age-groups the RII values were between 2.19 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.98, 2.42) and 3.60 (95% CI 3.28, 3.95). The corresponding differences varied from 3.74 (95% CI 3.13, 4.48) to 1.68 (95% CI 1.44, 1.97) among younger and from 6.43 (95% CI 5.85, 7.06) to 3.31 (95% CI 2.98, 3.68) among older men. Relative occupational class differences were persistent among employees irrespective of age group and gender. Preventive measures should be started at young age.

  5. Assessing in-class participation for EFL: considerations of effectiveness and fairness for different learning styles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crosthwaite, Peter R; Bailey, Daniel R; Meeker, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    ... styles.The level of participation was measured across ten criteria over a one-semester period in four classes of beginner/intermediate level adult Korean students of English as a foreign language (EFL...

  6. Diversity of metalloproteinases in Bothrops neuwiedi snake venom transcripts: evidences for recombination between different classes of SVMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are widely distributed in snake venoms and are versatile toxins, targeting many important elements involved in hemostasis, such as basement membrane proteins, clotting proteins, platelets, endothelial and inflammatory cells. The functional diversity of SVMPs is in part due to the structural organization of different combinations of catalytic, disintegrin, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, which categorizes SVMPs in 3 classes of precursor molecules (PI, PII and PIII) further divided in 11 subclasses, 6 of them belonging to PII group. This heterogeneity is currently correlated to genetic accelerated evolution and post-translational modifications. Results Thirty-one SVMP cDNAs were full length cloned from a single specimen of Bothrops neuwiedi snake, sequenced and grouped in eleven distinct sequences and further analyzed by cladistic analysis. Class P-I and class P-III sequences presented the expected tree topology for fibrinolytic and hemorrhagic SVMPs, respectively. In opposition, three distinct segregations were observed for class P-II sequences. P-IIb showed the typical segregation of class P-II SVMPs. However, P-IIa grouped with class P-I cDNAs presenting a 100% identity in the 365 bp at their 5' ends, suggesting post-transcription events for interclass recombination. In addition, catalytic domain of P-IIx sequences segregated with non-hemorrhagic class P-III SVMPs while their disintegrin domain grouped with other class P-II disintegrin domains suggesting independent evolution of catalytic and disintegrin domains. Complementary regions within cDNA sequences were noted and may participate in recombination either at DNA or RNA levels. Proteins predicted by these cDNAs show the main features of the correspondent classes of SVMP, but P-IIb and P-IIx included two additional cysteines cysteines at the C-termini of the disintegrin domains in positions not yet described. Conclusions In B. neuwiedi venom gland

  7. Comparison of the Accuracy and Performance of Different Numbers of Classes in Discretised Solution Method for Population Balance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One way of solving population balance model (PBM in a time efficient way is by means of discretisation of the population property of interest. A computational grid, for example, vi+1=kvi (vi is the volume of particle in class i, could be used to classify the particles in discretisation techniques. However, there are still disagreements in the appropriate number of classes divided by the grids. In this study, the different numbers of classes for solving PBM were compared in terms of accuracy and performance to describe the particle size distribution (PSD from the flocculation of activated sludge. It is found that the simulated PSDs are similar to the experimental data for all the geometric grids (vi+1:vi≤2, and there is no obvious difference among the values of calibrated parameter, ratio of breakage rate coefficient and collision efficiency, for each velocity gradient. However, the simulation results with less error could be obtained with larger number of classes, and more computational times, which show exponential relationship with the number of classes, are needed. Considering numerical accuracy and efficiency, the classes 35 or a geometric grid with factor 1.6, aligning with the Fibonacci sequence (vi+vi-1≈vi+1, is recommended for the particles in the size range of 5.5~1086 μm.

  8. A Class of Volterra-Fredholm Type Weakly Singular Difference Inequalities with Power Functions and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a class of Volterra-Fredholm type difference inequalities with weakly singular. The upper bounds of the embedded unknown functions are estimated explicitly by analysis techniques. An application of the obtained inequalities to the estimation of Volterra-Fredholm type difference equations is given.

  9. Longitudinal analysis of annual height increment differentiation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stands of different age classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Bogna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study, the measurements of Scots pine height increments were used to compare the increments of pine trees of different age classes. All of the analyzed trees were growing in stands located on fresh mixed coniferous forest sites. The study concerned a 10-year period of growth of 8 tree age classes. Due to variation in climate conditions, all trees were studied over the same calendar period. Longitudinal analysis was used to compare different age classes of trees with reference to the increments in height. This procedure had not been previously used for such purpose. The results obtained did not confirm the hypothesis of parallel profiles implying that there existed differences in the growth of trees in various age groups.

  10. From past to present. Effect of lifecourse on mortality, and social class differences in mortality in middle adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Pensola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Social class differences in mortality are larger in middle adulthood than at any other time of life. Circumstances over the lifecourse may contribute to these adult social class differences. However, it is only rarely that the lifecourse approach has been applied to mortality studies among persons in their middle adulthood. The aim of this thesis is to disentangle the effects of the living conditions in the parental home and major transition in youth on social class differences in mortality from various causes of death among women and men aged 31-42 at death, and to evaluate whether the effect of the past circumstances on mortality is through latency, accumulation or pathway mechanisms. This thesis (papers II-V is based on the 1990 census data for all Finnish persons born in 1956-60 linked with death records (4369 deaths for 1991-98 and with information on lifecourse circumstances from the 1970, 1975, 1980 and 1985 censuses. These aggregated cross-tables are analysed by means of Poisson regression. Parental home had an association with disease mortality from age 20 onwards, indicating a latency effect. However, the direct effect of the parental home on mortality was minor, and therefore the contribution of latency model to differential mortality remained small. An indication for the accumulative effect of disadvantageous social class was found for cardiovascular diseases and alcohol-related causes. The living conditions in the parental home, i.e. the manual class and one-parent family, had an effect on the transitions a person experienced in youth, and thus contributed to the effect youth paths exerted on adult social class differences in mortality from various causes of death. Youth paths had a substantial effect (about 60-90% over and above the preceding effect of living conditions in the parental home on mortality. The higher mortality in the lower social classes was mainly attributable to disadvantageous educational path. Moreover, both

  11. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF JAVELIN THROW PERFORMED BY WHEELCHAIR ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann F. Kuenster

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify those kinematic characteristics that are most closely related to the functional classification of a wheelchair athlete and measured distance of a javelin throw. Two S-VHS camcorders (60 field·s-1 were used to record the performance of 15 males of different classes. Each subject performed 6-10 throws and the best two legal throws from each subject were selected for analysis. Three-dimensional kinematics of the javelin and upper body segments at the instant of release and during the throw (delivery were determined. The selection of kinematic parameters that were analyzed in this study was based on a javelin throw model showing the factors that determine the measured distance of a throw. The average of two throws for each subject was used to compute Spearman rank correlation coefficients between selected parameters and measured distance, and between selected parameters and the functional classification. The speeds and angles of the javelin at release, ranged from 9.1 to 14.7 m·s-1 and 29.6 to 35.8º, respectively, were smaller than those exhibited by elite male able-bodied throwers. As expected, the speed of the javelin at release was significantly correlated to both the classification (p<0.01 and measured distance (p<0.001. Of the segmental kinematic parameters, significant correlations were found between the trunk inclination at release and classification and between the angular speed at release and measured distance (p<0.01 for both. The angular speed of the shoulder girdle at release and the average angular speeds of the shoulder girdle during the delivery were significantly correlated to both the classification and measured distance (p<0.05. The results indicate that shoulder girdle movement during the delivery is an important determinant of classification and measured distance.

  12. Distribution and content of class 1 integrons in different Vibrio cholerae O-serotype strains isolated in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Serichantalergs, Oralak

    2000-01-01

    only a single antibiotic resistance gene. Although resistance genes in class 1 integrons were found in strains from the same epidemic, as well as in unrelated non-O1, non-O139 strains isolated from children with diarrhea, they were found to encode only some of the antibiotic resistance expressed......-kb self-transmissible plasmid found in three O1 strains isolated in 1982 contained the aadB gene cassette. Surprisingly, several strains harbored two integrons containing different cassettes. Thus, class 1 integrons containing various resistance gene cassettes are distributed among different V...

  13. Spatial-Temporal NDVI Variation of Different Alpine Grassland Classes and Groups in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI can usually be used as a good proxy for evaluating potential variability in regional ecosystems and under climate change. We used 16-day MODIS-NDVI composite satellite data with 250-m resolution for the period 2000 to 2013 to assess the temporal and spatial variation of the NDVI among different alpine grassland classes and groups in northern Tibet. The annual average NDVI of the whole alpine grassland area in northern Tibet generally increased slightly from 2000 to 2003, and the annual average NDVI values ranged from 0.112 to 0.492 across all alpine grassland groups and years. The NDVI clearly decreased from the southeastern to the northwestern areas, with 22.50% of total grasslands significantly having increased or decreased, while 77.50% presented little change during 2000–2013. Both temperature and precipitation were key factors that controlled the NDVI variations of the entire alpine grassland. However, for different alpine grassland classes and groups, the NDVI displayed different correlation patterns with temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate that the NDVI variations of alpine grassland generally increased slightly but differed among different classes and groups. Although temperature and precipitation were the driving forces influencing the NDVI of the entire alpine grassland, it was more difficult to define the driving forces for the individual classes and groups, and more detailed analyses covering prolonged observation periods are still needed.

  14. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Espelt (Albert); C. Borrell (Carme); M. Rodriguez-Sanz (Maica); C. Muntaner (Carles); M.I. Pasarin (María Isabel); J. Benach (Joan); M.M. Schaap (Maartje); A.E. Kunst (Anton); V. Navarro (Vicente)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare inequalities in self-perceived health in the population older than 50 years, in 2004, using Wright's social class dimensions, in nine European countries grouped in three political traditions (Social democracy, Christian democracy and Late democracies). Methods: Cros

  15. A Cultural Study on the Different Class Performances between Chinese and American Undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing

    2011-01-01

    Influenced by the collectivism and the high-uncertainty-avoidance,Chinese undergraduates tend not to participate much in the class,while the American students who are affected by the individualism and low-uncertainty-avoidance do the opposite.Thus,both th

  16. Class and subclass distribution of hantavirus-specific serum antibodies at different times after the onset of nephropathia epidemica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.G.M. Jordans; J.P.G. Clement; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSera from Dutch and Belgium individuals who suffered from nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), were tested for the distribution of classes and subclasses of Hantavirus (HV)-specific antibodies at different times after the onset of the

  17. Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter

    2014-09-30

    Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach.

  18. Writing about Class and Race Differences and Similarities in Early Childhood Mathematics: The Case of One Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Amy Noelle

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a literature review of 49 articles that cited a single monograph East Lansing written in 1981 about early learning in mathematics to make claims of similarity or difference across lines of race and class in early mathematics. The review found that while about two-thirds of the articles cited the monograph to make claims of…

  19. Writing about Class and Race Differences and Similarities in Early Childhood Mathematics: The Case of One Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Amy Noelle

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a literature review of 49 articles that cited a single monograph East Lansing written in 1981 about early learning in mathematics to make claims of similarity or difference across lines of race and class in early mathematics. The review found that while about two-thirds of the articles cited the monograph to make claims of…

  20. Distribution and content of class 1 integrons in different Vibrio cholerae O-serotype strains isolated in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Serichantalergs, Oralak

    2000-01-01

    In this study, 176 clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae strains of different O serotypes isolated in Thailand from 1982 to 1995 were selected and studied for the presence of class 1 integrons, a new group of genetic elements which carry antibiotic resistance genes. Using PCR and DNA...... by the strains. Serotype O139 strains did not contain class 1 integrons. However, the appearance and disappearance of the O139 serotype in the coastal city Samutsakorn in 1992 and 1993 were associated with the emergence of a distinct V. cholerae O1 strain which contained the aad-V resistance gene cassette. A 150....... cholerae O serotypes of mainly clinical origin in Thailand....

  1. After Proper Optimization of Carvedilol dose, do Different Child Classes of Liver Disease Differ in Terms of dose Tolerance and Response on a Chronic Basis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Baht, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi; Majeed, Yamin; Khan, Afaq A.; Zargar, Showkat A.; Shah, Mohd A.; Khan, Kaiser M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Literature regarding safe doses of carvedilol is limited, and safe doses across different Child classes of chronic liver disease are not clear. Patients and Methods: A total of 102 consecutive cirrhotic patients with significant portal hypertension were included in this study. Hepatic venous pressure gradient was measured at baseline and 3 months after dose optimization. Results: A total of 102 patients (63 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 58.3 ± 6.6 years were included. Among these patients, 42.2% had Child Class A, 31.9% had Class B, and 26.6% had Child Class C liver disease. The mean baseline hepatic venous pressure gradient was 16.75 ± 2.12 mmHg, and after dose optimization and reassessment of hepatic venous pressure gradient at 3 months, the mean reduction in the hepatic venous pressure gradient was 5.5 ± 1.7 mmHg and 2.8 ± 1.6 mmHg among responders and nonresponders respectively. The mean dose of carvedilol was higher in nonresponders (19.2 ± 5.7 mg) than responders (18.75 ± 5.1 mg). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The univariate analysis determined that the absence of adverse events, the absence of ascites, and low baseline cardiac output were significantly associated with chronic response, whereas, the etiology, Child class, variceal size (large vs small), and gender were not. On multivariate analysis, the absence of any adverse event was determined to be an independent predictor of chronic response (OR 11.3, 95% CI; 1.9–67.8). Conclusion: The proper optimization of the dose of carvedilol, when administered chronically, may enable carvedilol treatment to achieve a greater response with minimum side effects among different Child classes of liver disease. PMID:26458853

  2. Gender and class differences in young people's sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2004-05-01

    This study examines gender and class differences in young people's beliefs about sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand. Sixty young people aged 15-19, divided equally by gender and socioeconomic background, participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews. Four topics were explored: the differences between 'good' and 'bad' girls/boys; young people's perceptions of sexuality; social class variations in young people's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perceptions of risk; and the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. Results showed that young people screened potential sexual partners utilizing an image of 'good girls/boys' as potential HIV/AIDS-free partners; young people defined sexuality in terms of love/sexual relationships, premarital sex, promiscuity, and virginity; and HIV/AIDS awareness varied according to class. Young people of all classes failed to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of how they can contract AIDS. They neither viewed themselves as being in an at-risk group, nor considered their sexual behaviours to be at-risk behaviours. Finally, family, friends, and mass media were reported to be among the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. In the struggle against HIV/AIDS, these institutions together with health education not only protect but also can empower young people in Thailand.

  3. Growth process and model simulation of three different classes of Schima superba in a natural subtropical forest in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Deng, Xiangwen; Ouyang, Shuai; Chen, Lijun; Chu, Yonghe

    2017-01-01

    Schima superba is an important fire-resistant, high-quality timber species in southern China. Growth in height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and volume of the three different classes (overtopped, average and dominant) of S. superba were examined in a natural subtropical forest. Four growth models (Richards, edited Weibull, Logistic and Gompertz) were selected to fit the growth of the three different classes of trees. The results showed that there was a fluctuation phenomenon in height and DBH current annual growth process of all three classes. Multiple intersections were found between current annual increment (CAI) and mean annual increment (MAI) curves of both height and DBH, but there was no intersection between volume CAI and MAI curves. All selected models could be used to fit the growth of the three classes of S. superba, with determinant coefficients above 0.9637. However, the edited Weibull model performed best with the highest R2 and the lowest root of mean square error (RMSE). S. superba is a fast-growing tree with a higher growth rate during youth. The height and DBH CAIs of overtopped, average and dominant trees reached growth peaks at ages 5–10, 10–15 and 15–20 years, respectively. According to model simulation, the volume CAIs of overtopped, average and dominant trees reached growth peaks at ages 17, 55 and 76 years, respectively. The biological rotation ages of the overtopped, average and dominant trees of S. superba were 29, 85 and 128 years, respectively.

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of catalase-like activity of different classes of redox-active therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Maia, Clarissa G C; Weitner, Tin; Carballal, Sebastián; Sampaio, Romulo S; Lieb, Dominik; Ghazaryan, Robert; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Radi, Rafael; Reboucas, Julio S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-09-01

    Because of the increased insight into the biological role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under physiological and pathological conditions and the role it presumably plays in the action of natural and synthetic redox-active drugs, there is a need to accurately define the type and magnitude of reactions that may occur with this intriguing and key species of redoxome. Historically, and frequently incorrectly, the impact of catalase-like activity has been assigned to play a major role in the action of many redox-active drugs, mostly SOD mimics and peroxynitrite scavengers, and in particular MnTBAP(3-) and Mn salen derivatives. The advantage of one redox-active compound over another has often been assigned to the differences in catalase-like activity. Our studies provide substantial evidence that Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins couple with H2O2 in actions other than catalase-related. Herein we have assessed the catalase-like activities of different classes of compounds: Mn porphyrins (MnPs), Fe porphyrins (FePs), Mn(III) salen (EUK-8), and Mn(II) cyclic polyamines (SOD-active M40403 and SOD-inactive M40404). Nitroxide (tempol), nitrone (NXY-059), ebselen, and MnCl2, which have not been reported as catalase mimics, were used as negative controls, while catalase enzyme was a positive control. The dismutation of H2O2 to O2 and H2O was followed via measuring oxygen evolved with a Clark oxygen electrode at 25°C. The catalase enzyme was found to have kcat(H2O2)=1.5×10(6)M(-1) s(-1). The yield of dismutation, i.e., the maximal amount of O2 evolved, was assessed also. The magnitude of the yield reflects an interplay between the kcat(H2O2) and the stability of compounds toward H2O2-driven oxidative degradation, and is thus an accurate measure of the efficacy of a catalyst. The kcat(H2O2) values for 12 cationic Mn(III) N-substituted (alkyl and alkoxyalkyl) pyridylporphyrin-based SOD mimics and Mn(III) N,N'-dialkylimidazolium porphyrin, MnTDE-2-ImP(5+), ranged from 23 to 88M(-1) s

  5. Interaction of the chaperone calreticulin with proteins and peptides of different structural classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, K; Sandhu, N; Jørgensen, C S; Hansen, P R; Steinø, A; Thaysen-Andersen, M; Højrup, P; Houen, G

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of calreticulin with native and denatured forms and polypeptides in proteolytic digests of proteins representing structural classes of all-alpha-helix (hemoglobin, serum albumin), all-beta-sheet (IgG) and alpha-helix + beta-sheets (lysozyme, ovalbumin) was investigated. The binding of calreticulin to denatured proteins was found to depend on conformation and structural class of the protein. No interaction was observed with the native proteins, whereas binding was seen for the denatured proteins, the order of interaction being lysozyme = IgG > ovalbumin > hemoglobin = serum albumin. Moreover, the interaction between calreticulin and the heat-denatured proteins depended on the temperature and time used for denaturation and the degree of proteolytic fragmentation. Calreticulin bound well to peptides in proteolytic digests from protease K or chymotrypsin treatment of lysozyme, IgG and ovalbumin but weakly or not at all to peptides in proteolytic digests of hemoglobin and serum albumin. Synthetic peptides from lysozyme and ovalbumin confirmed binding to hydrophobic peptides from these proteins. These results show that calreticulin has the ability to interact with denatured and fragmented forms of proteins with a preference for beta-strand structure and hydrophobicity.

  6. Visualizing differences in phylogenetic information content of alignments and distinction of three classes of long-branch effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Christoph

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published molecular phylogenies are usually based on data whose quality has not been explored prior to tree inference. This leads to errors because trees obtained with conventional methods suppress conflicting evidence, and because support values may be high even if there is no distinct phylogenetic signal. Tools that allow an a priori examination of data quality are rarely applied. Results Using data from published molecular analyses on the phylogeny of crustaceans it is shown that tree topologies and popular support values do not show existing differences in data quality. To visualize variations in signal distinctness, we use network analyses based on split decomposition and split support spectra. Both methods show the same differences in data quality and the same clade-supporting patterns. Both methods are useful to discover long-branch effects. We discern three classes of long branch effects. Class I effects consist of attraction of terminal taxa caused by symplesiomorphies, which results in a false monophyly of paraphyletic groups. Addition of carefully selected taxa can fix this effect. Class II effects are caused by drastic signal erosion. Long branches affected by this phenomenon usually slip down the tree to form false clades that in reality are polyphyletic. To recover the correct phylogeny, more conservative genes must be used. Class III effects consist of attraction due to accumulated chance similarities or convergent character states. This sort of noise can be reduced by selecting less variable portions of the data set, avoiding biases, and adding slower genes. Conclusion To increase confidence in molecular phylogenies an exploratory analysis of the signal to noise ratio can be conducted with split decomposition methods. If long-branch effects are detected, it is necessary to discern between three classes of effects to find the best approach for an improvement of the raw data.

  7. Effect of different placement techniques on marginal microleakage of deep class-II cavities restored with two composite resin formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to evaluate and compare marginal microleakage in deep class II cavities restored with various techniques using different composites. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted teeth were divided into six groups of 10 teeth each. Standardized class II cavities were made and were restored using composites of different consistencies with different placement techniques. Group 1 with Microhybrid composite, Group 2 with Packable composite, Group 3 Microhybrid composite with a flowable composite liner, Group 4 Packable composite with a flowable composite liner, Group 5 Microhybrid composite with precured composite insert in second increment and Group 6 Packable composite with precured insert in second increment. Specimens then were stored in distilled water, thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution. These specimens were sectioned and evaluated for microleakage at the occlusal and cervical walls separately using stereomicroscope. Results: The results demonstrated that in the occlusal wall, packable composite, showed significantly more marginal microleakage than the other groups. In the cervical wall, teeth restored with a flowable composite liner showed less marginal microleakage when compared to all other groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of flowable composite as the first increment is recommended in deep class II cavities.

  8. Making sense to modelers: Presenting UML class model differences in prose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the difference between two models, such as different versions of a design, can be difficult. It is a commonly held belief in the model differencing community that the best way of presenting a model difference is by using graph or tree-based visualizations. We disagree and present an...

  9. Drug and cell type-specific regulation of genes with different classes of estrogen receptor beta-selective agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Paruthiyil

    Full Text Available Estrogens produce biological effects by interacting with two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Drugs that selectively target ERalpha or ERbeta might be safer for conditions that have been traditionally treated with non-selective estrogens. Several synthetic and natural ERbeta-selective compounds have been identified. One class of ERbeta-selective agonists is represented by ERB-041 (WAY-202041 which binds to ERbeta much greater than ERalpha. A second class of ERbeta-selective agonists derived from plants include MF101, nyasol and liquiritigenin that bind similarly to both ERs, but only activate transcription with ERbeta. Diarylpropionitrile represents a third class of ERbeta-selective compounds because its selectivity is due to a combination of greater binding to ERbeta and transcriptional activity. However, it is unclear if these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds produce similar biological activities. The goals of these studies were to determine the relative ERbeta selectivity and pattern of gene expression of these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds compared to estradiol (E(2, which is a non-selective ER agonist. U2OS cells stably transfected with ERalpha or ERbeta were treated with E(2 or the ERbeta-selective compounds for 6 h. Microarray data demonstrated that ERB-041, MF101 and liquiritigenin were the most ERbeta-selective agonists compared to estradiol, followed by nyasol and then diarylpropionitrile. FRET analysis showed that all compounds induced a similar conformation of ERbeta, which is consistent with the finding that most genes regulated by the ERbeta-selective compounds were similar to each other and E(2. However, there were some classes of genes differentially regulated by the ERbeta agonists and E(2. Two ERbeta-selective compounds, MF101 and liquiritigenin had cell type-specific effects as they regulated different genes in HeLa, Caco-2 and Ishikawa cell lines expressing ERbeta. Our gene profiling studies

  10. Gender differences in motivational pathways to college for middle class African American youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E

    2011-07-01

    Using a sample of predominantly middle-class African American adolescents and parents (N = 424), the authors tested a path model linking parental expectations for children's future educational attainment, youths' motivation during Grade 11, and youths' subsequent on-time postsecondary educational progress. Parents' expectations were positively related to adolescents' educational attainment aspirations, attainment expectations, utility values (i.e., beliefs about the usefulness of education), and perceptions of racial barriers to upward mobility. Relationships between parents' expectations and youths' aspirations and expectations were mediated by youths' perceptions of parents' expectations. For boys, but not girls, Grade 11 educational expectations and utility values each uniquely predicted college attendance 1 year after high school graduation. In addition, boys' perceptions of racial barriers were negatively related to subsequent postsecondary progress through their influence on values. Findings underscore the importance of academic achievement motivation as a developmental resource for African American boys and suggest that boys are especially likely to benefit from interventions promoting positive motivational beliefs.

  11. A Study of the Different classes of Poleward-Moving Auroral Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, K.; Fasel, G. J.; Rothballer, A.; Angelo, A.; Alyami, M.; Brandt, T. G.; Fox, B.; Grissom, A. G.; Gribble, M.; Lysenstoen, K.; Sigernes, F.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Green, D.; Freeman, M. P. P.

    2015-12-01

    During periods when the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) becomes negative, the dayside auroral oval moves equatorward [Feldstein and Starkov, 1967; Horrwitz and Akasofu, 1977]. During these expansion periods poleward-auroral moving forms (PMAFs) are observed. PMAFs are also observed during periods when the auroral oval is expanded. PMAFs are not observed when the dayside auroral oval moves poleward of 79° [Lockwood et al., 1989]. Past studies of PMAFs show that they drift poleward and fade [Vorobjev et al., 1975; Horwitz and Akasofu, 1977; Sandholt et al., 1986, 1989, 1990; Rairden and Mende, 1989; Lockwood, 1991], rebrighten as they drift into the polar cap [Fasel et al., 1992, 1994; Fasel, 1995], or rebrighten and slow down while moving into the polar cap, eventually stopping while maintaining their luminosity at least 10 minutes [Fasel, 1995; Fasel et al., 1995]. Fasel [1995] classified these three types of PMAFs as PMAF1, PMAF2, PMAF3 events, respectively. This study looks at the three classes of PMAF events. The study will show the brightening histories of the PMAF events and their evolution as they move into the polar cap. PMAF1 events usually do not drift as far poleward as PMAF2 and PMAF3 events. The lifetime of PMAF1 events are shorter than those of PMAF2 and PMAF3 events. At least two rebrightenings are observed in PMAF2 and PMAF3 events as they drift into the polar cap.

  12. Does participation in art classes influence performance on two different cognitive tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Manuel; Maihöfner, Christian; Bolwerk, Anne; Lang, Frieder R

    2017-04-01

    Effects of two mentally stimulating art interventions on processing speed and visuo-spatial cognition were compared in three samples. In a randomized 10-week art intervention study with a pre-post follow-up design, 113 adults (27 healthy older adults with subjective memory complaints, 50 healthy older adults and 36 healthy younger adults) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: visual art production or cognitive art evaluation, where the participants either produced or evaluated art. ANOVAs with repeated measures were computed to observe effects on the Symbol-Digit Test, and the Stick Test. Significant Time effects were found with regard to processing speed and visuo-spatial cognition. Additionally, there was found a significant Time × Sample interaction for processing speed. The effects proved robust after testing for education and adding sex as additional factor. Mental stimulation by participation in art classes leads to an improvement of processing speed and visuo-spatial cognition. Further investigation is required to improve understanding of the potential impact of art intervention on cognitive abilities across adulthood.

  13. Short term memory development : Differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, G.V.; Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in

  14. Inhibition of G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels by different classes of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Various antidepressants are commonly used for the treatment of depression and several other neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition to their primary effects on serotonergic or noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems, antidepressants have been shown to interact with several receptors and ion channels. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of antidepressants have not yet been sufficiently clarified. G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+ (GIRK, Kir3 channels play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability and heart rate, and GIRK channel modulation has been suggested to have therapeutic potential for several neuropsychiatric disorders and cardiac arrhythmias. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various classes of antidepressants on GIRK channels using the Xenopus oocyte expression assay. In oocytes injected with mRNA for GIRK1/GIRK2 or GIRK1/GIRK4 subunits, extracellular application of sertraline, duloxetine, and amoxapine effectively reduced GIRK currents, whereas nefazodone, venlafaxine, mianserin, and mirtazapine weakly inhibited GIRK currents even at toxic levels. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent, with various degrees of potency and effectiveness. Furthermore, the effects of sertraline were voltage-independent and time-independent during each voltage pulse, whereas the effects of duloxetine were voltage-dependent with weaker inhibition with negative membrane potentials and time-dependent with a gradual decrease in each voltage pulse. However, Kir2.1 channels were insensitive to all of the drugs. Moreover, the GIRK currents induced by ethanol were inhibited by sertraline but not by intracellularly applied sertraline. The present results suggest that GIRK channel inhibition may reveal a novel characteristic of the commonly used antidepressants, particularly sertraline, and contributes to some of the therapeutic effects and adverse effects.

  15. The impact of differences between subjective and objective social class on life satisfaction among the Korean population in early old age: Analysis of Korean longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TOTAL PHENOLICS, TOTAL TANNINS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA FISTULA L. EXTRACTS OF BARK, STEM, LEAF AND ROOT UNDER DIFFERENT AGE CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI TZEKIAT, LIEW KANG CHIANG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L. bark, stem, leaf and root under different age classes namely Class A (2-3years, Class B (5-10 years and Class C (10-15 years were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC,total tannin content (TTC and antioxidant activity (AA. Both total phenolic content (TPC and total tannincontent (TTC were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assays and antioxidant activity (AA was carried out byFree Radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. From the study, higher TPC, TTC and AA wereobserved in Cassia fistula bark extracts compare to otherportion extracts (stem, leaf and root. Bark extractsfrom three different age classes, showed total means of 16.67 % TPC and 3.12% TTC. In addition, bark extractsfrom three different age classes also showed high antioxidant activity (AA with mean IC50 values of 0.04g/ml.

  17. "I think about Oprah": social class differences in sources of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ann V

    2014-04-01

    Health information influences an individual's health outcomes. Indeed, researchers have found that communication inequalities contribute to health inequalities. We do not have a clear understanding of why and how the communication disparities exist, however, particularly the social forces behind such differences. The qualitative nature of this article reveals the nuances of health information seeking using the case of infertility. Through 58 in-depth interviews, I demonstrate how differences in social and cultural capital between women of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) result in different ways of learning about health. Women of high SES have access to support groups, physicians, and the Internet, whereas women of low SES do not discuss their health problems with their peers, and lack access to and distrust physicians. I explore how these differences in health information shape the illness experience. I conclude with policy implications.

  18. On the Inclusion of Difference Equation Problems and Z Transform Methods in Sophomore Differential Equation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.

  19. On the global attractivity and oscillations in a class of second order difference equations from macroeconomics

    CERN Document Server

    El-Morshedy, Hassan A

    2010-01-01

    New global attractivity criteria are obtained for the second order difference equation \\[ x_{n+1}=cx_{n}+f(x_{n}-x_{n-1}),\\quad n=1, 2, ... \\] via a Lyapunov-like method. Some of these results are sharp and support recent related conjectures. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the oscillation of this equation is obtained using comparison with a second order linear difference equation with positive coefficients.

  20. Effect of different adhesive strategies on the post-operative sensitivity of class I composite restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; YILDIZ, Esra; Bayrak, Isil; Ozel,Sevda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the post-operative sensitivity of occlusal restorations using different dentin adhesives performed by an undergraduate and a post-doctorate dentist. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight molar occlusal restorations were placed in 39 patients (ages between 18 and 30) using 3 different kind of adhesive systems; Optibond FL (OBF), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), and iBond (IB) by a post-doctorate dentist or a fifth-year dental student according to the manufactur...

  1. Social class difference in catch up growth in a national British cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Teranishi, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Marmot, M.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To examine the influence of socioeconomic status on growth pattern in height from age 7 to 23years.
METHODS—Prospective cohort study. A total of 10 200 white singleton born children from the 1958 British birth cohort (National Child Development Study) were analysed.
RESULTS—Differences in height by birth weight persisted throughout the follow up period. However, the mean differences in height between low birth weight infants (

  2. Differences in Weight-Related Behavioral Profiles by Sexual Orientation Among College Men: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-11-01

    To identify and describe homogenous classes of male college students based on their weight-related behaviors (e.g., eating habits, physical activity, and unhealthy weight control) and to examine differences by sexual orientation. Study design was a cross-sectional sample of 2- and 4-year college students. Study setting was forty-six 2- and 4-year colleges in Minnesota. Study subjects comprised 10,406 college males. Measures were five categories of sexual orientation derived from self-reported sexual identity and behavior (heterosexual, discordant heterosexual [identifies as heterosexual and engages in same-sex sexual behavior], gay, bisexual, and unsure) and nine weight-related behaviors (including measures for eating habits, physical activity, and unhealthy weight control). Latent class models were fit for each of the five sexual orientation groups, using the nine weight-related behaviors. Overall, four classes were identified: "healthier eating habits" (prevalence range, 39.4%-77.3%), "moderate eating habits" (12.0%-30.2%), "unhealthy weight control" (2.6%-30.4%), and "healthier eating habits, more physically active" (35.8%). Heterosexual males exhibited all four patterns, gay and unsure males exhibited four patterns that included variations on the overall classes identified, discordant heterosexual males exhibited two patterns ("healthier eating habits" and "unhealthy weight control"), and bisexual males exhibited three patterns ("healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control"). Findings highlight the need for multibehavioral interventions for discordant heterosexual, gay, bisexual, and unsure college males, particularly around encouraging physical activity and reducing unhealthy weight control behaviors. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  3. Losing identity: structural diversity of transposable elements belonging to different classes in the genome of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Medina Rita D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs, both DNA transposons and retrotransposons, are genetic elements with the main characteristic of being able to mobilize and amplify their own representation within genomes, utilizing different mechanisms of transposition. An almost universal feature of TEs in eukaryotic genomes is their inability to transpose by themselves, mainly as the result of sequence degeneration (by either mutations or deletions. Most of the elements are thus either inactive or non-autonomous. Considering that the bulk of some eukaryotic genomes derive from TEs, they have been conceived as “TE graveyards.” It has been shown that once an element has been inactivated, it progressively accumulates mutations and deletions at neutral rates until completely losing its identity or being lost from the host genome; however, it has also been shown that these “neutral sequences” might serve as raw material for domestication by host genomes. Results We have analyzed the sequence structural variations, nucleotide divergence, and pattern of insertions and deletions of several superfamilies of TEs belonging to both class I (long terminal repeats [LTRs] and non-LTRs [NLTRs] and II in the genome of Anopheles gambiae, aiming at describing the landscape of deterioration of these elements in this particular genome. Our results describe a great diversity in patterns of deterioration, indicating lineage-specific differences including the presence of Solo-LTRs in the LTR lineage, 5′-deleted NLTRs, and several non-autonomous and MITEs in the class II families. Interestingly, we found fragments of NLTRs corresponding to the RT domain, which preserves high identity among them, suggesting a possible remaining genomic role for these domains. Conclusions We show here that the TEs in the An. gambiae genome deteriorate in different ways according to the class to which they belong. This diversity certainly has implications not only at the host

  4. Asymptotic Behavior of Equilibrium Point for a Class of Nonlinear Difference Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Fei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the asymptotic behavior of the solutions for the following nonlinear difference equation where the initial conditions are arbitrary nonnegative real numbers, are nonnegative integers, , and are positive constants. Moreover, some numerical simulations to the equation are given to illustrate our results.

