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Sample records for class 1a dihydroorotate

  1. Mechanism of flavin reduction in the class 1A dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Rebecca L; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Björnberg, Olof;

    2007-01-01

    is concerted or stepwise was addressed for the class 1A enzyme from Lactococcus lactis by determining kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on flavin reduction in anaerobic stopped-flow experiments. Isotope effects were determined at two pH values. At pH 7.0, KIEs were approximately 2-fold for DHO labeled singly...... mutants was extremely slow compared to that of the wild type; the rate of reduction increased with pH, showing no sign of a plateau. Interestingly, double-deuterium isotope effects on the Cys130Ser mutant also showed a concerted mechanism for flavin reduction....

  2. Interaction of benzoate pyrimidine analogues with class 1A dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Abigail E; Thymark, Majbritt; Gattis, Samuel G;

    2007-01-01

    of the rapid formation of a complex that isomerized to the final charge-transfer complex. Orotate and 3,5-diOHB bind too quickly to follow directly, but their dissociation kinetics were studied by competition and described adequately with a single step. Crystal structures of both inhibitor complexes were......-specific inhibitor directed against this site are poor. Nonetheless, two compounds that bind specifically to the Class 1A DHOD from Lactococcus lactis, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (3,4-diOHB) and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate (3,5-diOHB), have been identified [Palfey et al. (2001) J. Med. Chem. 44, 2861-2864]. The mechanism...... of inhibitor binding to the Class 1A DHOD from L. lactis has now been studied in detail and is reported here. Titrations showed that 3,4-diOHB binds more tightly at higher pH, whereas the opposite is true for 3,5-diOHB. Isothermal titration calorimetry and absorbance spectroscopy showed that 3,4-diOHB ionizes...

  3. Insights into the mechanism of oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate catalysed by human class 2 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase: a QM/MM free energy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Silva, José Rogério A; Roitberg, Adrian E

    2015-07-21

    The dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) enzyme catalyzes the unique redox reaction in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. In this reaction, the oxidation of dihydroorotate (DHO) to orotate (OA) and reduction of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor is catalysed by DHOD. The class 2 DHOD, to which the human enzyme belongs, was experimentally shown to follow a stepwise mechanism but the data did not allow the determination of the order of bond-breaking in a stepwise oxidation of DHO. The goal of this study is to understand the reaction mechanism at the molecular level of class 2 DHOD, which may aid in the design of inhibitors that selectively impact the activity of only certain members of the enzyme family. In this paper, the catalytic mechanism of oxidation of DHO to OA in human DHOD was studied using a hybrid Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) approach and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The free energy barriers calculated reveal that the mechanism in human DHOD occurs via a stepwise reaction pathway. In the first step, a proton is abstracted from the C5 of DHO to the deprotonated Ser215 side chain. Whereas, in the second step, the transfer of the hydride or hydride equivalent from the C6 of DHO to the N5 of FMN, where free energy barrier calculated by the DFT/MM level is 10.84 kcal mol(-1). Finally, a residual decomposition analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the influence of the catalytic region residues during DHO oxidation.

  4. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Triana, Miryam Andrea Hortua; Huynh, My-Hang; Manuel F Garavito; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.; Vern B Carruthers; Löffler, Monika; Zimmermann, Barbara H.

    2012-01-01

    The pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway in the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is essential for parasite growth during infection. To investigate the properties of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (TgDHOD), the fourth enzyme in the T. gondii pyrimidine pathway, we expressed and purified recombinant TgDHOD. TgDHOD exhibited a specific activity of 84 U/mg, a kcat of 89 sec−1, a Km = 60 μM for L-dihydroorotate, and a Km = 29 μM for decylubiquinone (QD). Quinones lacking or having short isoprenoid si...

  5. The Role of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase in Apoptosis Induction in Response to Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III

    OpenAIRE

    Khutornenko, A.; Dalina, A.; Chernyak, B.; Chumakov, P; Evstafieva, A.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanism for the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) upon dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has been studied. Previously, we had found that inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, a component of the electron transport chain complex III, leads to activation of tumor suppressor p53, followed by apoptosis induction. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is coupled to the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway via the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydroge...

  6. Structural Plasticity of Malaria Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Allows Selective Binding of Diverse Chemical Scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Gujjar, Ramesh; El Mazouni, Farah; Kaminsky, Werner; Malmquist, Nicholas A.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Phillips, Margaret A.; (UWASH); (UTSMC)

    2010-01-20

    Malaria remains a major global health burden and current drug therapies are compromised by resistance. Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) was validated as a new drug target through the identification of potent and selective triazolopyrimidine-based DHODH inhibitors with anti-malarial activity in vivo. Here we report x-ray structure determination of PfDHODH bound to three inhibitors from this series, representing the first of the enzyme bound to malaria specific inhibitors. We demonstrate that conformational flexibility results in an unexpected binding mode identifying a new hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme. Importantly this plasticity allows PfDHODH to bind inhibitors from different chemical classes and to accommodate inhibitor modifications during lead optimization, increasing the value of PfDHODH as a drug target. A second discovery, based on small molecule crystallography, is that the triazolopyrimidines populate a resonance form that promotes charge separation. These intrinsic dipoles allow formation of energetically favorable H-bond interactions with the enzyme. The importance of delocalization to binding affinity was supported by site-directed mutagenesis and the demonstration that triazolopyrimidine analogs that lack this intrinsic dipole are inactive. Finally, the PfDHODH-triazolopyrimidine bound structures provide considerable new insight into species-selective inhibitor binding in this enzyme family. Together, these studies will directly impact efforts to exploit PfDHODH for the development of anti-malarial chemotherapy.

  7. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortua Triana, Miryam Andrea; Huynh, My-Hang; Garavito, Manuel F; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J; Carruthers, Vern B; Löffler, Monika; Zimmermann, Barbara H

    2012-08-01

    The pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway in the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is essential for parasite growth during infection. To investigate the properties of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (TgDHOD), the fourth enzyme in the T. gondii pyrimidine pathway, we expressed and purified recombinant TgDHOD. TgDHOD exhibited a specific activity of 84U/mg, a k(cat) of 89s(-1), a K(m)=60μM for l-dihydroorotate, and a K(m)=29μM for decylubiquinone (Q(D)). Quinones lacking or having short isoprenoid side chains yielded lower k(cat)s than Q(D). As expected, fumarate was a poor electron acceptor for this family 2 DHOD. The IC(50)s determined for A77-1726, the active derivative of the human DHOD inhibitor leflunomide, and related compounds MD249 and MD209 were, 91μM, 96μM, and 60μM, respectively. The enzyme was not significantly affected by brequinar or TTFA, known inhibitors of human DHOD, or by atovaquone. DSM190, a known inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum DHOD, was a poor inhibitor of TgDHOD. TgDHOD exhibits a lengthy 157-residue N-terminal extension, consistent with a potential organellar targeting signal. We constructed C-terminally c-myc tagged TgDHODs to examine subcellular localization of TgDHOD in transgenic parasites expressing the tagged protein. Using both exogenous and endogenous expression strategies, anti-myc fluorescence signal colocalized with antibodies against the mitochondrial marker ATPase. These findings demonstrate that TgDHOD is associated with the parasite's mitochondrion, revealing this organelle as the site of orotate production in T. gondii. The TgDHOD gene appears to be essential because while gene tagging was successful at the TgDHOD gene locus, attempts to delete the TgDHOD gene were not successful in the KU80 background. Collectively, our study suggests that TgDHOD is an excellent target for the development of anti-Toxoplasma drugs. PMID:22580100

  8. Novel Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase with Anti-malarial Activity in the Mouse Model*

    OpenAIRE

    Booker, Michael L.; Bastos, Cecilia M.; Kramer, Martin L.; Barker, Robert H.; Skerlj, Renato; Sidhu, Amar Bir; Deng, Xiaoyi; Celatka, Cassandra; Cortese, Joseph F.; Guerrero Bravo, Jose E.; Crespo Llado, Keila N.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Viera, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form of human malaria, is unable to salvage pyrimidines and must rely on de novo biosynthesis for survival. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and represents a potential target for anti-malarial therapy. A high throughput screen and subsequent medicinal chemistry program identified a series of N-alkyl-5-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxamides with low ...

  9. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari [Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi [Department of Parasitology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Shigeharu [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Kita, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kitak@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  10. Novel Diketopiperazine Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors Purified from Traditional Tibetan Animal Medicine Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Wen, Huaixiu; Shao, Yun; Yu, Ruitao; Liu, Zenggen; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qilan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Yanduo; Mei, Lijuan

    2015-10-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine provides an abundant source of knowledge on human ailments and their treatment. As such, it is necessary to explore their active single compounds used to treat these ailments to discover lead compounds with good pharmacologic properties. In this present work, animal medicine, Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi extracts have been separated using a two-dimensional preparative chromatographic method to obtain single compounds with high purity as part of the following pharmacological research. Five high-purity cyclic dipeptides from chromatography work were studied for their dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitory activity on recombinant human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase enzyme and compound Fr. 1-4 was found to contain satisfying inhibition activity. The molecular modeling study suggests that the active compound Fr. 1-4 may have a teriflunomide-like binding mode. Then, the energy decomposition study suggests that the hydrogen bond between Fr. 1-4 and Arg136 can improve the binding mode to indirectly increase the van der Waals binding energy. All the results above together come to the conclusion that the 2, 5-diketopiperazine structure group can interact with the polar residues well in the active pocket using electrostatic power. If some proper hydrophobic groups can be added to the sides of the 2, 5-diketopiperazine group, it is believed that better 2, 5-diketopiperazine dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors will be found in the future.

  11. Thermodynamic Basis of Electron Transfer in Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase B from Lactococcus lactis:  Analysis by Potentiometry, EPR Spectroscopy, and ENDOR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohnsen, Al-Walid A.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Jensen, Kaj Frank;

    2004-01-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B (DHODB) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate and the reduction of NAD+. The enzyme is a dimer of heterodimers containing an FMN, an FAD, and a 2Fe-2S center. UV-visible, EPR, and ENDOR spectroscopies have b...

  12. Functional expression of a fragment of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase by means of the baculovirus expression vector system, and kinetic investigation of the purified recombinant enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, W; Bergjohann, U; Gonski, S; Kirschbaum, B; Löffler, M

    1996-08-15

    Human mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine de novo synthesis) has been overproduced by means of a recombinant baculovirus that contained the human cDNA fragment for this protein. After virus infection and protein expression in Trichoplusia ni cells (BTI-Tn-5B1-4), the subcellular distribution of the recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase was determined by two distinct enzyme-activity assays and by Western blot analysis with anti-(dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) Ig. The targeting of the recombinant protein to the mitochondria of the insect cells was verified. The activity of the recombinant enzyme in the mitochondria of infected cells was about 740-fold above the level of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in human liver mitochondria. In a three-step procedure, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase was purified to a specific activity of greater than 50 U/mg. Size-exclusion chromatography showed a molecular mass of 42 kDa and confirmed the existence of the fully active enzyme as a monomeric species. Fluorimetric cofactor analysis revealed the presence of FMN in recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. By kinetics analysis, Km values for dihydroorotate and ubiquinone-50 were found to be 4 microM and 9.9 microM, respectively, while Km values for dihydroorotate and decylubiquinone were 9.4 microM and 13.7 microM, respectively. The applied expression system will allow preparation of large quantities of the enzyme for structure and function studies. Purified recombinant human dihytdroorotate dehydrogenase was tested for its sensitivity to a reported inhibitor A77 1726 (2-hydroxyethyliden-cyanoacetic acid 4-trifluoromethyl anilide), which is the active metabolite of the isoxazole derivative leflunomide [5-methyl-N-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-4-isoxazole carboximide]. An IC50 value of 1 microM was determined for A77 1726. Detailed kinetics experiments revealed uncompetitive inhibition with respect to dihydroorotate (Kiu = 0.94 microM) and non

  13. Biochemical characterization of recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zameitat, E.; Gojkovic, Zoran; Knecht, Wolfgang;

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans, and recently it has become increasingly resistant to the current antifungal agents. In this study we investigated C. albicans dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH, EC 1.3.99.11), which catalyzes the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine...... lacks the targeting sequence and the transmembrane domain, were subcloned from C. albicans, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized for their kinetics and substrate specificity. An inhibitor screening with 28 selected compounds was performed. Only the dianisidine...... derivative, redoxal, and the biphenyl quinoline-carboxylic acid derivative, brequinar sodium, which are known to be potent inhibitors of mammalian DHODH, markedly reduced C. albicans DHODH activity. This study provides a background for the development of antipyrimidines with high efficacy for decreasing...

  14. Site directed spin labeling studies of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase N-terminal extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Sheila G. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Biofisica e Fisica Aplicada a Medicina, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, C.P. 131, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Cristina Nonato, M. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia de Proteinas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe S/N, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Costa-Filho, Antonio J., E-mail: ajcosta@ffclrp.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EcDHODH is a membrane-associated enzyme and a promising target for drug design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme's N-terminal extension is responsible for membrane association. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal works as a molecular lid regulating access to the protein interior. -- Abstract: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are enzymes that catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In this reaction, DHODH converts dihydroorotate to orotate, using a flavine mononucleotide as a cofactor. Since the synthesis of nucleotides has different pathways in mammals as compared to parasites, DHODH has gained much attention as a promising target for drug design. Escherichia coli DHODH (EcDHODH) is a family 2 DHODH that interacts with cell membranes in order to promote catalysis. The membrane association is supposedly made via an extension found in the enzyme's N-terminal. In the present work, we used site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to specifically place a magnetic probe at positions 2, 5, 19, and 21 within the N-terminal and thus monitor, by using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), dynamics and structural changes in this region in the presence of a membrane model system. Overall, our ESR spectra show that the N-terminal indeed binds to membranes and that it experiences a somewhat high flexibility that could be related to the role of this region as a molecular lid controlling the entrance of the enzyme's active site and thus allowing the enzyme to give access to quinones that are dispersed in the membrane and that are necessary for the catalysis.

  15. Novel Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase with Anti-malarial Activity in the Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Michael L.; Bastos, Cecilia M.; Kramer, Martin L.; Barker, Jr., Robert H.; Skerlj, Renato; Sidhu, Amar Bir; Deng, Xiaoyi; Celatka, Cassandra; Cortese, Joseph F.; Guerrero Bravo, Jose E.; Crespo Llado, Keila N.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Viera, Sara; Garuti, Helen; Wittlin, Sergio; Papastogiannidis, Petros; Lin, Jing-wen; Janse, Chris J.; Khan, Shahid M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Coleman, Bradley; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A.; Munoz, Benito; Wirth, Dyann F.; Klinger, Jeffrey D.; Wiegand, Roger; Sybertz, Edmund (Leiden-MC); (Puerto Rico); (STPHI); (Harvard); (GSK); (Genzyme); (UTSMC)

    2010-11-22

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form of human malaria, is unable to salvage pyrimidines and must rely on de novo biosynthesis for survival. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and represents a potential target for anti-malarial therapy. A high throughput screen and subsequent medicinal chemistry program identified a series of N-alkyl-5-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxamides with low nanomolar in vitro potency against DHODH from P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei. The compounds were selective for the parasite enzymes over human DHODH, and x-ray structural data on the analog Genz-667348, demonstrated that species selectivity could be attributed to amino acid differences in the inhibitor-binding site. Compounds from this series demonstrated in vitro potency against the 3D7 and Dd2 strains of P. falciparum, good tolerability and oral exposure in the mouse, and ED{sub 50} values in the 4-day murine P. berghei efficacy model of 13-21 mg/kg/day with oral twice-daily dosing. In particular, treatment with Genz-667348 at 100 mg/kg/day resulted in sterile cure. Two recent analogs of Genz-667348 are currently undergoing pilot toxicity testing to determine suitability as clinical development candidates.

  16. Inhibition of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Overcomes Differentiation Blockade in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, David B; Kfoury, Youmna S; Mercier, François E; Wawer, Mathias J; Law, Jason M; Haynes, Mark K; Lewis, Timothy A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Jain, Esha; Lee, Dongjun; Meyer, Hanna; Pierce, Kerry A; Tolliday, Nicola J; Waller, Anna; Ferrara, Steven J; Eheim, Ashley L; Stoeckigt, Detlef; Maxcy, Katrina L; Cobert, Julien M; Bachand, Jacqueline; Szekely, Brian A; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Sklar, Larry A; Kotz, Joanne D; Clish, Clary B; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Clemons, Paul A; Janzer, Andreas; Schreiber, Stuart L; Scadden, David T

    2016-09-22

    While acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises many disparate genetic subtypes, one shared hallmark is the arrest of leukemic myeloblasts at an immature and self-renewing stage of development. Therapies that overcome differentiation arrest represent a powerful treatment strategy. We leveraged the observation that the majority of AML, despite their genetically heterogeneity, share in the expression of HoxA9, a gene normally downregulated during myeloid differentiation. Using a conditional HoxA9 model system, we performed a high-throughput phenotypic screen and defined compounds that overcame differentiation blockade. Target identification led to the unanticipated discovery that inhibition of the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) enables myeloid differentiation in human and mouse AML models. In vivo, DHODH inhibitors reduced leukemic cell burden, decreased levels of leukemia-initiating cells, and improved survival. These data demonstrate the role of DHODH as a metabolic regulator of differentiation and point to its inhibition as a strategy for overcoming differentiation blockade in AML. PMID:27641501

  17. Pyrimidine Pathway-Dependent and -Independent Functions of the Toxoplasma gondii Mitochondrial Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortua Triana, Miryam Andrea; Cajiao Herrera, Daniela; Zimmermann, Barbara H; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2016-10-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) mediates the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and is a proven drug target for inducing immunosuppression in therapy of human disease as well as a rapidly emerging drug target for treatment of malaria. In Toxoplasma gondii, disruption of the first, fifth, or sixth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis induced uracil auxotrophy. However, previous attempts to generate uracil auxotrophy by genetically deleting the mitochondrion-associated DHODH of T. gondii (TgDHODH) failed. To further address the essentiality of TgDHODH, mutant gene alleles deficient in TgDHODH activity were designed to ablate the enzyme activity. Replacement of the endogenous DHODH gene with catalytically deficient DHODH gene alleles induced uracil auxotrophy. Catalytically deficient TgDHODH localized to the mitochondria, and parasites retained mitochondrial membrane potential. These results show that TgDHODH is essential for the synthesis of pyrimidines and suggest that TgDHODH is required for a second essential function independent of its role in pyrimidine biosynthesis. PMID:27481247

  18. Structure and Function of Cross-class Complexes of G Protein-coupled Secretin and Angiotensin 1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Augustine, Mary Lou; Lee, Leo T O; Chow, Billy K C; Miller, Laurence J

    2016-08-12

    Complexes of secretin (SecR) and angiotensin 1a (Atr1a) receptors have been proposed to be functionally important in osmoregulation, providing an explanation for overlapping and interdependent functions of hormones that bind and activate different classes of GPCRs. However, the nature of these cross-class complexes has not been well characterized and their signaling properties have not been systematically explored. We now use competitive inhibition of receptor bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence complementation to establish the dominant functionally important state as a symmetrical homodimeric form of SecR decorated by monomeric Atr1a, interacting through lipid-exposed faces of Atr1a TM1 and TM4. Conditions increasing prevalence of this complex exhibited negative allosteric modulatory impact on secretin-stimulated cAMP responses at SecR. In contrast, activating Atr1a with full agonist in such a complex exhibited a positive allosteric modulatory impact on the same signaling event. This modulation was functionally biased, with secretin-stimulated calcium responses unaffected, whereas angiotensin-stimulated calcium responses through the complex were reduced or absent. Further supporting this interpretation, Atr1a with mutations of lipid-exposed faces of TM1 and TM4 that did not affect its ability to bind or signal, could be expressed in the same cell as SecR, yet not exhibit either the negative or positive allosteric impact on cAMP observed with the inactive or activated states of wild type Atr1a on function, and not interfere with angiotensin-stimulated calcium responses like complexes with Atr1a. This may provide a more selective means of exploring the physiologic functional impact of this cross-class receptor complex without interfering with the function of either component receptor. PMID:27330080

  19. Characterization and expression pattern ofpouII1,a novel class Ⅱ POU gene in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    POU domain transcription factors that share a conserved DNA-binding domain, POU domain, are important regulators for the development of embryos in various animal species. A novel zebrafish POU domain gene, pouII1has been cloned. The pouII1 cDNA is 2080 kb in length and encodes a putative polypeptide of 596 amino acids. It is placed into class Ⅱ POU family since it shares a high degree of homology with the known members of this family.Northern hybridization identifies a major transcript of approximately 2.1 kb that was present in embryos at the single-cell stage throughout 24 h postfertilizafion. The whole mountin situ hybridization shows thatpouII1 transcripts are present in the single-cell embryos, strongly suggesting that these transcripts are of maternal origin. During early development of the embryos, pouII1 mRNA was ubiquitously distributed in all cells and tissues. The transcripts are gradually limited to brains and become completely undetectable by day 3. To our knowledge, pouII1 is the first class Ⅱ POU gene identified in zebrafish.``

  20. Thermodynamic basis of electron transfer in dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B from Lactococcus lactis: analysis by potentiometry, EPR spectroscopy, and ENDOR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Al-Walid A; Rigby, Stephen E J; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Munro, Andrew W; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2004-06-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B (DHODB) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate and the reduction of NAD(+). The enzyme is a dimer of heterodimers containing an FMN, an FAD, and a 2Fe-2S center. UV-visible, EPR, and ENDOR spectroscopies have been used to determine the reduction potentials of the flavins and the 2Fe-2S center and to characterize radicals and their interactions. Reductive titration using dithionite indicates a five-electron capacity for DHODB. The midpoint reduction potential of the 2Fe-2S center (-212 +/- 3 mV) was determined from analysis of absorption data at 540 nm, where absorption contributions from the two flavins are small. The midpoint reduction potentials of the oxidized/semiquinone (E(1)) and semiquinone/hydroquinone (E(2)) couples for the FMN (E(1) = -301 +/- 6 mV; E(2) = -252 +/- 8 mV) and FAD (E(1) = -312 +/- 6 mV; E(2) = -297 +/- 5 mV) were determined from analysis of spectral changes at 630 nm. Corresponding values for the midpoint reduction potentials for FMN (E(1) = -298 +/- 4 mV; E(2) = -259 +/- 5 mV) in the isolated catalytic subunit (subunit D, which lacks the 2Fe-2S center and FAD) are consistent with the values determined for the FMN couples in DHODB. During reductive titration of DHODB, small amounts of the neutral blue semiquinone are observed at approximately 630 nm, consistent with the measured midpoint reduction potentials of the flavins. An ENDOR spectrum of substrate-reduced DHODB identifies hyperfine couplings to proton nuclei similar to those recorded for the blue semiquinone of free flavins in aqueous solution, thus confirming the presence of this species in DHODB. Spectral features observed during EPR spectroscopy of dithionite-reduced DHODB are consistent with the midpoint reduction potentials determined using UV-visible spectroscopy and further identify an unusual EPR signal with very small rhombic anisotropy and g values of 2.02, 1.99, and 1.96. This unusual

  1. In Vitro Resistance Selections for Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors Give Mutants with Multiple Point Mutations in the Drug-binding Site and Altered Growth*

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Leila S.; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria José; Singh, Onkar M. P.; Rowland, Paul; Wiegand, Roger C.; Wirth, Dyann F

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease; yet half of the world's population lives at risk of infection, and an estimated 660,000 people die of malaria-related causes every year. Rising drug resistance threatens to make malaria untreatable, necessitating both the discovery of new antimalarial agents and the development of strategies to identify and suppress the emergence and spread of drug resistance. We focused on in-development dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors. Characte...

  2. Structure-Guided Lead Optimization of Triazolopyrimidine-Ring Substituents Identifies Potent Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors with Clinical Candidate Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coteron, Jose M.; Marco, Maria; Esquivias, Jorge; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L.; White, John; Koltun, Maria; El Mazouni, Farah; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Katneni, Kasiram; Bhamidipati, Ravi; Shackleford, David M.; Angulo-Barturen, Inigo; Ferrer, Santiago B.; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Charman, William N.; Bathurst, Ian; Floyd, David; Matthews, David; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Charman, Susan A.; Phillips, Margaret A. (UWASH); (MMV, Switzerland); (GSK); (Monash); (UW); (UTSMC)

    2012-02-27

    Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential antimalarials, we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound toward clinical candidate status.

  3. Rational Design of Benzylidenehydrazinyl-Substituted Thiazole Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Human Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase with in Vivo Anti-arthritic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiliang; Luan, Guoqin; Ren, Xiaoli; Song, Wenlin; Xu, Liuxin; Xu, Minghao; Zhu, Junsheng; Dong, Dong; Diao, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Lili; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Xu, Yufang; Li, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, transplant rejection and other autoimmune diseases. Based on the X-ray structure of hDHODH in complex with lead compound 7, a series of benzylidenehydrazinyl-substituted thiazole derivatives as potent inhibitors of hDHODH were designed and synthesized, of which 19 and 30 were the most potent with IC50 values in the double-digit nanomolar range. Moreover, compound 19 displayed significant anti-arthritic effects and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. Further X-ray structure and SAR analyses revealed that the potencies of the designed inhibitors were partly attributable to additional water-mediated hydrogen bond networks formed by an unexpected buried water between hDHODH and the 2-(2-methylenehydrazinyl)thiazole scaffold. This work not only elucidates promising scaffolds targeting hDHODH for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but also demonstrates that the water-mediated hydrogen bond interaction is an important factor in molecular design and optimization. PMID:26443076

  4. Frequent lack of translation of antigen presentation-associated molecules MHC class I, CD1a and Beta(2)-microglobulin in Reed-Sternberg cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.; Visser, L; Eberwine, J; Dadvand, L; Poppema, S

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells of a substantial proportion of Hodgkin's lymphoma cases. Most EBV-positive cases are also MHC class I-positive, whereas the majority of EBV-negative cases lack detectable levels of MHC class I expression. Application of the SAGE techni

  5. In vitro resistance selections for Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors give mutants with multiple point mutations in the drug-binding site and altered growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Leila S; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria José; Singh, Onkar M P; Rowland, Paul; Wiegand, Roger C; Wirth, Dyann F

    2014-06-27

    Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease; yet half of the world's population lives at risk of infection, and an estimated 660,000 people die of malaria-related causes every year. Rising drug resistance threatens to make malaria untreatable, necessitating both the discovery of new antimalarial agents and the development of strategies to identify and suppress the emergence and spread of drug resistance. We focused on in-development dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors. Characterizing resistance pathways for antimalarial agents not yet in clinical use will increase our understanding of the potential for resistance. We identified resistance mechanisms of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) DHODH inhibitors via in vitro resistance selections. We found 11 point mutations in the PfDHODH target. Target gene amplification and unknown mechanisms also contributed to resistance, albeit to a lesser extent. These mutant parasites were often hypersensitive to other PfDHODH inhibitors, which immediately suggested a novel combination therapy approach to preventing resistance. Indeed, a combination of wild-type and mutant-type selective inhibitors led to resistance far less often than either drug alone. The effects of point mutations in PfDHODH were corroborated with purified recombinant wild-type and mutant-type PfDHODH proteins, which showed the same trends in drug response as the cognate cell lines. Comparative growth assays demonstrated that two mutant parasites grew less robustly than their wild-type parent, and the purified protein of those mutants showed a decrease in catalytic efficiency, thereby suggesting a reason for the diminished growth rate. Co-crystallography of PfDHODH with three inhibitors suggested that hydrophobic interactions are important for drug binding and selectivity.

  6. BEL-1, a Novel Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase, and the Class 1 Integron In120 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Brinas, Laura; Verlinde, Annemie; Ide, Louis; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Screening by a double-disk synergy test identified a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that produced a clavulanic acid-inhibited expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Cloning and sequencing identified a novel ESBL, BEL-1, weakly related to other Ambler class A ESBLs. β-Lactamase BEL-1 hydrolyzed significantly most expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, and its activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid, tazobactam, cefoxitin, moxalactam, and imipenem. This chromosome-encoded ESBL gene was embedded in a class 1 integron containing three other gene cassettes. In addition, this integron was bracketed by Tn1404 transposon sequences at its right end and by P. aeruginosa-specific sequences at its left end. PMID:16127048

  7. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  8. Discovery of a new class of potential multifunctional atypical antipsychotic agents targeting dopamine D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors: design, synthesis, and effects on behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butini, Stefania; Gemma, Sandra; Campiani, Giuseppe;

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine D(3) antagonism combined with serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor occupancy may represent a novel paradigm for developing innovative antipsychotics. The unique pharmacological features of 5i are a high affinity for dopamine D(3), serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, together w...

  9. My Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传怡

    2006-01-01

    My name is Zhao Chuanyi.I am in Class Ten Grade seven.There are 61 students in our class.And 26 are girls and 35 are boys.One is from America.Boys like football and basketball.Girls like singing and dancing.We are all

  10. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  11. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  12. Class distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  13. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  14. Does Class Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  15. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  16. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    , not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original......Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  17. Variable-Voltage Class-E Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    The Class-E power amplifier is widely used due to its high efficiency, resulting from switching at zero voltage and zero slope of the switch voltage. In this paper, we extend general analytical solutions for the Class-E power amplifier to the ideal single-ended Variable-Voltage Class-E (Class-EVV) p

  18. Semisimple Classes of Semirings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Hebisch; H.J. Weinert

    2002-01-01

    A famous result of Sands states that a class S of associative rings is semisimple if and only if S is regular, coinductive, and extensionally closed. Here,we investigate semisimple classes in a Kurosh-Amitsur radical theory for semirings. We show that such a class S is regular, K-coinductive, and K-extensionally closed. But a characterization of semisimple classes of semirings needs a fourth condition, namely that S is inverse semi-isomorphically closed. We also obtain other characterizations and results for semisimple classes and for subdirect products of semirings.

  19. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  20. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  1. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes is the...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting the...

  2. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  3. ABS 497 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

    ABS 497 Complete Class   To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ABS-497/ABS-497-Complete-Class-Guide   For more classes visit   www.assignmentcloud.com   ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 1 Fabian's Story ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 2 Doug's Story ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 1 Parenting Styles ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 2 Ethnicity and Learning Theory ABS 497 Week 3 ...

  4. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.

  5. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  6. Universality classes of inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hillto

  7. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    China's cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009ot 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.In China's main urban centers,Beijing and Shanghai,the middle class accounted for 46 percent and 38 percent,respectively,of the local population.

  8. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  9. The Last Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  10. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy...

  11. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.

  12. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  13. PSYCH 515 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

      PSYCH 515 Advanced Abnormal Psychology To purchase this material click on below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSYCH-515/PSYCH-515-Complete-Class-Guide For more details www.assignmentcloud.com

  14. Raradox of class description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光

    2004-01-01

    We have a more active class atmophere, but more passive self-study situations. We are too talktive when we should bury ourselves in books, but too less efficient when we spend too much time. We complain teachers

  15. IELP Class Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈了了

    2010-01-01

    @@ As an exchange student majoring in English, I am curious about how English is taught to international students here in America. Therefore, I observed an IELP (Intensive English Learning Program) class in Central Connecticut State University where I study.

  16. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  17. A class in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S. A.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.

  18. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  19. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  20. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Geers, Alexie

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  1. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  2. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  3. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

                The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...

  4. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  5. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo; 諏訪, 立雄

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle E over a manifold M, certain Chern classes of E are localized at the singular set S, i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When S is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of S by the Alexander duality. If M itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is also developed for ...

  6. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle $E$ over a manifold $M$ , certain Chern classes of $E$ are localized at the singular set $S$ , i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When $S$ is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of $S$ by the Alexander duality. If $M$ itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is als...

  7. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  8. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China, the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China’s urban development,

  9. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  10. Teaching Very Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  11. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  12. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  13. Class Participation: Promoting In-Class Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Class participation has long been valued by faculty members interested in engaging students in the learning process. This paper discusses class participation and shares participation techniques that promote active student engagement during class meetings. Emphasis is placed on techniques that invite a larger number of students into a course's…

  14. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  15. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... capitalist relations, the exact social processes under which they were having to make a living, and what had only recently—and still largely ambiguously—made them ready to identify themselves politically as ‘Adivasi’. Demonstrating the usefulness of ethnographic curiosity driven by an ‘expanded’ class...

  16. The Class of '34

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, incl...

  17. Mining Java Class Naming Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon; Wermelinger, Michel; Yu, Yijun; Sharp, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Class names represent the concepts implemented in object-oriented source code and are key elements in program comprehension and, thus, software maintenance. Programming conventions often state that class names should be noun-phrases, but there is little further guidance for developers on the composition of class names. Other researchers have observed that the majority of Java class identifier names are composed of one or more nouns preceded, optionally, by one or more adjectives. However, no ...

  18. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...

  19. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  20. Class Discovery in Galaxy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bazell, D; Bazell, David; Miller, David J.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, automated, supervised classification techniques have been fruitfully applied to labeling and organizing large astronomical databases. These methods require off-line classifier training, based on labeled examples from each of the (known) object classes. In practice, only a small batch of labeled examples, hand-labeled by a human expert, may be available for training. Moreover, there may be no labeled examples for some classes present in the data, i.e. the database may contain several unknown classes. Unknown classes may be present due to 1) uncertainty in or lack of knowledge of the measurement process, 2) an inability to adequately ``survey'' a massive database to assess its content (classes), and/or 3) an incomplete scientific hypothesis. In recent work, new class discovery in mixed labeled/unlabeled data was formally posed, with a proposed solution based on mixture models. In this work we investigate this approach, propose a competing technique suitable for class discovery in neural network...

  1. Network class superposition analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  2. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Fooksman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.

  3. Experiencing a Flipped Mathematics Class

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, A. Judy

    2013-01-01

    The flipped classroom is an old concept that has recently been redefined through the emergence of new technologies that allow teachers to deliver content out of class time. As such, various approaches for implementation exist. Most prominently, teachers are able to use class time in a student-centered manner, which allows students to experience the classroom in diverse ways. This study focuses on describing these experiences in a particular flipped adult upgrading mathematics class. Students ...

  4. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because i...

  5. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be explai......Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...... with surface scattering is presented. Each of the two scattering effects is modeled as frequency dependent functions....

  6. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions...

  7. The Paradox of Paperless Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Describes paperless classes developed at Carleton College that augment traditional classes by giving students and faculty the ability to share digital course-related materials via the campus computer network. Presents a case study of a managerial economics course, and includes problems with various aspects of the course and solutions. (LRW)

  8. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  9. A Touch of...Class!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  10. Social Class and the Extracurriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Will

    2012-01-01

    Social class is a powerful and often unrecognized influence on student participation in the extracurriculum. Spontaneous student-created extracurricular experiences depend on students affiliating and interacting with each other; student social class is a powerful influence on student affiliations. Students tend to exercise consciousness of kind-…

  11. Class, Identity, and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of working with White, working-class teacher education students to explore the "complex social trajectory" (Reay in Women's Stud Int Forum 20(2):225-233, 1997a, p. 19) of class border crossing as they progress through college. Through analysis of a course that I have developed, "Education and the American…

  12. Dynamic class methods in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Heinlein, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The concept of dynamic class methods in Java, constituting a specialization of a general new programming language concept called dynamic routines, is introduced and applied to a simple case study. Its advantages over standard object-oriented programming techniques including design patterns are demonstrated. Furthermore, an implementation of dynamic class methods as a precompiler-based language extension to Java is described.

  13. Relations among tautological classes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    We give a simple generalisation of a theorem of Morita (1989) [10] and [11], which leads to a great number of relations among tautological classes on moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces......We give a simple generalisation of a theorem of Morita (1989) [10] and [11], which leads to a great number of relations among tautological classes on moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces...

  14. Tautological Classes on Projective Towers

    CERN Document Server

    Negut, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    When one has a tower of projective bundles over an algebraic variety and wishes to compute the push-forward of any cohomology class down this tower, one needs to recursively compute the Segre classes corresponding to each level. In this paper, we give a closed combinatorial formula that encodes this recursive procedure.

  15. First class models from linear and nonlinear second class constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghani, Mehdi; Monemzadeh, Majid; Abarghooeinejad, Salman

    2014-01-01

    Two models with linear and nonlinear second class constraints are considered and gauged by embedding in an extended phase space. These models are the free non-relativistic particle on a hyperplane and hyper sphere in configuration space. For the first model we construct its gauged corresponding by the condition of converting second class system to first class one, directly. In contrast the first class system related to the free particle on hyper sphere is derived by the BFT embedding procedure, where its steps are infinite. We give a practical formula for gauging linear and some of the nonlinear second class systems, based on the simplified BFT method. As a result of the gauging two models, we show that in the conversion of second class to the first class constraints the minimum number of phase space degrees of freedom for both systems is a pair of phase space coordinate. This pair for first system is a coordinate and its momentum conjugate, but Poisson structure of embedded non-relativistic particle on hyper...

  16. Class in Metropolitan India: The Rise of the Middle Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Jos; Lama-Rewal, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt is almost a cliché to say that India’s appearance and image (internationally as well as self-image) have changed dramatically in the last fifteen years. Instead of being associated with rural poverty, India is now associated with high rates of economic growth, a booming Information Technology (IT) sector and, particularly, an increasingly expanding middle class that consumes and behaves like elites and middle classes elsewhere in the world. Considering that cities concentrate m...

  17. New Ramsey Classes from Old

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Let C_1 and C_2 be strong amalgamation classes of finite structures, with disjoint finite signatures sigma and tau. Then C_1 wedge C_2 denotes the class of all finite (sigma cup tau)-structures whose sigma-reduct is from C_1 and whose tau-reduct is from C_2. We prove that when C_1 and C_2 are Ramsey, then C_1 wedge C_2 is also Ramsey. We also discuss variations of this statement, and give several examples of new Ramsey classes derived from those general results.

  18. Lipschitz classes on local fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-yi SU; Guo-xiang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The Lipschitz class Lipα on a local field K is defined in this note, and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipα and the Holder type space Cα (K) is proved. Then, those important characteristics on the Euclidean space Rn and the local field K are compared, so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on Rn and K. Finally, the Cantor type fractal function (V)(x) is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip (m, K), m < ln2/ln3.

  19. Management of Classes with Breaches of Discipline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海军

    2009-01-01

    As an only child is pampered and spoiled by parents, the contemporary student easily breaches class discipline. Class management appears more concerned than ever because breaches of class discipline have great impact on teaching. The author clarifies the necessity to study the management of classes with breaches of class discipline, numerates the phenomena of breaches of class discipline, precisely analyzes the causes from teachers and students and especially submits several measures to effectively prevent breaches of class discipline.

  20. Generalized analytical design equations for variable slope class-e power amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    The Class-E power amplifier is widely used because of its high efficiency, resulting from switching at zero voltage and zero slope of the switch voltage. In this paper, we extend our general analytical solutions for the Class-E power amplifier to the ideal single-ended Variable Slope Class-E (Class-

  1. Class attendance and university performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Anna-Lena; Lerche, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Using survey data collected at Göttingen University, Germany, this paper evaluates the effect of attending the lecture and/or tutorial on the grade achieved in two basic courses in business administration and economics. The analysis shows that going to class has no significant impact on student performance in most specifications. Although the identification of a causal effect may not be possible with the data at hand, the results suggest that, in the given framework, attending class and study...

  2. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-03-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data from the whole class. This pedagogical method was reported earlier, and the present article offers a few more examples of such "whole class" laboratories.

  3. Less than a Class Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  4. Internet service classes under competition

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbens, R.; R. Mason; Steinberg, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes competition between two Internet service providers (ISPs), either or both of which may choose to offer multiple service classes. In the model analyzed, a social planner who maximizes the total benefit from network usage and a profit maximizing monopolist will both form multiple service classes; but two networks competing to maximize profits will not. The reason is that a competition effect always outweighs a segmentation effect. Networks wish to offer multiple service clas...

  5. Main: PYRIMIDINEBOXOSRAMY1A [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PYRIMIDINEBOXOSRAMY1A S000259 19-August-2004 (last modified) kehi Pyrimidine box fo...und in rice (O.s.) alpha-amylase (RAmy1A) gene; Gibberellin-respons cis-element of GARE and pyrimidine box a...ically to this site; See S000265; alpha-amylase; sugar repression; GARE; pyrimidine box; feed-back metabolic

  6. Polynomial Operators on Classes of Regular Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Ondřej; Polák, Libor

    We assign to each positive variety mathcal V and each natural number k the class of all (positive) Boolean combinations of the restricted polynomials, i.e. the languages of the form L_0a_1 L_1a_2dots a_ell L_ell, text{ where } ell≤ k, a 1,...,a ℓ are letters and L 0,...,L ℓ are languages from the variety mathcal V. For this polynomial operator we give a certain algebraic counterpart which works with identities satisfied by syntactic (ordered) monoids of languages considered. We also characterize the property that a variety of languages is generated by a finite number of languages. We apply our constructions to particular examples of varieties of languages which are crucial for a certain famous open problem concerning concatenation hierarchies.

  7. A New Complete Class Complexity Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vinay; Bhattacherjee, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Software complexity metrics is essential for minimizing the cost of software maintenance. Package level and System level complexity cannot be measured without class level complexity. This research addresses the class complexity metrics. This paper studies the existing class complexity metrics and proposes a new class complexity metric CCC (Complete class complexity metric). The CCC metric is then analytically evaluated by Weyuker's property.