  5. Effects of Two Different Types of Physics Learning on the Results of CLASS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Mirko; Slisko, Josip

    2012-01-01

    During a one-semester-long research project with high school students, we deployed and gauged efficiency of two different reform teaching methods: reading, presenting, and questioning (RPQ) and experimenting and discussion (ED). In this paper we report on changes in students' attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. We used the…

  6. GLOBAL ATTRACTIVITY IN A CLASS OF HIGHER-ORDER NONLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wantong; Zhang Yanhong; Su Youhui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the global attractivity of the nonlinear difference equationis investigated, where a,b, A ∈ (0, ∞), k is an positive integer and the initial conditions equilibrium of the equation is global attractive. As a corollary, the result gives a positive confirmation on the conjecture presented by Kocic and Ladas [1,p154].

  7. Dialect, Interaction and Class Positioning at School: From Deficit to Difference to Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Sociolinguists have been fighting dialect prejudice since the 1960s, but deficit views of non-standard English are regaining currency in educational discourse. In this paper I argue that the traditional sociolinguistic response--stressing dialect systematicity and tolerance of "difference"--may no longer be effective by questioning a key…

  8. Point pattern analysis of different age-classes of Larix principis-rupprechtii in Luya Mountain Reserve,Shanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jintun; MENG Dongping

    2007-01-01

    Larix principis-rupprechtii forest is an important vegetation formation and has a large distribution area in Luya Mountain Reserve,China.Spatial pattern analysis on individual trees in different age-classes of Larix principisrupprechtii was made in this paper.Here,we employed the technique of point pattern analysis,which could analyze patterns under all scales along a gradient.It was based on spatial mapped points of individual distribution.The results of this study showed that the densities of the five age-classes varied in the order:age-class 3>age-class 4>age-class 5>age-class 2>age-class 1.Although age-classes 1 and 2 have much fewer individuals than other three age-classes do,the population was stable at present.However,it would be necessary to take some measures for improving population regeneration for a long-time view.The individuals of all age-classes focused on clumping distribution in space;however,their distribution pattern varied with the change of scale.This mainly depended on biological features of Larix principis-rupprechtii and forest environments,but it also meant that the scale was an important factor in controlling spatial distribution pattern of tree individuals.The feature of clumping distribution became more significant with the increase of age.The relationships between individuals in different age-classes were almost all significantly correlated with each other.These associations became more significant within the older age-classes.This suggested that the individuals of different age-classes were interdistributed,by which the population could get benefits in resource utilization.The technique of point pattern analysis is effective and easy to be used in species pattern study.Its results are more closer to the reality,especially for community structure.

  9. Fungal laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, and chemical mediators: combined actions for the decolorization of different classes of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Tilli, Silvia; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    Dyes belonging to the mono-, di-, tri- and poly-azo as well as anthraquinonic and mono-azo Cr-complexed classes, chosen among the most utilized in textile applications, were employed for a comparative enzymatic decolorization study using the extracellular crude culture extracts from the white rot fungus Funalia (Trametes) trogii grown on different culture media and activators able to trigger different levels of expression of oxidizing enzymes: laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase. Laccase containing extracts were capable to decolorize some dyes from all the different classes analyzed, whereas the recalcitrant dyes were subjected to the combined action of laccase and the chemical mediator HBT, or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Correlations among the decolorization degree of the various dyes and their electronic and structural diversities were rationalized and discussed. The utilization of cellobiose dehydrogenase in support to the activity of laccase for the decolorization of azo textile dyes resulted in substantial increases in decolorization for all the refractory dyes proving to be a valid alternative to more expensive and less environmentally friendly chemical treatments of textile dyes wastes.

  10. Serotonin has different effects on two classes of Betz cells from the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, W J

    1994-10-01

    1. Intracellular recording from cat Betz cells in vitro revealed a strong correlation between the dominant effect of serotonin (5-HT) and the Betz cell subtype in which it occurred. In large Betz cells that show posthyperpolarization excitation (termed PHE cells), 5-HT evoked a long-lasting membrane depolarization, whereas 5-HT evoked an initial hyperpolarization of variable duration in smaller Betz cells that show posthyperpolorization inhibition (termed PHI cells). 2. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that 5-HT caused a depolarizing shift of activation of the cation current Ih, which resulted in the depolarization in PHE cells, whereas the hyperpolarization in PHI cells is caused by an increase in a resting potassium conductance. 3. The effect of 5-HT on firing properties during constant current stimulation also differed consistently in the two types of Betz cells. In PHE cells the initial firing rate increased after 5-HT application, but the steady firing was unaffected. The depolarizing shift of Ih activation caused the increase of initial firing rate. 4. In PHI cells 5-HT caused a decrease in spike frequency adaptation. The decrease in adaptation was caused by a combination of two conductance changes. First, 5-HT caused a slow afterdepolarization in PHI cells that could trigger repetitive firing in the absence of further stimulation. The sADP depended on calcium entry through voltage-gated channels and was associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. Second, 5-HT caused reduction of a slow calcium-dependent potassium current that normally contributes to slow adaptation. 5. In conclusion, the effect of 5-HT on excitability differs systematically in Betz cell subtypes in part because they have different dominant ionic mechanisms that are modulated. If we assume that PHE cells and PHI cells represent fast and slow pyramidal tract (PT) neurons respectively, 5-HT will cause early recruitment of fast PT cells and delay recruitment of slow PT cells during low

  11. Effect of different adhesive strategies on the post-operative sensitivity of class I composite restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; Yildiz, Esra; Bayrak, Isil; Ozel, Sevda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the post-operative sensitivity of occlusal restorations using different dentin adhesives performed by an undergraduate and a post-doctorate dentist. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight molar occlusal restorations were placed in 39 patients (ages between 18 and 30) using 3 different kind of adhesive systems; Optibond FL (OBF), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), and iBond (IB) by a post-doctorate dentist or a fifth-year dental student according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Post-operative sensitivity to cold and air was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) after 24 hours, 30, 90, and 180 days. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Friedman tests (P 0.05). Conclusion: Operator skill and experience appears to play a role in determining the outcome of post-operative sensitivity of multi-step adhesive systems although the post-operative sensitivity was low. It is suggested that the less experienced clinicians (rather than experienced clinicians) should better use the self-etching dentin bonding systems with reduced application steps to minimize the potential risk of post-operative sensitivity of dental adhesives. PMID:24966741

  12. Comparative Study of Fatigue Damage Models Using Different Number of Classes Combined with the Rainflow Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zengah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue damage increases with applied load cycles in a cumulative manner. Fatigue damage models play a key role in life prediction of components and structures subjected to random loading. The aim of this paper is the examination of the performance of the “Damaged Stress Model”, proposed and validated, against other fatigue models under random loading before and after reconstruction of the load histories. To achieve this objective, some linear and nonlinear models proposed for fatigue life estimation and a batch of specimens made of 6082T6 aluminum alloy is subjected to random loading. The damage was cumulated by Miner’s rule, Damaged Stress Model (DSM, Henry model and Unified Theory (UT and random cycles were counted with a rain-flow algorithm. Experimental data on high-cycle fatigue by complex loading histories with different mean and amplitude stress values are analyzed for life calculation and model predictions are compared.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study on strip reflection coefficient of different crystal symmetry class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fangqian; HE Shitang

    2005-01-01

    The closed-form expressions on strip reflection coefficients of tetragonal 4/mmm,hexagonal 6/mm and trigonal 3m crystal, etc, were derived, which are different from that of cubic m3m crystal published. The reflection coefficients of short-circuited Al grating and groove grating on 112° rotated X-cut Y-propagation LiTaO3 are then given. The reflection property of a short-circuited Al -recessed groove grating on 112°LiTaO3 has been experimentally studied and the condition without internal reflection was achieved. It concludes that the structure of single finger without internal reflection can be realized by the short-circuited Al -recessed groove grating on 112°LiTaO3 and thereafter a pass-band filter with central frequency at 255 MHz,bandwidth about 10 MHz, pass-band ripples less than 0.4 dB was yielded.

  14. ELK1 uses different DNA binding modes to regulate functionally distinct classes of target genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta Odrowaz

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic transcription factors are grouped into families and, due to their similar DNA binding domains, often have the potential to bind to the same genomic regions. This can lead to redundancy at the level of DNA binding, and mechanisms are required to generate specific functional outcomes that enable distinct gene expression programmes to be controlled by a particular transcription factor. Here we used ChIP-seq to uncover two distinct binding modes for the ETS transcription factor ELK1. In one mode, other ETS transcription factors can bind regulatory regions in a redundant fashion; in the second, ELK1 binds in a unique fashion to another set of genomic targets. Each binding mode is associated with different binding site features and also distinct regulatory outcomes. Furthermore, the type of binding mode also determines the control of functionally distinct subclasses of genes and hence the phenotypic response elicited. This is demonstrated for the unique binding mode where a novel role for ELK1 in controlling cell migration is revealed. We have therefore uncovered an unexpected link between the type of binding mode employed by a transcription factor, the subsequent gene regulatory mechanisms used, and the functional categories of target genes controlled.

  15. [PREDICTING OF RISK OF SOIL CONTAMINATION BY DIFFERENT CLASSES OF FUNGICIDES IN SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshun, M; Dema, O; Kucherenko, O; Ruda, T; Korshun, O; Gorbachevskyi, R; Pelio, I; Antonenko, A

    2016-07-01

    Application of pesticides in modern agriculture is a powerful permanent risk factor for public health and the natural environment. The aim of the study was a comparative hygienic assessment of soil pollution hazards by the most widely used herbicides of different chemical classes (sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates, semicarbazones). Hygienic field experiment for studying of the dynamics of residual amounts of the test substances in the soil under different climatic zones of Ukraine was conducted. Half life periods (DT50) or herbicides in soil were calculated using the method of mathematical modeling. Ecotoxicological risk of herbicides on ecosystems and ecological communities was determined. It was established that bispyribac-sodium (pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates) and imidazolinones are persist the longest time in soil and most rapidly degradable is diflufenzopyr (semicarbazone); ecotoxicological risk of the studied herbicides for terrestrial biocenoses of Ukraine by 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than dihlordifeniltrihlormetilmetan (DDT).

  16. Do Class Size Reductions Make a Difference to Classroom Practice? The Case of Hong Kong Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, Maurice; Pell, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes changes which took place in 37 Hong Kong primary schools where class sizes were reduced from 38 to between 20 and 25. Chinese, English and mathematics classes were observed over three years from Primary 1 (aged 6) to Primary 3. For 75% of observations no child was the focus of the teacher's attention in large classes. Reducing…

  17. A combination of feature extraction methods with an ensemble of different classifiers for protein structural class prediction problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehzangi, Abdollah; Paliwal, Kuldip; Sharma, Alok; Dehzangi, Omid; Sattar, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Better understanding of structural class of a given protein reveals important information about its overall folding type and its domain. It can also be directly used to provide critical information on general tertiary structure of a protein which has a profound impact on protein function determination and drug design. Despite tremendous enhancements made by pattern recognition-based approaches to solve this problem, it still remains as an unsolved issue for bioinformatics that demands more attention and exploration. In this study, we propose a novel feature extraction model that incorporates physicochemical and evolutionary-based information simultaneously. We also propose overlapped segmented distribution and autocorrelation-based feature extraction methods to provide more local and global discriminatory information. The proposed feature extraction methods are explored for 15 most promising attributes that are selected from a wide range of physicochemical-based attributes. Finally, by applying an ensemble of different classifiers namely, Adaboost.M1, LogitBoost, naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron (MLP), and support vector machine (SVM) we show enhancement of the protein structural class prediction accuracy for four popular benchmarks.

  18. An Examination of Teaching Behaviors and Learning Activities in Physical Education Class Settings Taught by Three Different Levels of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Z.  Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To be an accredited teacher education program, physical education teacher education (PETE programs must fulfill the national standards established by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE. In order to meet the standards, a PETE program needs to have the cooperation of the following three levels of instructors: Specialist Teachers (STs, Inservice Teachers (ITs and Preservice Teachers (PTs. The STs are those who teach at colleges or universities, possess advanced degrees with full/associate/assistant professor titles and teach theoretical and skill courses. They participate in the academic activities of the PETE program; for instance, they serve as academic advisors and instructors of the PTs. The ITs are those who possess teacher certificates, bachelor or higher degrees and currently teach physical education/activity classes at middle/high schools. They also participate in the academic activities; for example, they serve as cooperating teachers providing guidelines and supports for the PTs. The PTs were college students who were studying in a PETE program. They intended to become PE teachers at K-12 school levels. They must complete the student teaching requirements at primary and secondary school class settings in order to graduate from colleges or universities. Approach: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences and similarities of Teaching Behaviors (TB and Learning Activities (LA in Physical Education (PE class settings taught by the three different levels of teachers. Participants were 45 PE teachers from the three levels and their students from a university and three high schools in an urban city of the United States. A total of 90 lessons taught by the three levels of teachers were videotaped and coded using the Direct Instruction Behavior Analysis (DIBA system. Results: Findings of the one-way independent group ANOVA revealed that eight out of 13 variables were significantly

  19. Richness and Abundance of Lianas with Different Diameter Classes in Permanent Plots in the Amazon in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ferraz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of the structure and diversity of tropical forests and the Amazon biome is one of few natural protected areas that still support the highest level of biodiversity in the world. Generally in disturbed forests high densities of lianas are found than mature forests. The aim of this study is to investigate the richness among families and lianas abundance with different diameter classes in permanent plots in the Amazon of Mato Grosso. To the survey were placed 8 plots of 40 x 250 in a forest fragment that has been management for 30 years, where we sampled lianas species with diameter breast height (DBH ≥ 1 cm. There were sampled 3970 stems in the permanent plots, and the two most abundant were 2 and 6 with 594 and 573 individuals respectively. The richest families were Sapindaceae, Dilleniaceae, Menispermaceae and Fabaceae. These results confirm the hypothesis that disturbed areas have more density of lianas with small DBH.

  20. Different Types of Projective Synchronization in a Class of Time-Delayed Chaotic Systems Using Active Control Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Cun-Fang; WANG Ying-Hai

    2011-01-01

    We study different types of projective synchronization (projective-anticipating, projective, and projectivelag synchronization) in a class of time-delayed chaotic systems related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices.We relax some limitations of previous work, where the scaling factor a can not be any desired value.In this paper, we achieve projective-anticipating, projective, and projective-lag synchronization without the limitation of α.A suitable controller is chosen using active control approach.Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive the sutficient stability condition through theoretical analysis.The analytical results are validated by the numerical simulations using Ikeda model and Mackey-Glass model.

  1. Cognitive and ethical maturity in baccalaureate nursing students: did a class using Narrative Pedagogy make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwynne C; Bendel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the effect of Narrative Pedagogy in nursing education on students' ability to move toward cognitive and ethical maturity and thereby increase their autonomy in nursing practice. Students taking a class using Narrative Pedagogy demonstrated "entry" and "exit" mean scores that showed marginal and statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement on the Measure of Intellectual Development and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Using nonparametric and parametric analyses of variance, there was minor improvement on both scales in cognitive and ethical maturity and the disposition to think critically in the intervention group. For all variables, there were no significant differences between the control group and the intervention group, with or without adjustment for age, the only significant covariate. The cognitive and ethical growth documented by either instrument is probably not large enough to be considered practically significant in terms of movement toward autonomous practice.

  2. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  3. Not all experiences of (inauthenticity are created equal: A latent class analysis approach(retitled Identifying Differences in the Experience of (InAuthenticity: A Latent Class Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison P. Lenton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, psychologists consider state authenticity– that is, the subjective sense of being one’s true self – to be a unitary and unidimensional construct, such that (a the phenomenological experience of authenticity is thought to be similar no matter its trigger, and (b inauthenticity is thought to be simply the opposing pole (on the same underlying construct of authenticity. Using latent class analysis, we put this conceptualization to a test. In order to avoid over-reliance on a Western conceptualization of authenticity, we used a cross-cultural sample (N = 543, comprising participants from Western, South-Asian, East-Asian, and South-East Asian cultures. Participants provided either a narrative in which the described when they felt most like being themselves or one in which they described when they felt least like being themselves. The analysis identified six distinct classes of experiences: two authenticity classes ('everyday' and 'extraordinary', three inauthenticity classes ('self-conscious,' 'deflated,' and 'extraordinary', and a class representing convergence between authenticity and inauthenticity. The classes were phenomenologically distinct, especially with respect to negative affect, private and public self-consciousness, and self-esteem. Furthermore, relatively more interdependent cultures were less likely to report experiences of extraordinary (inauthenticity than relatively more independent cultures. Understanding the many facets of (inauthenticity may enable researchers to connect different findings and explain why the attainment of authenticity can be difficult.

  4. Design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class superconducting wind power generators according to different types of superconducting wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hae-Jin, E-mail: haejin90@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •10 MW SC wind power generators are designed using different types of SC wires. •SCSGs using YBCO and Bi-2223 wires are optimized by the modified Taguchi method. •The results demonstrate a proper type of SC wire for the optimal design of SCSG. -- Abstract: Wind turbine concepts can be classified into the geared type and the gearless type. The gearless type wind turbine is more attractive due to advantages of simplified drive train and increased energy yield, and higher reliability because the gearbox is omitted. In addition, this type resolves the weight issue of the wind turbine with the light weight of gearbox. However, because of the low speed operation, this type has disadvantage such as the large diameter and heavy weight of generator. Super-Conducting (SC) wind power generator can reduce the weight and volume of a wind power system. Properties of superconducting wire are very different from each company. This paper considers the design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class SC wind power generators according to different types of SC wires. Super-Conducting Synchronous Generators (SCSGs) using YBCO and Bi-2223 wires are optimized by an optimal method. The magnetic characteristics of the SCSGs are investigated using the finite elements method program. The optimized specifications of the SCSGs are discussed in detail, and the optimization processes can be used effectively to develop large scale wind power generation systems.

  5. Measurements of Narrow Mg II Associated Absorption Doublets with Two Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhi-Fu Chen; Cai-Juan Pan; Guo-Qiang Li; Wei-Rong Huang; Mu-Sheng Li

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of the variations of absorption lines over time is a good method to study the physical conditions of absorbers. In this paper, we measure the variations of the line strength of 36 narrow Mg II2796, 2803 associated absorption doublets, which are imprinted on 31 quasar spectra with two observations of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The timescales of these quasar span 1.1–5.5 years at the quasar rest-frame. On these timescales, we find that these narrow Mg II associated absorption doublets are stable, with no one 2796 line showing strength variation beyond 2 times error (2).

  6. Sera and conditioned media contain different isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) which bind to different classes of PDGF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen-Pope, D F; Hart, C E; Seifert, R A

    1989-02-15

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is encoded by separate genes for two possible subunit chains (A-chain and B-chain) which can form three possible dimers (AA, AB, and BB). We have recently presented evidence that multiple forms of PDGF receptor exist which distinguish between these isoforms (Hart, C. H., Forstrom, J. W., Kelley, J. D., Smith, R. A., Ross, R., Murray, M. J., and Bowen-Pope, D. F. (1988) Science 240, 1529-1531). We used this specificity to determine the amount of PDGF from different sources which is able to bind to each class of receptor and found that each source had a characteristic isoform composition. Levels of total PDGF activity in sera from different species ranged more than 15-fold, from less than 1 ng/ml in dog, chicken, pig, and calf, to greater than 13 ng/ml in mouse and human. Despite these differences in PDGF content, the total mitogenic activities of the sera were comparable indicating that the relative importance of PDGF as a serum mitogen may vary considerably between species. Analysis of the total PDGF into the amounts of each isoform revealed great differences in composition. PDGF-BB constitutes only about 15% of the total binding activity in human PDGF purified by the method of Raines and Ross (Raines, E. W., and Ross, R. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5154-5160) but is the predominant isoform in whole blood serum from all other species. In contrast to serum, medium conditioned by cultured PDGF-secreting cell types contained no detectable PDGF-BB except in two cases: medium conditioned by vascular endothelial cells and by cells transformed by simian sarcoma virus. The existence of isoform-specific PDGF receptors and the large variation in PDGF isoform composition dependent upon source may provide an important mechanism through which the effects of PDGF can be targeted to different cell types and/or toward eliciting different cell responses.

  7. A generalized volumetric dispersion model for a class of two-phase separation/reaction: finite difference solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripatana, Chairat; Thongpan, Hathaikarn; Promraksa, Arwut

    2017-03-01

    This article explores a volumetric approach in formulating differential equations for a class of engineering flow problems involving component transfer within or between two phases. In contrast to conventional formulation which is based on linear velocities, this work proposed a slightly different approach based on volumetric flow-rate which is essentially constant in many industrial processes. In effect, many multi-dimensional flow problems found industrially can be simplified into multi-component or multi-phase but one-dimensional flow problems. The formulation is largely generic, covering counter-current, concurrent or batch, fixed and fluidized bed arrangement. It was also intended to use for start-up, shut-down, control and steady state simulation. Since many realistic and industrial operation are dynamic with variable velocity and porosity in relation to position, analytical solutions are rare and limited to only very simple cases. Thus we also provide a numerical solution using Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme. This solution is inherently stable as tested against a few cases published in the literature. However, it is anticipated that, for unconfined flow or non-constant flow-rate, traditional formulation should be applied.

  8. Speech intelligibility differences across sound classes with in-the-ear and free-field microphones in quiet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estis, Julie M; Parisi, Julie A; Moore, Robert E; Brungart, Douglas S

    2011-06-01

    Speech intelligibility performance with an in-the-ear microphone embedded in a custom-molded deep-insertion earplug was compared with results obtained using a free-field microphone. Intelligibility differences between microphones were further analyzed to assess whether reduced intelligibility was specific to certain sound classes. 36 participants completed the Modified Rhyme Test using recordings made with each microphone. While speech intelligibility for both microphones was highly accurate, intelligibility with the free-field microphone was significantly better than with the in-the-ear microphone. There were significant effects of place and manner of sound production. Significant differences in recognition among specific phonemes were also revealed. Implications included modifying the in-the-ear microphone to transmit more high frequency energy. Use of the in-the-ear microphone was limited by significant loss of high-frequency energy of the speech signal which resulted in reduced intelligibility for some sounds; however, the in-the-ear microphone is a promising technology for effective communication in military environments.

  9. Design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class superconducting wind power generators according to different types of superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Jong-Yul

    2013-11-01

    Wind turbine concepts can be classified into the geared type and the gearless type. The gearless type wind turbine is more attractive due to advantages of simplified drive train and increased energy yield, and higher reliability because the gearbox is omitted. In addition, this type resolves the weight issue of the wind turbine with the light weight of gearbox. However, because of the low speed operation, this type has disadvantage such as the large diameter and heavy weight of generator. Super-Conducting (SC) wind power generator can reduce the weight and volume of a wind power system. Properties of superconducting wire are very different from each company. This paper considers the design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class SC wind power generators according to different types of SC wires. Super-Conducting Synchronous Generators (SCSGs) using YBCO and Bi-2223 wires are optimized by an optimal method. The magnetic characteristics of the SCSGs are investigated using the finite elements method program. The optimized specifications of the SCSGs are discussed in detail, and the optimization processes can be used effectively to develop large scale wind power generation systems.

  10. Influence of bodybuilding classes on physical qualities of the qualified sportswomen in different phases of the specific biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Mulik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to conduct researches of influence of classes of the sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini on manifestation of physical qualities in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. Material & Methods: researches were conducted in sports fitness-clubs of Kharkov "Feromon", "Gorod", “King” with the qualified sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini within 3 months of the preparatory period in number of 14 people. We used as methods of the research: the analysis of references and testing of level of motive qualities in separate phases of OMC. Results: the theoretical analysis of features of the accounting of phases of OMC at sportswomen is submitted and the testing of the level of development of physical qualities in different phases of the specific biological cycle at the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is held. Conclusions: the received results demonstrate that physical efficiency of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is not identical in phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. It is revealed that the best conditions for performance of considerable exercise stresses in post-ovulatory and post-menstrual phases of OMC, therefore it is expedient to plan them in the preparatory periods of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding.

  11. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-11-01

    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  12. Analysis of Different Classification Techniques for Two-Class Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman Naseer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse and compare the classification accuracies of six different classifiers for a two-class mental task (mental arithmetic and rest using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS signals. The signals of the mental arithmetic and rest tasks from the prefrontal cortex region of the brain for seven healthy subjects were acquired using a multichannel continuous-wave imaging system. After removal of the physiological noises, six features were extracted from the oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO signals. Two- and three-dimensional combinations of those features were used for classification of mental tasks. In the classification, six different modalities, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA, k-nearest neighbour (kNN, the Naïve Bayes approach, support vector machine (SVM, and artificial neural networks (ANN, were utilized. With these classifiers, the average classification accuracies among the seven subjects for the 2- and 3-dimensional combinations of features were 71.6, 90.0, 69.7, 89.8, 89.5, and 91.4% and 79.6, 95.2, 64.5, 94.8, 95.2, and 96.3%, respectively. ANN showed the maximum classification accuracies: 91.4 and 96.3%. In order to validate the results, a statistical significance test was performed, which confirmed that the p values were statistically significant relative to all of the other classifiers (p < 0.005 using HbO signals.

  13. Analysis of Different Classification Techniques for Two-Class Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nauman Khalid; Noori, Farzan Majeed; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2016-01-01

    We analyse and compare the classification accuracies of six different classifiers for a two-class mental task (mental arithmetic and rest) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals. The signals of the mental arithmetic and rest tasks from the prefrontal cortex region of the brain for seven healthy subjects were acquired using a multichannel continuous-wave imaging system. After removal of the physiological noises, six features were extracted from the oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) signals. Two- and three-dimensional combinations of those features were used for classification of mental tasks. In the classification, six different modalities, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), k-nearest neighbour (kNN), the Naïve Bayes approach, support vector machine (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN), were utilized. With these classifiers, the average classification accuracies among the seven subjects for the 2- and 3-dimensional combinations of features were 71.6, 90.0, 69.7, 89.8, 89.5, and 91.4% and 79.6, 95.2, 64.5, 94.8, 95.2, and 96.3%, respectively. ANN showed the maximum classification accuracies: 91.4 and 96.3%. In order to validate the results, a statistical significance test was performed, which confirmed that the p values were statistically significant relative to all of the other classifiers (p < 0.005) using HbO signals.

  14. Mandibular advancement surgery in high-angle and low-angle class II patients: different long-term skeletal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Espeland, L; Krogstad, O; Lyberg, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to compare skeletal stability and the time course of postoperative changes in high-angle and low-angle Class II patients after mandibular advancement surgery. The subjects were 61 consecutive mandibular retrognathism patients whose treatment included bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid fixation. The patients were divided according to the preoperative mandibular plane angle; the 20 patients with the lowest mandibular plane angle (20.8 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees ) constituted the low-angle group, while the 20 cases with the highest mandibular plane angle (43.0 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees ) represented the high-angle group. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 6 occasions: immediately before surgery, immediately after surgery, 2 and 6 months after surgery, and 1 and 3 years after surgery. Results demonstrated that the high-angle and low-angle groups had different patterns of surgical and postoperative changes. High-angle patients were associated with both a higher frequency and a greater magnitude of horizontal relapse. While 95% of the total relapse took place during the first 2 months after surgery in the low-angle group, high-angle patients demonstrated a more continuous relapse pattern, with a significant proportion (38%) occurring late in the follow-up period. Possible reasons for the different postsurgical response are discussed.

  15. Synonymous codon usage in different protein secondary structural classes of human genes: Implication for increased non-randomness of GC3 rich genes towards protein stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pamela Mukhopadhyay; Surajit Basak; Tapash Chandra Ghosh

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between the synonymous codon usage and different protein secondary structural classes were investigated using 401 Homo sapiens proteins extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB). A simple Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of deviation of the observed and expected frequencies of 59 codons at the level of individual synonymous families in the four different protein secondary structural classes. It was observed that synonymous codon families show non-randomness in codon usage in four different secondary structural classes. However, when the genes were classified according to their GC3 levels there was an increase in non-randomness in high GC3 group of genes. The non-randomness in codon usage was further tested among the same protein secondary structures belonging to four different protein folding classes of high GC3 group of genes. The results show that in each of the protein secondary structural unit there exist some synonymous family that shows class specific codonusage pattern. Moreover, there is an increased non-random behaviour of synonymous codons in sheet structure of all secondary structural classes in high GC3 group of genes. Biological implications of these results have been discussed.

  16. Predict protein structural class for low-similarity sequences by evolutionary difference information into the general form of Chou's pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lichao; Zhao, Xiqiang; Kong, Liang

    2014-08-21

    Knowledge of protein structural class plays an important role in characterizing the overall folding type of a given protein. At present, it is still a challenge to extract sequence information solely using protein sequence for protein structural class prediction with low similarity sequence in the current computational biology. In this study, a novel sequence representation method is proposed based on position specific scoring matrix for protein structural class prediction. By defined evolutionary difference formula, varying length proteins are expressed as uniform dimensional vectors, which can represent evolutionary difference information between the adjacent residues of a given protein. To perform and evaluate the proposed method, support vector machine and jackknife tests are employed on three widely used datasets, 25PDB, 1189 and 640 datasets with sequence similarity lower than 25%, 40% and 25%, respectively. Comparison of our results with the previous methods shows that our method may provide a promising method to predict protein structural class especially for low-similarity sequences.

  17. An in vitro microleakage study of class V cavities restored with a new self-adhesive flowable composite resin versus different flowable materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of sealing ability of restorative dental materials, this study was done to assess the microleakage of class V cavities restored with a new self-adhesive flowable composite resin and compare to different flowable materials. Materials and Methods: Seventy standardized class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of maxillary premolars teeth. The occlusal and the gingival margins of the cavities were located on the enamel and cementum/dentin, resp...

  18. Determinants of differences in the activity budgets of Rhinopithecus bieti by age/sex class at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan nature reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors are known to influence the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti. However, little is known about how activity budgets vary between age/sex classes, because the species is difficult to observe in the wild. This study provides the first detailed activity budgets subdivided by age/sex classes based on observations of the largest habituated group at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. This study was conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. We found that adult females spent more time feeding (44.8% than adult males (39.5%, juveniles (39.1%, and infants (14.2%. Adult males allocated more time to miscellaneous activities (12.5% than did adult females (3.8%. Infants were being groomed 6.9% of the time, which was the highest proportion among all age/sex classes. Adults spent more time feeding, while immature individuals allocated more time to moving and other activities. There are several reasons activity budgets may vary by age/sex class: 1 differential reproductive investment between males and females; 2 developmental differences among the age categories; 3 social relationships between members of different age/sex classes, particularly dominance. In addition, group size and adult sex ratio may also impact activity budgets. These variations in activity budgets among the different age/sex classes may become a selective pressure that shapes the development and growth pattern in this species.

  19. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes.

  20. Standard and generalized McDonald-Kreitman test: a website to detect selection by comparing different classes of DNA sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Raquel; Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The McDonald and Kreitman test (MKT) is one of the most powerful and extensively used tests to detect the signature of natural selection at the molecular level. Here, we present the standard and generalized MKT website, a novel website that allows performing MKTs not only for synonymous and nonsynonymous changes, as the test was initially described, but also for other classes of regions and/or several loci. The website has three different interfaces: (i) the standard MKT, where users can analyze several types of sites in a coding region, (ii) the advanced MKT, where users can compare two closely linked regions in the genome that can be either coding or noncoding, and (iii) the multi-locus MKT, where users can analyze many separate loci in a single multi-locus test. The website has already been used to show that selection efficiency is positively correlated with effective population size in the Drosophila genus and it has been applied to include estimates of selection in DPDB. This website is a timely resource, which will presumably be widely used by researchers in the field and will contribute to enlarge the catalogue of cases of adaptive evolution. It is available at http://mkt.uab.es.

  1. The application of individual approach in how to conduct aerobics classes with students of different levels of preparedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barybina L.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a system of classes in aerobics in high school with an individual approach. On this subject has been analyzed about 15 references. 105 students took part in an experiment. The technique, which combines fitness aerobics and step aerobics. The technique allows to take into account the physical capacity, functional differences, the level of preparedness and dealing with their needs, as well as to use an individual approach in the selection of means and methods of physical education. We propose the organization of activities in which the hall can simultaneously engage up to 5-6 subgroups: students with low fitness and low levels of coordination abilities, students with an average level of physical fitness and low levels of coordination abilities, students with high levels of physical fitness and low levels of coordination abilities, students with an average level of physical fitness and a high level of coordination abilities, students with high levels of physical fitness and coordination abilities.