  8. Classes subalternas, lutas de classe e hegemonia: uma abordagem gramsciana Subaltern classes, class struggles and hegemony: a gramscian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura resgatar, no pensamento de Antonio Gramsci, a concepção de classes subalternas e a sua relação com outras categorias, especialmente, o Estado, a sociedade civil e a hegemonia, como suportes da luta de classes na realidade contemporânea. Aborda, ainda, as relações entre classes subalternas, senso comum e ideologia, bem como as formas de superação tematizadas por Gramsci, através da cultura e da filosofia da práxis. Nesse sentido, num movimento de totalidade, busca recuperar a discussão das classes subalternas, a partir da original formulação gramsciana no âmbito do marxismo, mediante a interação dialética entre estrutura e superestrutura, economia e política. Além do resgate conceitual, apontam-se alguns elementos como subsídios à discussão das formas de subalternidade presentes na realidade contemporânea e as possibilidades de fortalecimento das lutas de tais camadas de classe, sobretudo em momentos de forte desmobilização da participação popular.This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of "overcoming" conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  9. High Power Wideband Class-E Power Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega González, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    This letter shows a high-power, high-efficiency, wideband Class-E RF power amplifier designed upon the load admittance synthesis concept and built using an uncomplicated low-loss load network with a low loss wideband admittance transformer as the main component. It uses a power Silicon LDMOS transistor to provide up to 145 W at 28 V peak power, up to 86% drain efficiency over 35% fractional bandwidth (from 85 to 120 MHz) and 15.6 dB gain at peak power without any adjustments. These are clear ...

  10. Classe social, Estado e ideologia Social class, State and ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Waizbort

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto reproduz uma aula para concurso junto ao Departamento de Sociologia da FFLCH-USP na qual tentei articular o tríptico classe social, Estado e ideologia, tendo em mente a situação contemporânea empírica e teórica dos três conceitos.This text reproduces a lecture given in the scope of an examination at the Sociology Department of the FFLCH-USP. For the presentation I have tried to articulate the three concepts "social class", "State" and "ideology", by taking into consideration their actual empirical and theoretical situation.

  11. Monetarism Beyond M1A

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo García; Rodrigo O. Valdés

    2004-01-01

    This work analyzes, from an empirical standpoint, the information contained in the M1A aggregate in Chile and compares it with other aggregates. The findings reveal that, at least for now, the M1A aggregate does not seem to have particularly valuable information that would make it a better indicator of inflationary pressures within the monetary policy decision horizon. This is consistent with the practice that central banks followed in the past, when they used quantitative targets for money a...

  12. Using Alternative Assessments in Business and Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah; Lucas, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The present study will be divided in three parts: (1) a discussion of authentic alternative assessments vs. traditional assessments in language and business classes; (2) an explanation on how to create authentic alternative assessments using technology-based and non-technology-based materials; and (3) tools to evaluate these authentic assessments.…

  13. Towards a Class Struggle Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Menzies

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dancing between review and argument this paper lays out a foundation for a class-struggle anthropology -that is, an anthropological practice that can be linked to the ultimate goal of achieving a classless society. To this end we will review those anthropologists who have gone before us, pulling out those works of theirs that we see as critical in (rebuilding a class-struggle anthropology. As part of this process we discuss the relationship between what has stood as Marxist anthropology in North America, the idea of socialism, the political development of the world working class during nine decades since the October Revolution, and the challenges of intellectual continuity in the face of differing generational experiences of Marxist anthropologists. Ultimately we argue that a progressive anthropology necessarily involves political activism in our work, communities, and schools.

  14. Universality class in conformal inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei, E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu [Department of Physics and SITP, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We develop a new class of chaotic inflation models with spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Observational consequences of a broad class of such models are stable with respect to strong deformations of the scalar potential. This universality is a critical phenomenon near the point of enhanced symmetry, SO(1,1), in case of conformal inflation. It appears because of the exponential stretching of the moduli space and the resulting exponential flattening of scalar potentials upon switching from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame in this class of models. This result resembles stretching and flattening of inhomogeneities during inflationary expansion. It has a simple interpretation in terms of velocity versus rapidity near the Kähler cone in the moduli space, similar to the light cone of special theory of relativity. This effect makes inflation possible even in the models with very steep potentials. We describe conformal and superconformal versions of this cosmological attractor mechanism.

  15. Active Learning in Large Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    teaching large classes (more than 50 students), and describe how we successfully have in a second semester course in the Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) and Bachelor of Science Engineering (BSc Eng) program at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Approximately 200 students is attending...... the lectures in the course. The main idea is to use inductive, case-based learning, with many small exercises/ discussions during the lectures. We describe a framework for the lectures, that most lectures in the class were based on. The framework contains the conceive, design, and implement stage from the CDIO...

  16. A library of function classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have written a library of function classes in C++, which is distributed as part of the CLHEP foundation class libraries for High Energy Physics. The main goals of the library are to provide objects having all the mathematical behavior of functions, and to provide a mechanism for parameterizing these functions. Our functions support all the normal function operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, composition, et. cetera. The library allows programmers to compose complicated one-or multi-dimensional functions with great economy and natural semantics

  17. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the...... Adams operations and ¿-operations on higher algebraic K-theory. We show that the Adams operations and ¿-operations defined by Grayson agree with the ones defined by Gillet and Soulé....

  18. Moran sets and Moran classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this survey is to present Moran sets and Moran classes which generalize the classical selfsimilar sets from the following points: ( i ) The placements of the basic sets at each step of the constructions can be arbitrary; (ii) the contraction ratios may be different at each step; and (iii) the lower limit of the contraction ratios permits zero. In this discussion we will present geometrical properties and results of dimensions of these sets and classes,and discuss conformal Moran sets and random Moran sets as well.``

  19. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  20. Art of Class Teaching Encourage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiao-fei

    2013-01-01

    Teaching encourage can lead to student’s learning motivation and interesting. It improves the effect of classroom teach⁃ing. Methods of class teaching inspiration are: Target encourage, expectation encourage, emotional encourage, positive encourage, attribution encourage, competition encourage, caress encourage, democracy encourage, praise encourage, time encourage, check en⁃courage, questions encourage, examination encourage, score encourage, example encourage and understanding encourage.

  1. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  2. A Class of Graceful Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡洪; 苏耕; 杨继

    2000-01-01

    The present paper shows the coordinates of a tree and its vertices, defines a kind of Trees with Odd-Number Radiant Type (TONRT), deals with the gracefulness of TONRT by using the edge-moving theorem, and uses graceful TONRT to construct another class of graceful trees.

  3. Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy c

  4. MATERIALS FOR LITERARY ENJOYMENT CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prasasti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As the introductory class of literature at the Faculty of Letters, Literary Enjoyment serves as a campaign to motivate students to appreciate and enjoy works of literature. Materials, which generally hinder the students' ability to enjoy literary works, should be carefully considered. Ideally, language and content should be easily digested but a compromise can be made between language and content.

  5. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  6. Social Class and School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…

  7. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...

  8. Creative Thinking in Instrumental Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on ways to develop student creative thinking, improvisation, and composition skills in instrumental classes. Provides suggestions, such as the importance of offering students creative opportunities, supplying examples, giving control to students, and encouraging expressive integrity. Includes a bibliography of resources for developing…

  9. ¿Quiénes dirigen las instituciones educativas en Cali? Perfil de los directivos docentes en colegios públicos y privados de estratos 1 a 4 Quem dirige as instituições educativas em Cali? Peril dos diretores docentes em colégios públicos e particulares de classes baixa e média Who Runs the schools in Cali? A Proile of Public and Private School Administrators in Lower Income Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbella Miranda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es proveer una descripción del perfil de los administradores de la educación que laboran en instituciones públicas y privadas de educación básica y media de estratos 1 a 4 en la ciudad de Santiago de Cali, a través de los rasgos demográficos, socioeconómicos, académicos y profesionales. El artículo es producto de una investigación sobre las condiciones de implementación de la política educativa colombiana Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo. Para el estudio se empleó una encuesta que fue respondida por 70 administradores escolares de 46 instituciones educativas de la ciudad. Los resultados mostraron que el perfil típico del administrador escolar corresponde a mujeres entre los 50y 60 años que tuvieron contacto con el idioma inglés durante sus estudios de básica secundaria, tienen título de Especialización como máximo nivel de formación alcanzado y cuentan con experiencia profesional superior a 11 años. Se hallaron diferencias entre los sectores público y privado: en el primero los directivos tienen un nivel más alto de formación académica y mejores salarios. Los resultados sugieren que se necesita mayor apoyo a la formación de los directivos del sector privado y un mejor reconocimiento económico a la labor desempeñada por los directivos docentes en ambos sectores.O objetivo deste artigo é prover uma descrição do perfil dos administradores da educação que trabalham em instituições públicas e particulares de educação básica e média de classes baixa e média na cidade de Santiago de Cali, por meio dos traços demográficos, socioeconómicos, acadêmicos e profissionais. O artigo é produto de uma pesquisa sobre as condições de implementação da política educativa colombiana Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo. Para o estudo, empregou-se uma enquete que foi respondida por 70 administradores escolares de 46 instituições educativas da cidade. Os resultados mostraram que o perfil

  10. Class Action Suits against Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesibov, Laurie

    1984-01-01

    If a suit is brought as a class action, either plaintiff or defendant may move to uphold or challenge class certification. If neither does so, the court decides whether the action may be maintained as a class suit. Prerequisites for class certification from Rule 23 (Federal Rules of Civil Procedure) are explained. (TE)

  11. Student versus Faculty Perceptions of Missing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…

  12. Making the Introductory Journalism Class Tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorway, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that beginning journalism classes teach multiple skills, including law, decision-making, interpersonal communication, interviewing, and critical thinking. Outlines how to convince administrators of the need for beginning journalism classes, and how to develop an effective class. Lists philosophy and course goals for one such class. (PM)

  13. Trabalho e classes sociais Work and social classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Haddad

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposição, discussão e refutação das principais tentativas de atualizar a teoria marxista de classes e posterior reavaliação dessa teoria à luz da transformação da ciência em fator de produção e da possível perda de centralidade do trabalho no processo produtivo, tendo por base as interpretações lógicas da obra de Marx feitas por Ruy Fausto.Exposition, discussion and refutation of the main attempts of actualizing marxist class theory and a posterior reevaluation of this theory taking into account the transformation of Science into a factor of production and of the possible centrality-loss of work in the productive process, based on the logic interpretations of Marx's work made by Ruy Fausto.

  14. AIPS++ N-Dimensional Array Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Willis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a set of C++ classes developed for the AIPS++ project. These classes handle arrays having an arbitrary number of dimensions. We give an overview of the methods available in these classes and show some simple examples of their use. Finally we describe the use of these classes to develop a radio astronomy application and discuss some of the performance issues that must be considered when these classes are used.

  15. Stochastic prediction of drought class transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, Ana A.; L. S. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at the stochastic characterization of droughts applying Markov chains modeling to drought class transitions derived from SPI time series. Several sites in Southern Portugal having updated data on precipitation available were considered. The drought class probabilities, the expected residence time in each class of severity, the expected time for the transition between drought classes and the drought severity class predictions 1, 2, or 3 months ahead have been obt...

  16. FDM Video Classe: Modes d'emploi pour la classe (FDM Video Class: Classroom Uses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacco, Marcella Di Giura

    1996-01-01

    Content and design of the videotape series FDM Video Classe, produced by the journal "Le francais dans le monde," are described and classroom uses suggested. The materials are from authentic television programs, selected to illustrate aspects of French culture. It is suggested that the teacher also provide students with supporting materials that…

  17. The Fermilab physics class library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Physics Class Library Task Force has been formed to supply classes and utilities, primarily in support of efforts by CDF and D0 toward using C++. A collection of libraries and tools will be assembled via development by the task force, collaboration with other HEP developers, and acquisition of existing modules. The main emphasis is on a kit of resources which physics coders can incorporate into their programs, with confidence in robustness and correct behavior. The task force is drawn from CDF, DO and the FNAL Computing and Beams Divisions. Modules-containers, linear algebra, histograms, etc.-have been assigned priority, based on immediate Run II coding activity, and will be available at times ranging from now to late May

  18. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ηMAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  19. Exploitation and the class struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Bruce Philp

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to our understanding of the determinants and dynamics of Marxian exploitation using quarterly UK data, 1955-2008. Initially a simple model is introduced for the purpose of defining exploitation and its component parts, before elaborating on theoretical issues which are important in estimating the rate of exploitation. In the empirical analysis we seek to explain the effect of class struggle, for the UK economy, using quarterly data. Attention is paid to three forces whi...

  20. Promoting Wellness in Lamaze Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Lamaze childbirth educators are responsible for teaching wellness-based classes that do not add to the anxiety of the current, fear-based culture of maternity health care. Expectant parents' vulnerable months of pregnancy offer “teachable moments” for the childbirth educator, during which parents can be encouraged to alter their lifestyles and adopt the concept of wellness to their principles of living. In this article, concepts of wellness are examined, drawing from the writings of wellness ...

  1. Collective Identity and Social Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Seoane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the constitution of social identities and the influence that social class has had on understanding social identities. Different perspectives on the debate over the Marxist idea of social subject are discussed. Finally, recent perspectives are analyzed. These perspectives show two related issues: the disappearance of Marxist subjects as a result of economic, political and labor changes, and the emergence of radically different theoretical approaches to the constitution of social subjects.

  2. Social Identity and Class Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Hanappi, Hardy; Hanappi-Egger, Edeltraud

    2014-01-01

    The current economic crisis proves how deep the contradictions inherent in contemporary capitalism really are. At the same time it is evident that the financial crisis goes hand in hand with a social crisis, since an increasing number of people lost trust in governments, trade unions and other representative institutions. A main reason why the European Left nevertheless faces severe challenges in attracting supporters seems to be an experienced loss of what has been called ‘working class ...

  3. Physical characteristics of bright Class I methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2016-07-01

    44 GHz line is almost always stronger than the 36 GHz maser. By comparison between observed isotropic photon luminosities and our model predictions, we infer maser beam solid angles of roughly 10-3 steradian. Conclusions: We find that the Class I masers can reasonably be separated into three families: the (J + 1)-1-J0-E type series, the (J + 1)0-J1-A type, and the J2-J1-E lines at 25 GHz. The 25 GHz lines behave in a different fashion from the other masers as they are only inverted at high densities above 106 cm-3 in contrast to other Class I masers. Therefore, the detection of maser activity in all three families is a clear indication of high densities.

  4. Class Transitions in Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, S K

    2005-01-01

    A black hole spectrum is known to change from the hard state to the soft state when the energy spectral index $\\alpha$ ($F_E \\propto E^{-\\alpha}$) in, say, 2-20 keV range changes from $\\alpha \\sim 0.5$ to $\\sim 1.5$. However, this `classical' definition which characterizes black holes like Cyg X-1, becomes less useful for many objects such as GRS 1915+105 in which the spectral slope is seen to vary from one to the other in a matter of seconds and depending on whether or not winds form, the spectral slope also changes. The light curves and the colour-colour diagrams may look completely different on different days depending on the frequency and mode of switching from one spectral state to the other. Though RXTE observations have yielded wealth of information on such `variability classes' in GRS 1915+105, very rarely one has been able to observe how the object goes from one class to the other. In the present review, we discuss possible origins of the class transition and present several examples of such transiti...

  5. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...

  6. What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes Around the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Abhijit V.; Esther Duflo

    2007-01-01

    We expect a lot from the middle classes. At least three distinct arguments about the special economic role of the middle class are traditionally made. In one, new entrepreneurs armed with a capacity and a tolerance for delayed gratification emerge from the middle class and create employment and productivity growth for the rest of society. In a second, perhaps more conventional view, the middle class is primarily a source of vital inputs for the entrepreneurial class: it is their "middle class...

  7. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of...

  8. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  9. Investment Company Series and Class Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...

  10. Class Based Contextual Logic for DOOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoseK.Raphel; SiuCheungHui; 等

    1996-01-01

    Cntextual logic provides a mechanism to reason about modules.In this paper,this theory of modules if modules is extended to a context theory of classes where class is in the true spirit of object-oriented databases.The logic,referred to as CLOG,is class-based.CLOG supports class,object identity,multiple role of object, monotonic and non-monotonic inheritance of data and method,method factoring,views,derived and query classes.Views and derived classes are queries in themselves.Objects are pure data terms representing the ground instances of facts in the class.Object identity is a first class term in the logic.Inheritance is handled through delegation.

  11. Structural complexity metrics for UML class diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Qing-yan; LUN Li-jun; WANG Yi-he; DING Xue-mei

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the structural complexity of class diagrams systematically and deeply, a new guiding framework of structural complexity is presented. An index system of structural complexity for class dia-grams is given. This article discusses the formal description of class diagrams, and presents the method of for-mally structural complexity metrics for class diagrams from associations, dependencies, aggregations, generali-zations and so on. An applicable example proves the feasibility of the presented method.

  12. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  13. Application of Class Activities in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with the analysis of present English teaching,the article puts forward some questions occurring in English classes.Then it talks about the necessity of implementing class activities.Finally it further elaborates how to carry out class activities through three specific examples.

  14. Flipping Quantitative Classes: A Triple Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, William; Wuensch, Karl L.

    2016-01-01

    In the "flipped" class, students use online materials to learn what is traditionally learned by attending lectures, and class time is used for interactive group learning. A required quantitative business class was taught as a flipped classroom in an attempt to improve student satisfaction in the course and reduce the "transactional…

  15. Intersection numbers with Witten's top Chern class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shadrin; D. Zvonkine

    2008-01-01

    Witten’s top Chern class is a particular cohomology class on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces endowed with r-spin structures. It plays a key role in Witten’s conjecture relating to the intersection theory on these moduli spaces. Our first goal is to compute the integral of Witten’s class over th

  16. Give Your Technology Program a Little "Class"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengersammy, Ormilla

    2009-01-01

    The Orange County Library System (OCLS) began to offer basic technology classes in July 2000. The computers were funded through a grant awarded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Over time, the library staff noticed that the demand for the classes increased, so the offering of classes also increased. When the author arrived at OCLS, her main…

  17. Diffusion of Responsibility in College Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍珍

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion of responsibility takes place in college classes nowadays.The author points out diffusion of responsibility in college classes,analyses psychological reasons of diffusion of responsibility,and gives strategies on avoiding the diffusion of responsibility.The paper aims at doing some contribution to improving teaching quality of college class.

  18. 49 CFR 512.16 - Class determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class determinations. 512.16 Section 512.16... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Agency Determination § 512.16 Class determinations. (a) The Chief Counsel may issue class determinations of categories of...

  19. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.207 Class determinations. (a) The General Counsel may make and issue a class determination under this section if he finds that— (1) EPA possesses, or is obtaining, related... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class determinations. 2.207 Section...

  20. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  1. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  2. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  3. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are beneficial for cognitive and non-cognitive ability at age 13, and improve achievement at age 16. Most importantly, we find that smaller classes have positive effects on completed education, wages, and earnings at age 27 to 42. The estimated ...

  4. A FRAMEWORK TO MEASURE CLASS COHESION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; ChenZhenqiang; 等

    2003-01-01

    Chasses are the basic modules in Object-Oriented(OO)softvare,which consist of attributed and methods.Thus,in OO environment,the cohesion is mainly about how tightly the attributed and methods of classes cohere with each other.This letter discusses the relationships between attributes and attributes,attributes and methods,methods and methods of a class,and the properties of these relationships.Based on these properties,the letter proposes a new framework to measure the cohesion of a class.The approach overcomes the limitations of previous class cohesion measures,which comsider only one or two of the three relationships in class.

  5. A Class-Specific Optimizing Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Sharp

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Class-specific optimizations are compiler optimizations specified by the class implementor to the compiler. They allow the compiler to take advantage of the semantics of the particular class so as to produce better code. Optimizations of interest include the strength reduction of class:: array address calculations, elimination of large temporaries, and the placement of asynchronous send/recv calls so as to achieve computation/communication overlap. We will outline our progress towards the implementation of a C++ compiler capable of incorporating class-specific optimizations.