  2. Subtle structural changes in tetrahydroquinolines, a new class of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators, induce different functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoya; Kawai, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Isao

    2012-08-27

    Tetrahydroquinolines (THQs), a new class of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor (AR) modulators, have two indispensable functional groups, that is, a hydroxyl group for AR binding and a nitro group for agonistic activity. Interestingly, switching the nitro to a cyano group, the compound acts as an antagonist. To understand this phenomenon, molecular dynamics simulations were applied for dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and representative THQs complexes with AR. Upon ligand binding, the hydroxyl group formed a tight hydrogen-bond (H-bond) with Asn705 on Helix 3 (H3). The immobilization of Asn705 on H3 is helpful in the formation of tight H-bonds with Asp890 on loop 11-12, and this immobilization consequently leads to a stabilization of H12. The difference in the DHT carbonyl isosteres affected the presence or absence of the H-bonds between the hydroxyl group of THQ and Thr877 and the distortion of H12, which is caused by the methyl group of THQ. Thus, the binding, agonist, and antagonist functions were controlled by subtle structural changes in THQ.

  3. Analysis of phytoplankton distribution and community structure in the German Bight with respect to the different size classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Jochen; Wiltshire, Karen Helen; Petersen, Wilhelm; Metfies, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Investigation of phytoplankton biodiversity, ecology, and biogeography is crucial for understanding marine ecosystems. Research is often carried out on the basis of microscopic observations, but due to the limitations of this approach regarding detection and identification of picophytoplankton (0.2-2 μm) and nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm), these investigations are mainly focused on the microphytoplankton (20-200 μm). In the last decades, various methods based on optical and molecular biological approaches have evolved which enable a more rapid and convenient analysis of phytoplankton samples and a more detailed assessment of small phytoplankton. In this study, a selection of these methods (in situ fluorescence, flow cytometry, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA microarray) was placed in complement to light microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analysis to investigate both biomass distribution and community structure of phytoplankton. As far as possible, the size classes were analyzed separately. Investigations were carried out on six cruises in the German Bight in 2010 and 2011 to analyze both spatial and seasonal variability. Microphytoplankton was identified as the major contributor to biomass in all seasons, followed by the nanophytoplankton. Generally, biomass distribution was patchy, but the overall contribution of small phytoplankton was higher in offshore areas and also in areas exhibiting higher turbidity. Regarding temporal development of the community, differences between the small phytoplankton community and the microphytoplankton were found. The latter exhibited a seasonal pattern regarding number of taxa present, alpha- and beta-diversity, and community structure, while for the nano- and especially the picophytoplankton, a general shift in the community between both years was observable without seasonality. Although the reason for this shift remains unclear, the results imply a different response of large and small phytoplankton to environmental influences.

  4. Educational Effect of Class Size and Teaching Methods on Teaching and Learning : Differences among Subjects of Junior High School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 宣彰; 水野, 考; 山崎, 博敏

    2007-01-01

    Teaching and learning in public junior high school were assessed by teachers. It was found that class size has negative effect on student's learning in math. And it has also negative effect on teacher's teaching in Japanese, Social Studies, Science and English. The smaller the class size is, the easier the teaching. It was also found that small group teaching method was useful especially in English.

  5. Trends in overweight among women differ by occupational class: results from 33 low- and middle-income countries in the period 1992-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arana, S; Avendano, M; van Lenthe, F J; Burdorf, A

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increase in overweight among women in low- and middle-income countries but whether these trends differ for women in different occupations is unknown. We examined trends by occupational class among women from 33 low- and middle-income countries in four regions. Cross-national study with repeated cross-sectional demographic health surveys. Height and weight were assessed at least twice between 1992 and 2009 in 248,925 women aged 25-49 years. Interviews were conducted to assess occupational class, age, place of residence, educational level, household wealth index, parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding. We used logistic and linear regression analyses to assess the annual percent change in overweight (body mass index >25 kg m(-2)) by occupational class. The prevalence of overweight ranged from 2.2% in Nepal in 1992-1997 to 75% in Egypt in 2004-2009. In all the four regions, women working in agriculture had consistently lower prevalence of overweight, while women from professional, technical, managerial as well as clerical occupational classes had higher prevalence. Although the prevalence of overweight increased in all the occupational classes in most regions, women working in agriculture and production experienced the largest increase in overweight over the study period, while women in higher occupational classes experienced smaller increases. To illustrate, overweight increased annually by 0.5% in Latin America and the Caribbean and by 0.7% in Sub-Saharan Africa among women from professional, technical and managerial classes, as compared with 2.8% and 3.7%, respectively, among women in agriculture. The prevalence of overweight has increased in most low- and middle-income countries, but women working in agriculture and production have experienced larger increases than women in higher occupational classes.

  6. The effect of surface sealants with different filler content on microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepdeniz, Ozge Kam; Temel, Ugur Burak; Ugurlu, Muhittin; Koskan, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is still one of the most cited reasons for failure of resin composite restorations. Alternative methods to prevent microleakage have been investigated increasingly. The aim of this study is to evaluate the microleakage in Class V resin composite restorations with or without application of surface sealants with different filler content. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces with the coronal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins located in dentin. The cavities restored with an adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan) and resin composite (Clearfil Majesty ES-2, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan). Teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 h and separated into four groups according to the surface sealants (Control, Fortify, Fortify Plus, and G-Coat Plus). The teeth were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5–55° C), immersed in basic fuchsine, sectioned, and analyzed for dye penetration using stereomicroscope. The data were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal–Wallis and Bonferroni–Dunn test. Results: The results of the study indicated that there was minimum leakage at the enamel margins of all groups. Bonferroni–Dunn tests revealed that Fortify and GC-Coat groups showed significantly less leakage than the Control group and the Fortify Plus group at dentin margins in lingual surfaces (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The all surface sealants used in this study eliminated microleakage at enamel margins. Moreover, unfilled or nanofilled surface sealants were the most effective in decreasing the degree of marginal microleakage at dentin margins. However, viscosity and penetrability of the sealants could be considered for sealing ability besides composition. PMID:27095890

  7. Sculpting MHC class II-restricted self and non-self peptidome by the class I Ag-processing machinery and its impact on Th-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles T; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Conant, Stephanie B; Gray, Jennifer J; Zheng, Mu; Samir, Parimal; Niu, Xinnan; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Van Kaer, Luc; Sette, Alessandro; Link, Andrew J; Joyce, Sebastian

    2013-05-01

    It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this assumption, we previously reported that proteasome inhibition, TAP deficiency or ERAAP deficiency led to dramatically altered T helper (Th)-cell responses to allograft (HY) and microbial (Listeria monocytogenes) Ags. Herein, we tested whether altered Ag processing and presentation, altered CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, or both underlay the above finding. We found that TAP deficiency and ERAAP deficiency dramatically altered the quality of class II-associated self peptides suggesting that the CAP machinery impacts class II-restricted Ag processing and presentation. Consistent with altered self peptidomes, the CD4(+) T-cell receptor repertoire of mice deficient in the CAP machinery substantially differed from that of WT animals resulting in altered CD4(+) T-cell Ag recognition patterns. These data suggest that TAP and ERAAP sculpt the class II-restricted peptidome, impacting the CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, and ultimately altering Th-cell responses. Together with our previous findings, these data suggest multiple CAP machinery components sequester or degrade MHC class II-restricted epitopes that would otherwise be capable of eliciting functional Th-cell responses.

  8. What help can you get talking to somebody?’ Explaining class differences in the use of talking treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Talking treatments are underused in England by working-class people: their higher rates of common mental disorders compared with their middle-class counterparts are not matched by an increased use of these treatments. Given that,overall, talking treatments are effective in tackling depression and anxiety,understanding their underuse is important. Based upon semi-structured interview data I argue that a framework centred on individuals' cultural dispositions towards treatment can help with this task. Following Bourdieu, such dispositions can be traced to social structural conditioning factors, together comprising the habitus. Four key dispositions emerge from the data: verbalisation and introspection, impetus for emotional health, relation to medical authority and practical orientation to the future. In turn, these dispositions are rooted in the material, health, occupational and educational characteristics of working-class circumstances. Tracing these circumstances offers suggestions for increasing the use of this service.

  9. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  10. Estudo cefalométrico comparativo dos espaços naso e bucofaríngeo nas más oclusões Classe I e Classe II, Divisão 1, sem tratamento ortodôntico, com diferentes padrões de crescimento A Comparative cephalometric study of the naso and oropharyngeal space in malocclusions Class I and Class II Division 1, without orthodontic treatment with different growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadyr M. Penteado Virmond Alcazar

    2004-08-01

    with class II, division 1 subdivided according to facial growth: normal and vertical. The naso and oropharyngeal airway space was assessed according to McNamara's analysis by using the Nfa-NFp and Nba-NBp measurements. The analysis of the results obtained revealed that, the oropharyngeal measurements for class I with pattern vertical growth and nasopharyngeal class II with pattern normal growth were similar to the reference measures in McNamara's sample. The other measurements were statistically smaller. In the comparison between groups, the oropharyngeal spaces did not show a difference between one group and another. The nasopharyngeal space in the class I group with vertical growth, showed a narrower space than in the class I group and in the class II group with pattern normal growth. In relation to adenoids hypertrophy, only class I with pattern vertical growth showed obstruction; for tonsils hypertrophy, only class I with pattern vertical growth and class II with pattern normal growth showed tonsils hypertrophy.

  11. Review of Japanese recommendations on design and construction of different classes of fiber reinforced concrete and application examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uchida, Yuichi; Fischer, Gregor; Hishiki, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) with strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior, and Ultra High-strength Fiber Reinforced concrete (UFC) with increased tensile strength. The recommendations on the design, production, and application of these classes of fiber reinforced concrete have been...

  12. Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…

  13. Different features of the MHC class I heterodimer have evolved at different rates. Chicken B-F and beta 2-microglobulin sequences reveal invariant surface residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Andersen, R; Avila, D;

    1992-01-01

    of small exons in the cytoplasmic region. The cDNA sequences were compared to turkey beta 2m, the apparent allele B-F12 alpha and other vertebrate homologs, using the 2.6 A structure of the human HLA-A2 molecule as a model. Both chicken alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains resemble mammalian classical class I...

  14. Student–Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    OpenAIRE

    Young K. Kim; Linda J. Sax

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student–faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes—i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience—vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status. The study utilized data on 58,281 students who participated in the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES). The finding...

  15. "Racializing" Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  16. Differences in the expressed HLA class I alleles effect the differential clustering of HIV type 1-specific T cell responses in infected Chinese and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu,XG; Addo,MM; Perkins,BA; Wej,FL; Rathod,A; Geer,SC; Parta,M; Cohen,D; Stone,DR; Russell,CJ; Tanzi,G; Mei,S; Wureel,AG; Frahm,N; Lichterfeld,M; Heath,L; Mullins,JI; Marincola,F; Goulder,PJR; Brander,C; Allen,T; Cao,YZ; Walker,BD; Altfeld,M

    2005-01-01

    China is a region of the world with a rapidly spreading HIV-1 epidemic. Studies providing insights into HIV-1 pathogenesis in infected Chinese are urgently needed to support the design and testing of an effective HIV-1 vaccine for this population. HIV-1-specific T cell responses were characterized in 32 HIV-1-infected individuals of Chinese origin and compared to 34 infected caucasians using 410 overlapping peptides spanning the entire HIV-1 clade B consensus sequence in an IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. All HIV-1 proteins were targeted with similar frequency in both populations and all study subjects recognized at least one overlapping peptide. HIV-1-specific T cell responses clustered in seven different regions of the HIV-1 genome in the Chinese cohort and in nine different regions in the caucasian cohort. The dominant HLA class I alleles expressed in the two populations differed significantly, and differences in epitope clustering pattern were shown to be influenced by differences in class I alleles that restrict immunodominant epitopes. These studies demonstrate that the clustering of HIV-1-specific T cell responses is influenced by the genetic HLA class I background in the study populations. The design and testing of candidate vaccines to fight the rapidly growing HIV-1 epidemic must therefore take the HLA genetics of the population into account as specific regions of the virus can be expected to be differentially targeted in ethnically diverse populations.

  17. Investigation of class 1 integrons in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical and microbiota isolates belonging to different phylogenetic groups in Recife, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Maria Silva Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The high prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is related to the ability of K. pneumoniae to acquire and disseminate exogenous genes associated with mobile elements, such as R plasmids, transposons and integrons. This study investigated the presence of class 1 integrons in clinical and microbiota isolates of K. pneumoniae belonging to different phylogenetic groups and correlated these results with the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the studied isolates. Methods Of the 51 isolates of K. pneumoniae selected for this study, 29 were from multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, and 22 were from children's microbiota. The susceptibility profile was determined using the disk diffusion method, and class 1 integrons were detected through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results The results showed that none of the 22 microbiota isolates carried class 1 integrons. Among the 29 clinical isolates, 19 (65.5% contained class 1 integrons, and resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was identified in 18 of these isolates (94.7%. Among the K. pneumoniae isolates with class 1 integrons, 47% belonged to the KpI phylogenetic group, and one isolate (14.3% carrying these genetic elements belonged to the KpIII group. Conclusions The wide variety of detected class 1 integrons supports the presence of high rates of antimicrobial resistance, genetic variability, and rapid dissemination of beta-lactamase genes among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates in recent years in hospitals in Recife-PE, Brazil. The findings of this study indicate that the surveillance of K. pneumoniae integrons in clinical isolates could be useful for monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the hospital environment.

  18. Effect on the Gastrointestinal Absorption of Drugs from Different Classes in the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, When Treating with Liraglutide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm-Erjefält, Monika; Ekblom, Marianne; Vouis, Jan; Zdravkovic, Milan; Lennernäs, Hans

    2015-11-02

    Like other GLP-1 receptor agonists used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, liraglutide delays gastric emptying. In this clinical absorption study, the primary objective was to investigate the effect of liraglutide (at steady state) on the rate and/or extent of gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of concomitantly orally taken drugs from three classes of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). To provide a general prediction on liraglutide drug-drug absorption interaction, single-dose pharmacokinetics of drugs representing BCS classes II (low solubility-high permeability; atorvastatin 40 mg and griseofulvin 500 mg), III (high solubility-low permeability; lisinopril 20 mg), and IV (low solubility-low permeability; digoxin 1 mg) were studied in healthy subjects at steady state of liraglutide 1.8 mg, or placebo, in a two-period crossover design. With liraglutide, the oral drugs atorvastatin, lisinopril, and digoxin showed delayed tmax (by ≤2 h) and did not meet the criterion for bioequivalence for Cmax (reduced Cmax by 27-38%); griseofulvin had similar tmax and 37% increased Cmax. Although the prespecified bioequivalence criterion was not met by all drugs, the overall plasma exposure (AUC) of griseofulvin, atorvastatin, lisinopril, and digoxin only exhibited minor changes and was not considered to be of clinical relevance.

  19. Migrants’ Social Class Structure and Regional Difference%流动人口社会阶层结构及地区差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜旻

    2013-01-01

      本文根据2011年国家人口计生委流动人口动态监测抽样调查资料,以流动人口职业分类和收入为基础,分析了当前流动人口的社会阶层结构状况。研究发现,当前流动人口的社会阶层结构是一个“金字塔”型结构,位于塔尖的人数极少,而处于底层的人数庞大,同时,流动人口各阶层的收入结构和消费结构分化明显。分地区来看,流动人口阶层分化显示出地域的不平衡性,经济不发达的地区,社会阶层结构相对简单;经济发达的地区,不仅社会阶层结构比较复杂,更接近现代社会阶层结构的特点,其收入分配结构也更趋于合理。%Based on the Migrants Survey data conducted by National Population and Family Planning Committee in 2011,this paper studies the migrants’ profession and income,and analyzes migrants’ social class structure. It’s showed that the shape of social class structure of migrants is similar as “pyramid”. The population quantity on the top of the structure is few,and the population at the bottom is very large. It also finds that the income structure and the consumption structure of each class are different. At the same time,social class structure stratification are unbalanced in different region. Compared to undeveloped region,developed region have more completed social class structure, and the social class structure have the feature of modern social class structure, and in those region the income distribution structure is more equitable.

  20. In vitro evaluation of marginal and internal adaptation after occlusal stressing of indirect class II composite restorations with different resinous bases

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Olsburgh, Steven; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2003-01-01

    Composite inlays are indicated for large cavities, which frequently extend cervically into dentin. The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro the marginal and internal adaptation of class II fine hybrid composite inlays (Herculite, Kerr) made with or without composite bases, having different physical properties. Freshly extracted human molars were used for this study. The base extended up to the cervical margins on both sides and was made from Revolution (Kerr), Tetric flow (Vivadent),...

  1. Outcome differences in participating and nonparticipating Hispanic students in supplemental instruction classes supporting Organic Chemistry I and II at New Mexico State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaher, Nina

    Lack of academic success by Hispanic students in higher education has caused university administrators to seek alternative programs to improve rates of retention and their academic success. Hispanic students are less likely than White students to complete advanced science classes, including chemistry (National Center for Education Statistics, 2006). With the shortage of an educated workforce, the nation is dependent on educating the fastest-growing ethnic/racial population. Of the 17,200 students enrolled in New Mexico State University (NMSU) in fall 2008, 40% were Hispanics, which makes the university a Hispanic-serving institution. Many programs at the university support Hispanic students, including Supplemental Instruction (SI). This study investigated whether participation in the SI program was associated with retention and better course performance among Hispanic students in Organic Chemistry courses at NMSU from 2001 through 2005. The study also examined gender differences among Hispanic students with respect to SI. The results revealed that participation in SI was, statistically, associated with retention of Hispanic students in both Organic Chemistry I and II classes and with fewer grades of D's and F's in Organic Chemistry I classes at NMSU during the mentioned semesters. The examination of gender differences revealed no significant difference; however, it was apparent that there were more female Hispanics enrolled in life sciences at NMSU compare to male Hispanics during the semesters of fall 2001 through spring 2005.This study was significant because it examined a method to retain Hispanic students in a Hispanic-serving Institution.

  2. Energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs of different sex classes in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Martins, Samara Rodrigues; da Silva, Ivonete Ferreira; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Silva, Tiago Santos; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements of non-descript breed hair lambs (NDB) reared under Brazilian semiarid conditions. Sixty animals from three sex classes (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 20 females) with an average initial body weight of 18.1 ± 0.4 kg and an average age of 5 months were used. The nutritional requirements were estimated using the comparative slaughter. The animals in the final slaughter group were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three sex classes and three feeding levels: ad libitum feeding (positive energy balance), 70% feed restriction (maintenance level), and 80% feed restriction (negative energy balance)). The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) did not differ between sex classes (P > 0.05) and it was 68 kcal/kg of metabolic empty body weight (EBW(0.75))/day (P  0.05). The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was estimated by NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.29 × EBW(0.75) × EBWG(0.86) for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The net protein requirement for weight gain (NPg) was estimated by NPg (g/day) = 224.45 × EBWG - 0.025 × RE for all sex classes (P < 0.05). The NEg increased and the NPg decreased with the increase in body weight of NDB lambs.

  3. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  4. A comparison of student performance in human development classes using three different modes of delivery: Online, face-to-face, and combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsow, Susan Christensen

    1999-11-01

    The problem. The dual purposes of this research were to determine if there is a difference in student performance in three Human Development classes when the modes of delivery are different and to analyze student perceptions of using Web-based learning as all or part of their course experience. Procedures. Data for this study were collected from three Human Development courses taught at Drake University. Grades from five essays, projects, and overall grades were used in the three classes and analyzed using a single factor analysis of variance to determine if there was a significant difference. Content analysis was used on the evaluation comments of the participants in the online and combined classes to determine their perceptions of Web-based learning. Findings. The single factor analysis of variance measuring student performance showed no significant difference among the online, face-to-face, and combined scores at the .05 level of significance, however, the difference was significant at the .06. The content analysis of the online and combined course showed the three major strengths of learning totally or partly online to be increased comfort in using the computer, the quality of the overall experience, and convenience in terms of increased access to educational opportunities. The barriers included lack of human interaction and access to the professor. Conclusions. The study indicates that Web-based learning is a viable option for postsecondary educational delivery in terms of student performance and learning. On the average, performance is at least as good as performance in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Improved performance, however, is contingent on adequate access to equipment, faculty skill in teaching using a new mode of delivery, and the personality of the student. The convenient access to educational opportunities and becoming more comfortable with technology are benefits that were important to these two groups. Web-based learning is not for everyone

  5. Gender differences in the relationship between school problems, school class context and psychological distress: results from the Young-HUNT 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Joakim D

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between shared school classroom environment and psychological distress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are gender differences in the clustering of psychological distress within school classes as well as to assess individual and contextual effects of school problems. Data were obtained from the Young-HUNT 3 study (2006-2008), a population study of adolescents attending school in the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. A total of 6,379 pupils were analysed using multilevel models. The results suggest that the amount of variation in psychological distress attributable to school class context was higher among girls (4.5%) compared to boys (1.0%). Furthermore, individual school problems were associated with psychological distress for both genders, although the effects were greater for girls. The effects of school class variables were limited for both genders, although gender composition was associated with higher levels of psychological distress among girls. This study suggests that researchers should account for possible gender differences when examining the association between classroom environment and psychological distress.

  6. The relationship between the radio core dominance parameter and the spectral index in different classes of extragalactic radio sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Jiang-He Yang; Jing Pan; Tong-Xu Hua

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have two major classes,namely radio loud AGNs and radio quiet AGNs.A small subset of the radio-loud AGNs is called blazars,which display extreme observational properties,such as rapid variability,high Iuminosity,high and variable polarization,and superluminal motion.All of those observational properties are probably due to a relativistic beaming effect with the jet pointing close to the line of sight.Observations suggest that the orientation can be expressed by a core-dominance parameter,R.The R,to some extent,is associated with the beaming effect.Blazars are believed to be unified with Fanaroff & Riley type I/Ⅱ (FRI/Ⅱ)radio galaxies.In this work,we collected relevant observations from the literature for a sample of 1223 AGNs including 77 BL Lacertae objects,495 quasars,460 galaxies,119 FRs and 72 unidentified sources,and calculated the core-dominance parameters and spectral indexes,discussed the relationship between the two parameters,and gave some discussions.Our analysis suggests that the core-dominance parameters in BL Lacertae objects are larger than those in quasars and galaxies,and the radio spectral indexes in BL Lacertae objects are lower than those in quasars and galaxies.We also found that the core-dominance parameter-spectral index correlation exists for a large sample presented in this work,which may come from a relativistic beaming effect.

  7. Evaluation of Gingival Microleakage in Class II Composite Restorations with Different Lining Techniques: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedavathi Bore Gowda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the microleakage in class II composite restorations without a liner/with resin modified glass ionomer and flowable composite liner. Method. Forty standardized MO cavities were prepared on human permanent mandibular molars extracted for periodontal reasons and then divided into 4 groups of ten specimens. The cavity preparations were etched, rinsed, blot dried, and light cured and Adper Single Bond 2 is applied. Group 1 is restored with Filtek P60 packable composite in 2 mm oblique increments. Group 2 is precure group where 1 mm Filtek Z350 flowable liner is applied and light cured for 20 sec. Group 3 is the same as Group 2, but the liner was cocured with packable composite. In Group 4, 1 mm RMGIC, Fuji Lining LC is applied and cured for 20 sec. All the teeth were restored as in Group 1. The specimens were coated with nail varnish leaving 1 mm around the restoration, subjected to thermocycling, basic fuchsin dye penetration, sectioned mesiodistally, and observed under a stereomicroscope. Results. The mean leakage scores of the individual study groups were Group 1 (33.40, Group 2 (7.85, Group 3 (16.40, and Group 4 (24.35. Group 1 without a liner showed maximum leakage. Flowable composite liner precured was the best.

  8. Diversity of natural self-derived ligands presented by different HLA class I molecules in transporter antigen processing-deficient cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lorente

    Full Text Available The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP translocates the cytosol-derived proteolytic peptides to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen where they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules. Non-functional TAP complexes and viral or tumoral blocking of these transporters leads to reduced HLA class I surface expression and a drastic change in the available peptide repertoire. Using mass spectrometry to analyze complex human leukocyte antigen HLA-bound peptide pools isolated from large numbers of TAP-deficient cells, we identified 334 TAP-independent ligands naturally presented by four different HLA-A, -B, and -C class I molecules with very different TAP dependency from the same cell line. The repertoire of TAP-independent peptides examined favored increased peptide lengths and a lack of strict binding motifs for all four HLA class I molecules studied. The TAP-independent peptidome arose from 182 parental proteins, the majority of which yielded one HLA ligand. In contrast, TAP-independent antigen processing of very few cellular proteins generated multiple HLA ligands. Comparison between TAP-independent peptidome and proteome of several subcellular locations suggests that the secretory vesicle-like organelles could be a relevant source of parental proteins for TAP-independent HLA ligands. Finally, a predominant endoproteolytic peptidase specificity for Arg/Lys or Leu/Phe residues in the P(1 position of the scissile bond was found for the TAP-independent ligands. These data draw a new and intricate picture of TAP-independent pathways.

  9. Qualitative characteristics of meat from cull cows of different genotypes and age class slaughter under different finishing systems: a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Rangel F; Mayer, Andrei R; Vaz, Marcos A B; Pötter, Luciana; Cattelam, Jonatas; Callegaro, Álisson M; Pizzuti, Luiz Angelo D; Brondani, Ivan L; Alves Filho, Dari C; Pacheco, Paulo S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by meta-analysis, the quality of the meat of the cows according to genotype, termination system and age class slaughter. During an online research were identified 15 articles with information related to meat quality of slaughtered cows. The data were grouped according of the genotype of cows being: zebu or continental defined, crossed zebu x british or zebu x continental; according to termination system: feedlot or grassland; according to age of slaughter, where: up to 4 years old (young), 4-8 years old (adult) or more than 8 years old (old). The meat of the continental crossbred cows was softer than the other genotypes, both panel of evaluators and by Shear. The meat of cows finished in feedlot showed higher marbling degree in relation to meat of females finished on grassland. The reduction of the slaughter age of cows improved the meat color. The cow's genotype affects the organoleptic aspects of meat while the finished system and slaughter age affects the sensory aspects of meat.

  10. Composição química da solução do solo nas diferentes classes de poro do solo Chemical composition of soil solution in different soil pore classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vincent Gloaguen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A composição química da solução do solo pode ser considerada indicadora da presença de nutrientes ou contaminantes no solo. Para analisar a variação dessa composição nos poros do solo, utilizou-se um sistema de extração sequencial da solução do solo em diferentes classes de diâmetro de poro. Colunas de PVC foram construídas e preenchidas com terra fina seca ao ar de um Cambissolo Háplico distrófico, e irrigadas com água destilada (T1, efluente de estação de tratamento de esgoto sanitário EETE (T2 e EETE + 1,2 g L-1 CaSO4 (T3, aplicando lâminas de 150 e 300 mm. Antes da irrigação e após cada lâmina, aplicaram-se na base de cada coluna os seguintes potenciais: 0, 13,3, 26,7, 40,0 e 53,3 kPa para extração e coleta da solução do solo nas faixas de poros: Ø > 76,2 µm, 44,6 44,6 m. Todos os dados foram ajustados significativamente ao modelo linear Y = a - b.log(X, onde Y é o atributo avaliado e X o diâmetro de poro do solo. Embora a concentração de NO3-na microporosidade supere o valor limite [NO3-]lim para água doce potável (Classe 1, a baixa concentração na macroporosidade (sempre inferior a [NO3-]lim/4 limita o risco de contaminação por lixiviação. Constatou-se também que a adição de gesso promove a redução da concentração de NO3-e de Na+ no solo.The chemistry of the soil solution can be regarded as an indicator of the presence of nutrients or contaminants in the soil. To evaluate the variation of this chemical composition in the soil pores, a sequential system of extraction of the soil solution from the different soil pore classes was used. Soil columns were constructed and filled with air-dried fine soil of a Dystrophic Ultisol, and irrigated with: distilled water (T1, treated wastewater (T2 and treated wastewater + 1.2 g L-1 CaSO4 (T3 at irrigation levels of 150 and 300 mm, added progressively (without leaching. Before and after irrigation the soil solution was extracted by applying successive

  11. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in Class II restorations using open vs. closed centripetal build-up techniques with different lining materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Sawani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of microleakage is important for assessing the success of new restorative materials and methods. Aim and Objectives: Comparative evaluation of microleakage in Class II restorations using open vs. closed centripetal build-up techniques with different lining materials. Materials and Methods: Standardized mesi-occlusal (MO and distoocclusal (DO Class II tooth preparations were preparedon 53 molars and samples were randomly divided into six experimental groups and one control group for restorations. Group 1: Open-Sandwich technique (OST with flowable composite at the gingival seat. Group 2: OST with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC at the gingival seat. Group 3: Closed-Sandwich technique (CST with flowable composite at the pulpal floor and axial wall. Group 4: CST with RMGIC at the pulpal floor and axial wall. Group 5: OST with flowable composite at the pulpal floor, axial wall, and gingival seat. Group 6: OST with RMGIC at the pulpal floor, axial wall, and gingival seat. Group 7: Control - no lining material, centripetal technique only. After restorations and thermocycling, apices were sealed and samples were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye. Sectioning was followed by stereomicroscopic evaluation. Results: Results were analyzed using Post Hoc Bonferroni test (statistics is not a form of tabulation. Cervical scores of control were more than the exprimental groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Class II composite restorations with centripetal build-up alone or when placed with CST reduces the cervical microleakage when compared to OST.

  12. Evaluation of effect of ultrasonic scaling on surface roughness of four different tooth-colored class V restorations: An in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Pratima R.; Badole, Gautam P.; Khode, Rajiv T.; Morey, Elakshi S.; Singare, Pooja G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study evaluated the effect of ultrasonic scaling on surface roughness of four different tooth-colored class V restorations. Materials and Methods: Out of 100 human extracted teeth, 20 were randomly selected for each group, marked with the outline of class V cavity. Class V cavities were prepared on facial surface of teeth of all groups except control group. These cavities were then restored with GC 2, GC 9, GC 2 LC, and Filtek Z 250 XT. All the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 1 month. Initial surface roughness values (Ra in μm) of restorations were evaluated with the surface roughness tester. Ultrasonic instrumentation was then carried out for 60 s on the restoration surface and final roughness values were evaluated. Data were analyzed with Paired t-test, One-way ANOVA, Tukey's test. Results: Mean Pre-instrumentation surface roughness was highest with GC 2, whereas it was least in case of Filtek Z 250 XT. Mean post-instrumentation surface roughness was highest with GC 2, whereas it is least in case of Filtek Z 250 XT. Conclusion: GC 2 LC showed highest and Filtek Z 250 XT showed least susceptibility to ultrasonic scaling. PMID:25298651

  13. The comparison of 7 different classes (4th grade), from 7 different countries (fitness tests in a comenius project - ted´s project)

    OpenAIRE

    José Pedro Amoroso

    2015-01-01

    9 testswere performed to check whether there are statistically significant differences among the seven countries studied. The countries with the best results are those where children are more autonomous, with a more active lifestyle. In terms of anthropometry, we did not get results with great differences. But we have learned, the countries who have more hour of PE during the year, have best results.

  14. Perfectly matched layer stability in 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulation of electroacoustic wave propagation in piezoelectric crystals with different symmetry class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Omar; Peña, Néstor; Ney, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Perfectly matched layer stability in 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulations is demonstrated for two piezoelectric crystals: barium sodium niobate and bismuth germanate. Stability is achieved by adapting the discretization grid to meet a central-difference scheme. Stability is demonstrated by showing that the total energy of the piezoelectric system remains constant in the steady state.

  15. Study of structure of technical and tactical activity of high class hockey players of different line by the method of main component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Mikhnov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the factor structure of technical and tactical actions of hockey players of high qualification of different playing line of business. Material and methods: for the leadthrough of analysis of competition activity information of technical and tactical actions of hockey players was used NHL. Competition activity was in general complication analysed more than 800 hockey players of different line of business. Methods were used: pedagogical supervisions and analysis of competition activity, analysis of data of the special scientific-methodical literature, an analysis of data is the Internet, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: information is presented in relation to the specific of competition activity of hockey players of high class of different line of business in a match. The factor structure of technical and tactical activity of hockey players, executing in the command of function of extreme forward, central forward, defender and goalkeeper is set. for the players of line of attack most meaningfulness was had factors, related to the attack of gate of competitor, for defenders are power single combats, defense of gate and selection of puck, for a goalkeeper the most meaningful factor is characterized by efficiency of reflection of throws on a gate. Conclusions: the exposed features are in realization of technical and tactical actions the hockey players of high class of different playing line of business, it is necessary certainly to take into account in the process of estimation and control.