  6. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning of a certain class to be assisted by data points from other classes in a context-dependent fashion. The result is that overlap across sub-classes (both within- and across class) is greatly reduced. ICC is particularly useful when combined with algorithms that assume that each class has a unimodal Gaussian distribution (e.g., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), quadratic classifiers), an assumption that is not always true in many real-world situations. ICC can help partition non-Gaussian, multimodal distributions to overcome such a problem. In this sense, ICC works as a preprocessor. Experiments with our ICC algorithm on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicated that it can significantly improve the performance of LDA and quadratic classifiers. We expect our approach to be applicable to a broader class of pattern recognition problems where class-conditional densities are significantly non-Gaussian or multi-modal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel way to relate ontology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choksi, Ami T; Jinwala, Devesh C

    2015-01-01

    The existing ontologies in the semantic web typically have anonymous union and intersection classes. The anonymous classes are limited in scope and may not be part of the whole inference process. The tools, namely, the pellet, the jena, and the protégé, interpret collection classes as (a) equivalent/subclasses of union class and (b) superclasses of intersection class. As a result, there is a possibility that the tools will produce error prone inference results for relations, namely, sub-, union, intersection, equivalent relations, and those dependent on these relations, namely, complement. To verify whether a class is complement of other involves utilization of sub- and equivalent relations. Motivated by the same, we (i) refine the test data set of the conference ontology by adding named, union, and intersection classes and (ii) propose a match algorithm to (a) calculate corrected subclasses list, (b) correctly relate intersection and union classes with their collection classes, and (c) match union, intersection, sub-, complement, and equivalent classes in a proper sequence, to avoid error prone match results. We compare the results of our algorithms with those of a candidate reasoner, namely, the pellet reasoner. To the best of our knowledge, ours is a unique attempt in establishing a novel way to relate ontology classes.

  8. Algebraic Structures using Natural Class of Intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    This book has eleven chapters. Chapter one describes all types of natural class of intervals and the arithmetic operations on them. Chapter two introduces the semigroup of natural class of intervals using R or Zn and study the properties associated with them. Chapter three studies the notion of rings constructed using the natural class of intervals. Matrix theory using the special class of intervals is analyzed in chapter four of this book. Chapter five deals with polynomials using interval coefficients. New types of rings of natural intervals are introduced and studied in chapter six. The notion of vector space using natural class of intervals is built in chapter seven. In chapter eight fuzzy natural class of intervals are introduced and algebraic structures on them is built and described. Algebraic structures using natural class of neutrosophic intervals are developed in chapter nine.Chapter ten suggests some possible applications. The final chapter proposes over 200 problems of which some are at research l...

  9. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K.; Stancato, Daniel M.; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed. PMID:22371585

  10. Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Côté, Stéphane; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-11-01

    Recent research suggests that lower-class individuals favor explanations of personal and political outcomes that are oriented to features of the external environment. We extended this work by testing the hypothesis that, as a result, individuals of a lower social class are more empathically accurate in judging the emotions of other people. In three studies, lower-class individuals (compared with upper-class individuals) received higher scores on a test of empathic accuracy (Study 1), judged the emotions of an interaction partner more accurately (Study 2), and made more accurate inferences about emotion from static images of muscle movements in the eyes (Study 3). Moreover, the association between social class and empathic accuracy was explained by the tendency for lower-class individuals to explain social events in terms of features of the external environment. The implications of class-based patterns in empathic accuracy for well-being and relationship outcomes are discussed. PMID:20974714

  11. HLA class I expression in bladder carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, T; Pedrajas, G; Cozar, J M; Garrido, A; Vicente, J; Tallada, M; Garrido, F

    2003-10-01

    HLA class I molecules are frequently lost in a large variety of human carcinomas, possibly because of T-cell immune selection of major histocompatibility complex class I deficient tumor variants. We report that this phenomenon is also a frequent event in bladder carcinomas. Of a total of 72 bladder carcinomas, 72% of the tumors had at least one alteration in HLA class I expression. These altered HLA class I phenotypes were classified as total HLA class I loss (25%; phenotype I); HLA-A or/and HLA-B locus-specific loss (12%; phenotype III); and HLA class I allelic loss (35%; phenotype II or IV). Comparison of histopathological parameters with HLA class I expression showed a statistically significant relationship with the degree of differentiation and tumor recurrence.

  12. The bovine class II major histocompatibility complex: Serological definition and further characterization of class II haplotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Ph.R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in cattle is reported, with emphasis on the development of class II serology. First, the production of class II alloantisera, and the serological definition of bovine MHC class II polymorphism is described. Subsequentl

  13. 77 FR 56174 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class D airspace and Class E airspace at Camp Guernsey Airport, Camp... holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the Northwest...

  14. GLK-CLASS:SUPERSONIC,SUPERNOVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王非; 张陆; 来卡

    2009-01-01

    请翻翻后面,这组GLK-CLASS,我们一张全车图片未拍。欣赏它,一定要看特写镜头。我向来抵制电视剧,美剧概莫能外,所以对Sex and The City欠缺最起码的了解。去年GLK-CLASS最初公开露面,就在SATC的片场,一度使我暗暗心痛。这牵连,使我那时对GLK-CLASS也缺乏好感,只觉得这Mercedes-Benz的超级新星,怎么长相那么奇怪。

  15. The theories on inequality: class theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This stduy aims to analyse  class theory and its major expansions. In addition, the problems and dilemmas of class theory are discussed. Social inequality, either socially or economically, is one of the most common features of capitalist societies. Some people or some social groups have more money, more prestige, more privilege and more influence on the decision making process.               Two main strategies have been used for analysing and explaining inequalities. The first and most popular strategy is “class theory” which stresses ownership and control to explain class differentiation. It concentrates on the inequalities based mainly on the ownership or non-ownership of economic resources. Class theory was fathered by Karl Marx and especially developed by Marxist writers. Class analysts focus on identification of classes as the major social forces of society. There are two main schools of thought in class theory with their variations within each school: a Marxist Class Theory, b Weberian Class Theory  If the Marxist class analysis and Weberian class analysis are examined it will be seen that, two approaches are incompatible and it is impossible to synthesise them. Nevertheless, Hindess sees Weber’s view as the correction of and supplement to Marx’s ideas rather than an alternative. When the ideas of Marx and Weber are compared, it will be clearly seen that both Marx and Weber explain classes in relation to the economy. Nevertheless, while Marx defines classes in terms of the relations of production, Weber defines them in relation to the market. 

  16. Class comparison of middle class attributes in China and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung Yun

    2012-01-01

    Using urban household income and expenditure survey of China and South Korea, the paper examines traditional beliefs on the middle class in regards to economic growth. First belief is that the consumption of the middle class is an important source of domestic demands for goods and services. Second, unlike extravagant upper class, the thrifty middle class saves more for a stable life thereby providing sources for investment in the economy. Third, the middle class values and invests in human ca...

  17. Directed Nowhere Dense Classes of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kreutzer, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of shallow directed minors and based on this a new classification of classes of directed graphs which is diametric to existing directed graph decompositions and width measures proposed in the literature. We then study in depth one type of classes of directed graphs which we call nowhere crownful. The classes are very general as they include, on one hand, all classes of directed graphs whose underlying undirected class is nowhere dense, such as planar, bounded-genus, and $H$-minor-free graphs; and on the other hand, also contain classes of high edge density whose underlying class is not nowhere dense. Yet we are able to show that problems such as directed dominating set and many others become fixed-parameter tractable on nowhere crownful classes of directed graphs. This is of particular interest as these problems are not tractable on any existing digraph measure for sparse classes. The algorithmic results are established via proving a structural equivalence of nowhere crownful classes ...

  18. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  19. What are lay theories of social class?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E W Varnum

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability. Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  20. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed. PMID:23713698

  1. Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA,

    2005-05-31

    We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.

  2. A new Class of Extremal Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a new class of two-phase isotropic composites with extremal bulk modulus. The new class consists of micro geometrics for which exact solutions can be proven and their bulk moduli are shown to coincide with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The results hold for two and three dimensions...... and for both well- and non-well-ordered isotropic constituent phases. The new class of composites constitutes an alternative to the three previously known extremal composite classes: finite rank laminates, composite sphere assemblages and Vigdergauz microstructures. An isotropic honeycomb-like hexagonal...... microstructure belonging to the new class of composites has maximum bulk modulus and lower shear modulus than any previously known composite. Inspiration for the new composite class comes from a numerical topology design procedure which solves the inverse homogenization problem of distributing two isotropic...

  3. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...... of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a structural...... manner, because virtual classes are closely tied to nominal typing. This paper adds new insight about the dichotomy between these two approaches; it illustrates how virtual constraints and type refinements, as recently introduced in gbeta and Scala, enable structural treatment of virtual types; finally...

  4. MFV-Class:a multi-faceted visualization tool of object classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志猛; 潘云鹤; 庄越挺

    2004-01-01

    Classes are key software components in an object-oriented software system. In many industrial OO software systems,there are some classes that have complicated structure and relationships. So in the processes of software maintenance,testing,software reengineering,software reuse and software restructure,it is a challenge for software engineers to understand these classes thoroughly. This paper proposes a class comprehension model based on constructivist learning theory,and implements a software visualization tool(MFV-Class)to help in the comprehension of a class. The tool provides multiple views of class to uncover manifold facets of class contents. It enables visualizing three object-oriented metrics of classes to help users focus on the understanding process. A case study was conducted to evaluate our approach and the toolkit.

  5. New class of neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

  6. Entertainment with Learning Value in Astronomy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2011-05-01

    As all teachers know, learning requires the attention of the students, which tends to wane as time goes on during a class. Entertainment is a means of restoring that attention. It is even more effective at reaching the goals of the class if the content of the entertainment reinforces the lesson. The presenter will demonstrate how he does this through songs that he composes and performs at selected times in some of his classes.

  7. Rough Class on a Completely Distributive Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德刚; 张文修; 宋士吉

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the Pawlak rough set method to a completely distributive lattice. Theconcept of a rough set has many applications in data mining. The approximation operators on a completelydistributive lattice are studied, the rough class on a completely distributive lattice is defined and theexpressional theorems of the rough class are proven. These expressional theorems are used to prove that thecollection of all rough classes is an atomic completely distributive lattice.

  8. Using Nonverbal Communication in Efl Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Aysenil Barabar; Cagda Kivanc Caganaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing information about nonverbal communication and to state its use in EFL classes. Briefly, this paper introduces the definition, aspects and importance of nonverbal communication. Especially, this study explains some ways of using nonverbal communication in EFL classes, in order to have good classroom management in the class. Based upon this assumption, we aimed to shed light on this area of research, by showing that teachers’ nonverbal behaviour plays a highly signi...

  9. Research on Improving College English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁

    2009-01-01

    This essay is based on observation of totally four classes given by two teachers. Through careful observation, teal tape-recordings, detailed notes and serious comparison of their classes, the observer wants to find the different ap-proaches and methods they use, and how they give the classes while they are with different teaching experience, and fi-nally what the reactions of students are.

  10. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  11. Long-Term Effects of Class Size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  12. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  13. Plantaricin IIA-1A5 from Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5 displays bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, I Isnafia; Budiman, C; Jenie, B Sri Laksmi; Andreas, E; Yuneni, A

    2015-01-01

    Plantaricin IIA-1A5 is a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5 isolated from Indonesian beef. This research aimed to identify the genes involved in plantaricin IIA-1A5 production and examine its mode of action against Staphylococcus aureus. It has been reported that a bacteriocin structural gene, plnW, is present in genome of L. plantarum IIA-1A5. Here, we reported the presence of additional genes responsible for plantaricin precursor (plnA and plnEF) and a gene encoding the quorum sensor of histidine kinase (plnB). It indicates that genes involved in production of plantaricin IIA-1A5 are organized in at least two bacteriocin operons (plnABCD, plnEFI) and a structural plnW gene. Purified plantaricin IIA-1A5 yielded a single band in SDS-PAGE with apparent size of 6.4 kDa. Amino acid composition of purified plantaricin IIA-1A5 was mainly composed of cationic glutamic acid and cysteine that allowed the formation of disulphide bonds, suggesting plantaricin IIA-1A5 belongs to the pediocin-subclass of class II bacteriocins. Plantaricin IIA-1A5 displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which was initiated by the adsorption of plantaricin IIA-1A5 onto the cell membrane of S. aureus. The adsorption is hypothesised to be facilitated by non-ionic interactions as it is reduced by the presence of organic solvents or detergents. This adsorption promoted leakage of cellular metabolites through the cell membrane of S. aureus, as indicated by the release of genetic and proteinaceous material of S. aureus observed at 260 and 280 nm, respectively. The leakage also promoted the release of divalent (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and monovalent (K(+)) cations. The release of these intracellular components might be due to pores formed in the cell membrane of S. aureus by plantaricin IIA-1A5 as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Altogether, the mode of action of plantaricin IIA-1A5 against S. aureus seems to be bactericidal as indicated by lysis of the cell

  14. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  15. Individual and Group Credit for Class Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cora M.; Galyon, Charles E.; Forbes, Bethany E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the use of cooperative groups to facilitate class-wide participation, especially for initially low participants. Undergraduates from three sections of a relatively large educational psychology course recorded their class participation in all course units. Four of the five units in each section offered either…

  16. Flipping a Calculus Class: One Instructor's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes one instructor's experiences during a year of flipping four calculus classes. The first exploration attempts to understand student expectations of a math class and their preference towards a flipped classroom. The second examines success of students from a flipped classroom, and the last investigates relationships with student…

  17. So, Where Are We with Class Size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald P.

    2001-01-01

    Although class-size reductions cannot guarantee better student performance, the Tennessee and Wisconsin experiences, along with other studies, suggest that successful programs share key characteristics: concentration in the primary schooling years, classes with not more than 20 students, greater benefits for urban minority students, and alignment…

  18. A conceptualisation of whole-class scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Eerde, H.A.A.; Bakker, A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding refers to temporary and adaptive support, originally in dyadic adult– child interaction. It has become widely used, also in whole-class settings, but often in loose ways. The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically ground a conceptualisation of whole-class sc

  19. Software Training Classes Now Open | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer                                            Data Management Services, Inc. (DMS), has announced the opening of its spring session of software training classes, available to all employees at NCI at Frederick. Classes begin on March 31 and run through June 30.

  20. World-Class Higher Education (for Whom?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    The slogan "world-class education" is ubiquitous in education circles. This essay looks closely at who is advancing this idea, why, and where, and the kind of work it is asked to do. Though instruments for determining the world-class status of education institutions were first launched in the 1980s, they have grown exponentially in the past…

  1. Automatically extracting class diagrams from spreadsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of spreadsheets to capture information is widespread in industry. Spreadsheets can thus be a wealthy source of domain information. We propose to automatically extract this information and transform it into class diagrams. The resulting class diagram can be used by software engineers to under

  2. Python Classes for Numerical Solution of PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Mushtaq, Asif; Olaussen, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    We announce some Python classes for numerical solution of partial differential equations, or boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations. These classes are built on routines in \\texttt{numpy} and \\texttt{scipy.sparse.linalg} (or \\texttt{scipy.linalg} for smaller problems).

  3. Listening and Learning in a Master Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2015-01-01

    Most higher education institutions offering programmes in music performance organise master classes for their students. It is commonly agreed that master classes offer valuable learning opportunities for the students performing, but what do they offer for students in the audience? In this article, theories of learning by observation as well as…

  4. Near-Ring Radicals and Class Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Godloza; N.J.Groenewald; W.A.Olivier

    2005-01-01

    For near-ring ideal mappings p1 and p2, we investigate radical theoretical properties of and the relationship among the class pairs (p1: p2), (Sp2: Sp1) and (Rp2:Rp1). Conditions on p1 and p2 are given for a general class pair to form a radical class of various types. These types include the Plotkin and KA-radical varieties. A number of examples are shown to motivate the suitability of the theory of Hoehnke-radicals over KA-radicals when radical pairs of near-rings are studied. In particular, it is shown that (pc: P3) forms a KA-radical class, where Pc denotes the class of completely prime nearrings and P3 the class of 3-prime near-rings. This gives another near-ring generalization of the 2-primal ring concept. The theory of radical pairs are also used to show that in general the class of 3-semiprime near-rings is not the semisimple class of the 3-prime radical.

  5. The YouTube Makeup Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, David G.

    2009-01-01

    When a college instructor goes out of town and must miss a lecture, the standard options are to cancel the class meeting or to enlist a colleague to fill in. In the former case a teaching opportunity is lost; in the latter the substitute may not lead the class in the same way as the instructor. Some students routinely skip lectures by a guest…

  6. Intercultural and Media Education on Art Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Maria José; Chaves, Anabela; Costa, Manuela; Pereira, Emília Sá

    2009-01-01

    Visual art, music and literature, are part of the culture. Thus Art shows the interactions between different cultures. The aim of the article is to present some activities to include intercultural issues in Art and Mother Language classes. Art classes also give the opportunity to do Media Education.

  7. Concerning Two Formulaic Classes in Computational Combinatorics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leetsch C. HSU

    2012-01-01

    Here introduced and studied are two formulaic classes consisting of various combinatorial algebraic identities and series summation formulas.The basic ideas include utilizing properly the △-operator and Stirling numbers for some series transformations.A variety of classic formulas and remarkable identities are shown to be the members of the classes.

  8. Classes, Collection, and Principles of Psychological Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Ellen M.

    This paper discusses research on how concepts differ in their internal organization and how these differences interact with and affect cognitive processing in children. Two types of natural concepts are focused on: classes (nouns with class-inclusion organization, such as "trees,""students,""soldiers" and collections (nouns with part-whole…

  9. Using Mobile Phone Technology in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat

    2008-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) who want to develop successful lessons face numerous challenges, including large class sizes and inadequate instructional materials and technological support. Another problem is unmotivated students who refuse to participate in class activities. According to Harmer (2007), uncooperative and…

  10. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of how social…

  11. 7 CFR 29.1003 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.1003 Section 29.1003 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1003 Class. A major division of tobacco based on method of cure or principal usage....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3008 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.3008 Section 29.3008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Class. A major division of tobacco based on method of cure or principal usage....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3506 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.3506 Section 29.3506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3506 Class. A major division of tobacco based on method of cure or principal usage....

  14. Higher Education and Class: Production or Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with questions relating to the role of education and especially Higher Education in the reproduction of class division in society. Social classes and how they are formed and reproduced has always been one of the greatest challenges for Marxism and social theory in general. The questions regarding the role of education, and…

  15. Price Responsiveness of Wheat Class Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul; Wilson, William W.; Riepe, Jean

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies the price responsiveness and preferences for wheat classes using a "Case" Function specification. Results indicate there have been numerous changes in market shares of wheat classes from the different exporters in specific markets. In general, quality differentials are important in some international markets, whereas others are very price responsive.

  16. The Power of In-Class Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  17. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  18. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  19. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  20. Class formation and consumption among middle-class professionals in Shenzhen

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Elfick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of consumption in defining Chinese middle-class identity by examining the consumption practices of urban professionals. It is widely agreed that China has a thriving middle class. The exact definition of this middle class, however, is disputed by scholars and the Chinese popular press. Debates about class are also manifest in the daily lives of urban professionals. One of the most interesting areas in which identity is contested is that of consumption. The researc...

  1. Student attitudes about class absences, class attendance, and requiring attendance at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Hileman, Annmarie Long

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-nine undergraduate students were interviewed in February, 1992, to determine attitudes about class attendance, class absences, and required attendance. Three hundred undergraduates were selected in a random sample; seventy-nine attended one of the six group interview sessions. The reasons students gave for skipping classes included being lazy or tired, dislike of the professor, material for the class was seen as unimportant, bad or nice weather, early mornin...

  2. MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2004-10-01

    Tensors (also known as mutidimensional arrays or N-way arrays) are used in a variety of applications ranging from chemometrics to psychometrics. We describe four MATLAB classes for tensor manipulations that can be used for fast algorithm prototyping. The tensor class extends the functionality of MATLAB's multidimensional arrays by supporting additional operations such as tensor multiplication. The tensor as matrix class supports the 'matricization' of a tensor, i.e., the conversion of a tensor to a matrix (and vice versa), a commonly used operation in many algorithms. Two additional classes represent tensors stored in decomposed formats: cp tensor and tucker tensor. We descibe all of these classes and then demonstrate their use by showing how to implement several tensor algorithms that have appeared in the literature.

  3. [Latest advances of SLA class I genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuan; Li, Hua; Li, Xue-Wei; Yu, Hui; Zuo, Qi-Zhen

    2007-11-01

    The Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes encode multi-glycoproteins on cell surface, which present endogenous antigenic peptides to T cells and thus initiate specific immune responses. In this article, latest advances on molecular structure, expression in tissues, regulation of expression, genotyping, polymorphism, and evolution of SLA class I genes were introduced, in which genotyping and polymorphism were emphasized. Molecular typing methods of SLA class I genes include serological method, DNA sequencing, PCR-SSP, PCR-SSOP and MS, of which PCR-SSP is frequently used in genotyping of SLA class I genes as a simple and rapid method. Future directions for the study and application of SLA class I genes on gene functions, peptide vaccine, xenotransplantation were also discussed.