  16. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  17. Gender differences in the relationship of partner's social class to behavioural risk factors and social support in the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, M; Martikainen, P; Shipley, M; Marmot, M

    2004-11-01

    In most countries health inequality in women appears to be greater when their socio-economic position is measured according to the occupation of male partners or spouses than the women's own occupations. Very few studies show social gradients in men's health according to the occupation of their female partners. This paper aims to explore the reasons for the differences in social inequality in cardiovascular disease between men and women by analysing the associations between own or spouses (or partners) socio-economic position and a set of risk factors for prevalent chronic diseases. Study participants were married or cohabiting London based civil servants included in the Whitehall II study. Socio-economic position of study participants was measured according to civil service grade; socio-economic position of the spouses and partners according to the Registrar General's social class schema. Risk factors were smoking, diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, and measures of social support. In no case was risk factor exposure more affected by the socio-economic position of a female partner than that of a male study participant. Wives' social class membership made no difference at all to the likelihood that male Whitehall participants were smokers, or took little exercise. Female participants' exercise and particularly smoking habit was, in contrast, related to their spouse's social class independently of their own grade of employment. Diet quality was affected equally by the socio-economic position of both male and female partners. Unlike the behavioural risk factors, the degree of social support reported by women participants was in general not strongly negatively affected by their husband or partner being in a less advantaged social class. However, non-employment in the husband or partner was associated with relatively lower levels of positive, and higher negative social support, while men with non-working wives or partners were unaffected. Studying gender differences

  18. Prey diversity is affected by climate and differs between age classes in the Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Geertsma, Marten; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    2012-01-01

    When breeding, food availability is essential for optimal reproductive output and is potentially one of the main factors limiting breeding success, especially in single brooded long-distance migratory birds. In this study, we examined the diet (as a measure of prey availability) of two Red...... on a larger variety of species in colder summers. Adults had a more diverse diet and generally fed on smaller prey items than did young birds. Thus, age- and environment-related differences must be taken into account when describing the diet of theRed-backed Shrike.Direct nest observations produced different...... results for diet composition than did nest and pellet samples, underlining the importance of using different methods in diet assessments. Detailed knowledge on limiting factors on the breeding grounds, such as food availability, is crucial for mitigating population declines of vulnerable species...

  19. The comparison of 7 different classes (4th grade, from 7 different countries (fitness tests in a comenius project - ted´s project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Amoroso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 9 testswere performed to check whether there are statistically significant differences among the seven countries studied. The countries with the best results are those where children are more autonomous, with a more active lifestyle. In terms of anthropometry, we did not get results with great differences. But we have learned, the countries who have more hour of PE during the year, have best results.

  20. Fibras poliméricas como aditivos de secagem em diferentes classes de concretos refratários Polymeric fibers as drying additives for different classes of refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Salomão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Concretos refratários apresentam grande variedade de métodos de instalação, definidos principalmente pelas características da aplicação e do projeto de engenharia da microestrutura do material. Entre as classes mais importantes, destacam-se os autoescoantes, aplicados sem cisalhamento externo; os bombeáveis, transportados por tubulações, e os vibráveis. Diferenciando-se principalmente pelas mudanças de distribuição de tamanho de partículas, essas classes apresentam grande variedade de propriedades como permeabilidade, módulo de ruptura a quente e resistência à fluência, descrita na literatura. Por também apresentarem diferentes comportamentos de secagem, é razoável supor que tenham necessidades de aditivos de secagem distintas. Para verificar essa hipótese, foram estudadas três composições de concretos refratários formulados a partir do modelo de empacotamento de partículas de Andreasen: bombeável (q=0,21, autoescoante (q=0,26 e vibrável (q=0,31. Fibras poliméricas de diferentes geometrias foram adicionadas a essas composições e seu efeito como aditivo de secagem foi avaliado. Verificou-se que as fibras atuaram favoravelmente em todas as formulações, aumentando significativamente sua velocidade de secagem, com efeitos mais marcantes quanto maior o teor de finos no concreto.Refractory castables present a broad variety of placing methods, defined mainly by the desired application and by the material microstructural characteristics. Among the most important, it can be mentioned the self-flowing, which are cast without external shearing; the pumpable, conveyed through metallic pipes, and the vibrated. These classes of castables present a great range of properties as permeability, hot modulus of rupture and creep resistance. As they also present particularities in their drying behavior, it is reasonable to consider that they would also have different needs of drying additives. In order to verify this hypothesis

  1. Gender Differences in Solving Mathematics Problems among Two-Year College Students in a Developmental Algebra Class and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann K.

    A study was conducted at the University of Maine at Orono (UMO) to examine gender differences with respect to mathematical problem-solving ability, visual spatial ability, abstract reasoning ability, field independence/dependence, independent learning style, and developmental problem-solving ability (i.e., formal reasoning ability). Subjects…

  2. Social Class Differences in Parent Educational Expectations: The Relationship between Parents' Social Status and Their Expectations for Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhua

    2007-01-01

    To achieve the overall goals and purposes of education is closely related to the living environments of students. Different family backgrounds will put children into a situation where they face unfair competition. According to a survey conducted in China's Urumqi and Changchun about parents' awareness of educating their children, this paper will…

  3. Variability in permeability and integrity of cell membrane and depletion of food reserves in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds from trees of differ-ent age classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Kumar; Dhruv Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conduc-tivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids,α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 µS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 µS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 µS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids andα-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration in-creased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respec-tively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity ofα- tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of stor-age). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancid-ity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deteriora-tion of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concen-trations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage dura-tion increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemi-cals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots.

  4. A aprendizagem das diferenças sociais: classe, gênero e corpo em uma escola para meninas Learning social differences: class, gender and body in a school for girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Serroni Perosa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a relação entre educação e estratificação social por meio do estudo de uma escola confessional feminina privada, voltada para atender famílias de alta renda na cidade de São Paulo, por volta de 1960. Interroga-se as modalidades de participação da escola na produção de disposições corporais e habilidades sociais específicas, evidenciando-se de que maneira processos de escolarização podem estar na base da aprendizagem de diferenças de classe e gênero. Os procedimentos metodológicos incluíram questionários, entrevistas com ex-alunas, diretoras e ex-professoras, análise de fotografias dos ambientes e do cotidiano escolar. Os resultados sugerem que o exame das modalidades de escolarização é particularmente eficaz para a compreensão dos processos de diferenciação social nas sociedades contemporâneas.This article discusses the relation between education and social stratification by means of a confessional private school for girls, targeting high-income families in the city of São Paulo circa 1960. The investigation focuses on the school's modalities of participation in the production of body dispositions and specific social skills, in an attempt to demonstrate how schooling methods may be the basis for learning class and gender differences. Methodological procedures included questionnaires, interviews with ex-students, principals and ex-teachers, and the analysis of photographs of the school's premises and routine. The results suggest that examining schooling modalities is particularly efficacious to the understanding of social differentiation processes in contemporary societies.

  5. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first birth and hope to have a vaginal delivery this time, there is a class for that, too. Choose ... t covered in your birthing class, it’s a good idea to take an individual class on it, especially if you are a first-time mother. The health benefits of breastfeeding your baby ...

  6. Evaluation of periodontal healing in class Ⅱ furcation defects following guided tissue regeneration with two different types of polylactic acid membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deniz Cetiner; Berrin (U)nsal; Ates Parlar; Elif Gültekin; Bülent Kurtis

    2004-01-01

    Background Guided tissue regeneration procedures provide predictable reconstruction of periodontal tissues in the treatment of furcation involvements in animals and huamns. This study was to compare long-term effectiveness of two different types of polylactic acid (PLA) membranes on periodontal regeneration in surgically created class Ⅱ furcation defects in dogs. Methods Full thickness mucoperiosteal flap was raised on the buccal aspects of the experimental teeth and class Ⅱ furcation defects having 5 mm vertical dimensions were created on mandibular premolar Ⅲ and IV on each quadrant. The exposed root sudaces were thoroughly planed and PLA membranes were placed over the experimental defects on both sites. One site received liquid polymer membrane (LPM), and resorbable periodontal mesh (RPM) membranes were applied to the other site. The animals were sacrificed at 7 months after surgery and the specimens were processed for histological evaluation. Results The average length of new attachment formed on the treated roots in both groups ranged from 3. 02mm to 4.5mm. Complete bone filling was observed at the furcation sites. No statistically significant differences were found between two membranes in any of the parameters (P>0. 05). Conclusion This study demonstrates favorable regenerative outcomes by the use of two different types of PLA membranes that could be used as alternatives for guided tissue regeneration (GTR).

  7. Acute Effects of Different Formats of Small-Sided and Conditioned Handball Games on Heart Rate Responses in Female Students During PE Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Manuel Clemente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of different formats (2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side on heart rate responses of female students during small-sided and conditioned handball games. The heart rate responses were measured using heart rate monitors during physical education classes. Eight female students participated in the study (15 ± 0.0 years. The one-way ANOVA showed statistical differences with moderate effect between the three different formats (F(2, 1674 = 86.538; p-value ˂ 0.001;  = 0.094; Power = 1.0. The results showed that smaller formats (2-a-side and 3-a-side increased the heart rate responses of female students during small-sided and conditioned handball games during physical education (PE classes. The results also suggested that 2-a-side games can be used for anaerobic workouts and the 3-a-side and 4-a-side games can be better used to reach lactate-threshold and for aerobic workouts of high intensity.

  8. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael G.; Floría, Luis Mario; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

  9. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  10. New class of scorpionate: tris(tetrazolyl)-iron complex and its different coordination modes for alkali metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ka Hyun; Lee, Kang Mun; Go, Min Jeong; Choi, Sung Ho; Park, Hyoung-Ryun; Kim, Youngjo; Lee, Junseong

    2014-08-18

    We report formation of a new metallascorpionate ligand, [FeL3](3-) (IPtz), containing a Fe core and three 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole (LH2) ligands. It features two different binding sites, oxygen and nitrogen triangles, which consist of three oxygen or nitrogen donors from tetrazole. The binding affinities of the complex for three alkali metal ions were studied using UV spectrophotometry titrations. All three alkali metal ions show high affinities and binding constants (>3 × 10(6) M(-1)), based on the 1:1 binding isotherms to IPtz. The coordination modes of the alkali metals and IPtz in the solid were studied using X-ray crystallography; two different electron-donor sites show different coordination numbers for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) ions. The oxygen triangles have the κ(2) coordination mode with Li(+) and κ(3) coordination mode with Na(+) and K(+) ions, whereas the nitrogen triangles show κ(3) coordination with K(+) only. The different binding affinities of IPtz in the solid were manipulated using multiple metal precursors. A Fe-K-Zn trimetallic complex was constructed by assembly of an IPtz ligand, K, and Zn precursors and characterized using X-ray crystallography. Oxygen donors are coordinated with the K ion via the κ(3) coordination mode, and nitrogen donors are coordinated with Zn metal by κ(3) coordination. The solid-state structure was confirmed to be a honeycomb coordination polymer with a one-dimensional infinite metallic array, i.e., -(K-K-Fe-Zn-Fe-K)n-.

  11. Medication beliefs, treatment complexity, and non-adherence to different drug classes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sieta T; Keers, Joost C; Visser, Rosalie; de Zeeuw, Dick; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2014-02-01

    To assess the relationship of patients' medication beliefs and treatment complexity with unintentional and intentional non-adherence for three therapeutic groups commonly used by patients with type 2 diabetes. Survey data about adherence (Medication Adherence Report Scale) and beliefs about medicines (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire) were combined with prescription data from the Groningen Initiative to ANalyse Type 2 diabetes Treatment (GIANTT) database. Patients were classified as being adherent, mainly unintentional non-adherent, or partly intentional non-adherent per therapeutic group (glucose-, blood pressure-, and lipid-lowering drugs). Treatment complexity was measured using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index, which includes the dosage form, dosing frequency and additional directions of taking the drug. Analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Of 257 contacted patients, 133 (52%) returned the questionnaire. The patients had a mean age of 66years and 50% were females. Necessity beliefs were not significantly different between the adherers, mainly unintentional non-adherers, and partly intentional non-adherers (differences smaller than 5 points on a scale from 5 to 25). For blood pressure-lowering drugs, patients reporting intentional non-adherence had higher concern beliefs than adherers (8 point difference, P=0.01). Treatment complexity scores were lower for adherers but similar for mainly unintentional and partly intentional non-adherers to glucose- and blood pressure-lowering drugs. Treatment complexity was related to non-adherence in general. Beliefs about necessity were not strongly associated with non-adherence, while patients' concern beliefs may be associated with intentional non-adherence. However, the role of these determinants differs per therapeutic group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in Weight Loss Across Different BMI Classes:A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Interventions with Diet and Exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Veldwijk, J.; Teixeira, P.J.; Sacks, F.M.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions are effective for weight loss and are recommended for persons with a body mass index (BMI) of 25–40 kg m−2. However, this group is very heterogeneous, which could influence outcomes from lifestyle interventions. Purpose In this systematic review, differences in 1-y

  13. Differences in weight loss across different BMI classes: A meta-analysis of the effects of interventions with diet and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Veldwijk, J.; Teixeira, P.J.; Sacks, F.M.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions are effective for weight loss and are recommended for persons with a body mass index (BMI) of 25–40 kg m−2. However, this group is very heterogeneous, which could influence outcomes from lifestyle interventions. Purpose In this systematic review, differences in 1-y

  14. Rough endoplasmic reticulum trafficking errors by different classes of mutant dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) cause dominant negative effects in both dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia by entrapping normal DSPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Marschall, Zofia; Mok, Seeun; Phillips, Matthew D; McKnight, Dianalee A; Fisher, Larry W

    2012-06-01

    Families with nonsyndromic dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and the milder, dentin dysplasia (DD), have mutations in one allele of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene. Because loss of a single Dspp allele in mice (and likely, humans) causes no dental phenotype, the mechanism(s) underling the dominant negative effects were investigated. DSPP mutations occur in three classes. (The first class, the mid-leader missense mutation, Y6D, was not investigated in this report.) All other 5′ mutations of DSPP result in changes/loss in the first three amino acids (isoleucine-proline-valine [IPV]) of mature DSPP or, for the A15V missense mutation, some retention of the hydrophobic leader sequence. All of this second class of mutations caused mutant DSPP to be retained in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of transfected HEK293 cells. Trafficking out of the rER by coexpressed normal DSPP was reduced in a dose-responsive manner, probably due to formation of Ca2+-dependent complexes with the retained mutant DSPP. IPV-like sequences begin many secreted Ca2+-binding proteins, and changing the third amino acid to the charged aspartate (D) in three other acidic proteins also caused increased rER accumulation. Both the leader-retaining A15V and the long string of hydrophobic amino acids resulting from all known frameshift mutations within the 3′-encoded Ca2+-binding repeat domain (third class of mutations) caused retention by association of the mutant proteins with rER membranes. More 5′ frameshift mutations result in longer mutant hydrophobic domains, but the milder phenotype, DD, probably due to lower effectiveness of the remaining, shorter Ca2+-binding domain in capturing normal DSPP protein within the rER. This study presents evidence of a shared underlying mechanism of capturing of normal DSPP by two different classes of DSPP mutations and offers an explanation for the mild (DD-II) versus severe (DGI-II and III) nonsyndromic dentin phenotypes. Evidence is also

  15. Limited segregation of different types of sound localization information among classes of units in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Steven M; Young, Eric D

    2005-08-17

    The auditory system uses three cues to decode sound location: interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and spectral notches (SNs). Initial processing of these cues is done in separate brainstem nuclei, with ITDs in the medial superior olive, ILDs in the lateral superior olive, and SNs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. This work addresses the nature of the convergence of localization information in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Ramachandran et al. (1999) argued that ICC neurons of types V, I, and O, respectively, receive their predominant inputs from ITD-, ILD-, and SN-sensitive brainstem nuclei, suggesting that these ICC response types should be differentially sensitive to localization cues. Here, single-unit responses to simultaneous manipulation of pairs of localization cues were recorded, and the mutual information between discharge rate and individual cues was quantified. Although rate responses to cue variation were generally consistent with those expected from the hypothesized anatomical connections, the differences in information were not as large as expected. Type I units provide the most information, especially about SNs in the physiologically useful range. Type I and O units provide information about ILDs, even at low frequencies at which actual ILDs are very small. ITD information is provided by a subset of all low-frequency neurons. Type V neurons provide information mainly about ITDs and the average binaural intensity. These results are the first to quantify the relative representation of cues in terms of information and suggest a variety of degrees of cue integration in the ICC.

  16. The Analytical Form of the Dispersion Equation of Elastic Waves in Periodically Inhomogeneous Medium of Different Classes of Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlybek A. Ispulov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of thermoelastic wave propagation in elastic media is bound to have much influence in the fields of material science, geophysics, seismology, and so on. The heat conduction equations and bound equations of motions differ by the difficulty level and presence of many physical and mechanical parameters in them. Therefore thermoelasticity is being extensively studied and developed. In this paper by using analytical matrizant method set of equation of motions in elastic media are reduced to equivalent set of first-order differential equations. Moreover, for given set of equations, the structure of fundamental solutions for the general case has been derived and also dispersion relations are obtained.

  17. Cephalometric evaluation of the effects of the Twin Block appliance in subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion amongst different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Khoja

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the cephalometric changes in skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue variables induced by Clark's Twin Block (CTB in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and to compare these changes in different cervical vertebral maturation stages. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment/observation lateral cephalograms of 53 Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and 60 controls were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes. Skeletal maturity was assessed according to cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation mean changes and differences (T2-T1 were compared by means of Wilcoxon sign rank and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between different cervical stages were performed by means of Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (p ≤ 0.05 . Results: When compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in ANB angle (p < 0.001, which was due to a change in SNB angle in CS-2 and CS-3 (p < 0.001, and in SNA (p < 0.001 and SNB (p = 0.016 angles in the CS-4 group. There was significant increase in the GoGn-SN angle in CS-2 (p = 0.007 and CS-4 (p = 0.024, and increase in Co-Gn and Go-Gn amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05. There was significant decrease in U1-SN and increase in IMPA amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05. There was significant retraction of the upper lip in CS-3 (p = 0.001, protrusion of the lower lip in CS-2 (p = 0.005, increase in nasolabial angle in CS-4 (p = 0.006 and Z-angle in CS-3 (p = 0.016, reduction in H-angle in CS-2 (p = 0.013 and CS-3 (p = 0.002 groups. When pre- and post-treatment mean differences were compared between different cervical stages, significant differences were found for SNA, SNB and UI-SN angles and overjet. . Conclusions: The Twin-Block along with the normal craniofacial growth improves facial esthetics in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion by changes in underlying skeletal and

  18. Natural product proteomining, a quantitative proteomics platform, allows rapid discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters for different classes of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbens, Jacob; Zhu, Hua; Girard, Geneviève; Song, Lijiang; Florea, Bogdan I; Aston, Philip; Ichinose, Koji; Filippov, Dmitri V; Choi, Young H; Overkleeft, Herman S; Challis, Gregory L; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-06-19

    Information on gene clusters for natural product biosynthesis is accumulating rapidly because of the current boom of available genome sequencing data. However, linking a natural product to a specific gene cluster remains challenging. Here, we present a widely applicable strategy for the identification of gene clusters for specific natural products, which we name natural product proteomining. The method is based on using fluctuating growth conditions that ensure differential biosynthesis of the bioactivity of interest. Subsequent combination of metabolomics and quantitative proteomics establishes correlations between abundance of natural products and concomitant changes in the protein pool, which allows identification of the relevant biosynthetic gene cluster. We used this approach to elucidate gene clusters for different natural products in Bacillus and Streptomyces, including a novel juglomycin-type antibiotic. Natural product proteomining does not require prior knowledge of the gene cluster or secondary metabolite and therefore represents a general strategy for identification of all types of gene clusters.

  19. No difference in the parental origin of susceptibility HLA class II haplotypes among Norwegian patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undlien, D.E.; Akselsen, H.E.; Thorsby, E. [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease affecting genetically susceptible individuals. A major part of the genetic risk is encoded by HLA class II genes. Strong susceptibility is conferred by the DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*0302 (hereafter called {open_quotes}DR4-DQ8{close_quotes}) and the DRBI*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (hereafter called {open_quotes}DR3-DQ2{close_quotes}) haplotypes, particularly when they occur together. In an interesting publication it suggests that IDDM patients inherit DR4 from their fathers and DR3 from their mothers more often than vice versa. This has also been suggested elsewhere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain this observation, such as parental imprinting, fetal loss, and maternal effect associated with the presence of the DR3 antigen in the mother. Several studies have shown that children of fathers with IDDM have a higher risk of IDDM than do children of mothers with IDDM. If there is an effect of the parental origin of HLA class II-encoded IDDM susceptibility, this could potentially explain the difference. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Sesamin modulation of lipid class and fatty acid profile in early juvenile teleost, Lates calcarifer, fed different dietary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Carter, Chris G; Nichols, Peter D

    2012-10-15

    Sesamin, a major sesame seed lignan, has diverse biological functions including the modulation of molecular actions in lipid metabolic pathways and reducing cholesterol levels. Vertebrates have different capacities to biosynthesize long-chain PUFA from dietary precursors and sesamin can enhance the biosynthesis of ALA to EPA and DHA in marine teleost. Early juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer, were fed for two weeks on diets rich in ALA or SDA derived from linseed or Echium plantagineum, respectively. Both diets contained phytosterols and less cholesterol compared with a standard fish oil-based diet. The growth rates were reduced in the animals receiving sesamin regardless of the dietary oil. However, the relative levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in total lipid, but not the phospholipid, increased in the whole body by up to 25% in animals fed on sesamin with ALA or SDA. Sesamin reduced the relative levels of triacylglycerols and increased polar lipid, and did not affect the relative composition of phospholipid subclasses or sterols. Sesamin is a potent modulator for LC-PUFA biosynthesis in animals, but probably will have more effective impact at advanced ages. By modulating certain lipid metabolic pathways, sesamin has probably disrupted the body growth and development of organs and tissues in early juvenile barramundi.

  1. 浅析中西方课堂文化差异%Class Culture Differences between China and Western World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕊

    2015-01-01

    本文从课堂文化的内涵入手,通过对比、分析中西方课堂文化的差异及形成原因,试图加深中国师生对中西方课堂文化的认识和了解,进而缓解中西方课堂文化冲突,克服中国传统文化教育的弊病,对于西方的课堂文化,我们应该秉承取其精华,弃其糟粕的精神,构建中国特色的课堂文化.%Taking the classroom culture connotation as the breakthrough,this paper,through comparison and analysis of the Western classroom cultural differences and the reasons,tries to deepen Chinese teachers and students'aware-ness and understanding of classroom culture in the west,and to alleviate the classroom culture conflict between Chi-na and the west world,overcome the disadvantages of Chinese traditional culture and education. For the classroom culture of the west,we should uphold the essence,abandon its dregs of spirit,and build a classroom culture with Chinese characteristics.

  2. Comparison of different LIDT testing protocols for PW and multi-PW class high-reflectivity coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durák, Michal; Kramer, Daniel; Velpula, Praveen K.; Meadows, Alexander R.; Cupal, Josef; Rus, Bedrich

    2016-12-01

    Development of state-of-the-art high-power laser systems requires accurate information about the damage resistance of critical optical components. Since damage threshold fluence decreases significantly with decreasing pulse length, highpower systems based on chirped-pulse amplification are usually limited by the damage threshold of the components utilized for the final pulse compression and transport of the compressed beams. Sub-picosecond laser damage is a complex process involving various nonlinear photoionization and relaxation mechanisms, and no current theory can reliably predict damage threshold values for arbitrary combinations of laser parameters, optical coating properties, and ambient conditions. To evaluate the damage resistance of candidate high-reflectivity coatings for the distribution of compressed PW and multi-PW pulses within experimental areas of the ELI beamlines facility, a series of laser damage tests in high vacuum were conducted. In this work, we present threshold values for high-reflectance (HR) dielectric coatings tested according to different protocols in conditions specific to their operation. We compare results acquired using S-on-1, R-on-1, and Raster Scan routines for several samples and discuss their accuracy.

  3. Vitamin E supplementation on biochemical changes observed in agricultural field workers exposed to different classes of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, A; Sethupathy, S

    2001-07-01

    A total of 41 healthy male pesticide sprayers exposed to different clases of pesticides for 3-5 years were compared with 21 controls matched for age and economic status with respect to free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, cholesterol, lipoprotein status and haematological profile. Plasma lipid peroxidation was estimated in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced. Significant increase in TBARS was observed in sprayers population when compared with control subjects and the level of TBARS increased with increase in the duration of exposure. The levels of antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) were significantly depleted, whereas those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were remarkably increased than control population. Significant reduction in total cholesetrol, alteration in lipoprotein fractions and nonsignificant changes in hematological parameters were observed. These results suggested that exposure to pesticidal residual drift augments the free radical generation, and lipid peroxidation. Decline in non-enzymatic antioxidant and elevation of enzymatic antioxidant were observed. Supplementation of α-tocopherol for 45 days resulted in the partial restoration of these biochemical changes produced by pesticides.

  4. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoet Peter H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8 years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6 years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01 and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009 than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037 for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects.

  5. Learner differences and learning outcomes in an introductory biochemistry class: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach.

  6. PREDICTING OF RISKS OF GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH DIFFERENT CLASSES OF HERBICIDES IN SOIL IN EASTERN EUROPE CLIMATE CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshun, M; Dema, O; Kucherenko, O; Korshun, O; Garkavyi, S; Pelio, I; Antonenko, A; Velikaia, N

    2016-11-01

    Application of pesticides in modern agriculture is a powerful permanent risk factor for public health and the natural environment. The aim of the study was a comparative hygienic assessment of the danger of contamination of ground and surface water sources with most widely used herbicides of different chemical classes (sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pirimidinilkarboksilovye compounds semicarbazones). Field hygienic experiments for studying of the residues dynamics of studied herbicides concentration in agrocenosis objects were made by us in different types of soils: chernozem, sod-podzolic, podzolized forest. Then the half-life periods (DT50) of the substances in the soil were calculated. It was found that according to GUS index there is a high probability of leaching into groundwater of sulfonylureas and imidazolinones; according to LEACH index all investigated substances have a high risk of run-off into groundwater and surface water.

  7. A Class of Multiresponsive Colorimetric and Fluorescent pH Probes via Three Different Reaction Mechanisms of Salen Complexes: A Selective and Accurate pH Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinghui; Gou, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Shen, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiangge; Xiang, Haifeng

    2016-09-19

    We report a class of multiresponsive colorimetric and fluorescent pH probes based on three different reaction mechanisms including cation exchange, protonation, and hydrolysis reaction of K(I), Ca(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Al(III), and Pd(II) Salen complexes. Compared with traditional pure organic pH probes, these complex-based pH probes exhibited a much better selectivity due to the shielding function of the filled-in metal ion in the complex. Their pH sensing performances were affected by the ligand structure and the central metal ion. This work is the first report of "off-on-on'-off" colorimetric and fluorescent pH probes that possess three different reaction mechanisms and should inspire the design of multiple-responsive probes for important analytes in biological systems.

  8. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: parte 3 (Crescimento médio de CF-Po Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: part 3 (Mean growth of CF-Po

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio de CF-Po nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III. METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 pacientes Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. A medida linear CF-Po foi feita manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. A análise de variância de ANOVA foi aplicada. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido mostrou-se significativamente desfavorável à correção de Classe III mandibular no gênero masculino; com tendência desfavorável à Classe II mandibular e crescimento ântero-posterior favorável na Classe I. O neutrovertido mostrou-se significativamente favorável à correção de Classe III mandibular em ambos os gêneros; com tendência favorável à correção de Classe II mandibular e ao crescimento ântero-posterior na Classe I. O provertido mostrou-se significativamente desfavorável à correção de Classe III em ambos os gêneros e favorável na Classe II mandibular e com tendência favorável de crescimento ântero-posterior na Classe I, principalmente no gênero masculino.AIM: This retrospective study assessed the cranial base growth and development in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients

  9. Firing patterns and functional roles of different classes of spinal afferents in rectal nerves during colonic migrating motor complexes in mouse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Kyloh, Melinda; Brookes, Simon J; Nicholas, Sarah J; Spencer, Nick J

    2012-08-01

    The functional role of the different classes of visceral afferents that innervate the large intestine is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range rectal afferents play an important role in the detection and transmission of visceral pain induced by noxious colorectal distension in mice. However, it is not clear which classes of spinal afferents are activated during naturally occurring colonic motor patterns or during intense contractions of the gut smooth muscle. We developed an in vitro colorectum preparation to test how the major classes of rectal afferents are activated during spontaneous colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) or pharmacologically induced contraction. During CMMCs, circular muscle contractions increased firing in low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range muscular afferents and muscular-mucosal afferents, which generated a mean firing rate of 1.53 ± 0.23 Hz (n = 8) under isotonic conditions and 2.52 ± 0.36 Hz (n = 17) under isometric conditions. These low-threshold rectal afferents were reliably activated by low levels of circumferential stretch induced by increases in length (1-2 mm) or load (1-3 g). In a small proportion of cases (5 of 34 units), some low-threshold muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents decreased their firing rate during the peak of the CMMC contractions. High-threshold afferents were never activated during spontaneous CMMC contractions or tonic contractions induced by bethanechol (100 μM). High-threshold rectal afferents were only activated by intense levels of circumferential stretch (10-20 g). These results show that, in the rectal nerves of mice, low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents are excited during contraction of the circular muscle that occurs during spontaneous CMMCs. No activation of high-threshold rectal afferents was detected during CMMCs or intense contractile activity in naïve mouse colorectum.

  10. The influence of different placement techniques on the microtensile bond strength of low-shrink silorane composite bonded to Class I cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, J S; Rolla, Juliana Nunes; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Monteiro, Sylvio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a low-shrink silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane) and a methacrylate-based composite (Filtek Z250) to the bottom dentin of a Class I cavity using different placement techniques. Twelve third molars were used. Standard, box-type Class I cavities (6.0 x 4.0 x 2.5 mm) were prepared at the occlusal crown center, with the pulpal floor ending approximately at the midcoronal dentin. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups, according to each placement technique: ZI--Filtek Z250 placed incrementally; ZB--Filtek Z250 placed in bulk; SI--Filtek Silorane placed incrementally; and SB--Filtek Silorane placed in bulk. Each restored third molar was subjected to microtensile bond testing after 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. After storage, each molar was longitudinally sectioned in both axes to obtain rectangular sticks with an approximate 0.49 mm2 cross-sectional area. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey post hoc test (P = 0.05). After debonding, the failure modes were analyzed using a stereomicroscope. The ZI group (72.6 MPa) showed the highest µTBS, followed by the ZB group (60.2 MPa), while the SI (34.4 MPa) and SB (42.6 MPa) groups demonstrated statistically significant lower bond strengths. The type of placement technique did not influence the µTBS of silorane-based composites to the bottom dentin of Class I cavities. The methacrylate-based composite showed superior performance, regardless of the placement technique.

  11. Meta-analysis of the comparative effects of different classes of antihypertensive agents on brachial and central systolic blood pressure, and augmentation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisty, Charlotte H; Hughes, Alun D

    2013-01-01

    Brachial systolic blood pressure (bSBP) exceeds aortic pressure by a variable amount, and estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) may be a better indicator of cardiovascular risk than bSBP. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of single and multiple antihypertensive agents on bSBP, cSBP and augmentation index (AIx). A random effects meta-analysis was performed on 24 randomized controlled trials of antihypertensives with measurements of bSBP, cSBP and/or AIx. Separate analyses were performed for drug comparisons with or without placebo, and drug combinations. In the placebo vs. drug meta-analysis, antihypertensive therapy reduced bSBP more than cSBP and there was no statistically significant evidence of heterogeneity by drug class, although the number of individual studies was small. In placebo-adjusted drug vs. drug comparison, treatment with β-blockers, omapatrilat and thiazide diuretics lowered cSBP significantly less than bSBP (i.e. central to brachial amplification decreased), whereas other monotherapies lowered cSBP and bSBP to similar extents. Sample sizes were too small and effect estimates insufficiently precise to allow firm conclusions to be made regarding comparisons between individual drug classes. Antihypertensive combinations that included β-blockers decreased central to brachial amplification. β-Blockers increased AIx, whereas all other antihypertensive agents reduced AIx to similar extents. A reduction in central to brachial amplification by some classes of antihypertensive drug will result in lesser reductions in cSBP despite achievement of target bSBP. This effect could contribute to differences in outcomes in randomized clinical trials when β-blocker- and/or diuretic-based antihypertensive therapy are compared with other regimens. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Burden of different beta-lactamase classes among clinical isolates of AmpC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn patients: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens causing infections in burns, and shows increasing resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by producing different classes of beta-lactamases. It is also not unusual to find a single isolate that expresses multiple β-lactamase enzymes, further complicating the treatment options. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine the coexistence of different beta-lactamase enzymes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in the burn ward. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from the burn ward were identified and tested for the presence of different beta-lactamase enzymes (extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL, Amp C and metallo β-lactamases (MBL from October 2006 to May 2009. In vitro susceptibility pattern of antipseudomonal antibiotics was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 33 (32.7% isolates were confirmed to be positive for AmpC beta-lactamase. Co-production of AmpC along with ESBL and MBL was reported in 24.5% and 45.5% isolates, respectively. A total of 12 (11.9% isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes (multidrug resistance. Imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactum showed high sensitivity, with 86.1% and 82.2%, respectively. Conclusion: This study reveals the high prevalence of multidrug- resistant P. aeruginosa producing beta-lactamase enzymes of different mechanisms in this region from burn patients. The emerging antimicrobial resistance in burn wound pathogens poses serious therapeutic challenge. Thus proper antibiotic policy and measures to restrict the indiscriminate use of cephalosporins and carbapenems should be taken to minimize the emergence of this multiple beta -lactamase producing pathogen.