  4. Practical classes: a platform for deep learning? Overall context in the first-year veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marion T; Baird, Alan W; Mulholland, Clive W; Irwin, Jane A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the many practical formats that support the first-year veterinary curriculum. These practical classes are diverse in content and style. They include laboratory-based formats, classes involving live animals and cadavers, classes conducted using computer-aided learning tools, study groups, and information technology training. This preliminary study examines ratings for these practical classes, but also relates these ratings to students' approaches to study with the aim of understanding how a deep learning approach manifests itself in the practical setting. The diverse behaviors and attitudes to practical classes are also evaluated in the light of the approaches to study. A questionnaire that evaluated (1) a total of 24 practical classes, (2) the 52-item Approaches to Study Inventory, and (3) 13 behaviors within and attitudes to practical classes was distributed to 69 first-year veterinary students in their final term. Practical classes that involved live animals and cadavers were rated most positively by this group of students. These ratings, however, did not correlate significantly with the deep or surface learning score. The majority of practical classes where the ratings were found to be associated with deep and surface learning were laboratory-based, although overall these practical classes tended to be rated lower than those involving animals. Ratings did not correlate significantly with the strategic approach. A number of behaviors and attitudes to practical classes were also found to be positively and significantly (p=0.0001) associated with the deep learning approach. This preliminary study indicates that this cohort of veterinary students has an overall positive perception of practical classes that permit contact with live animals or cadavers. Although the perception of laboratory-type practical classes was lower overall, the ratings for these practical classes appeared to be influenced by their deep and surface learning

  5. On Students' Self-Evaluation and Class Performance-An Empirical Study in College English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱周贤

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate whether students' self-evaluations influence their class performance. A questionnaire is designed and data is collected from 30 sophomore students in English class. The data analysis shows that students who have posi-tive self-evaluation perform better and get higher class performance scores than students who have negative self-evaluation.

  6. Social Class (In)Visibility and the Professional Experiences of Middle-Class Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Jones, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…

  7. Social class, power, and selfishness: when and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, David; Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-03-01

    Are the rich more unethical than the poor? To answer this question, the current research introduces a key conceptual distinction between selfish and unethical behavior. Based on this distinction, the current article offers 2 novel findings that illuminate the relationship between social class and unethical behavior. First, the effects of social class on unethical behavior are not invariant; rather, the effects of social class are moderated by whether unethical behavior benefits the self or others. Replicating past work, social class positively predicted unethical behavior; however, this relationship was only observed when that behavior was self-beneficial. When unethical behavior was performed to benefit others, social class negatively predicted unethical behavior; lower class individuals were more likely than upper class individuals to engage in unethical behavior. Overall, social class predicts people's tendency to behave selfishly, rather than predicting unethical behavior per se. Second, individuals' sense of power drove the effects of social class on unethical behavior. Evidence for this relationship was provided in three forms. First, income, but not education level, predicted unethical behavior. Second, feelings of power mediated the effect of social class on unethical behavior, but feelings of status did not. Third, two distinct manipulations of power produced the same moderation by self-versus-other beneficiary as was found with social class. The current theoretical framework and data both synthesize and help to explain a range of findings in the social class and power literatures. PMID:25621858

  8. Minimum Data Set Q1a Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Q1a report summarizes, by state and county, percentages of residents that answered Yes to Q1a - Residents expresses or indicates preference to return to the...

  9. Keplerian and Infall Motions Around the Late-Phase Protostar TMC-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Y.; Ohashi, N.; Saigo, K.; Takakuwa, S.; Yen, H.-W.; Koyamatsu, S.; Aikawa, Y.; Machida, M. N.; Saito, M.; Tomida, K.; Tomida, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the protostar TMC-1A (Class I, Tbol = 118 K) using ALMA Cycle 0 in 1.3-mm dust continuum, 12CO (J = 2-1), and C18O (J = 2-1) emission. Our results suggest that TMC-1A has a Keplerian disk (Rkep = 100 AU, M* = 0.68 M⊙) and an envelope showing an infalling velocity 0.3 times as large as the free fall velocity.

  10. Social class and academic achievement in college: the interplay of rejection sensitivity and entity beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinschmidt, Michelle L; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    Undergraduates, especially those from lower income backgrounds, may perceive their social class background as different or disadvantaged relative to that of peers and worry about negative social treatment. We hypothesized that concerns about discrimination based on one's social class (i.e., class-based rejection sensitivity or RS-class) would be damaging to undergraduates' achievement outcomes particularly among entity theorists, who perceive their personal characteristics as fixed. We reasoned that a perceived capacity for personal growth and change, characteristic of incremental theorists, would make the pursuit of a college degree and upward mobility seem more worthwhile and attainable. We found evidence across 3 studies that dispositionally held and experimentally primed entity (vs. incremental) beliefs predicted college academic performance as a function of RS-class. Studies 1a and 1b documented that high levels of both entity beliefs and RS-class predicted lower self-reported and official grades, respectively, among undergraduates from socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. In Study 2, high entity beliefs and RS-class at matriculation predicted decreased year-end official grades among lower class Latino students. Study 3 established the causal relationship of entity (vs. incremental) beliefs on academic test performance as a function of RS-class. We observed worse test performance with higher RS-class levels following an entity (vs. incremental) prime, an effect driven by lower income students. Findings from a 4th study suggest that entity theorists with RS-class concerns tend to believe less in upward mobility and, following academic setbacks, are prone to personal attributions of failure, as well as hopelessness. Implications for education and intervention are discussed.

  11. Social class and academic achievement in college: the interplay of rejection sensitivity and entity beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinschmidt, Michelle L; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    Undergraduates, especially those from lower income backgrounds, may perceive their social class background as different or disadvantaged relative to that of peers and worry about negative social treatment. We hypothesized that concerns about discrimination based on one's social class (i.e., class-based rejection sensitivity or RS-class) would be damaging to undergraduates' achievement outcomes particularly among entity theorists, who perceive their personal characteristics as fixed. We reasoned that a perceived capacity for personal growth and change, characteristic of incremental theorists, would make the pursuit of a college degree and upward mobility seem more worthwhile and attainable. We found evidence across 3 studies that dispositionally held and experimentally primed entity (vs. incremental) beliefs predicted college academic performance as a function of RS-class. Studies 1a and 1b documented that high levels of both entity beliefs and RS-class predicted lower self-reported and official grades, respectively, among undergraduates from socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. In Study 2, high entity beliefs and RS-class at matriculation predicted decreased year-end official grades among lower class Latino students. Study 3 established the causal relationship of entity (vs. incremental) beliefs on academic test performance as a function of RS-class. We observed worse test performance with higher RS-class levels following an entity (vs. incremental) prime, an effect driven by lower income students. Findings from a 4th study suggest that entity theorists with RS-class concerns tend to believe less in upward mobility and, following academic setbacks, are prone to personal attributions of failure, as well as hopelessness. Implications for education and intervention are discussed. PMID:24956316

  12. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  13. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  14. Postura de cabeça nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e classe III Head posture in the presence of class II and class III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga se existe diferença entre grupos com diferentes deformidades dentofaciais (padrão classe II e classe III e o grupo sem a deformidade em relação à postura de cabeça. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 16 e 40 anos. Dez pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 15 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 15 voluntários sadios, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Primeiramente foi realizada a inspeção da postura de cabeça. Logo em seguida foi realizada a avaliação postural de cabeça por meio da fotografia postural (fotogrametria. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos em relação à avaliação postural utilizando-se a fotogrametria. Já em relação à avaliação postural pela inspeção clínica, observou-se uma postura anterior de cabeça nos indivíduos com a deformidade dentofacial padrão classe II, comparados ao padrão classe III (p = 0,001 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. Foi visto também que o grupo deformidade classe II apresentou um percentual inferior de indivíduos com posição neutra de cabeça comparado ao grupo deformidade classe III (p = 0,008 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial classe II podem apresentar uma anteriorização de cabeça. Não há influência da deformidade no aumento ou na redução do ângulo cabeça-pescoço, analisado por meio da fotogrametria.PURPOSE: this study investigates whether there is a difference in head posture between groups with different dentofacial deformities (class II and class III and a group with no deformity. METHOD: 25 volunteers aged from 16 to 40 year old took part in the study. Ten patients had a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 15 had a diagnosis of class III skeletal deformity, and 15 healthy volunteers matched for sex and

  15. A multi-class large margin classifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang TANG; Qi XUAN; Rong XIONG; Tie-jun WU; Jian CHU

    2009-01-01

    Currently there are two approaches for a multi-class support vector classifier (SVC). One is to construct and combine several binary classifiers while the other is to directly consider all classes of data in one optimization formulation. For a K-class problem (K>2), the first approach has to construct at least K classifiers, and the second approach has to solve a much larger op-timization problem proportional to K by the algorithms developed so far. In this paper, following the second approach, we present a novel multi-class large margin classifier (MLMC). This new machine can solve K-class problems in one optimization formula-tion without increasing the size of the quadratic programming (QP) problem proportional to K. This property allows us to construct just one classifier with as few variables in the QP problem as possible to classify multi-class data, and we can gain the advantage of speed from it especially when K is large. Our experiments indicate that MLMC almost works as well as (sometimes better than) many other multi-class SVCs for some benchmark data classification problems, and obtains a reasonable performance in face recognition application on the AR face database.

  16. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  17. Stiefel-Whitney classes of curve covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Let D be a Dedekind scheme with the characteristic of all residue fields not equal to 2. To every tame cover Cto D with only odd ramification we associate a second Stiefel-Whitney class in the second cohomology with mod 2 coefficients of a certain tame orbicurve [D] associated to D. This class is then related to the pull-back of the second Stiefel-Whitney class of the push-forward of the line bundle of half of the ramification divisor. This shows (indirectly) that our Stiefel-Whitney class is the pull-back of a sum of cohomology classes considered by Esnault, Kahn and Viehweg in `Coverings with odd ramification and Stiefel-Whitney classes'. Perhaps more importantly, in the case of a proper and smooth curve over an algebraically closed field, our Stiefel-Whitney class is shown to be the pull-back of an invariant considered by Serre in `Revêtements à ramification impaire et thêta-caractéristiques', and in this case our arguments give a new proof of the main result of that article.

  18. Automatic Identification Systems the Effects of Class B on the Use of Class A Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andy

    2006-05-01

    The standards for CSTDMA Class B AIS will shortly be published by the International Electrotechnical Commission and equipment will become available during 2006. The perceived benefits that Class B brings to leisure craft users and its relatively low cost will make it attractive in the market place. A rapid take-up of Class B use can therefore be expected. This paper considers the impact that increased use of Class B will have on users of Class A AIS that are compulsorily fitted to larger vessels to meet the requirements of the International Maritime Organization Safety of Life at Sea convention. The CSTDMA Class B system has been designed to prevent overloading of the AIS VHF data link. This is briefly reviewed but there are a number of other aspects that need to be considered. These include: the increased garbling of Class B messages compared to those of Class A; the problems accruing from the low update rate of Class B information; the increase in display information that will need to be managed; and the possible increase in inappropriate manoeuvres of leisure craft caused by misplaced reliance on AIS. As a result of the investigation the paper highlights the fact that Class B users must not assume that their own presence, in the form of Class B transmissions, will be particularly visible on the bridge of many SOLAS vessels. This will continue to be the case for many years into the future, until such vessels are mandated to carry radar with AIS target overlay capability.

  19. Sartorial symbols of social class elicit class-consistent behavioral and physiological responses: a dyadic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-12-01

    Social rank in human and nonhuman animals is signaled by a variety of behaviors and phenotypes. In this research, we examined whether a sartorial manipulation of social class would engender class-consistent behavior and physiology during dyadic interactions. Male participants donned clothing that signaled either upper-class (business-suit) or lower-class (sweatpants) rank prior to engaging in a modified negotiation task with another participant unaware of the clothing manipulation. Wearing upper-class, compared to lower-class, clothing induced dominance--measured in terms of negotiation profits and concessions, and testosterone levels--in participants. Upper-class clothing also elicited increased vigilance in perceivers of these symbols: Relative to perceiving lower-class symbols, perceiving upper-class symbols increased vagal withdrawal, reduced perceptions of social power, and catalyzed physiological contagion such that perceivers' sympathetic nervous system activation followed that of the upper-class target. Discussion focuses on the dyadic process of social class signaling within social interactions. PMID:25222264

  20. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguesmia, Yanath; Naghmouchi, Karim; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Drider, Djamel

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce antibacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. Bacteriocins fall structurally and chemically into three different classes, I, II, and III. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antagonism against closely related bacteria. This late observation has evolved because bacteriocins active against Gram-negative bacteria have recently been reported. Members of class IIa bacteriocins, referred to as pediocin-like bacteriocins, are among the most studied bacteriocins. This chapter is aimed at providing an updated review on the biology of class IIa bacteriocins.

  1. Teaching or Tyranny: Class and Course Guides

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, Nancy W

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of LibGuides by numerous Libraries has given rise to the creation of a multitude of class or course guides within the system. Librarians have become enamored of such pages and spend hours developing pages for a number of classes. Many of these guides are then used in actual library instruction, or embedded into learning and course management systems as substitutes for face-to-face sessions. Upon examination, however, the vast majority of these class and course guides simply repli...

  2. DEPENDENCE ANALYSIS FOR UML CLASS DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangjun; Yi Tong

    2004-01-01

    Though Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely used in software development, the major problems confronted lie in comprehension and testing. Dependence analysis is an important approach to analyze, understand, test and maintain programs. A new kind of dependence analysis method for UML class diagrams is developed. A set of dependence relations is definedcorresponding to the relations among classes. Thus, the dependence graph of UML class diagram can be constructed from these dependence relations. Based on this model, both slicing and measurement coupling are further given as its two applications.

  3. Three Ways to Improve Listening Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓林竹

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed numerous studies on how to improve learners’listening comprehension and how to ef-fectively teach listening classes. Despite these efforts, some problems still exist in listening teaching methods in China. In the first part of the essay, three issues in listening classes will be identified. Based on these issues, the second part present three correspond-ing methods of incorporating communicative-based activities, videos and checklists into teaching to improve listening classes. Each method will be justified by relevant theories and literature. A conclusion will be made in the end.

  4. Meta-universality classes at criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Blythe, Duncan A J

    2015-01-01

    Inferring the presence of critical dynamics from continuous measure- ments is a challenging problem. We solve this problem by showing that continuous narrowband dynamics from a critical system exhibit qualita- tively differing behaviors which depend on the universality class; we term each region of critical avalanche parameters which generates qualitatively constant behavior a meta-universality class. This theoretical observation allows us to infer membership of a given meta-universality class and thus yields a robust test for criticality. We validate these theoretical predic- tions in simulations and provide unequivocal evidence for criticality in the human brain on the basis electrophysiological recordings.

  5. Two classes of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 3B Catalogue suggest that short and long GRB are the results of different classes of events, rather than different parameter values within a single class: Short bursts have harder spectra in the BATSE bands, but chiefly long bursts are detected at photon energies over 1 MeV, implying that their hard photons are radiated by a process not found in short bursts. The values of \\langle V/V_{max} \\rangle for short and long bursts differ by 4.3 \\sigma, implying different spatial distributions. Only the soft gamma-ray radiation mechanisms are the same in both classes.

  6. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  7. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    a stated preference choice experiment for environmental food claims remain stable over time. Following a cross-sectional design, two different consumer samples from an online panel provider participated in two identical choice experiments within eighteen months. On the aggregated level, a heteroskedastic...... in significant differences in the size of two out of seven classes. These differences can largely be accounted for by the changes on the aggregated level. The relative size of latent classes is correlated at 0.52, suggesting a fair robustness. An ex-post characterisation of latent classes by behavioural...

  8. Aeroflex Technology as Class-Y Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jong-ook; Agarwal, Shri; Popelar, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Modern space field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices with increased functional density and operational frequency, such as Xilinx Virtex 4 (V4) and S (V5), are packaged in non-hermetic ceramic flip chip forms. These next generation space parts were not qualified to the MIL-PRF-38535 Qualified Manufacturer Listing (QML) class-V when they were released because class-V was only intended for hermetic parts. In order to bring Xilinx V5 type packages into the QML system, it was suggested that class-Y be set up as a new category. From 2010 through 2014, a JEDEC G12 task group developed screening and qualification requirements for Class-Y products. The Document Standardization Division of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has completed an engineering practice study. In parallel with the class-Y efforts, the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program has funded JPL to study potential reliability issues of the class-Y products. The major hurdle of this task was the absence of adequate research samples. Figure 1-1 shows schematic diagrams of typical structures of class-Y type products. Typically, class-Y products are either in ceramic flip chip column grid array (CGA) or land grid array (LGA) form. In class-Y packages, underfill and heat spread adhesive materials are directly exposed to the spacecraft environment due to their non-hermeticity. One of the concerns originally raised was that the underfill material could degrade due to the spacecraft environment and negatively impact the reliability of the package. In order to study such issues, it was necessary to use ceramic daisy chain flip chip package samples so that continuity of flip chip solder bumps could be monitored during the reliability tests. However, none of the commercially available class-Y daisy chain parts had electrical connections through flip chip solder bumps; only solder columns were daisy chained, which made it impossible to test continuity of flip chip solder bumps without using extremely

  9. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  10. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes designed to search for the signature of inflation in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). By combining the strategy of targeting large scales (>2 deg) with novel front-end polarization modulation and novel detectors at multiple frequencies, CLASS will pioneer a new frontier in ground-based CMB polarization surveys. In this talk, I give an overview of the CLASS instrument, survey, and outlook on setting important new limits on the energy scale of inflation.

  11. Class and ideological orientations revisited: an exploration of class-based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; Berglund, Tomas; Oskarson, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Studies of the relationship between class position and political outlooks still only have a limited understanding of the class-related mechanisms that matter for ideological orientations. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that link class position and left/right and authoritarian/libertarian orientations. Besides main factors such as income, career prospects, job security, education, class origin and class identification, the significance of work-related factors such as work autonomy, working in a team, a physically demanding job and a mentally demanding job is studied. The findings are based on a survey specifically designed for this purpose and collected in Sweden in 2008/2009. A great deal of the association between class position and left/right orientations is explained by socio-economic conditions; different classes sympathize with policies that will benefit them economically. Another important factor is class identification. Work-related factors also have relevance, but the effect of class position on left/right orientations works mainly through the remuneration system. Class position is also related to authoritarian/libertarian orientations. However, this relationship is less explained by socio-economic position per se, but is rather an effect of the educational system and its allocation of the workforce into different class positions. It also turns out that work-related factors do not explain the class effects; however, a physically demanding job shows a unique effect. Overall, our findings suggest that besides factors such as class position, income, education and class identification, we need to consider work-related aspects to derive a more complete understanding of the distribution of ideological orientations in Western societies. PMID:24320072

  12. Multiple states of the Tyr318Leu mutant of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase revealed by single molecule kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, J.; Palfey, B.A.; Dertouzos, J.;

    2004-01-01

    single enzyme molecules through the characteristic on-off fluorescence signal, which corresponds to flavin mononucleotide (FMN) interconverting between the oxidized and reduced states during turnover. Our single-molecule data provide evidence of a distinct static heterogeneity in the enzymatic activity......, with some molecules going through the on-off cycles 5-fold faster than others, however, there is no detectable dynamic disorder in DHOD turnover. When 0.1% reduced Triton X-100, a detergent that more closely simulates the natural membrane environment, is added, our data suggest the degree of static...... molecular heterogeneity is reduced. The observation of static heterogeneity suggests that the enzyme, which associates with the membrane in vivo, is present in distinct conformations that result in different catalytic efficiencies. The alternate conformations are most likely the result of the loss of van...

  13. Lactococcus lactis Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase A Mutants Reveal Important Facets of the Enzymatic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, Sofie Charlotte; Arent, S; Björnberg, Olof;

    2003-01-01

    have also structurally proven the presence of an open active site loop in DHODA and obtained information about the interactions that control movements of loops around the active site. Furthermore, in one mutant structure we observed differences between the two monomers of the dimer, confirming...... an apparent asymmetry between the two substrate binding sites that was indicated by the kinetic results....

  14. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  15. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  16. Green jobs and a strong middle class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John D

    2009-01-01

    Green jobs are critical to building a strong middle class, and millions of green jobs can be created through energy efficiency. The models already exist for this work, but we need sustained investment to bring them to scale.

  17. Hierarchies of television tastes and class distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on data from the empirical research project Media consumption, social class and cultural stratification carried out with the help of a questionnaire administered to 820 residents of Ljubljana and Maribor, the paper examines the relationship between social class, education and television tastes. Contrary to some of the recent literature which emphasises a weak or non-existent connection between class positions and patterns of television consumption, the author uses the Slovenian sample to show that class and education differentiate television preferences significantly although only in some segments of the television repertoire. In the conclusion of the paper, the importance of studying television preferences in connection with other fields of cultural consumption is stressed.

  18. A new class of variational equation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Applying an analysis method to a group of multivariable equations, a new class of variational equations are proved. This method is more concise and more direct than the others. This result can be applied to some stochastic control models.