  13. Clinical Effectiveness of Different Polishing Systems and Self-Etch Adhesives in Class V Composite Resin Restorations: Two-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-H; Kim, H-Y; Shin, S-M; Lee, C-O; Kim, D S; Choi, K-K; Kim, S-Y

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical effectiveness of different polishing systems and self-etch adhesives in class V composite resin restorations. A total of 164 noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) from 35 patients were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups, each of which used a combination of polishing systems and adhesives. The two polishing systems used were Sof-Lex XT (Sof), a multistep abrasive disc, and Enhance/Pogo (EP), a simplified abrasive-impregnated rubber instrument. The adhesive systems were Clearfil SE bond (CS), a two-step self-etch adhesive, and Xeno V (XE), a one-step self-etch adhesive. All NCCLs were restored with light-cured microhybrid resin composites (Z250). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months by two blinded independent examiners using modified FDI criteria. The Fisher exact test and generalized estimating equation analysis considering repeated measurements were performed to compare the outcomes between the polishing systems and adhesives. Three restorations were dislodged: two in CS/Sof and one in CS/EP. None of the restorations required any repair or retreatment except those showing retention loss. Sof was superior to EP with regard to surface luster, staining, and marginal adaptation (p0.05). Sof is clinically superior to EP for polishing performance in class V composite resin restoration. XE demonstrates clinically equivalent bonding performance to CS.

  14. Factors affecting the frequency of physical defects causing partial seizures in bovine carcasses from different origin and sex class and economic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pargas, Hector Luis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 654 beef carcasses were randomly selected for inspection in a Venezuelan slaughterhouse for determining the influence of country of origin (COO and sex class on the frequency of physical defects in anatomical regions, its economic impact and correlation between variables of interest. Cow carcasses were the most frequently contaminated with Undesirable Matter (UM in the chuck, and as well as bulls, they were frequently affected by bruises in the rounds. Brazilian bulls resulted with higher occurrence of abscesses, mostly located in the neck. Venezuelan cattle despite having shorter transport times had a higher frequency of traumatisms and UM presence. COO and sex class were associated (p<0.05 with different defects according to the anatomical region. A total of 360.9 kg of seized meat represented a loss of US$ 2,627.91; the largest quantity (142.6 kg occurred in Brazilian carcasses, for a loss of US$ 1,038.35. Abscesses (136.6 kg were responsible for the greatest loss of meat and, in consequence, of money. It is concluded that cow carcasses are expected to be the most affected by defects while carcasses of Venezuelan origin, despite having a higher frequency of defects, its economic impact is relatively lower.

  15. A Qualitative Study to Understand Nativity Differences in Breastfeeding Behaviors Among Middle-Class African American and African-Born Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiyi, Camille; Peacock, Nadine; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer; Handler, Arden

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore nativity differences and the role of attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control perceptions surrounding breastfeeding initiation and duration among middle-class African-American (AA) and African-born (AB) mothers in the US. Methods Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 20 middle-class AA and AB mothers in central Ohio from December 2012 to February 2013. Interview questions were developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Interviews were analyzed for salient themes by TPB constructs. Differences in themes were examined by nativity status. Results All study participants had initiated breastfeeding or bottle-feeding with expressed breast milk, noting the benefits it conferred as well as the persuasive encouragement they received from others. Persistent encouragement was often cited as a factor for sustaining breastfeeding. More AA mothers had discontinued breastfeeding by the time of the interview, which was often attributed to health, lactation, and work challenges. Inconsistent support from health providers, dissuasive remarks from others, ambivalent breastfeeding attitudes, and diminished family support led some mothers to begin formula supplementation. Analysis of maternal narratives revealed nativity differences across sources of encouragement. Specifically, important sources of encouragement were health providers for AA mothers and family, friends, partners and culture for AB mothers. Only AB mothers expressed concerns about difficulty they encountered with breastfeeding due to the lack of proximal family support. Conclusions Findings reveal that both groups of mothers may be susceptible to unsupportive breastfeeding norms in the US and also highlight the need for intervention in health care settings and workplaces to improve AA women's breastfeeding rates.

  16. On Transcendental Meromorphic Solutions of a Class of Complex Difference Equations%关于一类复差分方程的超越亚纯解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋乃洲; 高凌云

    2011-01-01

    利用亚纯函数的NevanLinna值分布理论,研究了一类复差分方程有限级超越亚纯解的存在性问题,推广了2010年Yang和I.Laine研究非线性微分方程和差分方程关系所得结论,以及2004年Yang和Li研究微分方程超越解所得结论,进而得到了更一般的结果.%In this paper, using the Nevanlinna value distribution theory,we investigate the existence problems of finite order transcendental meromorphic solutions of a class of complex difference equation and improve some theorems in references and obtain some results which are more general than the previous ones.

  17. Social class differences in secular trends in established coronary risk factors over 20 years: a cohort study of British men from 1978-80 to 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena E Ramsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978-80 and 1998-2000 differed between socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged 40-59 years was followed-up from 1978-80 to 1998-2000; data on blood pressure (BP, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI and cigarette smoking were collected at both points in 4252 survivors. Social class was based on longest-held occupation in middle-age. Compared with men in non-manual occupations, men in manual occupations experienced a greater increase in BMI (mean difference = 0.33 kg/m(2; 95%CI 0.14-0.53; p for interaction = 0.001, a smaller decline in non-HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.18 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.11-0.25, p for interaction≤0.0001 and a smaller increase in HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.04 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.02-0.06, p for interaction≤0.0001. However, mean systolic BP declined more in manual than non-manual groups (difference in mean change = 3.6; 95%CI 2.1-5.1, p for interaction≤0.0001. The odds of being a current smoker in 1978-80 and 1998-2000 did not differ between non-manual and manual social classes (p for interaction = 0.51. CONCLUSION: Several key risk factors for CHD and type 2 diabetes showed less favourable changes in men in manual occupations. Continuing priority is needed to improve adverse cardiovascular risk profiles in socially disadvantaged groups in the UK.

  18. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-08-08

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  20. Multiple HLA class I and II associations in classical Hodgkin lymphoma and EBV status defined subgroups (Retracted article. See vol. 118, pg. 5211, 2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xin; Kushekhar, Kushi; Nolte, Ilja; Kooistra, Wierd; Visser, Lydia; Bouwman, Ilby; Kouprie, Niels; van Imhoff, Gustaaf; Olver, Bianca; Houlston, Richard S.; Poppema, Sibrand; Diepstra, Arjan; Hepkema, Bouke; van den Berg, Anke; Veenstra, R.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) involves environmental and genetic factors. To explore the role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, we performed a case-control genotyping study in 338 Dutch cHL patients and more than 5000 controls using a PCR-based sequence-specific

  1. Development of a novel amide-silica stationary phase for the reversed-phase HPLC separation of different classes of phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Hayriye; Aral, Tarık; Ziyadanoğulları, Berrin; Ziyadanoğulları, Recep

    2013-11-15

    A novel amide-bonded silica stationary phase was prepared starting from N-Boc-phenylalanine, cyclohexylamine and spherical silica gel (4 µm, 60 Å). The amide ligand was synthesised with high yield. The resulting amide bonded stationary phase was characterised by SEM, IR and elemental analysis. The resulting selector bearing a polar amide group is used for the reversed-phase chromatography separation of different classes of thirteen phytohormones (plant hormones). The chromatographic behaviours of these analytes on the amide-silica stationary phase were compared with those of RP-C18 column under same conditions. The effects of different separation conditions, such as mobile phase, pH value, flow rate and temperature, on the separation and retention behaviours of the 13 phytohormones in this system were studied. The optimum separation was achieved using reversed-phase HPLC gradient elution with an aqueous mobile phase containing pH=6.85 potassium phosphate buffer (20 mM) and acetonitrile with a 22 °C column temperature. Under these experimental conditions, the 12 phytohormones could be separated and detected at 230 or 270 nm within 26 min.

  2. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  3. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg(-1) whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro evaluation of marginal and internal adaptation after occlusal stressing of indirect class II composite restorations with different resinous bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Olsburgh, Steven; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2003-02-01

    Composite inlays are indicated for large cavities, which frequently extend cervically into dentin. The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro the marginal and internal adaptation of class II fine hybrid composite inlays (Herculite, Kerr) made with or without composite bases, having different physical properties. Freshly extracted human molars were used for this study. The base extended up to the cervical margins on both sides and was made from Revolution (Kerr), Tetric flow (Vivadent), Dyract (Detrey-Dentsply) or Prodigy (Kerr), respectively. Before, during and after mechanical loading (1 million cycles, with a force varying from 50 to 100 N), the proximal margins of the inlay were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Experimental data were analysed using non-parametric tests. The final percentages of marginal tooth fracture varied from 30.7% (no base) to 37.6% (Dyract). In dentin, percentages of marginal opening varied from 9.2% (Tetric Flow) to 30.1% (Prodigy), however, without significant difference between base products. Mean values of opened internal interface with dentin varied from 11.06% (Tetric Flow) to 28.15% (Prodigy). The present results regarding dentin adaptation confirmed that the physical properties of a base can influence composite inlay adaptation and that the medium-rigid flowable composite Tetric Flow is a potential material to displace, in a coronal position, proximal margins underneath composite inlays.

  5. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  6. Variations of Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Contents in Different Age Class Modules of Leymus chinensis Populations in Sandy and Saline-Alkaline Soil on the Songnen Plains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Ding; Yun-Fei Yang

    2007-01-01

    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. is a rhizomatous pexennial herbage of Gramineae. Reproduction is mainly by vegetative reproduction. Tillering nodes and rhizomes of L. chinensis serve as organs for both vegetative reproduction and nutrient storage. Water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents were measured in tillering nodes, nodes and internodes of rhizomes of different age classes of L. chinensis populations at three development stages, namely the dough ripe stage, the vegetative growth stage after full ripeness, and the withering stage, in two habitats:sandy soil and saline-alkaline soil. The results showed that WSC content in tillering nodes of the three age classes of L. chinensis were all markedly decreased with increasing age in both sandy soil and saline-alkaline soil. A similar trend of changes in WSC contents was observed in the nodes and internodes of rhizomes in different age classes in both habitats. The highest WSC contents were in 2-age-class nodes and internodes of rhizomes, followed by those in the 1 age class, with the lowest WSC contents found in 3-age-class nodes and internodes of rhizomes at the dough ripe and vegetative growth stages after full ripening. In turn, WSC contents decreased with increasing age at the withering stage in both habitats. The WSC content in each age class of internode was higher than that in the node of rhizome at three development stages In both habitats.

  7. Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I (B-F) mRNA variants from chickens differing in resistance to Marek's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, T S; Vitved, L; Skjødt, K; Thomsen, B; Labouriau, R; Jensen, K H; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2005-09-01

    In this study, the relative distributions of two alternatively polyadenylated chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mRNA isoforms of approximately 1.5 and 1.9 kb were analysed in spleen cells from chickens homozygous for the MHC haplotypes B21 and B19v1 as well as in heterozygous B19v1/B21 birds. Both isoforms are likely to encode classical MHC class I (B-F) alpha chains. The B19v1 and B21 MHC haplotypes confer different levels of protection against Marek's disease (MD), which is caused by infection with MD virus (MDV). In spleen cells, MD-resistant B21 birds were shown to have the highest percentage of the 1.5 kb variant relative to the total MHC class I expression, MD-susceptible B19v1 birds the lowest and B19v1/B21 birds an intermediate percentage. Infection of 4-week-old chickens with the GA strain of MDV was shown to cause a significant increase in the relative amount of 1.5 kb transcripts in B21 birds 32 days postinfection (dpi). Alternatively polyadenylated mRNA isoforms may encode identical proteins, but differences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) can influence polyadenylation, mRNA stability, intracellular localization and translation efficiency. It was shown that the increased 1.5 kb percentage in B21 birds 32 days postinfection may be a result of a change in the choice of poly(A) site rather than a locus-specific upregulated transcription of the BF1 gene that preferentially expresses the 1.5 kb variant. Furthermore, the 3' end of the 1.5 kb mRNA variants deriving from B19v1 and B21 chickens was characterized by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and sequencing. No potentially functional elements were identified in the 3' UTR of the RACE products corresponding to this short isoform. However, variation in polyadenylation site was observed between the BF1 and BF2 mRNA transcripts and alternative splicing-out of the sequence (exon 7) encoding the second segment of the cytoplasmic part of the mature BF2*19 molecules. This alternative exon 7

  8. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Loreto; Melo, Ricardo; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Mendoza, Leonora

    2017-01-01

    Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6–375 μg/mL antibiotics). Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the currently unused

  9. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  10. The diversity of bovine MHC class II DRB3 and DQA1 alleles in different herds of Japanese Black and Holstein cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Taku; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Aida, Yoko

    2011-02-01

    In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for bovine diseases and immunological traits. In this study, we sequenced alleles of the BoLA class II loci, BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1, from 650 Japanese cattle from six herds [three herds (507 animals) of Japanese Black cattle and three herds (143 animals) of Holstein cattle] using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods. We identified 26 previously reported distinct DRB3 alleles in the two populations: 22 in Japanese Black and 17 in Holstein. The number of DRB3 alleles detected in each herd ranged from 9 to 20. Next, we identified 15 previously reported distinct DQA1 alleles: 13 in Japanese Black and 10 in Holstein. The number of alleles in each herd ranged from 6 to 10. Thus, allelic divergence is significantly greater for DRB3 than for DQA1. A population tree on the basis of the frequencies of the DRB3 and DQA1 alleles showed that, although the genetic distance differed significantly between the two cattle breeds, it was closely related within the three herds of each breed. In addition, Wu-Kabat variability analysis indicated that the DRB3 gene was more polymorphic than the DQA1 gene in both breeds and in all herds, and that the majority of the hypervariable positions within both loci corresponded to pocket-forming residues. The DRB3 and DQA1 heterozygosity for both breeds within each herd were calculated based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only one Japanese Black herd showed a significant difference between the expected and observed heterozygosity at both loci. This is the first report presenting a detailed study of the allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 and -DQA1 genes in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle from different farms in Japan. These results may help to develop improved livestock breeding strategies in the future.

  11. Quality of Life Shift after Aortic Valve Replacement in the Era of TAVI: Single-Center Class Comparison Study Between Different Procedural Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehm, Alexander; Sorokin, Vitaly A; Hartman, Mikael; Wai, Khin Lay; Schmitz, Karoline; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2015-09-01

    The health-related quality of life (QOL) is one of the most important outcome indicators for elderly people undergoing aortic valve interventions, and should be assessed across different interventions, including emerging percutaneous techniques. The study aim was to assess the change in QOL after different procedures for aortic valve replacement (AVR). QOL was assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) for 59 patients after conventional AVR; of these patients, 28 had AVR via a J-sternotomy, a transapical approach was used in 20 patients, and a transfemoral approach in 34. The early mortality during hospitalization was not significantly different among all four groups. The inverse probability weighted propensity scores adjusted Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that the transapical group had the lowest survival rate. The treatment effect analysis was most prominent in the transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) group across all domains for QOL. The multivariate hierarchical linear mixed final fitted model shows that the transapical TAVI procedure and NYHA class (III-IV) had a significant negative effect on the physical domain and overall QOL score. Changes in QOL after interventions on the aortic valve were determined by the patient's preoperative status and the surgical intervention. The transcatheter intervention, even in 'sicker' patients, provided a gain in QOL comparable with that after an open-heart procedure. Transfemoral TAVI was shown to have advantages over transapical TAVI in terms of QOL improvement at three months and six months, and should be considered the first choice for patients in the high-risk surgical group.

  12. Alternative end-joining and classical nonhomologous end-joining pathways repair different types of double-strand breaks during class-switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortizas, Elena M; Zahn, Astrid; Hajjar, Maurice E; Patenaude, Anne-Marie; Di Noia, Javier M; Verdun, Ramiro E

    2013-12-01

    Classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) and alternative end-joining (A-EJ) are the main DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways when a sister chromatid is not available. However, it is not clear how one pathway is chosen over the other to process a given DSB. To address this question, we studied in mouse splenic B cells and CH12F3 cells how C-NHEJ and A-EJ repair DSBs initiated by the activation-induced deaminase during IgH (Igh) class-switch recombination (CSR). We show in this study that lowering the deamination density at the Igh locus increases DSB resolution by microhomology-mediated repair while decreasing C-NHEJ activity. This process occurs without affecting 53BP1 and γH2AX levels during CSR. Mechanistically, lowering deamination density increases exonuclease I recruitment and single-stranded DNA at the Igh locus and promotes C-terminal binding protein interacting protein and MSH2-dependent DSB repair during CSR. Indeed, reducing activation-induced deaminase levels increases CSR efficiency in C-NHEJ-defective cells, suggesting enhanced use of an A-EJ pathway. Our results establish a mechanism by which C-NHEJ and this C-terminal binding protein interacting protein/MSH2-dependent pathway that relies on microhomology can act concurrently but independently to repair different types of DSBs and reveal that the density of DNA lesions influences the choice of DSB repair pathway during CSR.

  13. Study of Light Harvesting Properties of Different Classes of Metal-Free Organic Dyes in TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dye-sensitized solar cells, the photosensitization of TiO2 thin film semiconductor was accomplished by using different classes of metal-free (fluorone, triarymethane, azo and thiazine based organic dyes as photosensitizer. The broad electronic absorption spectra of these dyes have been obtained in the visible region due to the presence of chromophoric groups in these dyes. The contribution of these dyes as light harvesting species is seen from the photocurrent action spectrum of the cell. Here, we report the sensitization activity of these dyes in terms of current-potential curve, open-circuit potential, fill factor, IPCE, and overall solar energy conversion efficiency which have been evaluated under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. The results suggest that dyes based on fluorone and azo groups are promising candidates for high performance, dye-sensitized solar cells because of better anchoring groups (–COOH, –OH, and –SO3- present in these dyes. Better anchorage of dyes to the surface of TiO2 semiconductor helps in charge transfer phenomenon.

  14. Validation of method for determination of different classes of pesticides in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Costa, Fabiane Pinho; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2010-04-14

    In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of different classes of pesticides, carbofuran (insecticide), clomazone (herbicide) and tebuconazole (fungicide) in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection. Some experimental parameters that influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the disperser solvents and extraction solvents, extraction time, speed of centrifugation, pH and addition of salt were examined and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of pesticides in water at spiking levels between 0.02 and 2.0 microg L(-1) ranged from 62.7% to 120.0%. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.9% and 9.1% (n=3). The limits of quantification of the method considering a 50-fold preconcentration step were 0.02 microg L(-1). The linearity of the method ranged from 1.0 to 1000 microg L(-1) for all compounds, with correlation coefficients varying from 0.9982 to 0.9992. Results show that the method we propose can meet the requirements for the determination of pesticides in water samples. The comparison of this method with solid-phase extraction indicates that DLLME is a simple, fast, and low-cost method for the determination of pesticides in natural waters.

  15. HPLC-DAD for the determination of three different classes of antifungals: method characterization, statistical approach, and application to a permeation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Diogo; Lange, Alini; Zimmer, Aline R; Mayorga, Paulo; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2014-12-01

    This study describes and characterizes methods for high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis of formulations containing molecules with antifungal activity of three different classes: terbinafine and butenafine (allylamines), miconazole and fluconazole (azoles), and geraniol, neral and geranial (monoterpenes). All methods used the same chromatographic column (RP18 ), enabling the analysis to be performed in a single batch. The specificity was extensively discussed through the establishment of purity peak methods. The analytical parameters (linearity, precision and accuracy) were calculated and discussed in detail using specific statistical approaches. All substances showed satisfactory results for chromatographic and analytical parameters. Limits of 1.3% to mean repeatability and 2.0% for intermediate precision are suggested as acceptance criteria in validation of methods by HPLC-DAD, in situations where there is no extensive pretreatment of the samples. The methods proved to be robust and significant factors were discussed regarding their influence on chromatographic parameters (retention time, resolution, tailing factor and column efficiency). Finally, the application of the developed methods was demonstrated by the results of a permeation study of the antifungal agents through bovine hoof membranes.

  16. ‘What help can you get talking to somebody?’ Explaining class differences in the use of talking treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ...‐class counterparts are not matched by an increased use of these treatments. Given that, overall, talking treatments are effective in tackling depression and anxiety, understanding their underuse is important. Based upon semi...

  17. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  18. Effects of blood-pressure-lowering treatment in hypertension: 9. Discontinuations for adverse events attributed to different classes of antihypertensive drugs: meta-analyses of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Costas; Parati, Gianfranco; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Choice of antihypertensive drugs is also based on the expected burden of adverse events associated with each class of agents, and we have recently identified treatment discontinuation for adverse events as a measure of treatment tolerability frequently reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To investigate whether all classes of blood pressure (BP) lowering drugs increase discontinuations for adverse events when compared with placebo and whether risk of discontinuation is similar for all classes when compared in head-to-head RCTs. RCTs of BP-lowering treatment were subdivided in groups according to class of drug compared with placebo or with other classes. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals of major cardiovascular events and of treatment discontinuations for adverse events were calculated (random-effects model). Thirty-eight placebo-controlled RCTs (147 788 patients) and 37 head-to-head RCTs (242 481 patients) provided comparative information on discontinuations for adverse events. All classes of drugs significantly increased discontinuations for adverse events over those occurring on placebo: risk ratio diuretics 2.23 (1.32-3.76), beta-blockers 2.88 (1.58-5.28), calcium antagonists 2.03 (1.17-3.56), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 2.78 (1.37-5.47), central agents 1.74 (1.24-2.45), with the single exception of angiotensin receptor blockers, which did not significantly increase adverse events over placebo [risk ratio 1.13 (0.78-1.62)]. Similarly, in head-to-head comparison RCTs with other classes, angiotensin receptor blockers were the only class associated with a significantly lower risk of adverse events [risk ratio 0.71 (0.58-0.87)] when head-to-head compared with other classes. Regression analysis also shows that incidence of discontinuations for adverse events is proportional to the number of antihypertensive and other cardiovascular drugs, which accounts for the high incidence of this outcome often found in groups randomized to

  19. Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels After Subchronic and Repeated Exposure of PC12 Cells to Different Classes of Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Marieke; Brandsema, Joske A R; Nieuwenhuis, Desirée; Wijnolts, Fiona M J; Dingemans, Milou M L; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that acute inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is a common mode of action for (sub)micromolar concentrations of chemicals, including insecticides. However, because human exposure to chemicals is usually chronic and repeated, we investigated if selected insecticides from different chemical classes (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, and neonicotinoids) also disturb calcium homeostasis after subchronic (24 h) exposure and after a subsequent (repeated) acute exposure. Effects on calcium homeostasis were investigated with single-cell fluorescence (Fura-2) imaging of PC12 cells. Cells were depolarized with high-K(+) saline to study effects of subchronic or repeated exposure on VGCC-mediated Ca(2+) influx. The results demonstrate that except for carbaryl and imidacloprid, all selected insecticides inhibited depolarization (K(+))-evoked Ca(2+) influx after subchronic exposure (IC50's: approximately 1-10 µM) in PC12 cells. These inhibitory effects were not or only slowly reversible. Moreover, repeated exposure augmented the inhibition of the K(+)-evoked increase in intracellular calcium concentration induced by subchronic exposure to cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and endosulfan (IC50's: approximately 0.1-4 µM). In rat primary cortical cultures, acute and repeated chlorpyrifos exposure also augmented inhibition of VGCCs compared with subchronic exposure. In conclusion, compared with subchronic exposure, repeated exposure increases the potency of insecticides to inhibit VGCCs. However, the potency of insecticides to inhibit VGCCs upon repeated exposure was comparable with the inhibition previously observed following acute exposure, with the exception of chlorpyrifos. The data suggest that an acute exposure paradigm is sufficient for screening chemicals for effects on VGCCs and that PC12 cells are a sensitive model for detection of effects on VGCCs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  20. [Investigation of Antibiotic Resistance of Indigenous Bacteria and Abundance of Class I Integron in Matrix of Constructed Wetlands of Different Configurations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiao-bei; Tao, Ran; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Min; Lin, Jian-hua; Man, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Environmental indigenous bacteria (Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas) were isolated from 9 different constructed wetlands (CWs) in summer and winter. The antibiotic resistance analysis of the isolated bacteria was conducted by Kirby-Bauer disc agar diffusion method. And the quantitative PCR assay was used to quantify the abundance of class I integron (int1) in the matrix of CWs. The results indicated that over 84% of isolates among the 522 Staphylococcus strains and 543 Pseudomonas strains had antibiotic resistance and above 68% of isolates had multi-antibiotic resistance, the average of MRI index was 0.22. Antibiotic resistance of indigenous bacteria in CWs was at the same resistance level of human or animal bacteria in certain environment, indicating that indigenous bacteria from constructed wetlands had relatively high level of resistance. Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas strains had higher resistances to Ampicillin (AMP) and Sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and extremely low resistance rates of lower than 3% to Tetracycline (TE), Gentamicin (CN) and Ciprofloxacin (CIP). To Ceftazidime (CAZ) and Chloramphenicol (C), the two kinds of indigenous bacteria showed distinctly different resistances. Quantitative PCR revealed that the abundance of intl in CWs was 1.14 x 10(5)-5.66 x 10(5) copies · g(-1), and its relative abundance was 0.54%-3.68%. Both of season and wetland type had important impact on antibiotic resistance and abundance of int1. The antibiotic resistance rate and the multiple resistance index (MRI) for the indigenous bacteria and the abundance of int1 in summer were higher than those in winter. Among three types of CWs, the antibiotic resistance rate and the MRI value were the highest in the downward vertical flow, while the int1 abundance was the highest in the sub-surface flow. The research indicated that indigenous bacteria acquired antibiotic resistance due to long term exposure to antibiotics of certain concentrations and antibiotic-resistant intestinal

  1. Classroom contexts: connections between class size and within class grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, P; Baines, E; Kutnick, P; Martin, C

    2001-06-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for many years about the educational effects of class size differences, but even if differences have an impact on pupils' academic progress this still leaves unanswered important questions about what mediates the effect. This paper is informed by a classroom contextual perspective, and examines associations between class size and within class groupings (in terms of size and number of groups, adult presence in groups, and type of interaction between grouping members). Age differences in these relationships are also explored. The quantitative study is based on analysis of 3157 groupings, from 672 Reception, Year 2 and Year 5 classes in 331 schools. The qualitative study was based on 12 classes in 8 case study schools, and questionnaire responses completed by over 100 class teachers. Links between size of class and within class groupings were examined on the basis of a 'grouping mapping survey', in which teachers at a given time in the school day provided information on group size and number, adult presence, and type of interaction between pupils, and complementary qualitative analyses of data from teacher-completed questionnaires, and interviews. The number of groups in a class increased with the size of the class. Over all three year groups, small classes had on average just over three groups, while large classes approached six groups. The size of groups in the class decreased with size of class. In class sizes over 25, pupils were more likely to be in a large group of 7-10, while in classes under 25 they were more likely to be in whole class groupings. Qualitative analyses showed that teachers felt that groups of 7-10 pupils had negative educational effects, for example, in terms of the quality and quantity of teaching and children's concentration and contribution in groups. Results suggest that the effects of class size can be best seen as through the size and number of groups, which will then have implications for learning

  2. Gender, social class, and women's employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Kathleen L; Oh, Eunsil

    2017-07-17

    People in low-power positions, whether due to gender or class, tend to exhibit other-oriented rather than self-oriented behavior. Women's experiences at work and at home are shaped by social class, heightening identification with gender for relatively upper class women and identification with class for relatively lower class women, potentially mitigating, or even reversing, class-based differences documented in past research. Gender-class differences are reflected in women's employment beliefs and behaviors. Research integrating social class with gendered experiences in homes and workplaces deepens our understanding of the complex interplay between sources of power and status in society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  4. Examining the Effect of Class Size on Classroom Engagement and Teacher-Pupil Interaction: Differences in Relation to Pupil Prior Attainment and Primary vs. Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that we need to know more about effects of class size on classroom interactions and pupil behavior. This paper extends research by comparing effects on pupil classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction, and examining if effects vary by pupil attainment level and between primary and secondary schools. Systematic…

  5. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  6. Effects of a Whole-Class Reading Program Designed for Different Reading Levels and the Learning Needs of L1 and L2 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Susanne; Schwab, Susanne; Gasteiger-Klicpera, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the whole-class reading program Language And Reading Skills (LARS) and its effects on the decoding, reading comprehension, and language abilities of 1st-language (L1) and 2nd-language (L2) German 2nd graders. The program consisted of teacher training and differentiated reading materials adapted to the needs of both L1…

  7. Examining the Effect of Class Size on Classroom Engagement and Teacher-Pupil Interaction: Differences in Relation to Pupil Prior Attainment and Primary vs. Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that we need to know more about effects of class size on classroom interactions and pupil behavior. This paper extends research by comparing effects on pupil classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction, and examining if effects vary by pupil attainment level and between primary and secondary schools. Systematic…

  8. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  9. A Three-Step Latent Class Analysis to Identify How Different Patterns of Teen Dating Violence and Psychosocial Factors Influence Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Weston, Rebecca; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-10-05

    Although multiple forms (i.e., physical, threatening, psychological, sexual, and relational abuse) and patterns (i.e., perpetration and victimization) of violence can co-occur, most existing research examines these experiences individually. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate: (1) homogenous subgroups based on victimization and perpetration of multiple forms of teen dating violence; (2) predictors of membership in these subgroups; and (3) mental health consequences associated with membership in each subgroup. Nine hundred eighteen adolescents in the 9(th) or 10(th) grade at seven public high schools in Texas participated in the survey (56 % female, White: 30 %, Hispanic: 32 %, African American: 29 %, others: 9 %). A three-step latent class analysis was employed. Five latent teen dating violence classes were identified: (1) nonviolence; (2) emotional/verbal abuse; (3) forced sexual contact; (4) psychological + physical violence; and (5) psychological abuse. Females, African Americans, and youth who had higher acceptance of couple violence scores and whose parents had less education were more likely to members of dating violence classes compared with the nonviolence class. Adolescents who experienced multiple types of dating violence reported greater mental health concerns. Prevention programs may benefit by identifying the homogenous subgroups of teen dating violence and targeting adolescent teen dating violence accordingly.

  10. Job strain and the incidence of coronary heart diseases: does the association differ among occupational classes? A contribution from a pooled analysis of Northern Italian cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Marco M; Bertù, Lorenza; Grassi, Guido; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between job strain (JS) and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in North Italian employed men, adopting a stratified analysis by occupational class (OC). Methods The study was conducted on 4103 working men, CHD-free at baseline, enrolled in population-based and factory-based cohorts. Risk factor measurements and follow-up procedures were carried out adopting the WHO MONICA standardised procedures. OCs were derived from the Erikson-Goldthorpe-Portocarero classification. JS categories were defined based on overall sample medians of psychological job demand (PJD) and decision latitude (DL) derived from items of the Job Content Questionnaire, satisfying construct validity criteria. Age-adjusted and risk factors-adjusted CHD HRs were estimated from Cox models, contrasting high-strain (high PJD and low DL) versus non-high-strain categories. Results In a median follow-up of 14.6 years, 172 CHD events occurred, corresponding to a CHD incidence rate of 2.78/1000 person-years. In the overall sample, high-strain compared with non-high-strain workers evidenced a 39% excess CHD risk, not statistically significant. No association was found among managers and proprietors. Conversely, the HR of high strain versus non-high strain was 1.78 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.66) among non-manual and manual workers, with no substantial differences between them. The exclusion of the events occurring in the first 3 years of follow-up did not change the results. Adopting the quadrant-term JS groupings, among manual and non-manual workers, high-strain and active (high PJD and high DL) categories in comparison to the low strain one (low PJD and high DL) showed HRs of 2.92 and 2.47, respectively. Conclusions Our findings support the association of JS and CHD incidence among manual and non-manual workers. The non-high strain may not be the best reference category, when assessing the contribution of JS in determining CHD incidence. PMID:28119392

  11. Hirzebruch classes of complex hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain E; Schuermann, Joerg; Shaneson, Julius L

    2009-01-01

    The Milnor-Hirzebruch class of a locally complete intersection X in an algebraic manifold M measures the difference between the (Poincare dual of the) Hirzebruch class of the virtual tangent bundle of X and, respectively, the Brasselet-Schuermann-Yokura (homology) Hirzebruch class of X. In this note, we calculate the Milnor-Hirzebruch class of a globally defined algebraic hypersurface X in terms of the corresponding Hirzebruch invariants of singular strata in a Whitney stratification of X. Our approach is based on Schuermann's specialization property for the motivic Hirzebruch class transformation of Brasselet-Schuermann-Yokura.

  12. Class distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  13. An Assessment of Different Educational Background of Students Performance in Engineering Mathematics and on the Class of Award Obtained at the Higher National Diploma (HND) Level at Cape Coast Polytechnic, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirifi, Michael Kwabena; Mensah, Kweku Abeeku; Amoako, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to find out an assessment of different educational background of students performance in engineering mathematics and on the class of award obtained at the Higher National Diploma (HND) level at Cape Coast Polytechnic. A descriptive survey was conducted on students of the Electricals/Electronics Department…

  14. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba foram feitas manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. O teste t-pareado e ANOVA foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na na Classe II, sendo a sua correção desfavorável no gênero feminino; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento dentro do esperado na Classe I. O neutrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na nas Classes I e II, sendo desfavorável na Classe II; com crescimento eqüitativo de CC-Na e CC-Ba na Classe III e levemente acima do esperado na Classe I. O provertido teve crescimento eqüitativo em todas as Classes, sendo significantemente favorável na Classe II mandibular; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento médio acima do esperado na Classe I.AIM: This retrospective study evaluated the cranial base mean growth in different facial types and orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, initial and final mean age (10 years 2 months-mixed dentition; 14 years 8 months

  15. The bourgeoisie framed: Mafalda and its group criticize elements of the bourgeois society (the naturalization of the differences, the inhumanuzation and the competition in the History class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rebuá Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work, from a marxist point of view, is to think about the possibility in criticizing the bourgeosie society in History classes, to set up colectively, at last, anti-hegemonic reality readings. Based upon Gramsci concept of hegemony and on anti-hegemony notion, we have analyzed the comics not with the intention of making this language more and more present in the classes but with the attempt of understanding them as a tool that may contribute a lot for a real criticism and for the explicitness of the historic moment in which they were created, for a teaching, at the same time, more playful and critic. In methodological terms, we have selected three Mafalda’s strips (named “The naturalization of the differences”, “The inhumanization” and “The competition”, shown on Toda Mafalda (2002 aiming to replace the insights herein sketched. This work is a part of the master’s degree lecture, read  at the Postgraduation Program in Education of UERJ (ProPed in March 2011, under the title of Mafalda in The History class: a criticism of the bourgeoise society charactheristic elements and the collective making-up of hegemonic meanings.

  16. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Individuals in Different Age-classes of Betula platyphylla in Huoshan Mountain of Shanxi Province%山西霍山白桦种群不同龄级立木的点格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳华; 闫明; 武丽君; 张直峰; 毕润成

    2011-01-01

    Betula platyphylla is a pioneer plant and is distributed intensively in Huoshan mountain. One 50 m x 50 m quadrat was established in Qiliyu from which we recorded the DBH of each individual and the spatial points of all individuals were mapped. The data were analyzed by point pattern analysis. All individuals were divided into four DBH classes; DBH I (DBH≤ 7 cm);DBH Ⅱ (7 cm 21 cm).The results of this study showed; (1) The densities of four age-classes varied in the order: age-class n >age-class Ⅲ >age-class Ⅰ>age-class Ⅳ. The middle age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ had many more individuals than age-classes I and Ⅳ, which indicated that the population was currently in decline. (2) The individuals of all age-classes focused on clumping distribution in space, except the age-class Ⅰ. The feature of clumping distribution became more significant with increasing age. (3) The relationships between individuals in different age-classes were significantly correlated with each other on a small scale,but became non-significant with increasing scale,except for age-classes I and n ,age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ,and age-classes n and Ⅳ.%以山西霍山地区的先锋树种之一白桦( Betula platyphylla)为研究对象,在霍山七里峪林场典型地段设置一个50 m×50 m的样方,应用点格局分析方法对其不同龄级(Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级和Ⅳ级)个体的分布格局及相互关系进行了研究.结果表明:(1)白桦种群不同龄级的个体间密度也不相同,中间龄级Ⅱ级(7 cm< DBH≤14 cm)和Ⅲ级(14 cm <DBH≤21 cm)的密度较大,幼龄和老龄个体密度小,年龄结构为衰退型;(2)除Ⅰ级(DBH≤7 cm)外,其余3个龄级集群分布特征比较明显,且随着龄级的增加,集群特征有更明显的趋势;(3)除Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅳ级(DBH >21 cm)之外,其余龄级间基本都是小尺度下负关联,并随尺度的增大关联性逐渐变得不显著.

  17. Microinfiltração em restaurações de resina de classe II usando diferentes técnícas restauradoras = Microleakage in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos, Oscar Luis Vasquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a infiltração marginal de restaurações classe II com margens cervicais em dentina utilizando diferentes técnicas restauradoras. Foram utilizados quarenta e oito molares humanos hígidos com cavidades proximais padronizadas nas faces mesial e distal com margens cervicais em dentina. Ambas, cavidades e restaurações, foram realizadas pelo mesmo operador. As cavidades foram restauradas através da técnica incremental modificada de Pollack (1988. Os dentes foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos (n = 12 e restaurados como segue: Grupo 1 (controle - Z-250 (3M/ESPE; Grupo 2 - Vitremer (3M/ESPE + Z-250; Grupo 3 - F2000 (3M/ESPE + Z-250; Grupo 4 - Flow-it (3M/ESPE + Z-250. O sistema adesivo Single Bond (3M/ESPE foi aplicado seguindo as instruções do fabricante. Após acabamento e polimento, os dentes foram termociclados por 500 ciclos, entre 5 e 55°C, e impermeabilizados com esmalte de unha, sendo imersos em corante azul de metileno a 1% por 12 horas. Os espécimes foram seccionados e a infiltração avaliada de acordo com ranking padronizado (0-3, por três avaliadores previamente calibrados. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística utilizando o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0. 05. A penetração do corante atingiu o grau máximo na maioria dos espécimes. O grupo 1 apresentou menores valores de infiltração diferindo estatisticamente dos outros grupos. Os grupos 2 e 3 apresentaram valores intermediários, enquanto o grupo 4 teve os valores mais altos, sem, porém, ser estatisticamente diferente do grupo 3. Nenhum grupo foi capaz de selar completamente a interface adesiva

  18. IQ and Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Siv

    1980-01-01

    Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)

  19. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  20. Gender differences in the association of individual social class and neighbourhood unemployment rate with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from the DIAB-CORE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Grit; Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Pundt, Noreen; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-06-21

    To analyse gender differences in the relationship of individual social class, employment status and neighbourhood unemployment rate with present type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Five cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in five regions of Germany from 1997 to 2006. The sample consisted of 8871 individuals residing in 226 neighbourhoods from five urban regions. Prevalent T2DM. We found significant multiplicative interactions between gender and the individual variables--social class and employment status. Social class was statistically significantly associated with T2DM in men and women, whereby this association was stronger in women (lower vs higher social class: OR 2.68 (95% CIs 1.66 to 4.34)) than men (lower vs higher social class: OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.58)). Significant associations of employment status and T2DM were only found in women (unemployed vs employed: OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.92); retired vs employed: OR 1.77 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.84); others vs employed: OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.67)). Neighbourhood unemployment rate was associated with T2DM in men (high vs low tertile: OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.96)). Between-study and between-neighbourhood variations in T2DM prevalence were more pronounced in women. The considered covariates helped to explain statistically the variation in T2DM prevalence among men, but not among women. Social class was inversely associated with T2DM in both men and women, whereby the association was more pronounced in women. Employment status only affected T2DM in women. Neighbourhood unemployment rate is an important predictor of T2DM in men, but not in women.

  1. Effect of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser or diamond bur cavity preparation on the marginal microleakage of class V cavities restored with different adhesives and composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Batu Can; Guray, Begum Efes; Dorter, Can; Gomeç, Yavuz; Yazıcıoglu, Oktay; Erdilek, Dina

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the microleakage of Er:YAG laser and diamond bur on different bonding systems in class V restorations. Class V cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser or diamond bur on 80 intact human molars. Teeth were randomly distributed into ten groups and cavities were restored with CeramX duo (DENTSPLY) or Filtek Silorane (3M/ESPE) using different bonding materials (One Coat 7.0 (Coltène), XP Bond (DENTSPLY), Clearfil Protect Bond (Kuraray), AdperSE (3M/ESPE), and Silorane System Adhesive (3M/ESPE). All specimens were subjected to thermocycling and load cycling. After being immersed in silver nitrate dye, the specimens were sectioned. Microleakage was evaluated by stereomicroscope and SEM. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistically differences were found between groups (p > 0.05) and cavities prepared with the Er:YAG laser showed higher microleakage than diamond bur. The microleakage of different bonding systems was influenced by the choice of diamond bur or Er:YAG laser for class V composite cavity preparation.

  2. A Single Amino Acid Difference within the α-2 Domain of Two Naturally Occurring Equine MHC Class I Molecules Alters the Recognition of Gag and Rev Epitopes by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Specific CTL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Although CTL are critical for control of lentiviruses, including equine infectious anemia virus, relatively little is known regarding the MHC class I molecules that present important epitopes to equine infectious anemia virus-specific CTL. The equine class I molecule 7-6 is associated with the equine leukocyte Ag (ELA)-A1 haplotype and presents the Env-RW12 and Gag-GW12 CTL epitopes. Some ELA-A1 target cells present both epitopes, whereas others are not recognized by Gag-GW12-specific CTL, suggesting that the ELA-A1 haplotype comprises functionally distinct alleles. The Rev-QW11 CTL epitope is also ELA-A1-restricted, but the molecule that presents Rev-QW11 is unknown. To determine whether functionally distinct class I molecules present ELA-A1-restricted CTL epitopes, we sequenced and expressed MHC class I genes from three ELA-A1 horses. Two horses had the 7-6 allele, which when expressed, presented Env-RW12, Gag-GW12, and Rev-QW11 to CTL. The other horse had a distinct allele, designated 141, encoding a molecule that differed from 7-6 by a single amino acid within the α-2 domain. This substitution did not affect recognition of Env-RW12, but resulted in more efficient recognition of Rev-QW11. Significantly, CTL recognition of Gag-GW12 was abrogated, despite Gag-GW12 binding to 141. Molecular modeling suggested that conformational changes in the 141/Gag-GW12 complex led to a loss of TCR recognition. These results confirmed that the ELA-A1 haplotype is comprised of functionally distinct alleles, and demonstrated for the first time that naturally occurring MHC class I molecules that vary by only a single amino acid can result in significantly different patterns of epitope recognition by lentivirus-specific CTL. PMID:17082657

  3. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  4. COMPARING METAL AND TRANSPARENT MATRICES IN PREVENTING GINGIVAL OVERHANG WITH DIFFERENT RESIN MATERIAL IN CLASS II RESTORATIONS – AN SEM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Dinesh Shetty

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparent matrices and reflective wedges are difficult to adapt, thus their ability to prevent gingival overhang was compared in this study with metal matrices and wooden wedges.Class II MOD cavitieswere prepared and randomly divided into six groups. Group I microhybrid composite, Group II flowable composite liner and Group III compomer. In above 3 groups metal matrices and wooden wedges were used. Group IV microhybrid composite, Group V flowable composite liner and GroupVI compomer. In above 3 groups transparent matrices and light reflecting wedges were used.Specimens were filled with respective resin composite material, using corresponding matrix andwedge.Percentage of gingival overhang was determined under SEM.The result showed greateroverhang formation in transparent matrix group compared to metal matrix group as transparentmatrices are difficult to adapt to the teeth

  5. Social class and body management. A qualitative exploration of differences in perceptions and practices related to health and personal body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise H; Holm, Lotte

    2010-10-01

    To deepen our understanding of the relationship between social class and obesity, the study compares the ways in which conceptions of health and personal body weight are enmeshed in the everyday lives of people with disparate socio-cultural backgrounds and weight status. We ask how perceptions and enactments of health and personal body weight are related to social structures and practices at work, in spare time, and in family life. Qualitative interviews focusing on life history and current everyday life were conducted with two groups of Danish adults. One group contained highly educated people of normal weight. The other contained people with less education and body weights above the obesity threshold. Recommended healthy lifestyle regimes complied more fully with the established practices and internalized ideas of those in the normal weight highly educated group than they did with the practices and ideas of those in the high-BMI less educated group. Work environments, and also conditions connected with work that were carried over into spare time and family life, further promoted the integration of healthy lifestyles into the everyday practices of the highly educated, normal weight group. In the less educated, high-BMI group this kind of integration occurred less.

  6. Research on Students’Self-amendment in Class Dialogues for Different Levels of Chinese Learners%不同汉语水平者在汉语口语课堂会话中的自我修正研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫新红

    2014-01-01

    Students’self-amendment is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the dialogue between students in oral Chinese class. The paper makes a research by investigation on the distribution of self-amendment by different levels of Chinese learners in their dialogues in oral Chinese classes and on the inspiration of the amendment theory to the oral Chinese teaching.%自我修正是汉语口语课堂会话中普遍存在的现象,通过实证调查,研究不同汉语水平者在汉语课堂会话中的自我修正分布,研究自我修正理论对汉语口语教学的启示。

  7. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: parte 1 Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio anual da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III. METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na, CC-Ba e CF-Po foram feitas pelo mesmo examinadora em T1 e T2. Os tipos faciais e de relacionamentos foram estudados juntos com a amostragem total e subdividida por gêneros. Os testes de Levene e t de Student foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os resultados confirmaram os valores de Langlade, porém mostraram dimorfismo sexual, com o gênero masculino crescendo significativamente mais que o feminino. Este estudo será de grande aplicação para a previsão de crescimento, prognóstico e o plano de tratamento de pacientes em crescimento.AIM: to assess the cranial base annual mean growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: a random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, with 10 years and 2 months (mixed dentition initial mean age, 14 years and 8 months (second molar occlusion final mean age and 4 years and 5 months mean observation time was selected at a private clinic in São Paulo - Brazil. There were 118 Class I, 151 Class II and 31 Class III. All 600 lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken using the same x-rays equipment. Ricketts and

  8. Teachers in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

  9. Fast and simple procedure for liquid-liquid extraction of 136 analytes from different drug classes for development of a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric quantification method in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, Daniela; Meyer, Markus R; Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-07-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, different extraction procedures as well as analytical methods are used to monitor different drug classes of interest in biosamples. Multi-analyte procedures are preferable because they make the analytical strategy much simpler and cheaper and allow monitoring of analytes of different drug classes in one single body sample. For development of such a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach, a rapid and simple method for the extraction of 136 analytes from the following drug classes has been established: antidepressants, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, oral antidiabetics, and analytes relevant in the context of brain death diagnosis. Recovery, matrix effects, and process efficiency were tested at two concentrations using six different lots of blank plasma. The recovery results obtained using absolute peak areas were compared with those calculated using area ratios analyte/internal standard. The recoveries ranged from 8% to 84% for antidepressants, from 10% to 79% for neuroleptics, from 60% to 81% for benzodiazepines, from 1% to 71% for beta-blockers, from 10% to 73% for antidiabetics, and from 60% to 86% for analytes relevant in the context of brain death diagnosis. With the exception of 52 analytes at low concentration and 37 at high concentration, all compounds showed recoveries with acceptable variability with less than 15% and 20% coefficients of variation. Recovery results obtained by comparing peak area ratios were nearly the same, but 35 analytes at low concentration and 17 at high concentration lay above the acceptance criteria. Matrix effects with more than 25% were observed for 18 analytes. The results were acceptable for 119 analytes at high concentrations.

  10. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  11. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  12. Out about class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L; Sell, I

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lesbian activist Léonie Walker traces the evolution of her involvement in social change philanthropy and her work to bring together activists of diverse class and racial backgrounds. She shows how she was trained as an activist, discusses conscious and socially responsible ways to steward wealth, and gives voice to the seldom-heard experiences of LGBT people with inherited wealth. The co-founder of the Women Managing Wealth program at the Ms. Foundation and a board member of Astraea Lesbian Action Foundation, she has also developed and facilitated numerous Dismantling Classism workshops. In this article, she discusses the importance of, and ways of implementing, cross-class, cross-race dialogue that can further understanding among activists of different backgrounds.

  13. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  14. Caracterização química e mineralógica de agregados de diferentes classes de tamanho de Latossolos Bruno e Vermelho localizados no estado do Paraná Chemical and mineralogical characterization of the different structure size classes of Red-Yellow and Dusky Red Latosols in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander de Freitas Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O teor e a forma dos minerais da fração argila são determinantes na definição da morfologia dos agregados do solo. Objetivando estudar a mineralogia da fração argila e as propriedades químicas de diferentes classes de agregados de Latossolos (Latossolo Bruno Ácrico húmico - LBd e Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico húmico - LVdf originados de rochas basálticas no Estado do Paraná, coletaram-se amostras indeformadas em diferentes profundidades (horizontes Bw1 e Bw2 em perfis de solos localizados em duas toposseqüências (quatro perfis no LBd e três no LVdf. Após secagem e separação das amostras indeformadas em seis classes de agregados (2-4; 1-2; 0,5-1; 0,25-0,5; 0,105-0,25; The content and shap of clay minerals are important in the definition of soil structure morphology. To evaluate the clay mineralogy and chemical properties of different aggregate size-classes of Latosols (Red-Yellow - LBd and Dusky Red - LVdf derived from basalt in the state of Paraná, Brazil, soil samples of the Bw1 and Bw2 horizons were collected in four LBd and three LVdf profiles, distributed across two distinct toposequences. Dried and undisturbed soil samples were separated into six size-classes (2-4; 1-2; 0.5-1; 0.25-0.5; 0.105-0.25; < 0.105 mm and the soluble Si in 0,5 mol L-1 acetic acid and exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and Al contents were determined. The clay fraction extracted from each aggregate size-class was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and chemical analysis. The content of exchangeable elements did not vary among the aggregate size-classes in the Bw1 and Bw2 horizons for Red-Yellow and Dusky Red Latosol profiles. In spite of the high and continuous weathering of these soils the mineralogical characteristics of the aggregate clay fraction were not homogenized. The highest variation in the mineral contents, according to the aggregate size class, was observed for the profile in the highest position of the LBd toposequence; the

  15. Broadly Immunogenic HLA Class I Supertype-Restricted Elite CTL Epitopes Recognized in a Diverse Population Infected with Different HIV-1 Subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, Carina L; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Gustafsson, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    The genetic variations of the HIV-1 virus and its human host constitute major obstacles for obtaining potent HIV-1-specific CTL responses in individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds infected with different HIV-1 variants. In this study, we developed and used a novel algorithm to select 184 predi...

  16. Modern and Postmodern Teaching Styles and Students' Perceived Levels of Motivation and Engagement in Christian High School Bible Classes: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined potential differences between modern and postmodern teaching styles and students' perceived levels of motivation and engagement, using Christian high school Bible teachers and their students. Twenty-four teachers were categorized as either modern or postmodern in style using a Teaching Style Inventory (TSI). These same teachers…

  17. Concentration of cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-I and immunoglobulin G class in blood of neonatal calves of different body mass at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine whether concentrations of cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and immunoglobulin G class (IgG, in fact blood parameters which are believed to be of extreme importance in the postnatal survival of calves, are dependant on the body mass of calves at birth. Investigations were performed on 12 newborn calves of the Holstein-Friesian breed, placed into two groups on the grounds of their body mass at birth. The first group (n=6 comprised calves whose body mass was more than 35 kg at birth (41.67±3.08 kg, while the second group (n=6 comprised calves whose body mass at birth was less than 35 kg (32.00±3.58 kg. Blood samples were taken immediately preceding the consuming of colostrum, as well as at 32 hours of neonatal life. Cortisol and IGF-I concentrations were determined in blood serum samples taken immediately before colostrum consumption, while IgG concentration was determined in the samples taken 32 hours after the birth of the calves. The cortisol concentration in calves born with a greater body mass (61.51±32.78 nmol/l was lower (p=0.052 than in calves born with a smaller body mass (94.89±17.74 nmol/l. A significant negative correlation (r= -0.592; p<0.05 was established between the body mass of calves at birth and the cortisol concentration. The IGF-I concentration determined immediately following birth in calves with a greater boy mass at birth (10.17±1.71 nmol/l was statistically significantly higher (p<0.05 in comparison with calves born with a smaller body mass (7.04±1.15 nmol/l. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.519; p<0.10 between the body mass of calves at birth and the IGF-I concentration. Thirty-two hours following birth, the IgG concentration in blood serum of calves born with a bigger body mass (18.72±1.99 g/l was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in calves born with a smaller body mass (11.68±4.79 g/l. A significant positive correlation was established

  18. Occurrence of different classes of perfluorinated compounds in Greek wastewater treatment plants and determination of their solid-water distribution coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, Olga S. [Water and Air Quality Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene (Greece); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Zografou, 15771 Athens (Greece); Ventouri, Elpida I. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Zografou, 15771 Athens (Greece); Stasinakis, Athanasios S. [Water and Air Quality Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene (Greece); Thomaidis, Nikolaos S., E-mail: ntho@chem.uoa.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Zografou, 15771 Athens (Greece)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eighteen PFCs were determined in wastewater and sludge samples using LC-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS were the dominating compounds in both WWTPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant decrease or even increase of most PFCs was noticed in effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distribution coefficients of PFCs were calculated for different types of sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorption potential was affected by the target compound and the type of sludge. - Abstract: The concentrations of eighteen perfluorinated compounds (PFCs: C5-C14 carboxylates, C4, C6-C8 and C10 sulfonates and 3 sulfonamides) were determined in wastewater and sludge samples originating from two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (dissolved phase) or sonication followed by solid phase extraction (solid phase). Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by LC-MS/MS. According to the results, perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge samples from both plants. The average concentrations in the raw and treated wastewater ranged up to 75.7 ng L{sup -1} (perfluorotridecanoic acid, PFTrDA) and 76.0 ng L{sup -1} (PFPeA), respectively. Concentrations of most PFCs were higher in effluents than in influents, indicating their formation during wastewater treatment processes. In sewage sludge, the average concentrations ranged up to 6.7 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (PFOS). No significant seasonal variations in PFCs concentrations were observed, while higher concentrations of PFOA, PFOS and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were determined in the WWTP receiving municipal and industrial wastewater. Significantly different distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) values were determined for different PFCs and different type of sludge, ranging between 169 L kg{sup -1} (PFHx

  19. Desempenho produtivo de bovinos Nelore de diferentes classes sexuais alimentados com dietas contendo dois níveis de oferta de concentrado Productive performance of Nellore cattle of different gender fed diets containing two levels of concentrate allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2008-06-01

    fed during 112 days, and slaughtered at the end of the trial with a reference group slaughtered at the beginning of the trial. The young bulls were more efficient and had heavier body weight (BW and empty body weight (EBW, as a result of their increased growth rate in relation to the heifers, with the steers presenting intermediate values. The relative intakes (% BW of dry matter and of all other nutrients were superior in the heifers in relations to the young bulls, while the steers showed intermediate values. The digestibilities, except EE, were unaffected by sexual class. The digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for the diet with concentrate allowance of 1.2% BW. Sexual class affected the growth and the intake capacity of the animals, however with no effect on the digestibility of the nutrients of the diet. Concentrate allowance levels of 0.6 and 1.2% BW were not sufficient to elicit difference in the performance of Nellore cattle, independently of sex class.

  20. The effects of lumiracoxib 100 mg once daily vs. ibuprofen 600 mg three times daily on the blood pressure profiles of hypertensive osteoarthritis patients taking different classes of antihypertensive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T M; Richard, D; Lheritier, K; Krammer, G

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether the blood pressure (BP) profiles of lumiracoxib and high-dose ibuprofen differed in patients treated with different classes of antihypertensive medications. Methods: A 4-week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind study has compared the effects of lumiracoxib 100 mg once daily (od) (n = 394) and ibuprofen 600 mg three times daily (tid) (n = 393) on ambulatory BP in osteoarthritis (OA) patients with controlled hypertension. Here, we present subgroup analyses for patients receiving different antihypertensive classes. The primary outcome was a comparison of the change in 24-h mean systolic ambulatory BP (MSABP) from baseline to week 4. Patients receiving angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) represented the largest subgroups receiving antihypertensive monotherapy. Results: For patients receiving an ARB monotherapy, the least squares mean (LSM) 24-h MSABP at week 4 fell with lumiracoxib 100 mg od and increased with ibuprofen 600 mg tid, creating an estimated treatment difference of 8.1 mmHg in favour of lumiracoxib (p treatment difference was 8.2 mmHg (p treatment differences were greater than observed in the overall population (5.0 mmHg in favour of lumiracoxib). In patients receiving diuretics or calcium channel blockers, treatment differences in MSABP were smaller and not statistically significant, although they remained in favour of lumiracoxib. Conclusion: Lumiracoxib 100 mg od resulted in less destabilisation of BP than high-dose ibuprofen 600 mg tid, and this effect was the greatest in subgroups treated with drugs blocking the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:20518950

  1. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  2. Exposure of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to different classes of insecticides exhibit distinct molecular effect patterns at concentrations that mimic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Pesticides are implicated in the decline of honey bee populations. Many insecticides are neurotoxic and act by different modes of actions. Although a link between insecticide exposure and changed behaviour has been made, molecular effects underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here we elucidated molecular effects at environmental realistic concentrations of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, the pyrethroid cypermethrin, and the ryanodine receptor activator, chlorantraniliprole. We assessed transcriptional alterations of selected genes at three exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) in caged honey bees exposed to different concentrations of these compounds. Our targeted gene expression concept focused on several transcripts, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α 1 and α 2 (nAChRα1, nAChRα2) subunits, the multifunctional gene vitellogenin, immune system related genes of three immune system pathways, genes belonging to the detoxification system and ER stress genes. Our data indicate a dynamic pattern of expressional changes at different exposure times. All four insecticides induced strong alterations in the expression of immune system related genes suggesting negative implications for honey bee health, as well as cytochrome P450 enzyme transcripts suggesting an interference with metabolism. Exposure to neurotoxic chlorpyrifos, malathion and cypermethrin resulted in up-regulation of nAChRα1 and nAChRα2. Moreover, alterations in the expression of vitellogenin occurred, which suggests implications on foraging activity. Chlorantraniliprole induced ER stress which may be related to toxicity. The comparison of all transcriptional changes indicated that the expression pattern is rather compound-specific and related to its mode of action, but clusters of common transcriptional changes between different compounds occurred. As transcriptional alterations occurred at environmental concentrations our data provide a molecular basis for observed

  3. Bimodal activation of different neuron classes with the spectrally red-shifted channelrhodopsin chimera C1V1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Erbguth

    Full Text Available The C. elegans nervous system is particularly well suited for optogenetic analyses of circuit function: Essentially all connections have been mapped, and light can be directed at the neuron of interest in the freely moving, transparent animals, while behavior is observed. Thus, different nodes of a neuronal network can be probed for their role in controlling a particular behavior, using different optogenetic tools for photo-activation or -inhibition, which respond to different colors of light. As neurons may act in concert or in opposing ways to affect a behavior, one would further like to excite these neurons concomitantly, yet independent of each other. In addition to the blue-light activated Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2, spectrally red-shifted ChR variants have been explored recently. Here, we establish the green-light activated ChR chimera C1V1 (from Chlamydomonas and Volvox ChR1's for use in C. elegans. We surveyed a number of red-shifted ChRs, and found that C1V1-ET/ET (E122T; E162T works most reliable in C. elegans, with 540-580 nm excitation, which leaves ChR2 silent. However, as C1V1-ET/ET is very light sensitive, it still becomes activated when ChR2 is stimulated, even at 400 nm. Thus, we generated a highly efficient blue ChR2, the H134R; T159C double mutant (ChR2-HR/TC. Both proteins can be used in the same animal, in different neurons, to independently control each cell type with light, enabling a further level of complexity in circuit analyses.

  4. [Evaluation of image quality using the normalized-rank approach for primary class liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors with different colors and resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidefumi; Katayama, Reiji; Sakaguchi, Taro; Maeda, Takashi; Morishita, Junji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the image quality of five types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors by utilizing the normalized-rank approach and to investigate the effect of LCD monitor specifications, such as display colors, luminance, and resolution, on the evaluators' ranking. The LCD monitors used in this study were 2, 3 and 5 mega-pixel monochrome LCD monitors, and 2 and 3 mega-pixel color LCD monitors (Eizo Nanao Corporation). All LCD monitors were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) with different maximum luminance (recommended luminance) settings. Also, four kinds of radiographs were used for observer study based on the normalized-rank approach: three adult chest radiographs, three pediatric chest radiographs, three ankle joint radiographs, and four double-contrasted upper gastrointestinal radiographs. Ten radiological technologists participated in the observer study. Monochrome LCD monitors exhibited superior ranking with statistically significant differences (pLCD monitors in all kinds of radiographs. The major difference between monochrome and color monitors was luminance. Therefore, it is considered that the luminance of LCD monitors affects observers' evaluations based on image quality. Moreover, in the case of radiographs that include high frequency image components, the monitor resolution also affects the evaluation. In clinical practice, it is necessary to optimize the luminance and choose appropriate LCD monitors for diagnostic images.

  5. 再分配与幸福感阶层差异的变迁(2005-2013)%Redistribution and the Change of Class Differences of Subjective Well-Being, 2005-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪岩璧

    2017-01-01

    本文利用两期CGSS的调查数据,比较分析了2005年和2013年不同社会阶层的幸福感差异,并尝试从国家再分配能力变化的视角探讨其原因.首先,通过年度比较发现,所有职业阶层的主观幸福感皆有提升,但由于测量问题,需谨慎对待这一结论.其次,同一年度内不同职业阶层间的幸福感差异可以被收入变量和教育变量所解释.再次,中下阶层,尤其是农民和无业下岗阶层的幸福感上升幅度远大于中上阶层(管理者和专业人员阶层).然后,用分层线性模型(HLM)分析发现,这一阶层差异变迁和国家近十年在财政汲取和再分配水平上的提升有关.在2005年较低的宏观税负和再分配水平下,其增长更有利于提升较高收入群体的幸福感,但在2013年较高的水平下,宏观税负和再分配水平的增长对不同收入群体的幸福感无差异化影响.这些结果说明中国社会结构变迁可能进入了一个新的阶段,再分配力量对人们生活机遇和福祉的影响日益凸显.%Using CGSS2005 and CGSS2013, this paper analyzes the class differences of subjective well-being (SWB) between 2005 and 2013, and attempts to explore the effects of state redistribution capability on this change.First, the longitudinal comparison finds that the SWB of all classes improved significantly during that period, however, due to the potential measurement issues, such a conclusion should be regarded with caution.Second, the differences between occupational classes can be explained by variations in income and education.Nevertheless, the model R2 in 2013 is much smaller than the R2 in 2005, indicating a possible change in the pattern of SWB formation.Third, the degree of SWB improvement of lower classes is significantly higher than middle-and upper classes (managers and professionals).An analysis on satisfaction in year-to-year comparison also shows a significant decrease of satisfaction among managers and professionals

  6. Pedotransfer functions for water retention in different soil classes from the center-southern Rio Grande do Sul State Funções de pedotransferência para retenção de água em diferentes classes de solos no centro-sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water retention in soil is used in many agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct measurement is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs are alternatives to obtain this information faster and more economically. The objectives of this study were to generate and validate PTFs to estimate the water content at potentials of -33 kPa (field capacity and -1500 kPa (permanent wilting point for different soil classes from the central-south portion of Rio Grande do Sul State. The physical and chemical analyses database from soil surveys of the Celulose Riograndense Corp were used. The database is composed of particle size distribution (coarse and fine sand, silt and clay, soil organic matter, and water content data at the above mentioned potentials, besides other information concerning the behavior of the soil classes at field conditions. Firstly, the data were stratified by soil classes and depths, and then 70% of the data were separated for PTF generation and 30% for validation. PTFs were generated for each specific soil class and also general PTFs which were not stratified by soil class, by means of stepwise multiple regression. In most situations, PTFs for a specific soil class showed a better fit than the general PTFs. Proper adjustment of the data showed that the water retention values at potentials of -33 kPa and -1500 kPa can be estimated for the soils from the central-south portion of Rio Grande do Sul State that do not have such analyses through the use of PTFs.A retenção de água no solo é utilizada em diversas aplicações agronômicas e ambientais, porém sua medição direta consome tempo e dinheiro. Por isso, funções de pedotransferência (FPTs são alternativas para a obtenção dessas informações de forma mais rápida e econômica. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se gerar e validar FPTs, para estimar o conteúdo de água nos potenciais de -33 kPa (capacidade de campo e -1500 kPa (ponto de

  7. Gender and life course occupational social class differences in trajectories of functional limitations in midlife: findings from the 1946 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Emily T; Hardy, Rebecca; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Cooper, Rachel; Guralnik, Jack M; Kuh, Diana

    2011-12-01

    Older women and those of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) consistently constitute a larger portion of the disabled population than older men or those of higher SEP, yet no studies have examined when in the life course these differences emerge. Prevalence of self-reported limitations in the upper body (gripping or reaching) and lower body (walking or stair climbing) at 43 and 53 years were utilized from 1,530 men and 1,518 women from the British 1946 birth cohort. Generalized linear models with a binomial distribution were used to examine the effects of gender, childhood and adult SEP, and the differences in the SEP effects by gender on the prevalence of limitations at age 43 years and changes in prevalence from 43 to 53 years. For both genders, the prevalence of upper and lower body limitations were reported at 3%-5% at age 43 years. However, by age 53 years, women's upper body limitations had increased to 28% and lower body limitations to 21%, whereas men's limitations had only increased to 12% and 11%, respectively. Men and women whose father's occupation was manual or whose adult head of household occupation was manual had higher prevalence of both limitations compared with those with non-manual backgrounds. These differences widened with age, especially in women. The effect of adult SEP on the prevalence of limitations was stronger than that of childhood SEP and was partly mediated by educational attainment. Our findings provide the first evidence that prevention of disability in old age should begin early in midlife, especially for women from manual occupation households.

  8. Perceptual qualities and material classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Roland W; Wiebel, Christiane; Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2013-07-11

    Under typical viewing conditions, we can easily group materials into distinct classes (e.g., woods, plastics, textiles). Additionally, we can also make many other judgments about material properties (e.g., hardness, rigidity, colorfulness). Although these two types of judgment (classification and inferring material properties) have different requirements, they likely facilitate one another. We conducted two experiments to investigate the interactions between material classification and judgments of material qualities in both the visual and semantic domains. In Experiment 1, nine students viewed 130 images of materials from 10 different classes. For each image, they rated nine subjective properties (glossiness, transparency, colorfulness, roughness, hardness, coldness, fragility, naturalness, prettiness). In Experiment 2, 65 subjects were given the verbal names of six material classes, which they rated in terms of 42 adjectives describing material qualities. In both experiments, there was notable agreement between subjects, and a relatively small number of factors (weighted combinations of different qualities) were substantially independent of one another. Despite the difficulty of classifying materials from images (Liu, Sharan, Adelson, & Rosenholtz, 2010), the different classes were well clustered in the feature space defined by the subjective ratings. K-means clustering could correctly identify class membership for over 90% of the samples, based on the average ratings across subjects. We also found a high degree of consistency between the two tasks, suggesting subjects access similar information about materials whether judging their qualities visually or from memory. Together, these findings show that perceptual qualities are well defined, distinct, and systematically related to material class membership.

  9. Lipschitz classes on local fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-yi SU; Guo-xiang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The Lipschitz class Lipα on a local field K is defined in this note, and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipα and the Holder type space Cα (K) is proved. Then, those important characteristics on the Euclidean space Rn and the local field K are compared, so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on Rn and K. Finally, the Cantor type fractal function (V)(x) is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip (m, K), m < ln2/ln3.