  19. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno T. Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Class D β-lactamases have emerged as a prominent resistance mechanism against β-lactam antibiotics that previously had efficacy against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially by Acinetobacter baumannii and the Enterobacteriaceae. The phenotypic and structural characteristics of these enzymes correlate to activities that are classified either as a narrow spectrum, an extended spectrum, or a carbapenemase spectrum. We focus on Class D β-lactamases that are carried on plasmids and, thus, present particular clinical concern. Following a historical perspective, the susceptibility and kinetics patterns of the important plasmid-encoded Class D β-lactamases and the mechanisms for mobilization of the chromosomal Class D β-lactamases are discussed.

  20. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  1. 7 CFR 29.6006 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.6006 Section 29.6006 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... principal usage....

  2. Teaching a Large Physics Class at Cornell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orear, Jay

    1979-01-01

    A professor discusses the advantages and disadvantages of teaching a physics class in a large research-oriented university. Various innovative teaching techniques and the ways in which they benefit the students, are presented. (SA)

  3. Reduce Skills Teaching in the Mathematics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Keith

    1999-01-01

    Mathematics is much more than a collection of procedures for solving problems. Argues that the primary goal in the mathematics class is to create an awareness of the what, the how, and the why of mathematics. (ASK)

  4. ON A CLASS OF RIEMANN SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arturo Fernández; Javier Pérez

    2006-01-01

    It is considered the class of Riemann surfaces with dimT1 = 0, where T1 is a subclass of exact harmonic forms which is one of the factors in the orthogonal decomposition of the space ΩH of harmonic forms of the surface, namelyΩH = *Ω0H +T1 + *T0H + T0H + T2.The surfaces in the class OHD and the class of planar surfaces satisfy dimT1 = 0. A.Pfluger posed the question whether there might exist other surfaces outside those two classes. Here it is shown that in the case of finite genus g, we should look for a surface S with dimT1 = 0 among the surfaces of the form Sg\\K , where Sg is a closed surface of genus g and K a compact set of positive harmonic measure with perfect components and very irregular boundary.

  5. Providing Internet Material in University English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田巧智

    2004-01-01

    More and more language teachers are finding that the World Wide Web is a treasure chest of authentic language materials and are actively integrating on-line real data and other resources into their classes. This paper mainly focuses on benefits as well as activities of selecting and using Internet material in English classes. It is a good way of motivating students to use English outside the classroom and to make English a part of their daily lives.

  6. Should ESL Classes Never Mention Religion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾炜俊

    2014-01-01

    As religion is an integrated part of human history and culture, an L2 cannot be learnt without some mentioning of it in the language classes. Teaching about religion cannot only help L2 learners learn the L2 itself but other general knowledge such as history, music and arts. However, differences should be made between teaching religion and teaching about religion and some guidelines should be followed if teachers are to teach it in the language classes.

  7. Effective Language Teaching in Large Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽

    2010-01-01

    <正>With more and more people who are jumping into the line of learning the second language (especially English),and also due to the limited resources in language teaching,many foreign language teachers are nowadays confronting the large classes when teaching.So how to teach foreign language effectively in large classes has become an issue as well as a special field to make researches in.

  8. A dual-mode highly efficient class-E stimulator controlled by a low-Q class-E power amplifier through duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hung-Wei; Lu, Chien-Chi; Chuang, Jia-min; Lin, Wei-Tso; Lin, Chii-Wann; Kao, Ming-Chien; Lin, Mu-Lien

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design flow of two high-efficiency class-E amplifiers for the implantable electrical stimulation system. The implantable stimulator is a high-Q class-E driver that delivers a sine-wave pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation, which was verified to have a superior efficacy in pain relief to a square wave. The proposed duty-cycle-controlled class-E PRF driver designed with a high-Q factor has two operational modes that are able to achieve 100% DC-AC conversion, and involves only one switched series inductor and an unchanged parallel capacitor. The measured output amplitude under low-voltage (LV) mode using a 22% duty cycle was 0.98 V with 91% efficiency, and under high-voltage (HV) mode using a 47% duty cycle was 2.95 V with 92% efficiency. These modes were inductively controlled by a duty-cycle detector, which can detect the duty-cycle modulated signal generated from the external complementary low-Q class-E power amplifier (PA). The design methodology of the low-Q inductive interface for a non-50% duty cycle is presented. The experimental results exhibits that the 1.5-V PA that consumes DC power of 14.21 mW was able to deliver a 2.9-V sine wave to a 500 Ω load. The optimal 60% drain efficiency of the system from the PA to the load was obtained at a 10-mm coupling distance.

  9. The Onfp Class in the Magellanic Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Howarth, Ian D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Crowther, Paul A; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; St-Louis, Nicole; Farina, Cecilia; Bosch, Guillermo L.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2010-01-01

    The Onfp class of rotationally broadened, hot spectra was defined some time ago in the Galaxy, where its membership to date numbers only eight. The principal defining characteristic is a broad, centrally reversed He II $\\lambda$4686 emission profile; other emission and absorption lines are also rotationally broadened. Recent surveys in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) have brought the class membership there, including some related spectra, to 28. We present a survey of the spectral morphology and ...

  10. Motivation-stimulating Strategies in English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁

    2015-01-01

    Motivation plays a very important role in foreign language learning. So it becomes worthwhile to study the teachers’ motivation-stimulating strategies. This article mainly discusses two strategies of stimulating the students’motivation in English classes:environment-providing strategies and goal-oriented strategies. They are hoped to provide some references for English teachers to stimulate the students’learning motivation in their classes.

  11. Considerations When Using Videos in Lamaze Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner’s attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the cu...

  12. Full Amalgamation Classes with Intrinsic Transcendentals

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We develop some basic results about full amalgamation classes with intrinsic trascendentals. These classes have generics whose models may have finite subsets whose intrinsic closure is not contained in its algebraic closure. We will show that under fairly natural conditions the generic will have an essentially undecidable theory, but we will also exhibit strictly superstable and strictly simple examples. Separating types over a model into those that are intrinsic and those that are extrinsic,...

  13. WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 许贵桥

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.

  14. Class Teacher Candidates’ Views About Drama Applications

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the views of the students attending education faculty, primary teaching program about drama class applications. The research was conducted in a survey model, and the participants of the research consist of 3rd grade students at primary teaching department of education faculty at Adiyaman university in 2011-2012 academic year and attending the drama lectures given by the research-er. The conclusions showed that drama class applications had positive contribution to ...

  15. Quantum principal bundles and their characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1996-01-01

    A brief exposition of the general theory of characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles is given. The theory of quantum characteristic classes incorporates ideas of classical Weil theory into the conceptual framework of non-commutative differential geometry. A purely cohomological interpretation of the Weil homomorphism is given, together with a standard geometrical interpretation via quantum invariant polynomials. A natural spectral sequence is described. Some quantum phenomena appearing in the formalism are discussed.

  16. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravita-tional-wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70\\% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low $\\ell$. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of $r=0.01$ and make a cosmi...

  17. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  18. Generation of proper classes of short exact sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pancar

    1997-01-01

    The generation of proper classes of short exact sequences of modules by subclasses is considered. The class generated by two proper classes is studied by means of some operations between these classes. These operations are investigated in details for classes of short quasi-splitting, torsion-splitting and pure exact sequences of abelian groups.

  19. Main: PE2FNTRNR1A [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PE2FNTRNR1A S000455 29-November-2004 (last modified) kehi pE2F (proximal E2F elemen...of the cell cycle; Important for regulating specific RNR1a (ribonucleotide reductase large subunit) gene exp

  20. The adaptor protein DCAF7 mediates the interaction of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein with the protein kinases DYRK1A and HIPK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenewinkel, Florian; Cohen, Michael J; King, Cason R; Kaspar, Sophie; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Mymryk, Joe S; Becker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A is a constitutively active protein kinase that has a critical role in growth and development which functions by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DCAF7 (also termed WDR68 or HAN11) is a cellular binding partner of DYRK1A and also regulates signalling by the protein kinase HIPK2. DCAF7 is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a single WD40 repeat domain and has no catalytic activity. We have defined a DCAF7 binding motif of 12 amino acids in the N-terminal domain of class 1 DYRKs that is functionally conserved in DYRK1 orthologs from Xenopus, Danio rerio and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. A similar sequence was essential for DCAF7 binding to HIPK2, whereas the closely related HIPK1 family member did not bind DCAF7. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments identified DCAF7 as an adaptor for the association of the adenovirus E1A protein with DYRK1A and HIPK2. Furthermore, DCAF7 was required for the hyperphosphorylation of E1A in DYRK1A or HIPK2 overexpressing cells. Our results characterize DCAF7 as a substrate recruiting subunit of DYRK1A and HIPK2 and suggest that it is required for the negative effect of DYRK1A on E1A-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:27307198

  1. APPLICATION OF TWO OPERATORS TRANSFORM FROM CLASS A OPERATOR TO THE CLASS OF HYPONORMAL OPERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Changsen; Ding Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we give an operator transform (∧T)(*) from class A operator to the class of hyponormal operators. It is different from the operator transform (∧T) defined by M.Chō and T. Yamazaki. Then, we show that σ(T) = σ(∧T)(*)) and σa(T)\\{0} = σa(∧T)(*))\\{0},in case T belongs to class A. Next, we obtain some relations between (∧T) and (∧T)(*).

  2. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  3. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  4. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes

  5. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  6. A Small Special Needs Class or a Smaller Class at the Beginning of the Educational Path?

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, Raine; Jokinen, Katja

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the case study which focuses on the small class (in this article used to describe a small special needs class) operation of one medium-sized Finnish town. In the study an attempt was made to clarify what kind of alternative the small class is to the first grade of general education at the beginning of the child's educational path, what kind of experiences the teachers had of the pupils of the small class, of multi-vocational cooperation and of pupils' i...

  7. APPLICATION OF INCREASED BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE SWITCH TO CLASS-E AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SÖNMEZ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Class-E amplifier consist of a switching device (BJT or FET and a rezonant circuit. The power of amplifier depends on current and supply voltage of the transistor. The breakdown voltage of the transistor is increased to the maximum level in order to increase the power of the amplifier. Because of increasing the current increases the reverse induction, the reverse voltage creates a problem for the transistor. In this work, the increased breakdown voltage transistor Configuration is applied to class-E power amplifiers. Therefore, the reverse voltage problem is solved and supply voltage.

  8. Disordered cold atoms in different symmetry classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Fernanda; Larson, Jonas

    2015-08-01

    We consider an experimentally realizable model of noninteracting but randomly coupled atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice. By choosing appropriate real or complex-valued random fields and species-dependent energy offsets, this system can be used to analyze effects of disorder in four different symmetry classes: the chiral BDI and AIII and the nonchiral A and AI. These chiral classes are known to support a metallic phase at zero energy, which here, due to the inevitable finite size of the system, should also persist in a neighborhood of nonzero energies. As we discuss, this is of particular interest for experiments involving quenches. Away from the center of the spectrum, we find that excitations appear as domain walls in the cases with time-reversal symmetry or as vortices in the cases where time-reversal symmetry is absent. Therefore, a quench in a system with uniform density would lead to the formation of either vortices or domain walls depending on the symmetry class. For the nonchiral models in classes A and AI, a population imbalance between the two atomic species naturally occurs. In these cases, one of the two species is seen to favor a more uniform density. We also study the onset of localization as the disorder strength is increased for the different classes, and by deriving an effective model for the nonchiral cases we show how their eigenstates remain extended for larger values of the coupling with the disorder when compared to the nonchiral ones.

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  10. Software engineering processes for Class D missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Ronnie; Rose, Debi

    2013-09-01

    Software engineering processes are often seen as anathemas; thoughts of CMMI key process areas and NPR 7150.2A compliance matrices can motivate a software developer to consider other career fields. However, with adequate definition, common-sense application, and an appropriate level of built-in flexibility, software engineering processes provide a critical framework in which to conduct a successful software development project. One problem is that current models seem to be built around an underlying assumption of "bigness," and assume that all elements of the process are applicable to all software projects regardless of size and tolerance for risk. This is best illustrated in NASA's NPR 7150.2A in which, aside from some special provisions for manned missions, the software processes are to be applied based solely on the criticality of the software to the mission, completely agnostic of the mission class itself. That is, the processes applicable to a Class A mission (high priority, very low risk tolerance, very high national significance) are precisely the same as those applicable to a Class D mission (low priority, high risk tolerance, low national significance). This paper will propose changes to NPR 7150.2A, taking mission class into consideration, and discuss how some of these changes are being piloted for a current Class D mission—the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS).

  11. Social class, anxieties and mothers' foodwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire

    2015-03-01

    In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health. PMID:25677342

  12. Fibonacci family of dynamical universality classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Vladislav; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schmidt, Johannes; Schütz, Gunter M

    2015-10-13

    Universality is a well-established central concept of equilibrium physics. However, in systems far away from equilibrium, a deeper understanding of its underlying principles is still lacking. Up to now, a few classes have been identified. Besides the diffusive universality class with dynamical exponent [Formula: see text], another prominent example is the superdiffusive Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class with [Formula: see text]. It appears, e.g., in low-dimensional dynamical phenomena far from thermal equilibrium that exhibit some conservation law. Here we show that both classes are only part of an infinite discrete family of nonequilibrium universality classes. Remarkably, their dynamical exponents [Formula: see text] are given by ratios of neighboring Fibonacci numbers, starting with either [Formula: see text] (if a KPZ mode exist) or [Formula: see text] (if a diffusive mode is present). If neither a diffusive nor a KPZ mode is present, all dynamical modes have the Golden Mean [Formula: see text] as dynamical exponent. The universal scaling functions of these Fibonacci modes are asymmetric Lévy distributions that are completely fixed by the macroscopic current density relation and compressibility matrix of the system and hence accessible to experimental measurement. PMID:26424449

  13. 40 CFR 82.11 - Exports of class I controlled substances to Article 5 Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substances to Article 5 Parties. 82.11 Section 82.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Controls § 82.11 Exports of class I controlled substances to Article 5 Parties. (a) If apportioned Article... substances) to foreign states listed in appendix E to this subpart (Article 5 countries). (1) A person...

  14. A new class of dynamic quantum metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Quach, James Q; Martin, Andrew M; Greentree, Andrew D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2010-01-01

    Controllable quantum systems are heralding a quantum technology revolution. By coupling controllable quantum systems into larger structures we introduce the concept of a quantum metamaterial. Conventional metamaterials represent one the most important frontiers in optical design, with applications in diverse fields ranging from medicine to aerospace. Up until now however, metamaterials have themselves been classical structures and interact only with the classical properties of light. Here we describe a class of dynamic metamaterials, based on the quantum properties of coupled atom-cavity arrays, which are intrinsically lossless, reconfigurable, and operate fundamentally at the quantum level. We show how this new class of metamaterial could be used to create a reconfigurable quantum superlens possessing a negative index gradient for single photon imaging. With the inherent features of quantum superposition and entanglement of metamaterial properties, this new class of dynamic quantum metamaterial, opens a new ...

  15. Class field theory. The Bonn lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear presentation. Quick and immediate access to the subject. A classic (established and prominent German original). The present manuscript is an improved edition of a text that first appeared under the same title in Bonner Mathematische Schriften, no.26, and originated from a series of lectures given by the author in 1965/66 in Wolfgang Krull's seminar in Bonn. Its main goal is to provide the reader, acquainted with the basics of algebraic number theory, a quick and immediate access to class field theory. This script consists of three parts, the first of which discusses the cohomology of finite groups. The second part discusses local class field theory, and the third part concerns the class field theory of finite algebraic number fields.

  16. Communicative Language Teaching in Second Language Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Juan

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionReturn the class to the students and let the students be the masters of the class.This is what I have changed during the last three years in my class.I have been using Communicative Language Teaching method instead of Grammar Translation method.In the Grammar Translation method, students only study grammar and learn lists of words and then translate what they have learned into Chinese.In the classroom,the teacher uses the students' first language to explain the grammar and vocabulary in the text and then helps the students to translate it.This method is based on the idea that language is made up of words and that language changes according to the grammar rules.

  17. Preventing Academic Dishonesty in Online Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛淑娟; 孙童真

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to look into the manner of cheating in online course environment and explore the prevention measures to stop cheating. This paper is designed to address two research questions: 1) What are the types of cheating happening in online classes from the perspectives of instructors or students in online classes? 2) What are preventive measures to stop cheating in online classes? The questionnaire used in this research tests the prevalence of academic dishonesty and the methods of cheating in online courses. Data will be collected through a survey from students who take online course during the 2013 spring semester. This paper will present practical suggestions to reduce the frequency of cheating among students enrolling in online courses.

  18. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.

  19. Type Ibn Supernovae: Not a Single Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet diverse class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. However, unlike the more common Type IIn supernovae, whose interaction with hydrogen-rich circumstellar material has been shown to generate a wide variety of light curve shapes, we find that light curves of Type Ibn supernovae are more homogeneous and faster evolving. Spectroscopically, we find that Type Ibn supernovae divide cleanly into two classes, only one of which resembles the archetypal Type Ibn SN 2006jc. We explore various photometric and spectroscopic parameter spaces in order to characterize these two classes. We consider the possibility that not all objects classified as Type Ibn have the same physical origin.

  20. Deployment of a class 2 tensegrity boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Jean-Paul; Solari, Soren; Skelton, Robert E.

    2004-07-01

    Tensegrity structures are special truss structures composed of bars in compression and cables in tension. Most tensegrity structures under investigation, to date, have been of Class 1, where bars do not touch. In this article, however, we demonstrate the hardware implementation of a 2 stage symmetric Class 2 tensegrity structure, where bars do connect to each other at a pivot. The open loop control law for tendon lengths to accomplish the desired geometric reconfiguration are computed analytically. The velocity of the structure's height is chosen and reconfiguration is accomplished in a quasi-static manner, ignoring dynamic effects. The main goal of this research was to design, build, and test the capabilities of the Class 2 structure for deployment concepts and to further explore the possibilities of multiple stage structures using the same design and components.

  1. TEACHERS’ ROLES IN THE EXTENSIVE READING CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ⅰ. Introduction. Today, in most English teaching classes, owing to the popularity of the student-centered teaching approach, the traditional teacher-centered teaching approach has gradually lost its dominating place. As far as extensive reading classes are concerned, this is no exception. The more communicative student-centered approach has been popularly adopted. As a result, the teachers’ roles in the reading classes are changing accordingly. A qualified teacher should be prepared to take different roles at different stages of teaching. Jeremy Harmer has pointed out that a teacher can be expected to act, for example, as a controller, an assessor, an organizer, a prompter, a participant and as a resource (Harmer, 1983). In this

  2. A GENERALIZED CLASS OF PSNR SAMPLING SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present days of advanced electronic technologies in the field of communicationlike mobile phones, e-mail, internet etc. (and so forth the incentive based mail surveys are beingpopular due to their cost effectiveness and rapid approach to individuals. But, a majordisadvantage appears as mail surveys are affected by a huge amount of non-response of units inthe sample. The post-stratified non-response (PSNR scheme is used, in the stratified samplingset-up, when (i frames of stratum are unknown and (ii strata contain some non-responding units.This paper presents a general class of PSNR type sampling scheme by introducing three groupsof earmarked strata based on response pattern along-with two parameters pf the class. TheBayesian approach regarding utilization of prior knowledge (or guess of response pattern isintroduced in the proposed class for estimating the population mean. Several properties of theclass are derived and the results are numerically supported.

  3. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  4. The MHC class I genes of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirscherl, Hayley; McConnell, Sean C; Yoder, Jeffrey A; de Jong, Jill L O

    2014-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the immune response and in the recognition of non-self. Found in all jawed vertebrate species, including zebrafish and other teleosts, MHC genes are considered the most polymorphic of all genes. In this review we focus on the multi-faceted diversity of zebrafish MHC class I genes, which are classified into three sequence lineages: U, Z, and L. We examine the polygenic, polymorphic, and haplotypic diversity of the zebrafish MHC class I genes, discussing known and postulated functional differences between the different class I lineages. In addition, we provide the first comprehensive nomenclature for the L lineage genes in zebrafish, encompassing at least 15 genes, and characterize their sequence properties. Finally, we discuss how recent findings have shed new light on the remarkably diverse MHC loci of this species.

  5. The Elusive New Middle Class in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Lessa Kerstenetzky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the generalized reduction of poverty in the world, and particularly in Brazil, this article intends to gauge the socio-economic profile of Brazilian households that emerged from poverty and have been identified as integrating a "new middle class". Using indicators of standards of living from the 2008-2009 Survey on Family Budgets (POF/IBGE, we found out that, in contrast to what has been assumed on the basis of average income criteria, this social stratum is markedly heterogeneous, most of it being similar in their consumption patterns to the economically vulnerable or outright poor strata. So, we conclude that, from a sociological perspective that demands additional conditions besides income levels to identify social classes, it is a category mistake to call this social stratum a new middle class. We conjecture that this may be consequential in terms of policy priorities and choices.