  10. Lipschitz classes on local fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Lipschitz class Lipαon a local field K is defined in this note,and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipαand the Holder type space C~α(K)is proved.Then,those important characteristics on the Euclidean space R~n and the local field K are compared,so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on R~n and K.Finally,the Cantor type fractal functionθ(x)is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip(m,K),m<(ln 2/ln 3).

  11. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  12. Occurrence, fate, and mass balance of different classes of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic wastewater treatment plant in Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Li, Yan; Wang, Yuwen; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Han; Chen, Xiangqiang; Wu, Wei; Huang, Zhenyi; Yu, Chang-Ping; Sun, Qian

    2017-10-15

    In this study, the occurrence and fate of 49 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were investigated in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2/O) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for seven consecutive days using 24-h composite sampling technique. Special emphasis was placed to understand the distribution of PPCPs in dissolved and adsorbed phase, and to evaluate PPCP fate in different treatment units. Among the 49 PPCPs, 40 PPCPs in influent, 36 in effluent, 29 in sludge and 23 in suspended solids were detected at least once during sampling. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and a stimulant were predominant PPCPs in influent whereas antibiotics were predominant in sludge, effluent and suspended solids. Removal efficiencies from the aqueous phase based on the dissolved PPCPs showed variable contribution in removing different PPCPs under screen and grit chamber, anaerobic treatment, anoxic treatment, oxic treatment and sedimentation-UV treatments, with the highest removal percentage by anaerobic process in terms of both individual and overall treatment. Mass load analysis showed that 352 g PPCPs enter the WWTP daily while 14.5 g and 58.1 g were discharged through effluent and excess sludge to the receiving sea water and soil applications, respectively. Mass balance analysis based on both aqueous and suspended PPCPs showed 280 g (79.4%) mass of influent PPCPs was lost along the wastewater treatment processes, mainly due to degradation/transformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaccination against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in MHC class II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2011-01-01

    response could be elicited in MHC class II-deficient mice by vaccination with adenovirus encoding lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein tethered to MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Moreover, the response induced conferred significant cytolytic CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection...... against challenge with a high dose of the invasive clone 13 strain of LCMV. In contrast, vaccination with adenovirus encoding unlinked LCMV glycoprotein induced weak virus control in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, and mice may die of increased immunopathology associated with incomplete protection. Acute...

  14. Comparative evaluation of the microtensile bond strength of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Sonali; Kumar, Pragya; Kumar, Avnish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum. Materials and Methods: Standardized conservative box-shaped Class II cavities were prepared on sixty sound-impacted human third molars. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (n = 30) - horizontal incremental technique and Group II (n = 30) - bulk fill technique (SonicFill). They were further subdivided into three subgroups of (n = 10) samples each according to the different occluso-gingival height: subgroup (A - 4 mm, B - 5 mm, and C - 6 mm). The gingival margins for all the samples were located 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The restored samples were subjected to thermocycling (500 cycles) followed by μTBS testing. The scores were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc test using SPSS software version 16. Results: Subgroups IA and IB showed lower μTBS than subgroups IIA and IIB (P < 0.05) whereas subgroup IC showed higher μTBS than subgroup IIC (P < 0.05). SonicFill showed a significant reduction in μTBS as the depth increased. Conclusion: SonicFill should be used in two increments for cavities with a depth of more than 5 mm. PMID:27994314

  15. Control Class Summaries and Control Class IV from April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-22

    The D0 cryogenic control system is a complicated system with many facets. Because of the large number and variety of features in the system, a series of ongoing control system training seminars, or control classes, were created in order to keep people up to date on the operation of the system. As of the writing of this engineering note, there have been four classes. The original lecture notes from each class can be found in the cryogenic control room at the D0 Assembly Building, or in the Co-op office. This note provides a summary of the first three control classes, and it includes the entire set of notes from the fourth class, which was held in April of 1990. This class was taught by Jeff Wendlandt and Dan Markley. Dan should be consulted for more complete explanations than those given in the notes. The notes are, in fact, more of a reference for someone who has some experience with the system, than they are a training manual. Most of the pages include pictures and printouts of different menus and functions, useful for finding details without searching through the actual program. In general, this note serves as a pointer to the existence of the control class lecture notes, and as an explanation of their overall contents and purpose.

  16. Hirzebruch-Milnor classes of complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Maxim, Laurentiu; Schuermann, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We prove a new formula for the Hirzebruch-Milnor classes of global complete intersections with arbitrary singularities describing the difference between the Hirzebruch classes and the virtual ones. This generalizes a formula for the Chern-Milnor classes in the hypersurface case that was conjectured by S. Yokura and was proved by A. Parusinski and P. Pragacz. It also generalizes a formula of T. Suwa for the Chern-Milnor classes of complete intersections with isolated singularities.

  17. Immunogenetics of rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome: DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Andersen, V; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    . The frequencies of DNA fragments associated with the following HLA class II genes were increased in RA when compared to normal controls: DRB1*04 (DR4) (relative risk, RR = 7.4, P less than 10(-3), DRB4*0101 (DRw53) (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQA1*0301 (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQB1*0301 (DQw7) (RR = 2.......05). The frequencies in RA of other HLA class II associated DNA fragments including DPA and DPB and the antigens DPw1-w6 defined by primed lymphocyte stimulation, did not differ significantly from those in controls. In primary SS, the frequency of HLA-B8 was significantly increased (RR = 9.0, P less than 10......(-3). Positive associations were found between primary SS and DNA fragments associated with DRB1*03/13 (RR = 6.8, P less than 10(-3), DRB3*0101 (DRw52) (RR = 5.7, P less than 10(-2), DQA1*0501 (RR = 6.8, P less than 10(-3), DQB1*0201 (DQw2) (RR = 11.6, P less than 10(-5), and DQB1*0602 (DQw6) (RR = 2.7, P less...

  18. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  19. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaMx25 reveals a novel siphovirus group related to phages infecting hosts of different taxonomic classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Víctor; Sepúlveda-Robles, Omar; Cazares, Adrián; Kameyama, Luis; Guarneros, Gabriel

    2017-08-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are estimated to be the most abundant and diverse entities in the biosphere harboring vast amounts of novel genetic information. Despite the genetic diversity observed, many phages share common features, such as virion morphology, genome size and organization, and can readily be associated with clearly defined phage groups. However, other phages display unique genomes or, alternatively, mosaic genomes composed of regions that share homology with those of phages of diverse origins; thus, their relationships cannot be easily assessed. In this work, we present a functional and comparative genomic analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaMx25, a virulent member of the Siphoviridae family. The genomes of PaMx25 and a highly homologous phage NP1, bore sequence homology and synteny with the genomes of phages that infect hosts different than Pseudomonas. In order to understand the relationship of the PaMx25 genome with that of other phages, we employed several computational approaches. We found that PaMx25 and NP1 effectively bridged several phage groups. It is expected that as more phage genomes become available, more gaps will be filled, blurring the boundaries that currently separate phage groups.

  1. Three-dimensional study of oropharyngeal airway structural differences between sagittal skeletal Class Ⅰ and Ⅱ patients%骨型Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类患者口咽气道三维结构差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦璐; 邹冰爽; 余哲; 赵颖

    2015-01-01

    目的 利用三维影像扫描和重建技术、三维头影测量技术,比较骨型Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类正畸患者口咽气道的三维结构差异.方法 根据研究对象的骨面型分为骨型Ⅰ类组和骨型Ⅱ类组,年龄、性别严格匹配、均角研究对象共22对.将所有研究对象正畸初诊时拍摄的全头颅CBCT影像导入Dolphin Imaging 3D软件进行三维重建并分别测量其口咽气道、腭咽气道、舌咽气道的气道容积、气道长度、最小横截面积、最小横截面矢状径、横径及其比例关系,对两组间的气道指标进行统计学分析比较.结果 骨型Ⅱ类患者的舌咽气道最小横截面积[(144.27±68.30) mm2]及口咽气道最小横截面矢状径[(8.28±2.58) mm]较骨型Ⅰ类患者[(193.93±71.54) mm2,(9.76±2.22) mm]小(P≤0.05).结论 骨型Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类患者口咽气道三维结构具有一定差异,矢状骨型对口咽气道结构具有一定影响.%Objective To study and compare the 3D structural differences of oropharyngeal airway between sagittal skeletal class Ⅰ and Ⅱ patients by 3-dimensional imaging,reconstruction and measurement.Methods 22 paired patients who were of vertical skeletal class Ⅰ and strictly matched according to age,gender,were divided into sagittal skeletal class Ⅰ and Ⅱ groups.Patients' CBCT image data at first visit were reconstructed by Dolphin Imaging 3D software.Then airway volume,minimum axial area and airway length of oropharyngeal,velopharyngeal and glossopharyngeal airway,anteroposterior and lateral length of the minimum axial area were measured and compared.Results The minimum axial area of glossopharyngeal airway in skeletal class Ⅱ patients [(144.27 ± 68.30) mm2] and anteroposterior of length minimum axial area [(8.28±2.58) mm] were significantly smaller than that of skeletal class Ⅰ patients [(193.93±71.54) mm2,(9.76±2.22) mm](P≤0.05).Conclusions Skeletal class Ⅰ and Ⅱ patients present different oropharyngeal airway

  2. On differential characteristic classes

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Man-Ho

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give explicit formulas of differential characteristic classes of principal $G$-bundles with connections and prove their expected properties. In particular, we obtain explicit formulas for differential Chern classes, differential Pontryagin classes and differential Euler class. Furthermore, we show that the differential Chern class is the unique natural transformation from (Simons-Sullivan) differential $K$-theory to (Cheeger-Simons) differential characters that is compatible ...

  3. The Effect of Class Size and Grade Difference on Teaching Evaluation%学生评教中班级人数和年级差异的影响探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芳

    2012-01-01

    Students directly involved in the assessment of teaching evaluation reflects the most intuitive effectiveness of higher education institution.Student appraisal has a significant help in enhancing the quality of teaching.In this paper,some factors affecting the scores of teaching evaluation,such as class size and grade difference,are analyzed quantitatively based on lots of statistical data.The results show that small classes with 20 or less students are better for new students,and the bigger class with more than 20 students is good for the teaching quality improvement of higher grades students.%学生直接参与教学质量评估可以最直观地体现高等教育机构的人才培养效果,对提高教学质量有着十分重要的作用。针对影响学生评教结果客观性的若干因素,通过大量统计数据定量地分析了班级人数和年级差异对教学质量评估的影响。研究结果表明,对于新生,适宜采用人数小于20人的小班授课模式,而21~75人的中班授课模式将给高年级学生带来最佳的教学效果。

  4. Study on Water-Holding Properties of Litter Layer of Sapindus mukorossi Plantation with Different Age Class%不同林龄无患子人工林枯落物的持水性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成功; 万志兵; 李燕; 戴淑娟; 姜航; 王立超; 徐胜林

    2015-01-01

    By using the methods of field investigation and soaking extraction,the water-holding properties of lit-ter layer of Sapindus mukorossi plantation with different age class were investigated,and the regression relationship be-tween the water-holding properties and soaking time,water uptake rate and soaking time was build.The results showed that:the water-holding properties of litter layer of Sapindus mukorossi plantation with different age class existed signif-icant differences.There was a polynomial regression relationship between the water-holding properties and the age class.The class I of Sapindus mukorossi plantation had the best water-holding properties.The natural water holding ca-pacity,natural water holding rate,the maximum of water-holding content,the maximum of water-holding rate,the big-gest net capacity were all the highest.The water-holding capacity in Sapindus mukorossi plantation with different age class increased in the form of logarithmic functional model with the increase of soaking time,with the correlation coef-ficient from 0.912 4 to 0.919 4.The water-absorption rates of the litters decreased in the form of power function,with the correlation coefficient between 0.986 0 and 0.987 5.The water-absorption rates became lower with the increase of soaking time.The water-absorption rate was 195.25 g/h while soaking in the water for 1 h.It reduced to 109.81 g/h while soaking in the water for 2 h.After 20 h,the water-absorption rates became zero.%采用枯落物林地调查和浸泡实验法,研究黄山地区不同林龄无患子人工林枯落物层的水文效应,建立枯落物持水量与浸水时间、吸水速率和浸水时间之间的回归关系。结果表明:同一人工林内3个龄级无患子林分枯落物持水特性差异显著,龄级与持水特性间呈多项式回归,第Ⅰ龄级林分枯落物的持水性能最佳,其自然持水量、自然持水率、最大持水量、最大持水率、最大净持水量均最大;

  5. Resistance to Antibiotics, Biocides, Preservatives and Metals in Bacteria Isolated from Seafoods: Co-Selection of Strains Resistant or Tolerant to Different Classes of Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, José L.; Grande Burgos, María J.; Pérez-Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria (particularly those producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases) have become a major health concern. The continued exposure to antibiotics, biocides, chemical preservatives, and metals in different settings such as the food chain or in the environment may result in development of multiple resistance or co-resistance. The aim of the present study was to determine multiple resistances (biocides, antibiotics, chemical preservatives, phenolic compounds, and metals) in bacterial isolates from seafoods. A 75.86% of the 87 isolates studied were resistant to at least one antibiotic or one biocide, and 6.90% were multiply resistant to at least three biocides and at least three antibiotics. Significant (P isolates selected according to antimicrobial resistance profile and food type were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and tested for copper and zinc tolerance. Then, the genetic determinants for biocide and metal tolerance and antibiotic resistance were investigated. The selected isolates were identified as Pseudomonas (63.33%), Acinetobacter (13.33%), Aeromonas (13.33%), Shewanella, Proteus and Listeria (one isolate each). Antibiotic resistance determinants detected included sul1 (43.33% of tested isolates), sul2 (6.66%), blaTEM (16.66%), blaCTX−M (16.66%), blaPSE (10.00%), blaIMP (3.33%), blaNDM−1 (3.33%), floR (16.66%), aadA1 (20.0%), and aac(6′)-Ib (16.66%). The only biocide resistance determinant detected among the selected isolates was qacEΔ1 (10.00%). A 23.30 of the selected isolates were able to grow on media containing 32 mM copper sulfate, and 46.60% on 8 mM zinc chloride. The metal resistance genes pcoA/copA, pcoR, and chrB were detected in 36.66, 6.66, and 13.33% of selected isolates, respectively. Twelve isolates tested positive for both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, including one isolate positive for the carbapenemase gene blaNDM−1 and for pcoA/copA. These results suggest that exposure to metals could co-select for

  6. Expression of the P2X2 receptor in different classes of ileum myenteric neurons in the female obese ob/ob mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Márcia Sanae Mizuno; Amanda Rabello Crisma; Primavera Borelli; Patricia Castelucci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine whether the ob/ob mouse model of obesity is accompanied by enteric nervous system abnormalities such as altered motility.METHODS:The study examined the distribution of the P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) in myenteric neurons of female ob/ob mice.Specifically,we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the co-expression of the P2X2R with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS),choline acetyltransferase (ChAT),and calretinin (CalR) in neurons of the small intestine myenteric plexus in ob/ob and control female mice.In these sections,we used scanning confocal microscopy to analyze the co-localization of these markers as well as the neuronal density (cm2) and area profile (μm2) of P2X2R-positive neurons.In addition,enteric neurons were labeled using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase method and analyzed with light microscopy as an alternate means by which to analyze neuronal density and area.RESULTS:In the present study,we observed a 29.6% increase in the body weight of the ob/ob animals (OG)compared to the control group (CG).In addition,the average small intestine area was increased by approximately 29.6% in the OG compared to the CG.Immunoreactivity (IR) for the P2X2R,nNOS,ChAT and CalR was detectable in the myenteric plexus,as well as in the smooth muscle,in both groups.This IR appeared to be mainly cytoplasmic and was also associated with the cell membrane of the myenteric plexus neurons,where it outlined the neuronal cell bodies and their processes.P2X2R-IR was observed to co-localize 100% with that for nNOS,ChAT and CalR in neurons of both groups.In the ob/ob group,however,we observed that the neuronal density (neuron/cm2) of P2X2R-IR cells was increased by 62% compared to CG,while that of NOS-IR and ChAT-IR neurons was reduced by 49% and 57%,respectively,compared to control mice.The neuronal density of CalR-IR neurons was not different between the groups.Morphometric studies further demonstrated that the cell body profile area (

  7. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    Mercedes chassis runner bends outwards, because of the possibility of embedding a larger drum or because of lowering the existing one in order to lower the focus down and thus increase the stability of the entire vehicle. Recommendations of the body tipper manufacturer A body tipper is an example of a torsionally flexible superstructure. Fig. 10 shows some types of sites and links, as well as some structural requirements of Volvo and Mercedes tippers [2, 3, 4]. Linking the main frame with the mounting one is performed using the console connection in the front part while near the axles connecting plates are used. To ensure the stability of the vehicle when unloading and to reduce stress, the frames are stiffened in the rear (Fig. 8. Recommendations of the manufacturer for mounting tanks Tank compartments are usually of circular or elliptical cross section, and as such they have large shaft, polar or torsion inertional moments. If the theories of material resistance and construction resistance are applied, it can be easily shown that the bending and torsion rigidity directly depend on the size of the moment inertia; x x c ~ I ; ϕ ϕ c ~ I , from which it can be concluded that the tank is a very rigid structure regarding bending and twisting. To connect the superstructure to the vehicle base, two-way elastic connections are used. Fig. 9 shows a twin-shaft Volvo tank with the number and types of connections used in connecting the main frame with the tank compartment. Three-axle tanks and four-axle tanks with the type and number of links of the main vehicle frame with the tank compartment are also shown. Similarly to the case of the tipper MB [3], there is no much information about linking the basic frame with the tank. Fig. 9 shows only a simplified method of coupling, without defining the number of connections and a more detailed description of connections. However, an important difference observed in relation to the solution of the Volvo manufacturer is that a chassis

  8. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one......Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  9. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  10. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  11. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  12. 3-D analysis of upper airway in adult skeletal Class Ⅰ patients with different vertical patterns%骨性Ⅰ类不同垂直骨面型成人上气道的三维测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明烨; 李永明; 陈金武; 杨芳; 王天虎

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较骨性I类不同垂直骨面型成人鼻咽、腭咽、舌咽气道大小的差异,探讨上气道不同部位与颅面部骨骼形态的关系.方法:将60名成人患者按GoGn-SN角大小分为性别、年龄相匹配的高角、均角、低角3种骨性I类垂直骨面型组.进行颅面部锥体束计算机断层扫描(CBCT),对鼻咽、腭咽、舌咽气道的矢状径、横径、长度、截面积以及容积测量分析,比较3组间的差异,并对鼻咽、腭咽、舌咽气道大小与颅面部骨骼形态的相关性进行研究.结果:骨性I类同一垂直骨面型组不同性别间ETP-L、ETP-S、低角组GP-V、高角组GP-V存在统计学差异;骨性I类不同垂直骨面型组间ETP-L、UTP-S、ETP-S、PP-V、GP-V、V总存在统计学差异,低角组最大,高角组最小;不同垂直骨面型患者EP-L、UTP-S、ETP-S、PPV、GPV、V总与GoGn-SN角存在负相关关系.结论:骨性I类同一垂直骨面型男女间上气道ETP-L、ETP-S、低角组GP-V、高角组GP-V差别显著;骨性Ⅰ类不同垂直生长型的成人患者腭咽、舌咽气道存在较大差别,可能与其垂直生长型不同有关.%Objective: To compare the upper airway dimensions of adult skeletal Class I patients with different vertical patterns,and to investigate correlations between the airway dimensions and the maxillofacial variables. Methods: 60 skeletal Class I patients aged 18 to 35 years were divided into 3 age and sex matched groups (high angle, mean angle and low angle) based on their GoGn-SN angles. 3-dimensional airway volumes and cross-sectional areas and lengths were measured by using cone-beam computed tomography( CBCT) scans. Airway lengths, volumes and cross-sectional measurements were compared among the 3 groups. Correlation of nasopharynx, pal-atopharynx and oropharynx airway dimensions with the maxillofacial variables was analysed. Results: Between male and female there was statistical difference in ETP-L, ETP-S, GP-V in low and

  13. Development, validation and application of an ultra high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of five different classes of veterinary antibiotics in swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Meersche, Tina; Van Pamel, Els; Van Poucke, Christof; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Daeseleire, Els

    2016-01-15

    In this study, a fast, simple and selective ultra high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of colistin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, doxycycline, oxytetracycline and ceftiofur and for the detection of tylosin A in swine manure was developed and validated. First, a simple extraction procedure with acetonitrile and 6% trichloroacetic acid was carried out. Second, the supernatant was evaporated and the pellet was reconstituted in 1 ml of water/acetonitrile (80/20) and 0.1% formic acid. Extracts were filtered and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS on a Kinetex C18 column using gradient elution. The method developed was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Recovery percentages varied between 94% and 106%, repeatability percentages were within the range of 1.7-9.2% and the intralaboratory reproducibility varied between 2.8% and 9.3% for all compounds, except for tylosin A for which more variation was observed resulting in a higher measurement uncertainty. The limit of detection and limit of quantification varied between 1.1 and 20.2 and between 3.5 and 67.3 μg/kg, respectively. This method was used to determine the presence and concentration of the seven antibiotic residues in swine manure sampled from ten different manure pits on farms where the selected antibiotics were used. A link was found between the antibiotics used and detected, except for ceftiofur which is injected at low doses and degraded readily in swine manure and was therefore not recovered in any of the samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method available for the simultaneous extraction and quantification of colistin with other antibiotic classes. Additionally, colistin was never extracted from swine manure before. Another innovative aspect of this method is the simultaneous detection and quantification of five different classes of antibiotic residues in swine manure.

  14. Valorização de beleza e inteligência por adolescentes de diferentes classes sociais Valorización de belleza e inteligencia por adolescentes de diversas clases sociales Adolescents of different social classes giving value of beauty and intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelle Regina Gomes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Participaram do estudo 180 adolescentes (90M e 90F com idades variando entre 15 e 17 anos, alunos do ensino médio, pertencentes a diferentes classes sociais. Foram comparados gêneros e classes sócio-econômicas a respeito dos valores de beleza e de inteligência que adolescentes atribuem a si próprios e, numa situação hipotética e de forma mutuamente exclusiva, qual desses atributos foram mais valorizados para si mesmos e para possíveis parceiros. Os resultados mostraram que os rapazes de classe alta atribuíram-se maiores notas de inteligência. Adolescentes de ambos sexos pertencentes à classe baixa gostariam de possuir um maior nível de inteligência em detrimento da beleza, enquanto que adolescentes de classe alta preferem o equilíbrio entre beleza e inteligência. As moças valorizam mais a inteligência em seus parceiros que os rapazes, os quais valorizam mais a beleza em suas parceiras.Participaran del estudio 180 jóvenes (90 varones y 90 mujeres con edades entre 15 y 17 años, alumnos de la educación secundaria, pertenecientes a diversas clases sociales. Fueron comparados géneros de clases socio-económicas respecto a valores de belleza y de inteligencia que los jóvenes se atribuyen a sí mismos y, en una situación hipotética y de forma mutuamente exclusiva, cuál de estas cualidades fueron más valorizadas por sí mismos y por posibles compañeros. Los resultados mostraron que los jóvenes de clase alta se atribuyen mayores notas a la inteligencia; a adolescente de ambos sexos, pertenecientes a la clase baja les gustaría tener un nivel mayor de inteligencia en detrimento de la belleza, mientras que los adolescentes de clases altas prefieren el equilibrio entre belleza e inteligencia. Las mujeres jóvenes valorizan más la inteligencia de sus compañeros que los varones, los cuales valorizan más la belleza en sus compañeras.The study sample comprised 180 adolescents aged 15 to 17 years, being 90 males and 90 females

  15. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  16. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  17. Doodling in Math Class

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkenberg, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

      Arkenberg reviews Doodling in Math Class, an Internet resource available at www.youtube.com. Both math and art teachers have recommended the series of YouTube videos "Doodling in Math Class with Vihart...

  18. Research on Improving College English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁

    2009-01-01

    This essay is based on observation of totally four classes given by two teachers. Through careful observation, teal tape-recordings, detailed notes and serious comparison of their classes, the observer wants to find the different ap-proaches and methods they use, and how they give the classes while they are with different teaching experience, and fi-nally what the reactions of students are.

  19. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  20. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  1. Education and Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane A.

    2000-01-01

    The working class is nearly invisible in multicultural education literature. Examines the possibilities of a more careful foregrounding of the complexities of social class in shaping life chances, focusing on the educational experiences of working class students and discussing the poor in order to promote understanding of the potential of teacher…

  2. Persian Preposition Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pantcheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present the prepositional system in Persian. I show that Persian prepositions can be divided into three classes (Class 1, Class 2a and Class 2b which exhibit distinct syntactic behavior. Then I examine the question of the categorial status of Class 2 prepositions and demonstrate that they are not to be regarded as nouns. Finally I present the extended PP projection of Persian spatial prepositions and argue for a feature-based analysis of the properties they manifest.

  3. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  4. Classes, Collection, and Principles of Psychological Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Ellen M.

    This paper discusses research on how concepts differ in their internal organization and how these differences interact with and affect cognitive processing in children. Two types of natural concepts are focused on: classes (nouns with class-inclusion organization, such as "trees,""students,""soldiers" and collections (nouns with part-whole…

  5. Effect of different vertical craniofacial morphology types in class Ⅲ malocclusion on teeth movements speeds%垂直面型对安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形牙齿移动速度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡飞; 周磊; 刘从华; 肖珲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the speed of teeth movements among different vertical craniofacial morphology types in class III malocclusion cases. Methods Twenty-four high-angle cases, twenty four average-angle cases and twenty four low-angle cases were involved in this study. Modern standard edgewise orthodontic technique was used to move the canine distally, anchored with the first molar. The speed of teeth movements was compared. Results The differences in speed of teeth movements among different vertical eraniofacial morphology were proved significantly. The speed in high-angle cases was 0.72-1.46 mm per 28 days, the speed in average-angle ones was 0.46-0.98 mm per 28 days and the speed in low-angle ones was 0.21-0.78 mm per 28 days. Conclusion The vertical oraniofacial morphology is a critical factor affecting the speeds of teeth movements in class III malocclusion.%目的 比较3种垂直面型的安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形牙齿移动速度.方法 随机选取3种垂直面型的安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形各24例,采用方丝弓矫治技术,以上、下颌的第一磨牙做支抗,远中移动尖牙,对尖牙向远中移动和磨牙向近中移动的速度进行比较.结果 高角型病例牙齿移动速度最快,为每28 d移动0.66~ 1.78 mm;低角型最慢,为每28 d移动0.18~1.12 mm;均角型居中,为每28 d移动0.44~ 1.52 mm.安氏Ⅲ类高角、均角、低角型错(牙合)畸形牙齿移动速度差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 3种垂直面型对安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形的牙齿移动速度有显著影响.

  6. The reactivity of Fe(II) associated with goethite formed during short redox cycles toward Cr(VI) reduction under oxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Seungyeol; Rudolph, Jared; Xu, Huifang; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew (UW)

    2017-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a toxic metal that causes a myriad of health problems and enters the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities and/or natural processes. The toxicity and solubility of chromium is linked to its oxidation state; Cr(III) is poorly soluble and relatively nontoxic, while Cr(VI) is soluble and a known carcinogen. Solid Fe(II) in iron-bearing minerals, such as pyrite, magnetite, and green rusts, reduce the oxidation state of chromium, reducing its toxicity and mobility. However, these minerals are not the only potential sources of solid-associated Fe(II) available for Cr(VI) reduction. For example, ferric (Fe(III)) (hydr)oxides, such as goethite or hematite, can have Fe(II) in the solid without phase transformation; however, the reactivity of Fe(II) within Fe(III) (hydr)oxides with contaminants, has not been previously investigated. Here, we cyclically react goethite with dissolved Fe(II) followed by dissolved O2, leading to the formation of reactive Fe(II) associated with goethite. In separate reactors, the reactivity of this Fe(II) is probed under oxic conditions, by exposure to chromate (CrO42 -) after either one, two, three or four redox cycles. Cr is not present during redox cycling; rather, it is introduced to a subset of the solid after each oxidation half-cycle. Analysis of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra reveals that the extent of Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) depends not only on solid Fe(II) content but also surface area and mean size of ordered crystalline domains, determined by BET surface area analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Shell-by-shell fitting of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra demonstrates chromium forms both single and double corner sharing complexes on the surface of goethite, in addition to sorbed Cr(III) species. Finally, transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) illustrate that Cr preferentially

  7. 一类四阶差分方程周期解与次调和解的存在性%Existence of Periodic and Subharmonic Solutions for A Class of Fourth-order Difference Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭刚; 石海平

    2013-01-01

    应用临界点理论中的山路引理,研究了一类四阶非线性差分方程周期解和次调和解的存在性问题.通过把方程解的存在性转化为某个泛函临界点的存在性,获得了一类四阶非线性差分方程周期解和次调和解的存在性和多重性的一些充分条件,给出周期解和次调和解的存在性和多重性准则.%By using the notable Mountain Pass Lemma of critical point theory,some sufficient conditions for the existence and multiplicity of periodic and subharmonic solutions to a class of fourth-order nonlinear difference equations are obtained.The proof is based on the Mountain Pass Lemma in combination with variational technique.A practicable method to solve the existence and multiplicity of periodic and subharmonic solutions for fourth-order nonlinear forward and backward difference equations is given.

  8. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning of a certain class to be assisted by data points from other classes in a context-dependent fashion. The result is that overlap across sub-classes (both within- and across class) is greatly reduced. ICC is particularly useful when combined with algorithms that assume that each class has a unimodal Gaussian distribution (e.g., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), quadratic classifiers), an assumption that is not always true in many real-world situations. ICC can help partition non-Gaussian, multimodal distributions to overcome such a problem. In this sense, ICC works as a preprocessor. Experiments with our ICC algorithm on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicated that it can significantly improve the performance of LDA and quadratic classifiers. We expect our approach to be applicable to a broader class of pattern recognition problems where class-conditional densities are significantly non-Gaussian or multi-modal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2种不同树脂材料进行楔状缺损充填的临床疗效比较%Clinical effect of two different composite resins in filling Class Ⅳ cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 王维倩; 李薇

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the clinical effect of Clearfil AP-XTM and 3M Filte kTM Z350 in filling Class IV cavity. METHODS: 200 teeth were divided into two groups after class-IV cavity preparation according to composite resin filling technique. These teeth were then filled by Clearfil AP-XTM (with Clearfil SE Bond) and 3M FiltekTM Z350 (with 3M Adper Prompt Bond) step by step according to the instruction manual. The clinical effect was evaluated and compared after 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years respectively. The data were collected and analyzed with USPH&Ryge evaluation standard and SPSS 13.0 software package. RESULTS: The result indicated that there was no significant difference between the two group at half a year and 1 year. At 2-year there was significant difference in secondary caries occurrence, attrition, marginal discrepancy, marginal color and color matching between them, 3M group was better than clearfil group, but there was no significant difference in other indexes between them. CONCLUSIONS: When filling Class IV cavity, compared to Clearfil AP-XTM, 3M FiltekTM Z350 has more advantages, and worthy of wider clinical application.%目的:对使用3M FiltekTMZ350和可乐丽菲露AP-XTM2种不同光固化复合树脂充填楔状缺损的疗效进行比较分析.方法:200颗患牙分为实验组和对照组,每组各100颗,分别将3M FihekTM Z350树脂(配套使用3M Adper Prompt自蚀黏合剂)和可乐丽菲露AP-XTM树脂(配套使用可乐丽菲露SE Bond树脂黏合剂)按照各自产品说明书进行窝洞处理、黏结、充填、固化和磨光,经过1/2a、1a、2a观察后,采用USPH&Ryge评估标准评价2组疗效,采用SPSS13.0软件包对数据进行X2检验.结果:2种树脂的继发龋、边缘密合性、边缘着色、表面粗糙度、色泽匹配、牙龈健康状况在1/2a和1a后的差异均无显著性.2a后,试验组和对照组相比,继发龋、磨耗、边缘密合度、边缘着色和色泽匹配

  10. Moran sets and Moran classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this survey is to present Moran sets and Moran classes which generalize the classical selfsimilar sets from the following points: ( i ) The placements of the basic sets at each step of the constructions can be arbitrary; (ii) the contraction ratios may be different at each step; and (iii) the lower limit of the contraction ratios permits zero. In this discussion we will present geometrical properties and results of dimensions of these sets and classes,and discuss conformal Moran sets and random Moran sets as well.``

  11. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  12. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  13. What diagnoses may make patients more seriously ill than they first appear? Mortality according to the Simple Clinical Score Risk Class at the time of admission compared to the observed mortality of different ICD9 codes identified on death or discharge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2009-01-01

    The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) determined at the time of admission places acutely ill general medical patients into one of five risk classes associated with an increasing risk of death within 30 days. The cohort of acute medical patient that the SCS was derived from had, on average, four combinations of 74 groupings of ICD9 codes. This paper reports the ICD9 codes associated with the different SCS risk classes and identifies those ICD9 codes with a greater observed mortality than that of other patients in the same SCS risk class.

  14. 我国不同类型土壤有机质含量的统计学特征%Statistical Characteristics of Organic Matter Content from Different Soil Classes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅敏; 冯述青; 杨天翔; 张韦倩; 王寿兵

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of soil organic matter content (SOMC) is one of the most important indicators characterizing the soil quality. The study on the statistical characteristics of SOMC from different soil types in China could provide scientific supporting data for the ecological assessment of land use. The SOMC quantities are studied through statistical analysis of related data from 184 core research papers published after the second national soil survey to 2011. The mean and standard deviation values of SOMC from 12 soil classes and 31 provinces were got. Corresponding values were also got for six geographic regions such as East China and North China etc. Comparing with the data of SOMC from the second national soil survey, it was found that the rank ordering of SOMC among different soil classes was kept.%土壤有机质含量是表征土壤质量的最重要指标之一.研究我国不同类型土壤有机质含量特征,可为土地利用生态影响评价等提供数据支持.收集整理了全国第二次土壤普查后至2011年之间发表的涉及我国土壤有机质含量的主要论文184篇,对收集到的土壤有机质含量数据进行了统计分析,得到了全国12个不同土纲类型土壤的有机质含量平均值和标准差,不同省份土壤的有机质含量平均值和标准差,以及6个大区土壤有机质含量的平均值.还比较了与全国第二次土壤普查结果的差异,结果发现不同土壤类型间的有机质含量大小排序趋势基本未变.

  15. Dynamic Lot Sizing Problem of Production and Outsourcing under the Environment of Different Customer Classes%不同顾客环境下生产及外包的动态批量问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟; 汪小京; 刘志学

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a dynamic lot sizing problem of production and outsourcing with different kinds of customer class (e.g.,high valuable and low valuable one) demand in a finite time horizon.The firm can produce in house or outsourcing from outside in order to satisfy different customer demand,and then five service policies are obtained.The optimal outsourcing policy does not necessarily satisfy the Zero-Inventory-Outsourcing rule,and the optimal production policy does not necessarily satisfy the Zero-Inventory-Production rule.However,the set of production periods for high valuable customer must include the set for low valuable one.Based on this lemma,a polynomial algorithm is proposed to search out the optimal production and outsourcing policy,with time complexity O(N3),and a numeric example is given to illustrate the five service policies.At last,when the number of customer classes is larger,two heuristics are designed according to the special production and outsourcing rule.%在有限计划期内,考虑不同顾客(例如:高端和低端顾客)具有不同的缺货等待成本,企业可以采用生产或者外包的方式满足不同顾客需求.在生产和外包两种策略下,企业有五种不同的服务方式,而最优外包期不一定满足“零库存外包”规则,最优生产期不一定满足“零库存生产”规则,但满足高端顾客需求的生产期必须包含满足低端顾客需求的生产期.基于此性质,提出了一个多项式算法得到最优的生产及外包策略,并为每类顾客制定相应的服务策略,计算复杂度为O(N3),并通过算例分析了五种不同的服务策略.最后,拓展到多类顾客的需求环境,根据特殊的生产法则和顾客分类方法,分别设计了一种启发式算法,得到企业的生产及外包策略.

  16. Identification of two novel critical mutations in PCNT gene resulting in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Feng; Wang, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Min-Wei; Lou, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Chun-Yu; Feng, Hong-Lin; Lin, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a highly detrimental human autosomal inherited recessive disorder. The hallmark characteristics of this disease are intrauterine and postnatal growth restrictions, with some patients also having cerebrovascular problems such as cerebral aneurysms. The genomic basis behind most clinical features of MOPD II remains largely unclear. The aim of this work was to identify the genetic defects in a Chinese family with MOPD II associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient had typical MOPD II syndrome, with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms. We identified three novel mutations in the PCNT gene, including one single base alteration (9842A>C in exon 45) and two deletions (Del-C in exon 30 and Del-16 in exon 41). The deletions were co-segregated with the affected individual in the family and were not present in the control population. Computer modeling demonstrated that the deletions may cause drastic changes on the secondary and tertiary structures, affecting the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the mutant proteins. In conclusion, we identified two novel mutations in the PCNT gene associated with MOPD II and intracranial aneurysms, and the mutations were expected to alter the stability and functioning of the protein by computer modeling.

  17. The Continuing Story of Class IIa Bacteriocins

    OpenAIRE

    Drider, Djamel; Fimland, Gunnar; Héchard, Yann; McMullen, Lynn M.; Prévost, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Many bacteria produce antimicrobial peptides, which are also referred to as peptide bacteriocins. The class IIa bacteriocins, often designated pediocin-like bacteriocins, constitute the most dominant group of antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria. The bacteriocins that belong to this class are structurally related and kill target cells by membrane permeabilization. Despite their structural similarity, class IIa bacteriocins display different target cell specificities. In the...

  18. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  19. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-09-15

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  20. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.

  1. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for growth and survival in the hatchery and seaward migration after release (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and Clearwater Hatchery; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies suggest that sea ranching of anadromous salmonids can result in domestication (increased fitness in the hatchery program) and a loss of fitness for natural production; however, the mechanism has not been characterized adequately. We artificially spawned hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River, Idaho, reared the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) in hatcheries, and tested for differences in survival, growth, early maturation, downstream migration, and adult returns. Rearing treatments were mixed (crosses reared together) and separate (crosses reared separately from each other) at the hatchery of origin for the hatchery population where smolts are produced in one year, and at a nearby hatchery employing lower rations, lower winter temperatures, and two years of rearing to more closely mimic the natural life history (natural smolt age = 2-4 years). The hatchery population had been artificially propagated for six generations at the onset of our study. We found little or no difference in survival in the hatchery but substantially higher rates of growth and subsequent downstream migration for HxH than for WxW fish. Faster growth for HxH fish resulted in greater size at release which contributed to their higher migration rate, but other as yet uncharacterized traits also affected migration since the migration difference between crosses was apparent even within size classes. Growth of WxW fish was slower in the mixed than in the separate treatment indicating that WxW fish were competitively inferior to HxH fish in the hatchery environment. Incidence of precocious males was higher for WxW than for HxH fish in the separate but not in the mixed treatment. Incidence of HxH precocious males was similar between treatments. Apparently, the presence of HxH fish suppressed high incidence of early maturation by WxW males. A direct effect beyond

  2. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  3. 不同强度砂浆界面过渡区对再生骨料混凝土性能的影响%Influence of Mortar Transition Zone with Different Strength Class on Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔正龙; 路沙沙; 汪振双

    2011-01-01

    为了探明不同强度砂浆界面过渡区对再生骨料混凝土性能的影响,试验以再生骨料表面不同的砂浆强度以及附着率作为变量,配置了不同强度等级的再生骨料混凝土,与普通混凝土进行了对比性强度试验以及碳化试验.试验结果表明,高强度原生混凝土经破碎后作为再生骨料配制低强度等级的再生混凝土,即再生混凝土内部旧砂浆界面过渡区强度比再生混凝土内部新砂浆界面过渡区强度高时,再生骨料混凝土的强度与普通混凝土强度几乎相同,再生骨料表面砂浆的强度以及附着率对再生混凝土的强度影响不大,但碳化深度有所增大.当使用低强度原生混凝土经破碎后作为再生骨料配制高强度等级再生混凝土,也就是再生混凝土内部再生骨料与旧砂浆界面过渡区强度比新砂浆界面过渡区强度低时,再生骨料混凝土的强度与普通混凝土相差较大,再生骨料表面砂浆的强度以及附着率对再生混凝土强度影响较大.%In this research, the experiment aimed to investigate the influence of surface mortar strength and adhesive rate around coarse aggregate on recycled aggregate concrete. Different strength class concretes were produced with surface mortar strength and adhesive rate changing. The strength and carbonization tests were carried to evaluate the recycled aggregate concrete properties. The experiment showed that for lower strength class recycled aggregate concrete with higher strength parent concrete, the strength of recycled aggregate concrete and ordinary concrete were nearly the same. The effect of surface mortar strength and adhesive rate around coarse aggregate on recycled aggregate concrete was lower, while the carbonization depth of recycled aggregate concrete was higher than ordinary concrete. However, for higher strength and the same strength class recycled aggregate concrete with lower strength parent concrete, there were big

  4. Tailor-Made Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreirer, Barbara A.

    1978-01-01

    Adapted teaching materials and procedures were developed at Florida State University to help visually handicapped students in the public schools participate in a mainstreamed home economics class. (MF)

  5. Language, Culture, Class, Gender, and Class Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrick, Stephanie

    This paper explores reasons why some students with English as a Second Language (ESL) feel less entitled to speak out in class than others, discussing ways in which teachers can widen the definition of participation. The first section explains how student background can affect participation. For students who are non-native English speakers and who…

  6. Two classes of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 3B Catalogue suggest that short and long GRB are the results of different classes of events, rather than different parameter values within a single class: Short bursts have harder spectra in the BATSE bands, but chiefly long bursts are detected at photon energies over 1 MeV, implying that their hard photons are radiated by a process not found in short bursts. The values of \\langle V/V_{max} \\rangle for short and long bursts differ by 4.3 \\sigma, implying different spatial distributions. Only the soft gamma-ray radiation mechanisms are the same in both classes.

  7. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  8. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  9. The Question of Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only people--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" do not value education, why "those parents"…

  10. The Conversation Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  11. Class II Microcins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  12. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy...

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.

  15. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    China's cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009ot 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.In China's main urban centers,Beijing and Shanghai,the middle class accounted for 46 percent and 38 percent,respectively,of the local population.

  16. Universality classes of inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hillto

  17. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  18. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  19. Intercultural and Media Education on Art Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Maria José; Chaves, Anabela; Costa, Manuela; Pereira, Emília Sá

    2009-01-01

    Visual art, music and literature, are part of the culture. Thus Art shows the interactions between different cultures. The aim of the article is to present some activities to include intercultural issues in Art and Mother Language classes. Art classes also give the opportunity to do Media Education.

  20. The Power of In-Class Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  1. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  2. Social class and cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Robert; Torssander, Jenny

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that causes of death differ in their relationship to social class, but we lack a more comprehensive description of this variation. The present study provides a detailed and extensive list of social class differences for a large number of specific causes of death. All deaths between 1991 and 2003 in Sweden were linked with information on household social class from 1990. Relative death risks and excess mortality in groups of causes according to the European shortlist were estimated separately for men and women in eight classes using Cox Regression. A clear mortality gradient among employees was found for the majority of causes, from low-relative death risks among higher managerial and professional occupations to relatively high risks for the unskilled working class. There is considerable variation in the strength of the association, from causes such as malignant melanoma, breast cancer and transport accidents among women, where no clear class differences were found. At the other extreme, mental and behavioural disorders, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and diseases of the respiratory system all show steep slopes for both men and women. Circulatory diseases and cancer together account for 15-20% of excess mortality. Exceptions to the general pattern--causes of death in which higher social classes are exposed to greater death risks or in which there is no mortality gradient--are practically non-existent. There is nevertheless significant variation in the strength of the class differences in specific causes.

  3. 超越文化差异:M中学内地新疆班维汉文化互动的民族志%Beyond Cultural Difference:Ethnography of Uighur-Han Cultural Interaction in Xinjiang Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张越

    2014-01-01

    Uyghur and the Han groups in the Xinjiang Class Program. It is a fact that cultural differences exist between the Uyghur and the Han groups. At the initial stage, differences in living habits, languages and academic performance are believed by teachers and students to be obstacles in cultural interactions. However, the case school provides a positive scenario for cultural interaction with local phrases that represent the general idea of “respect difference, seek universality”. In this case, both Uyghur students and local people have achieved friendships and deep attachment beyond cultural difference through cultural interaction. Moreover, the cultural interaction is not limited to the campus but also influences the bigger society. The lesson drawn from this case is that although cultural differences challenge both groups in the cultural interaction, in a positive cultural scenario, the more contact and interaction, the more respect and understanding they will get from the interaction. Educational programs in China ’s mainland for ethnic students from the frontier area indeed increase the contact and interaction for different groups, providing potential opportunities for positive intercultural relationship.

  4. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  5. 骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形不同拔牙模式矫治的PAR指数评价%Peer assessment rating index analysis of different extraction modality in skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉屹东; 邹冰爽

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of different extraction modalities on treatment outcomes in skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusions. Methods One hundred and nine skeletal Class Ⅲ patients (50 males and 59 females) with a mean age of 16.11±4.47 years were collected. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the extraction modality. They were T0 (non-extraction group), T1 (premolar extraction group), T2 (molar extraction group) and T3 (lower incisor extraction group). The PAR (peer assessment rating) index of each of the pre- and post-treatment cast was assessed. The differences of pre- and post-treatment weighed PAR score, reduction in weighed PAR score, percentage reduction in weighed PAR score and the degree of improvement between the four groups were compared. Results (1) Significant differences (P<0.001= of the reduction in weighed PAR score and percentage reduction in weighed PAR score existed between different extraction modality groups. And the order of reduction from high to low was premolar extraction group, molar extraction group, non-extraction group and lower incisor extraction group.(2) There were no "Worse-no different" cases among the four groups. 97 cases were greatly improved and accounted for 89%. There were 12 cases (11%) in improved category. (3) Greatest improvement was found in premolar extraction group and the least improvement was found in lower incisor extraction group. Conclusions Treatment outcomes of the four extraction modalities in skeletal Class Ⅲ were all satisfied. Cautions should be paid in lower incisor extraction.%目的 评价不同拔牙模式对骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形治疗效果的影响.方法 选择109例骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)畸形患者,其中男性50例,女性59例,平均年龄16.11岁±4.47岁.根据拔牙模式分为:T0组(不拔牙)、T1组(拔前磨牙)、T2组(拔磨牙)和T3组(拔下切牙).对所有患者治疗前后的模型应用PAR(Peer Assessment Rating)指数进行评价,对各组治疗

  6. 成人骨性Ⅱ类上气道与颅颌面关系初探%A Three-Dimensional Study of Upper Airway in Adult Skeletal Class Ⅱ Patients with Different Vertical Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天虎; 李永明; 杨芳; 张明烨; 陈金武

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze whether nasopharyngeal and Palate-pharyngeal and glossopharyngeal airways differed among adult skeletal Class Ⅱ patients with different vertical patterns,and to study the potential association of vertical skeletal facial patterns with different parts of upper airway.Methods:Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)records of 64 adult skeletal Class Ⅱ patients (34 male and 30 female)were used to evaluate the pharyngeal airway dimensions and volume (nasopharynx,palatopharynx,glossopharynx).The sample was divided into three groups according to the GoGn-SN angle (low angle,normalangle,or high angle).Upper airway differrences were measured and compared among different vertical facial type groups.Results:In the linear measurements of upper airways,a significant tendency for reduced upper airway dimension in the superior part (nasopharynx and palatopharynx) was found in the low angle,normal angle,and high angle subgroups,in that order,with statistically significant difference (P<0.05).No statistically significant difference for upper airway width was observed among different vertical skeletal facial morphologies.There was no difference in upper airway total volume among different vertical skeletal patterns.The glossopharynx height(Hg) and volume(Vg) of the high angle group was statistically significant differcnce with that of the low and the normal angle group (P<0.05),No difference between glossopharynx height (Hg) and volume(Vg) of the low angle group and that of normal angle group was found.Vp,Vg,Hp,Hg,CSAp and CSAg were significantly positively correlated with ODI.Vp,Hp and CSAp were significantly negatively correlated with FMA angle as well as GoGn-SN angle.Conclusion:The vertical skeletal patterns may be contributory factors for the variation of the nasopharynx and palatopharynx.%目的:比较骨性Ⅱ类不同垂直骨面型成人上气道鼻咽、腭咽、舌咽大小的差异,并探讨其与颅面部骨骼形态的关系.方法:将64

  7. Different enzyme kinetics during the glutathione conjugation of the four stereoisomers of the fjord-region diolepoxides of benzo[c]phenanthrene by the mu-class rat liver glutathione S-transferase HTP II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M; Gath, I; Seidel, A; Platt, K L; Oesch, F; Zeller, H D

    1994-02-09

    The enzyme-catalysed conjugation of each of the four stereoisomers of trans-3,4-dihydroxy-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]PhDE) with glutathione (GSH) by HTP II, a novel isolated mu-class GSH transferase from the liver of untreated rat, was studied. All four stereoisomers were substrates for GSH transferase HTP II. The enzymatic reaction shows three different types of enzyme kinetics: substrate inhibition for (-)-anti-B[c]PhDE with (R,S,S,R)-absolute configuration, allosteric behavior using (+)-anti-B[c]PhDE with (S,R,R,S)-absolute configuration and Henri-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with both the (-)-syn- and (+)-syn-enantiomers, with (S,R,S,R)- and (R,S,R,S)-absolute configuration, respectively. When the concentration of these diolepoxides was varied (using 2 mM GSH), the apparent Vmax values were 1975 nmol/min x mg for (-)-anti-B[c]PhDE and about 60 nmol/min x mg for both (-)-syn- and (+)-syn-B[c]PhDE, with the corresponding Km values of 1.05 and 0.20 mM. The reaction of (+)-anti-B[c]PhDE determined by applying the Hill equation had an estimated Vmax value of 930 nmol/min x mg. On varying the concentration of GSH, linear Lineweaver-Burk plots were obtained. No competitive effect could be observed using a mixture of (-)-anti- and (+)-anti-enantiomers, indicating that their binding sites are different and independent. It was also shown, that the binding sites of (+)-anti- and both syn-enantiomers were different and independent of each other, while there was a small effect on the binding of the syn-enantiomers caused by (-)-anti-B[c]PhDE. All products of the reaction between GSH and the dihydrodiol epoxides of benzo[c]phenanthrene could be resolved by HPLC and were identified and quantitated using the corresponding synthetic GSH conjugates.

  8. A comparative microleakage evaluation of three different base materials in Class I cavity in deciduous molars in sandwich technique using dye penetration and dentin surface interface by scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A major objective in restorative dentistry is the control of marginal leakage, which may occur because of dimensional changes or lack of adaptation of restorative material to the cavity preparation. Numerous techniques have been advocated to overcome polymerization shrinkage in composite restorations. Aim and Objectives: This study investigated microleakage of three different bases under composite resin in sandwich technique using dye penetration and dentin surface interface using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted deciduous molars were stored in distilled water and Class I cavities with a width of about one-fourth of intercuspal distance and a depth of 0.5-1 mm below the dentino-enamel junction was prepared without bevels. In Group 1 - glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group 2 - mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group 3 - Biodentine™ was placed as a base under composite. Teeth were longitudinally sectioned in two halves, through the centers of the restoration, immersed in 2% methylene blue and microleakage was evaluated under stereomicroscope and surface interface between base and dentin was evaluated under SEM. Results:Under the condition of in vitro study, less microleakage and less internal gaps were seen in Biodentine™ (0.00 ± 0.00 and 4.00 ± 1.59 group than MTA (0.00 ± 0.00 and 6.08 ± 1.82 and GIC (25.25 ± 6.57 and 14.73 ± 3.72, respectively and showed very strong positive correlation between microleakage and internal gaps. Conclusion: Biodentine™ exhibits superior marginal sealing ability as well as marginal adaptation under composite resin as compared to MTA and GIC.

  9. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  10. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... the central elements of the semantic analysis used in the Mjølner BETA compiler....

  11. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  12. Student Graffiti and Social Class: Clues for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    Executed systematic content analysis on written symbols (graffiti) in a school for delinquent high school boys. Compared graffiti themes by social class. Identified three classes of graffiti: love-courtship-sex; belonging-identity; and extremism. Found little difference between classes on love-courtship-sex theme but significant differences in…

  13. The capitalist class of modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 People’s Republic of China has been carrying out the policy of reforms. As the result of these reforms, the powerful capitalist class has emerged. This class has transformed into a junior partner of the party-state bureaucracy of China. The author analyzes the capitalist class of China from different perspectives - number, wealth, age, gender, style of life. The author compares the capitalist class of China with capitalist classes of other countries - the USA, Germany, Japan, Russia, and India and so on. The author highlights the importance of the branch specialization of the capitalist class of China. The development of this class generates causes the industrialization and modernization. By contrast, the formation of the capitalist class causes the deindustrialization of Russia. The author highlights the main contradictions of the development of modern China. The situation of the capitalist class of China is contradictory. On one side, it needs the strong socialist state, on the other side, it needs the dismantlement of socialism.

  14. Class and ideological orientations revisited: an exploration of class-based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; Berglund, Tomas; Oskarson, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Studies of the relationship between class position and political outlooks still only have a limited understanding of the class-related mechanisms that matter for ideological orientations. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that link class position and left/right and authoritarian/libertarian orientations. Besides main factors such as income, career prospects, job security, education, class origin and class identification, the significance of work-related factors such as work autonomy, working in a team, a physically demanding job and a mentally demanding job is studied. The findings are based on a survey specifically designed for this purpose and collected in Sweden in 2008/2009. A great deal of the association between class position and left/right orientations is explained by socio-economic conditions; different classes sympathize with policies that will benefit them economically. Another important factor is class identification. Work-related factors also have relevance, but the effect of class position on left/right orientations works mainly through the remuneration system. Class position is also related to authoritarian/libertarian orientations. However, this relationship is less explained by socio-economic position per se, but is rather an effect of the educational system and its allocation of the workforce into different class positions. It also turns out that work-related factors do not explain the class effects; however, a physically demanding job shows a unique effect. Overall, our findings suggest that besides factors such as class position, income, education and class identification, we need to consider work-related aspects to derive a more complete understanding of the distribution of ideological orientations in Western societies.

  15. IELP Class Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈了了

    2010-01-01

    @@ As an exchange student majoring in English, I am curious about how English is taught to international students here in America. Therefore, I observed an IELP (Intensive English Learning Program) class in Central Connecticut State University where I study.

  16. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  17. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Classes of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 28,2016 Doctors usually classify patients' ... Blood Pressure Tracker Find additional helpful resources here Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  18. CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW CLASS OF ORTHOGONAL ARRAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanqi PANG

    2007-01-01

    By using the generalized Hadamard product, difference matrix and projection matrices, we present a class of orthogonal projection matrices and related orthogonal arrays of strength two. A new class of orthogonal arrays are constructed.

  19. Dentofacial characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed some cephalometric measurements of the soft tissue profile in order to observe the behavior of facial convexity in patients with Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty pre-treatment teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: H.SN, Cx, NLA, MLA, UL-SUL-S, LL-S, IMPA, and 1-SN. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test were applied for measurements H.SN, Cx, IMPA, 1-SN, MLA, and NLA, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were applied for UL-S and LL-S. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant differences for the measurements H.SN, Cx, UL-S, and IMPA between Groups I, II-1 and II-2 (p < 0.05. Measurements LL-S and MLA showed statistically significant difference between Groups I and II-1 only (p < 0.05. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were found for measurement NLA among the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Regarding facial characteristics expressed by measurements H.SN, Cx, and UL-S, one could conclude that Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions, both differed from Class I malocclusion. In addition, Class II division 1 malocclusion was found to have facial characteristics expressed by MLA, which differentiate it from the Class II division 2 and Class 1 malocclusions. Class I, Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions showed no difference in facial characteristics expressed by the measurement NLA, and measurement LL-S was directly related to eversion of the lower lip.

  20. MKT 438 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

      To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/MKT-438/MKT-438-Complete-Class-Guide   For more classes visit www.assignmentcloud.com   MKT 438 Week 1 Individual Assignment Defining Public Relation Paper MKT 438 Week 2 Team Assignment Public Relations Campaign Overview Paper MKT 438 Week 3 Individual Assignment Functions of Public Relation Paper MKT 438 Week 3 Team Assignment Public Relations Campaig...

  1. A class in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S. A.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.

  2. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  3. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  4. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  5. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  6. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  7. Communities and classes in symmetric fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, M J

    2014-01-01

    Two aspects of fractal networks are considered: the community structure and the class structure, where classes of nodes appear as a consequence of a local symmetry of nodes. The analysed systems are the networks constructed for two selected symmetric fractals: the Sierpinski triangle and the Koch curve. Communities are searched for by means of a set of differential equations. Overlapping nodes which belong to two different communities are identified by adding some noise to the initial connectivity matrix. Then, a node can be characterized by a spectrum of probabilities of belonging to different communities. Our main goal is that the overlapping nodes with the same spectra belong to the same class.

  8. Feature selection for multi-class problems by using pairwise-class and all-class techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingyu; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2011-05-01

    Feature selection has been a key technology in massive data processing, e.g. in microarray data analysis with few samples but high-dimensional genes. One common problem in multi-class microarray data analysis is the unbalanced recognition or prediction accuracies among classes, which usually leads to poor system performance. One of the main reasons is the unfair feature (gene) selection method. In this paper, a novel feature selection framework by using pairwise-class and all-class techniques (namely FrPA) is proposed to balance the performance among classes and improve the average accuracy. The feature (gene) rank list on all classes and the lists on each pair of classes are all taken into consideration during feature selection. The strategy of round-robin is embedded into the framework to select final features from the different rank lists. Experimental results on several microarray data sets show that FrPA helps to achieve higher classification accuracy and balance the performance among classes.

  9. Class Transitions in Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, S K

    2005-01-01

    A black hole spectrum is known to change from the hard state to the soft state when the energy spectral index $\\alpha$ ($F_E \\propto E^{-\\alpha}$) in, say, 2-20 keV range changes from $\\alpha \\sim 0.5$ to $\\sim 1.5$. However, this `classical' definition which characterizes black holes like Cyg X-1, becomes less useful for many objects such as GRS 1915+105 in which the spectral slope is seen to vary from one to the other in a matter of seconds and depending on whether or not winds form, the spectral slope also changes. The light curves and the colour-colour diagrams may look completely different on different days depending on the frequency and mode of switching from one spectral state to the other. Though RXTE observations have yielded wealth of information on such `variability classes' in GRS 1915+105, very rarely one has been able to observe how the object goes from one class to the other. In the present review, we discuss possible origins of the class transition and present several examples of such transiti...

  10. Type Classes for Mathematics in Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Spitters, Bas

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library of constructive analysis in which abstraction penalties inhibiting efficient computation are reduced to a minimum. The base of our development consists of type classes representing a standard algebraic hierarchy, as well as portions of category theory and universal algebra. On this foundation we build a set of mathematically sound abstract interfaces for different kinds of numbers, succinctly expressed using categorical language and universal algebra constructions. Strategic use of type classes lets us support these high...

  11. Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 developed by Quinlan in 1986, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. in 1998. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument, we demonstrate that class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux class 1 (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either class 1 or class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of Band's work in 1993 on spectral parameters alpha, beta, and E (sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for class 1 and class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias affecting burst fluence and duration measurements. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we show how this fluence duration bias can affect BATSE measurements and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence versus peak flux diagram.

  12. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  13. NR 512 Entire Class

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

     NR 512 Entire Class   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/nr-512-entire-class/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com   NR512 Week 1 Discussion Latest 2017 Integration of Nursing Informatics Skills and Competencies (graded) • Reflect on your own practice. Discuss how informatics is used in your practice. What is your primary area where you would use informatics? NR512 Week 2 Discussion Latest 2017 Wisdom Versus Judgment (graded) How does the conc...

  14. Resonance classes of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Torres De Squire

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend F. Holland's definition of the space of resonant classes of functions, on the real line, to the space R(Φpq (1≦p, q≦∞ of resonant classes of measures, on locally compact abelian groups. We characterize this space in terms of transformable measures and establish a realatlonship between R(Φpq and the set of positive definite functions for amalgam spaces. As a consequence we answer the conjecture posed by L. Argabright and J. Gil de Lamadrid in their work on Fourier analysis of unbounded measures.

  15. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

                The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...

  16. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

                The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...

  17. BUSN 460 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    BUSN 460 Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/busn-460-complete-class/     Week 1 DQ 1 Selling your team’s services to CanGo  Week 1 DQ 2 Mission, Vision & Values  Week 2 DQ 1 Planning a Technological Solution  Week 2 DQ 2 Cost Benefit Analysis  Week 3 DQ 1 Flow Charting Processes  Week 3 DQ 2 Implementing Technology  Week 4 DQ 1 Group vs Team  Week  4 DQ 2 Matrixed Employee Environments  Week 5 DQ 1 Pe...

  18. On the middle class

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Michael; Magalhães, Beatrix Judice

    2013-01-01

    The Middle class as a concept has evolved over time, taking on various meanings at various points throughout history, becoming an object to aspire to for poor people, an object of desire for a strong government, a buzzword for politicians the world over, and the source of new customers for firms, and the global economy more broadly. This special issue of Poverty in Focus, exclusively devoted to the exploration of themes related to the middle class is part of a larger endeavour initiated by Th...

  19. Working-Class Boys, Educational Success and the Misrecognition of Working-Class Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the theory of institutional habitus by exploring the differing ways in which the institutional habitus of two schools in Belfast, Northern Ireland mediates the local habitus of working-class boys. All of the boys in this qualitative case study live in the same disadvantaged working-class community but attend two…

  20. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between thes...

  1. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between thes...

  2. Structural Properties of MHC Class II Ligands, Implications for the Prediction of MHC Class II Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Buus, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure......Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule...... of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC...

  3. An Investigation of Craniocervical Posture in Class II & Class III Skeletal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HoseinZadeh-Nik

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Craniocervical Posture is a factor in the development and function of Craniofacial Structure. Previous studies of different samples have demonstrated associations between craniocervical posture and craniofacial morphology.Purpose: This study aimed lo examine whether any significant association is evident or not between craniocervical posture and the occurrence of Class il & Class III skeletal malocclusions.Materials and Methods: A sample of 76 subjects with Class II & Class III skeletal malocclusion aged 9-i 1 and>18 years were selected. None of them had received orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken in natural head position (NHP, and craniocervical and craniohorizental angels were traced and determined for analysis of craniocervical posture. Results: According to the craniocervical posture, most class II skeletal patients have flexed heads and class MI skeletal patients have extended heads, as a result malocclusion in these patients seems to become more severe. With increase in age. class II skeletal patients have more flexed their heads and malocclusion become more severe, while with increase in age in class ill skeletal patients, their heads become extended and once again malocclusion thought lo be more severe. In class II skeletal patients, craniocervical posture has a significant correlation with the vertical growth pattern, but shows little correlation with the horizontal growth pattern. In class 111 skeletal patients, craniocervical posture shows no correlation to any of the vertical & horizontal growth patterns, of course the mean of vertical angles is less in these patients and probably in order to make these relation significant in Class III skeletal patients there is need for more samples, in class II & class III skeletal patients, the amount of Na.prep-point A and pog-Na.prep with craniocervical posture shows a significant correlation. Conclusion: Consideration of craniocervical

  4. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguesmia, Yanath; Naghmouchi, Karim; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Drider, Djamel

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce antibacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. Bacteriocins fall structurally and chemically into three different classes, I, II, and III. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antagonism against closely related bacteria. This late observation has evolved because bacteriocins active against Gram-negative bacteria have recently been reported. Members of class IIa bacteriocins, referred to as pediocin-like bacteriocins, are among the most studied bacteriocins. This chapter is aimed at providing an updated review on the biology of class IIa bacteriocins.

  5. Study on Social Class and Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琪

    2016-01-01

    Language is the most important tool for human communication.With the development in society,history and culture,variations in language come into being while the choice of linguistic items by speakers to communicate the same message may vary ,resulting from their different social sit⁃uations or class.Then the study on the interrelation between social class and language is needed.By studying the cases of Labov and Bernstein as well as characters’lines in some modern series,this paper tries to analyze the internal relations between language and social class.

  6. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  7. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  8. Upwardly Mobile: Attitudes toward the Class Transition among First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    First-generation, working-class college students are on the path to upward mobility and may have social and psychological problems related to cultural differences between the working class and the middle class. In her study, Hurst (2007, 2010) reports that students of working-class origin often choose loyalty to one class. However, I revise…

  9. Class, Cultism, and Multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Peter; Farahmandpur, Ramin

    2001-01-01

    Globalization has hurt both developed and developing countries. Capitalism's relations of exploitation can hurt people of color in disabling ways. Discusses the relationships among race, gender, ethnic, and class identities in order to articulate a political framework that moves toward transnational ethnic alliances, abolishing the role of capital…

  10. Teaching Very Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  11. Communication, "Class," and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffres, Leo W.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationships among communication, social class, and ethnic heritage. Eleven of thirteen ethnic groups in a Midwestern metropolitan area who had been studied in 1976 were surveyed again in late 1980 and early 1981. Groups surveyed were Irish, Greek, Czech, Italian, Lebanese, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Polish,…

  12. Shrinking Your Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron-Thorpe, Farren L.; Olson, Jo Clay; Davis, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Toys in the classroom was the result of a National Science Foundation grant that brought two engineering graduate students to a middle school math class. The graduate students and teachers collaborated in an effort to enhance students' mathematical learning. An engineering context was theorized as a way to further develop students' understanding…

  13. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  14. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  15. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    -back of Adivasis against their age-old colonization or the work of ‘external’ agitators. Capitalist restructuring and ‘globalization’ was generally seen as simply the latest chapter in the suffering of these Adivasis. Little focused attention was paid to the recent class trajectory of their lives under changing...

  16. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China, the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China’s urban development,

  17. Should ESL Classes Never Mention Religion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾炜俊

    2014-01-01

    As religion is an integrated part of human history and culture, an L2 cannot be learnt without some mentioning of it in the language classes. Teaching about religion cannot only help L2 learners learn the L2 itself but other general knowledge such as history, music and arts. However, differences should be made between teaching religion and teaching about religion and some guidelines should be followed if teachers are to teach it in the language classes.

  18. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the shape and measure the size of the sella turcica in Saudi subjects with different skeletal types. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 11-26 years were taken and distributed according to skeletal classification; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter. A Student's t-test was used to calculate differences in linear dimensions, while a one-way analysis of variance was performed to study the relationship between skeletal type and sella size. The results show that the sella turcica presented with a normal morphology in the majority of subjects (67 per cent). No significant differences in linear dimensions between genders could be found. When age was evaluated, significant differences were found between the older (15 years or more) and the younger (11-14 years) age groups at the 0.01 and 0.001 levels for length, depth, and diameter. Sella size of the older age group was larger than in the younger age group. When skeletal type was compared with sella size, a significant difference was found in the diameter of sella between the Class II and Class III subjects (P sella turcica area in Saudi subjects.

  19. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  20. Coincidence classes in nonorientable manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study Nielsen coincidence theory for maps between manifolds of same dimension regardless of orientation. We use the definition of semi-index of a class, review the definition of defective classes, and study the occurrence of defective root classes. We prove a semi-index product formula for lifting maps and give conditions for the defective coincidence classes to be the only essential classes.