  6. Generalized Design Equations for Class-E Power Amplifiers with Finite DC Feed Inductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, M.; Annema, A.J.; Nauta, B.

    2006-01-01

    In literature, it is widely accepted that the design of Class-E Power Amplifier (PA) with finite dc feed inductance requires a long iterative solution procedure. To avoid such iterative solution methods, analytical design equations should be known. The problem associated with the finite dc feed indu

  7. Talking about consumption. How an Indian middle class dissociates from middle-Class life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the middle class in the Indian city of Baroda employ a common moral discourse on consumption, one that is shaped through the operationalization of historically rooted ideals of community, family solidarity and asceticism. These ideals are set against the experience of urban middle-class l

  8. 75 FR 51171 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI AGENCY: Federal...

  9. Class Discussions: Locating Social Class in Novels for Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Cynthia Anne

    2008-01-01

    Few studies on representations of social class in children's literature have been published in the United States. As a language arts teacher and media specialist in a high poverty school, the author describes children's novels that directly address social class and the subtopic of the labor movement and consider the continued relevance of social…

  10. Social Class Experiences of Working-Class Students: Transitioning out of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treager Huber, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Issues surrounding social class are often overlooked and rarely discussed in higher education; however, they affect students and institutions in critical ways. Although research has demonstrated that social class is a predictor of access to college, retention, academic performance, overall undergraduate and graduate experience, and college…

  11. Affluence, Class Structure, and Working-Class Consciousness in Modern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of textile workers in Barcelona indicates that the growing proportion of affluent workers in Spain has become a major source of class consciousness, militancy, and politicization. A theoretical framework is presented which interprets the survey findings in terms of the relationship between affluence and class consciousness. (Author/DB)

  12. 78 FR 21044 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... amend Class D and Class E airspace at Reading, PA (78 FR 5754) Docket No. FAA-2012-1270. Interested... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  13. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  14. A Simple Class of Measures of Skewness

    OpenAIRE

    ALTINAY, Galip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple class of measures for detecting skewness in samples is introduced. The new class of measures is based on a new definition of skewness that takes midrange into consideration. The proposed coefficients of skewness can be computed easily with only three of the summary statistics, i.e., the minimum value, the maximum value and the median (or the mode, or the mean). Another advantage of the new statistics is that they are bounded by -1 and +1, hence, the coefficients of ske...

  15. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Diversity and New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Cui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research.

  16. System Model Semantics of Class Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Cengarle, Maria Victoria; Grönninger, Hans; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Defining semantics for UML is a difficult task. Disagreements in the meaning of UML constructs as well as the size of UML are major obstacles. In this report, we describe our approach to define the semantics for UML. Semantics is defined denotationally as a mapping into our semantics domain called the system model [4, 5, 6]. We demonstrate our approach by defining the semantics for a comprehensive version of class diagrams. The semantics definition is detailed for UML/P class diagrams, a vari...

  17. Characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A noncommutative-geometric generalization of classical Weil theory of characteristic classes is presented, in the conceptual framework of quantum principal bundles. A particular care is given to the case when the bundle does not admit regular connections. A cohomological description of the domain of the Weil homomorphism is given. Relations between universal characteristic classes for the regular and the general case are analyzed. In analogy with classical geometry, a natural spectral sequence is introduced and investigated. The appropriate counterpart of the Chern character is constructed, for structures admitting regular connections. Illustrative examples and constructions are presented.

  18. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The abilities to extend a software module and to integrate a software module into an existing software system without changing existing source code are fundamental challenges in software engineering and programming-language design. We reconsider these challenges at the level of language...... expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can...

  19. Designing a new class of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkilineni, Rao

    2011-01-01

    Designing a New Class of Distributed Systems closely examines the Distributed Intelligent Managed Element (DIME) Computing Model, a new model for distributed systems, and provides a guide to implementing Distributed Managed Workflows with High Reliability, Availability, Performance and Security. The book also explores the viability of self-optimizing, self-monitoring autonomous DIME-based computing systems. Designing a New Class of Distributed Systems is designed for practitioners as a reference guide for innovative distributed systems design. Researchers working in a related field will also f

  20. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.;

    2012-01-01

    M) predicts high versus low intestinal permeability rate, and vice versa, at least when uptake transporters or paracellular transport is not involved. We recently published a collection of over 900 marketed drugs classified for BDDCS. We suggest that a reliable model for predicting BDDCS class, integrated...... descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction...

  1. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Hông-Vân Lê

    2006-01-01

    For any complex vector bundle Ek of rank k over a manifold Mm with Chern classes ci Î H2i(Mm, Z) and any non-negative integers l1, . . ., lk we show the existence of a positive number p(m, k) and the existence of a complex vector bundle Êk over Mm whose Chern classes are p(m, k) × li × ci Î H2i(Mm, Z). We also discuss a version of this statement for holomorphic vector bundles over projective algebraic manifolds.

  2. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  3. On Finite Groups with Special Conjugacy Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiang-lin

    2007-01-01

    Let G be a finite group with the property that for any conjugacy class order, G has exactly two conjugacy classes which have the same order. We prove that:(1) if a Sylow 2-subgroup of G is Abelian, then G is isomorphic to the direct product of symmetric group with order 3 and cyclic group with order 2, or G is isomorphic to the semidirect product of a cyclic group with order 3 and a cyclic group with order 4; (2) if G' is nilpotent, then G is a group of {2,3,5}.

  4. An Analysis on an ESL Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜岳青

    2015-01-01

    Input is the precondition of interaction and output while output promotes the input and the interaction of language,which could increase the effectiveness of input and enhance the chance of the absorption of interaction.By analyzing an ESL class,this paper gives readers a picture of how the second language (SL) learners get information,absorb and digest the information,produce language and form their language system in their SL learning.At last,it gives suggestions on how to ensure language learners have a better chance to get comprehensible input,assimilate language during interaction and output more accurate and comprehensible second language in an ESL class.

  5. Education, class and vernacular awareness on Tyneside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a questionnaire study investigating Tyneside residents’ vernacular awareness and attested language use. Participant performance is interpreted on the basis of a cross-tabulation of participants’ social class as determined by their level of education and participants’ own....... This group consisted of mainly older female speakers and results are interpreted in light of first wave studies on the patterning of language use by class, age and gender. Finally, the issue of vernacular awareness is linked to social indexicality and it is suggested that an interpretation of participants...

  6. GOALS OF PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ramzaninezhad; Farhad Rahmaninia; Mehr Ali Hemmatinezhad; Nooshin Benar; Misagh Hoseini Keshtan

    2011-01-01

    The importance of physical education in school life and for health points to the need to the better understands goal's participation of students in school education classes. This study was an attempt to investigate students' goals for participates in physical education (PE) classes. 455 random out of 72673 students of junior and senior high schools with the age range of 11 to 19 years (M=14.67). A 28-items survey was administrated to assess (a) demographics and (b) Purposes for Engaging in Ph...

  7. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able to...

  8. First-class rules and generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.; Visser, Eelco

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a functional language supporting first-class rules and generic traversal. This is achieved by generalizing the pattern matching constructs of standard functional languages. The case construct that ties rules together and prevents their reuse, is replaced by separate, firstcl

  9. The Promise of Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is ineffective…

  10. Conformal classes realizing the Yamabe invariant

    OpenAIRE

    Macbeth, Heather

    2014-01-01

    We give a characterization of conformal classes realizing a compact manifold's Yamabe invariant. This characterization is the analogue of an observation of Nadirashvili for metrics realizing the maximal first eigenvalue, and of Fraser and Schoen for metrics realizing the maximal first Steklov eigenvalue.

  11. Nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis, according to the ASME code, is presented. The TRHEAT computer code has been used to determine the piping wall thermal gradient. The Nupipe computer code was employed for the piping stress analysis. Computer results were compared with the allowable criteria from the ASME code. (Author)

  12. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew;

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  13. Finite mutation classes of coloured quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Torkildsen, Hermund André

    2010-01-01

    We consider the general notion of coloured quiver mutation and show that the mutation class of a coloured quiver $Q$, arising from an $m$-cluster tilting object associated with $H$, is finite if and only if $H$ is of finite or tame representation type, or it has at most 2 simples. This generalizes a result known for 1-cluster categories.

  14. Predicting protein structure classes from function predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, I.; Rahnenfuhrer, J.; de Lichtenberg, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to using the information contained in sequence-to-function prediction data in order to recognize protein template classes, a critical step in predicting protein structure. The data on which our method is based comprise probabilities of functional categories; for given......-to-structure prediction methods....

  15. Observers for a Class of Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping

    2006-01-01

    The design of observers for a class of practical physical chaotic systems is discussed.By using only one state variable and its time derivatives,a control law is constructed to achieve the synchronization between the investigated chaotic systems and their observers,and the results are proved theoretically.Several observers of chaotic systems are designed by using this method.

  16. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively in a variety of…

  17. Class Size and Cost in ADN Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehret, Alice C.; Larowe, Ann

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the cost-effective use of faculty and facilities in associate degree nursing programs, as a large number of programs with small classes is uneconomical. Appraisal of admissions to reach an enrollment level sufficient to justify program cost is suggested. (MF)

  18. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...

  19. Economies of Scale and Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Making classes larger saves money--and public universities across the country have found it a useful strategy to balance their budgets after decades of state funding cuts and increases to infrastructure costs. Where this author teaches, in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge (CSUN),…

  20. Culture Teaching in English Language Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qixuan; Zhao Shuncai

    2007-01-01

    Language is closely related to culture. Language expresses and embodies cultural reality, in the meantime, culture exerts enormous influences on language. Therefore, language learning is often culture learning. The author, based on the negligence of culture teaching in English language classes, illustrates the influences of cultural knowledge on reading, translating and intercultural communicating, and proposes suggestions on culture teaching in English language teaching (ELT).

  1. A new class of non-leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Fábio S

    2011-01-01

    We give examples of open smooth manifolds that cannot be leaves of any Riemannian foliation of arbitrary codimension on a compact manifold. We also present a new class of non-leaves of C^0 codimension one foliations, simply connected manifolds of dimension at least 5 that are non-periodic in homotopy, namely in their 2-dimensional homotopy groups.

  2. The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Based on responses from 20,000 college seniors nationwide, "The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report" gives you hard numbers "plus" the analysis you need to develop your college recruiting strategy and build your brand among college students. Align your recruiting strategies tactics with students' wants, needs, attitudes, and behaviors--you'll get…

  3. The Audiolingual Method in Intensive Reading Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓辉

    2010-01-01

    The Audiolingual Method consists of four steps:recognition,repetition,pattern drills and follow-up reading. The article is about the use of the Audiolingual Method in intensive reading class through the experiment of the students from grade one to grade two.

  4. Northwest Introduces Its New World Business Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Northwest Airlines today unveiled several major enhancements to its international World Business Class product, providing its premium customers in the Asia Pacific region with a new lie-flat bed seat and state-of-the-art inflight entertainment system.In addition the carrier announced chanaes to its world

  5. XML Schema Modeling through UML Class Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJing-ping; HEYu-lin; LIShang-ping

    2004-01-01

    A three-step XML Schema modeling method is presented, namely first establishing a diagram of conceptual modeling, then transforming it to UML class diagram and finally mapping it to XML Schema. A case study of handling furniture design data is given to illustrate the detail of conversion process.

  6. Generalised soliton solutions of the Weyl class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, J. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK)); Verdaguer, E. (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1989-06-01

    The whole family of generalised soliton solutions of the Weyl class for Einstein's equations in vacuum is considered. A classification scheme for the distinct types of metrics belonging to this family is given and emphasis is placed on the asymptotically flat solutions. The physical interpretation of the occurring parameters is also briefly considered. (author).

  7. Mothers' Speech in Three Social Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C. E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Functional and linguistic aspects of the speech of Dutch-speaking mothers from three social classes to their two-year-old children were studied to test the hypothesis that simplified speech is crucial to language acquisition. Available from Plenum Publishing Corp., 227 W. 17th St., New York, NY 10011. (Author/RM)

  8. Liquidity Constraints of the Middle Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Among U.S. middle-class households, the marginal propensity to consume is either invariant to household wealth or a U-shaped function thereof. In contrast, precautionary savings models predict that wealth reduces the marginal propensity to consume. We bridge this gap between theory and data with ter

  9. JAVA CLASSES FOR NONPROCEDURAL VARIOGRAM MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of Java classes was written for variogram modeling to support research for US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA). The modeling objectives of this research program are to use conceptual programming tools for numerical analysis for regional risk assessm...

  10. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang changxue; Su na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  11. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; changxue; Su; na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’ communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  12. Class Rank Weighs Down True Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining class rank does not help students achieve more or reach higher levels of proficiency. Evidence indicates ranking students may diminish students' motivation. High school educators argue that they are compelled to rank-order graduating students because selective colleges and universities require information about…

  13. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The data analysed in this empirical paper stems from ethnographic fieldwork among new school parents at three Danish primary schools. I draw on empirically grounded theories on the cultural and subjective dimensions of class, inspired by the “English School” of poststructuralist informed, feminist...

  14. Feng Yun-A higher Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TO this Weiqi player, rising to a higher class is like climbing a mountain. Hangzhou city is a lucky place for Feng Yun for it is where she won her first national championship 10 years ago. Commonly known by it's Japanese name "Go", Weiqi is actually of Chinese origin and is a game of

  15. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S;

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space, allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. To be able to predict the immune response to given pathogens, a number of methods have been...

  16. Can Gamification Be Introduced within Primary Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Veronica; López, Magdalena; Maldonado, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Training through gamification is everyday a more evident reality in Primary Education classes. The teachers' view about this has been modified as it is shown in the study published by aDeSe in 2012. However, does it really have place in the students' curricular development in the primary education stage? For the sake of responding to this…

  17. Using Video Conferencing in Lecture Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Bill; Larson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Duquesne University's department of journalism and multimedia arts supports many of its classes with Mediasite Live, a video conferencing system that captures the output of presentation devices and streams it live to the Web, as well as recording presentations for Web streaming or recording to CD or DVD. Bill Gibbs and Erik Larson examine the…

  18. Using Poetry with Mixed Ability Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of using poetry to teach English as a second language to mixed ability classes. Lists the following criteria for selecting poems: (1) universal appeal; (2) surface simplicity, (3) potential depth, (4) affective potential, (5) contemporary language, (6) brevity, and (7) potential for illustration. Describes ways of using two…

  19. Cultural Consciousness in a Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Haimanti

    1997-01-01

    Acknowledging that the Suggestopedia approach is not very popular, this paper focuses on the use of Suggestopedia's distinctive features to promote awareness of the linguistic and cultural features of the target culture in a language class. The role of the classroom environment in this approach is also examined. The context considered here is a…

  20. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  1. Social class and parental investment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; Scott, Robert A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    This essay critically reviews the literature on social class differences in parental investment in children including differences in (i) parenting practices or behavior; (ii) parenting styles, logics, and strategies; and (iii) parenting values and ideologies. The essay reveals how structural and cul

  2. 7 CFR 29.2255 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.2255 Section 29.2255 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing.... A major division of tobacco based on method of cure or principal usage....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2505 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.2505 Section 29.2505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... based on method of cure or principal usage....

  4. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... ``old guineas'' but the Agency did not receive any comments in response. Also, as proposed at 68 FR... reasonably smooth-textured skin. (iv) Mature or old (hen or tom) turkey. A ``mature turkey'' or ``old turkey... definitions and standards for the official U.S. classes of poultry (68 FR 55902). Before publishing the...

  5. Application of Body Language in Primary Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁宁

    2011-01-01

    Body language is an essential medium for people to communicate in their daily life. The use of body language has positive effects on teachers' teaching and on students' learning as well, so we strongly advocate teachers to integrate body language into primary class skilfully.

  6. Utilization of Social Media in Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to highlight how instructors may integrate the different social media into various marketing classes. The paper will address the major social networks, and then follow with discussions of microblogging, media sites, and social gaming. Given that there is a great deal of research highlighting the effectiveness of utilizing…

  7. World class manufacturing in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available World Class Manufacturing (WCM assumes increase of efficiency of the company by elimination of all the losses, wastage and dangers of safety. In ArcelorMittal the concept of WCM is implemented in particular enterprises within the capital group. In this publication the activities conducted in some of those enterprises are described.

  8. Using Nonverbal Communication in Efl Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenil Barabar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing information about nonverbal communication and to state its use in EFL classes. Briefly, this paper introduces the definition, aspects and importance of nonverbal communication. Especially, this study explains some ways of using nonverbal communication in EFL classes, in order to have good classroom management in the class. Based upon this assumption, we aimed to shed light on this area of research, by showing that teachers’ nonverbal behaviour plays a highly significant and essential role in foreign language classrooms for managing the students’ behaviour. This study was conducted in Lefke, Northern Cyprus. The participants were two female English language teachers who were working at the English Preparatory School of Lefke. The study was qualitative in design and the data was gathered through interviews and reflective reports. A triangulation technique was used to enhance confidence in the ensuing findings. Cross-case analysis was used to examine and identify common themes between the cases. The results showed that nonverbal communication has a pivotal role in classroom management. In EFL classes in Northern Cyprus, in order to guide teachers to use nonverbal communication before verbal communication, some seminars or workshops should be organized regarding the use of body language in classroom management to improve teachers professionally.

  9. Online Discussion Assignments Improve Students' Class Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T.

    2010-01-01

    To increase the number of students who read the text before class and to promote student interaction centering on text material, I developed an online discussion assignment as a required component of a cognitive psychology course. Across 2 studies, this assignment had a limited effect on examination performance, but students completing online…

  10. Classroom Management Challenges in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Teaching dance can be a challenge because of the unique classroom-management situations that arise from the dynamic nature of the class content. Management is a delicate navigation of advance planning; rule setting; the establishment and implementation of daily protocols, routines, and interventions; and the teacher's own presentation. This…

  11. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  12. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  13. An Interview in a "Special" Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lisa; Rosenfield, Sylvia

    1980-01-01

    Behavior of eight emotionally disturbed boys improved dramatically after a school psychologist observed their class and suggested management techniques. The psychologist clarified the teacher's role as educator, not clinician; restructured the daily schedule; increased the teacher's understanding of reinforcement; and implemented a token economy…

  14. GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, Michel; Uitert, van Miranda

    2002-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for a

  15. How to Use Body Language in Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the reform of language teaching and learning methods, teachers should use more English in class. However, with the limitation of students' vccabulary, teachers have to simplify their teaching language with the help of body language, which has perceptual and potential power, influencing the students' knowledge,emotion.character, ideology, etc.

  16. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  17. On identifiability of certain latent class models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N. van Wieringen

    2005-01-01

    Blischke [1962. Moment estimators for the parameters of a mixture of two binomial distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33, 444-454] studies a mixture of two binomials, a latent class model. In this article we generalize this model to a mixture of two products of binomials. We show when this generalize

  18. DYRK1A in neurodegeneration and cancer: Molecular basis and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Ramzi; Johns, Terrance G; Kassiou, Michael; Munoz, Lenka

    2015-07-01

    Protein kinases are one of the most studied drug targets in current pharmacological research, as evidenced by the vast number of kinase-targeting agents enrolled in active clinical trials. Dual-specificity Tyrosine phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase 1A (DYRK1A) has been much less studied compared to many other kinases. DYRK1A primary function occurs during early development, where this protein regulates cellular processes related to proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells. Although most extensively characterised for its role in brain development, DYRK1A is over-expressed in a variety of diseases including a number of human malignancies, such as haematological and brain cancers. Here we review the accumulating molecular studies that support our understanding of how DYRK1A signalling could underlie these pathological functions. The relevance of DYRK1A in a number of diseases is also substantiated with intensive drug discovery efforts to develop potent and selective inhibitors of DYRK1A. Several classes of DYRK1A inhibitors have recently been disclosed and some molecules are promising leads to develop DYRK1A inhibitors as drugs for DYRK1A-dependent diseases. PMID:25795597

  19. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  20. Using Storytelling Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rasby Marlene; Murray, Ottis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that presenting class material in story formats can improve student learning in lecture classes. This pilot study of eight sociology classes investigates the efficacy of using storytelling as a means to improve student comprehension in online classes. Our findings show that when material is presented in story format rather…

  1. Understanding the Quality of Out-of-Class English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Zhu, Weimin; Gong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. However, not all out-of-class experiences are equally beneficial to learning, and it is of paramount importance to understand what quality out-of-class English language…

  2. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake test. 238.315 Section 238.315... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.315 Class IA brake test. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, either a Class I or a Class IA brake test shall be performed: (1) Prior to...

  3. Laptop Use during Class: A Review of Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Romulus; Cismaru, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Laptop use in class is a characteristic of universities that is changing rapidly. Although much of the attention and research regarding this issue has focused on the debate of whether to impose mandatory laptop programs, the reality of wireless campuses allows students to use their laptops in class for class related and non-class related…

  4. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  5. Single-sex Classes: Female Physics Students State Their Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Examines data collected from a girls-only physics class in a public coeducational high school. Interview and observation data from this class, as well as from coeducational physics classes taught by the same teacher, illustrate that the girls in the single-sex class made substantial gains in both academic achievement and in perceptions of…

  6. 7 CFR 1610.9 - Class B stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class B stock. 1610.9 Section 1610.9 Agriculture... POLICIES § 1610.9 Class B stock. Borrowers receiving loans from the Bank shall be required to invest in class B stock at 5 percent of the total amount of loan funds advanced. Borrowers may purchase class...

  7. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  8. Social Class in English Language Education in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gopar, Mario E.; Sughrua, William

    2014-01-01

    This article explores social class in English-language education in Oaxaca, Mexico. To this end, first, we discuss social class in Mexico as related to coloniality; second, for illustration, the paper presents the authors' own social-class analysis as language educators in Oaxaca; third, we discuss how social class impacts English education…

  9. 76 FR 51257 - First-Class Package Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... First-Class Package Service, which will replace and remove First-Class Mail commercial base and commercial plus parcels from the market-dominant product offering. First-Class Mail retail single-piece... remove First-Class Mail commercial base and commercial plus parcels from the market-dominant...

  10. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  11. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  12. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  13. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class III gaming. 502.4 Section 502.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.4 Class III gaming. Class III gaming means all forms of gaming that are not class I gaming or...

  14. μ-Theraphotoxin-An1a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rates, Breno; Prates, Maura V; Verano-Braga, Thiago;

    2013-01-01

    Tarantulas are included in the mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae. Although the pharmacological diversity of theraphosid toxins (theraphotoxins) is broad, studies dedicated to the characterization of biologically active molecules from the theraphosid genus Acanthoscurria have been restricted...... to the investigation of antimicrobial peptides and polyamines produced by the hemocytes of Acanthoscurria gomesiana. The present study reports the purification, primary structure determination and electrophysiological effects of an anti-insect toxin, named μ-theraphotoxin-An1a (μ-TRTX-An1a), from the venom...

  15. SN1a Supernova Red Shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Recent SN1a data have probed deeper into space than ever before. Plotted as distance vs. recession speed, a disturbing non-linearity is found which has led to speculations about "dark energy" which somehow acts like anti-gravity. This study finds a full explanation in relativity theory. The metric of space shrinks, in the presence of a gravitational potential, V, by exp(V/c^2). Early in the big bang, when the SN1a's sent their signals, V was larger than now. By fitting the data to a relativis...

  16. 7 CFR 1005.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... differential established for Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, which is reported in § 1000.52. The Class I price shall be the price computed pursuant to § 1005.50(a) for Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. (b... CHATTOOGA 13055 0.60 GA DADE 13083 0.60 GA FANNIN 13111 0.60 GA MURRAY 13213 0.60 GA WALKER 13295 0.60...

  17. 2006 Johnston Site 1A-P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 1A-P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on June 29, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  18. 2000 Johnston Site 1A-P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 1A-P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on June 29, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  19. Three-dimensional structures of the three human class I alcohol dehydrogenases

    OpenAIRE

    Niederhut, Monica S.; Gibbons, Brian J.; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast with other animal species, humans possess three distinct genes for class I alcohol dehydrogenase and show polymorphic variation in the ADH1B and ADH1C genes. The three class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes share ∼93% sequence identity but differ in their substrate specificity and their developmental expression. We report here the first three-dimensional structures for the ADH1A and ADH1C*2 gene products at 2.5 and 2.0 Å, respectively, and the structure of the ADH1B*1 gene produ...

  20. Analytical Design Equations for Class-E Power Amplifiers with Finite DC-Feed Inductance and Switch On-Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    Many critical design trade-offs of the class-E power amplifier (e.g power efficiency) are influenced by the switch on-resistance and the value of dc-feed drain inductance. In literature, the time-domain mathematical analyses of the class-E power amplifier with finite dc-feed inductance assume zero s

  1. Class and Politics in Denmark: Are Both Old and New Politics Structured by Class?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Prieur, Annick; Rosenlund, Lennart;

    2010-01-01

    The trend within studies of voting and political attitudes has been to give less attention to class as a structuring dimension and more to post-material values. The basic argument of this article is that this is a false opposition: The adherence to different sets of values is related to social...... the constructed space of attitudes to a set of indicators based on a two-dimensional conception of social class. On the basis of this analysis the article concludes that the political landscape appears as highly structured by the two principles of social differentiation from Bourdieu’s class model: volume...... and composition of capital. The conclusion is that social class understood in this way is closely related to both old and new politics, as well as to the propensity to vote for a political party from the left- or right-wing alliance. Udgivelsesdato: marts...

  2. Class Formation and Consumption among Middle-Class Professionals in Shenzhen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Elfick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of consumption in defining Chinese middle-class identity by examining the consumption practices of urban professionals. It is widely agreed that China has a thriving middle class. The exact definition of this middle class, however, is disputed by scholars and the Chinese popular press. Debates about class are also manifest in the daily lives of urban professionals. One of the most interesting areas in which identity is contested is that of consumption. The research is based on 60 in-depth interviews among professionals conducted in Shenzhen in the period 2004-2010. New wealth means that the myriad of goods on offer is accessible to large sections of the urban population. Professionals have become keen and selective shoppers. Many describe their consumption practices as informed by their own highly individualistic taste. This paper argues that professional consumption practices sometimes express individual taste but, more importantly, serve to articulate a collective social identity.

  3. Dimensions of a class of high-dimensional homogeneous Moran sets and Moran classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A class of high-dimensional homogeneous Moran sets and Moran classes are introduced and some dimensional properties are studied. The Hausdorff dimension, modified lower box-counting dimension, lower and upper box-counting dimension, and packing dimension of high-dimensional homogeneous and partial homogeneous Cantor sets are determined. Moreover, a kind of fractal E is obtained, which is not regular but with the property Dimw(Ed)=dDimw(E), where w denotes any of the dimensions mentioned above.

  4. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti; Renata de Cássia Gonçalves; Ertty Silva; Lídia Parsekian Martins; Ary dos Santos-Pinto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male...

  5. Perception of classroom climate in gym classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Zabukovec

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is a part of larger study among Slovene primary and secondary students and their sports' teachers, related to their attitude to gym classes. In this part the results of perception of classroom climate among students will be presented. In the research, 1152 students were participated; they were from fifth and seventh grade from primary school and first and third grade form secondary school. The questionnaire Classroom climate in sport classes was applied (actual and preferred form, which included seven dimensions: satisfaction, competitiveness, methods, students' activity, difficulty, adequateness and personal relationship. Results confirmed the changes in perception of classroom climate; they decreased form fifth grade of primary school to third grade of secondary school. The changes were more extensive in primary school, from primary to secondary school and became stable in secondary school. The differences in perception of classroom climate between boys and girls were confirmed, too.

  6. On some classes of bipartite unitary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Julien; Nechita, Ion; Pellegrini, Clément

    2016-08-01

    We investigate unitary operators acting on a tensor product space, with the property that the quantum channels they generate, via the Stinespring dilation theorem, are of a particular type, independently of the state of the ancilla system in the Stinespring relation. The types of quantum channels we consider are those of interest in quantum information theory: unitary conjugations, constant channels, unital channels, mixed unitary channels, positive partial transpose channels, and entanglement breaking channels. For some of the classes of bipartite unitary operators corresponding to the above types of channels, we provide explicit characterizations, necessary and/or sufficient conditions for membership, and we compute the dimension of the corresponding algebraic variety. Inclusions between these classes are considered, and we show that for small dimensions, many of these sets are identical.

  7. USING ENGLISH FILMS IN COLLEGE ENGLISH CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuHanchang; ShiHongshi

    2004-01-01

    English films are valuable and rich resources for English learning and teaching in that they present colloquial English in more "realistic" contexts, an opportunity of being exposed to different native speaker voices,slang, reduced speeches, stress, accents, ana dialects, This article introauces the criteria of choosing appropriate films to promote active viewing and effective involvement of non-English majors to make the most of films as well as some practical skills of integrating English course book learning with English films in English classes. Besides, some effective means are provided for data building and video clip making in the hope of stimulating more teachers to use English movies effectively in College English classes.

  8. Stochastic blockmodels with growing number of classes

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, David S; Airoldi, Edoardo M

    2010-01-01

    We present asymptotic and finite-sample results on the use of single-membership stochastic blockmodels for the analysis of network data. We show that the fraction of misclassified network nodes converges in probability to zero under maximum likelihood fitting when the number of classes is allowed to grow as the root of the network size and the average network degree grows at least poly-logarithmically in this size. We also establish finite-sample confidence bounds on maximum-likelihood blockmodel parameter estimates from data comprising independent Bernoulli random variates; these results hold uniformly over class assignment. We provide simulations verifying the conditions sufficient for our results, and conclude by fitting a logit parameterization of a stochastic blockmodel with covariates to a network data example comprising a collection of Facebook profiles, resulting in block estimates that reveal residual structure.

  9. Rational design of class I MHC ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognan, D.; Scapozza, L.; Folkers, G.; Daser, Angelika

    1995-04-01

    From the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of a class I MHC protein, several non natural peptides were designed in order to either optimize the interactions of one secondary anchor amino acid with its HLA binding pocket or to substitute the non interacting part with spacer residues. All peptides were synthesized and tested for binding to the class I MHC protein in an in vitro reconstitution assay. As predicted, the non natural peptides present an enhanced binding to the HLA-B27 molecule with respect to their natural parent peptides. This study constitutes the first step towards the rational design of non peptidic MHC ligands that should be very promising tools for the selective immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases.

  10. SMA Observations of Class 0 Protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Zhang, Qizhou;

    2013-01-01

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 μm dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance <500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in...... the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles......, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 ± 0.08 and 0.91 ± 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are...

  11. Equilibria, Fixed Points, and Complexity Classes

    CERN Document Server

    Yannakakis, Mihalis

    2008-01-01

    Many models from a variety of areas involve the computation of an equilibrium or fixed point of some kind. Examples include Nash equilibria in games; market equilibria; computing optimal strategies and the values of competitive games (stochastic and other games); stable configurations of neural networks; analysing basic stochastic models for evolution like branching processes and for language like stochastic context-free grammars; and models that incorporate the basic primitives of probability and recursion like recursive Markov chains. It is not known whether these problems can be solved in polynomial time. There are certain common computational principles underlying different types of equilibria, which are captured by the complexity classes PLS, PPAD, and FIXP. Representative complete problems for these classes are respectively, pure Nash equilibria in games where they are guaranteed to exist, (mixed) Nash equilibria in 2-player normal form games, and (mixed) Nash equilibria in normal form games with 3 (or ...

  12. ON STUDENTS’PARTICIPATION IN ENGLISH CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The first possible difficulty an English teacher may encounter in his or her endeavor to make Eng-lish class more communicative may be students’ reluctance to participate.But there are reasonsbehind this seeming reluctance.Based on a recent survey,the paper analyzes students’ participa-tion psychology and both the subjective and objective factors,which may affect students’ activeparticipation in class.The writer of the paper believes that getting students started is the initialstep towards active learning and fruitful teaching.It is proposed that efforts made to get studentsinvolved should focus not only on forms of activities but also on their contents,on skill integra-tion and on establishing cooperative relationships between teacher and students and among stu-dents.

  13. An Analysis on an ESL Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜岳青

    2015-01-01

    Input is the precondition of interaction and output while output promotes the input and the interaction of language,which could increase the effectiveness of input and enhance the chance of the absorption of interaction.By analyzing an ESL class,this paper gives readers a picture of how the second language(SL)learners get information,absorb and digest the information,produce language and form their language system in their SL learning.At last,it gives suggestions on how to ensure language learners have a better chance to get comprehensible input,assimilate language during interaction and output more accurate and comprehensible second language in an ESL class.

  14. A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...

  15. Diagrammatic Reasoning with Classes and Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss a diagrammatic visualization and reasoning language coming about by augmenting Euler diagrams with higraphs. The diagrams serve (hierarchical as well as trans-hierarchical) classification and specification of various logical relationships between classes. The diagrams rely...... on a well-defined underlying class-relationship logic, called CRL, being a fragment of predicate logic. The inference rules at the level of diagrams take form of simple diagrammatic ipso facto rules. The diagrams are intended for computerization by offering navigation and zooming facilities as known from...... road maps. As such they may facilitate ontological engineering, which often involves larger amounts of data. The underlying inference process is expressible in function-free definite clauses, datalog. We also discuss the relationship to similar diagram and logic proposals....

  16. Liquidity constraints of the middle class

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of households with liquid financial assets responds much more to transitory income shocks than the permanent-income hypothesis predicts. That is, middle class households act as if they face liquidity constraints. This paper addresses this puzzling observation with a model of impatient households that face a large recurring expenditure. In spite of impatience, they save as this expenditure draws near. We call such saving made in preparation for a foreseeable event "term saving". Un...

  17. Class 3 semaphorin in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolino, Federico; Giraudo, Enrico; Serini, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins were originally identified as axon guidance molecules involved in the development of the neuronal system. However, accumulating evidences have clearly demonstrated that the semaphorin system is not restricted to the brain but supports functions of other organs. Here, we review the rapidly emerging functions of sempahorins and, in particular class 3 semaphorin, in vascular and lymphatic systems during the development, tumor angiogenesis and ischemic revascularization. PMID:24217603

  18. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro;

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  19. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...... on algebraic-geometry codes and the decoding algorithms are generalized accordingly. Comparisons with Reed-Solomon and Hermitian codes are made....

  20. Improving Learners' Reading Skill in EFL Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖

    2008-01-01

    Topics around helping students to acquire the skill of reading have become increasingly popular in the discussion of foreign language teaching.In this paper,the author emphasizes the importance of improving learners'reading skill,presents the understanding of three factors concerning how to impmve learners' reading comprehension in EFL class and then introduces a 90-minute lesson plan to illustrate the statements.

  1. Does JavaScript software embrace classes?

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Silva, Leonardo; Ramos, Miguel; Valente, Marco Tulio; Bergel, Alexandre; Anquetil, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    International audience JavaScript is the de facto programming language for the Web. It is used to implement mail clients, office applications, or IDEs, that can weight hundreds of thousands of lines of code. The language itself is prototype based, but to master the complexity of their application, practitioners commonly rely on some informal class abstractions. This practice has never been the target of empirical investigations in JavaScript. Yet, understanding it would be key to adequatel...

  2. A Survey of English Reading Outside Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The aims of middle school English teaching areto cultivate students to acquire reading competence,which enable them to gain the information.Reading is the required method to collect information and material.This paper reports a survey on reading outside class among senior school students,by the way of questionnaires and interview,including the interests,focus,assignment of reading time,selection of reading materials,reading motives and other aspects..

  3. A Survey of English Reading Outside Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The aims of middle school English teaching are to cultivate students to acquire reading competence,which enable them to gain the information.Reading is the required method to collect information and material.This paper reports a survey on reading outside class among senior school students,by the way of questionnaires and interview,including the interests,focus,assignment of reading time,selection of reading materials,reading motives and other aspects..

  4. Small-Space Analogues of Valiant's Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Meena; Rao, B. V. Raghavendra

    In the uniform circuit model of computation, the width of a boolean circuit exactly characterises the “space” complexity of the computed function. Looking for a similar relationship in Valiant’s algebraic model of computation, we propose width of an arithmetic circuit as a possible measure of space. We introduce the class VL as an algebraic variant of deterministic log-space L. In the uniform setting, we show that our definition coincides with that of VPSPACE at polynomial width.

  5. Is EC class predictable from reaction mechanism?

    OpenAIRE

    Nath Neetika; Mitchell John BO

    2012-01-01

    We thank the Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (SULSA) and the Scottish Overseas Research Student Awards Scheme of the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) for financial support. Background: We investigate the relationships between the EC (Enzyme Commission) class, the associated chemical reaction, and the reaction mechanism by building predictive models using Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF) and k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN). We consider two ways of encoding the reaction...

  6. James Hanley: modernism and the working class.

    OpenAIRE

    Fordham, John

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the work of James Hanley (1901-1985), a working-class ordinary seaman who became a professional writer for most of his adult life. His reputation was made originally during the 1930s when he was often identified with the emergent group of industrial-based' proletarian' realists. However, Hanley's writing radically departs from conventional notions of realism and will be shown to have closer associations with both mainstream and sub-cultural forms of modernism. Theore...

  7. "Whither the Middle Class'? A Dynamic View"

    OpenAIRE

    Greg J. Duncan; Timothy M. Smeeding; Willard Rodgers

    1991-01-01

    Research using cross-sectional survey 'snapshots' of household income taken over the past quarter century reveals a growing inequality in the distribution of annual money income of households in the United States (Thurow, 1987; Levy, 1987; Levy and Michel, 1991; Michel, 1991; Karoly, 1990; Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 1990; Easterlin, MacDonald and Macunovich, 1990), prompting some to argue that the U.S. middle class is disappearing (Phillips, 1990; Bradbury, 1986). Aggregate data ...

  8. Celebrity chav : fame, femininity and social class.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Imogen; Bennett, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    There is nothing new about celebrity culture. It is an intrinsic feature of a world structured by mechanical reproduction. However, what has been visible over the last few years in Britain is a modulation of representations of celebrity figures in entertainment and news media through reality TV series, newspapers and gossip magazines. In this article, we argue that celebrity is an increasingly significant means by which reactionary class attitudes, allegiances and judgements are communicated....

  9. Polarity for a Class of Levy Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Polar set of Markov processes is an important concept in probabilistic potential theory, but it is not easy to judge the polarity of the sets. In this paper, we give some results which can be easily used to examine the polarity of the sets when Xt belongs to a special class of Levy processes. We also give a result about polar functions of symmetric stable processes.

  10. Facebook, adolescenti e differenze di classe

    OpenAIRE

    Micheli, M.

    2013-01-01

    La popolarità dei siti di social network tra gli adolescenti sembrerebbe suggerire che si tratti di un campo in cui l’influenza dell’origine sociale, se non scomparsa, si sia almeno livellata. Questo articolo mette invece in evidenza come la classe sociale della famiglia continui ad essere una variabile rilevante che influisce sull’uso e il significato che gli adolescenti attribuiscono ai siti di social network. Oltre a fornire una revisione della letteratura attualmente disponibile sull’...

  11. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice....... The barriers and challenges of implementation are considered, and a socio-technical systems approach is proposed as a way to addapt to local conditions....

  12. Entgrenztes Wohnen : die Creative Class im Medienzeitalter

    OpenAIRE

    Hintersteininger, Sigrid

    2006-01-01

    Entgrenztes Wohnen - Die Creative Class im Medienzeitalter Zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts wird der Kultur- und Lebensraum der Menschen mehr und mehr von den Informations- und Kommunikationsmedien geprägt. Mit dem zunehmenden Eindringen dieser Medien in die Lebensräume der Menschen erfährt auch das Wohnen verstärkte Aufmerksamkeit. William Mitchell und der amerikanische Soziologe und Politologe Richard Florida weisen auf eine Verknüpfung von intensiver Nutzung der neuen Informations- und K...

  13. Singularity Classes of Special 2-Flags

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Mormul

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we discuss certain classes of vector distributions in the tangent bundles to manifolds, obtained by series of applications of the so-called generalized Cartan prolongations (gCp). The classical Cartan prolongations deal with rank-2 distributions and are responsible for the appearance of the Goursat distributions. Similarly, the so-called special multi-flags are generated in the result of successive applications of gCp's. Singularities of such distributions turn out to be very ric...

  14. Do Students Go to Class? Should They?

    OpenAIRE

    David Romer

    1993-01-01

    Lectures and other class meetings are a primary means of instruction in almost all undergraduate courses. Yet almost everyone who has taught an undergraduate course has probably noticed that attendance at these meetings is far from perfect. There is surprisingly little systematic evidence, however, about attendance and its effects. There are three natural questions: What is the extent of absenteeism? How much, if at all, does absenteeism affect learning? Should anything be done about absentee...

  15. Broadband S-band Class E HPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M. van; Dijk, R. van; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    A broadband class E High Power Amplifier (HPA) is presented. This HPA is designed to operate at S-band (2.75 to 3.75 GHz). A power added efficiency of 50% is obtained for the two stage amplifier with an output power of 35.5 dBm on a chip area of 5.25 × 2.8 mm2.

  16. Broadband S-band class E HPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, van M.; Dijk, van R.; Hek, de A.P.; Vliet, van F.E.

    2009-01-01

    A broadband class E High Power Amplifier (HPA) is presented. This HPA is designed to operate at S-band (2.75 to 3.75 GHz). A power added efficiency of 50% is obtained for the two stage amplifier with an output power of 35.5 dBm on a chip area of 5.25 times 2.8 mm2.

  17. Another Class of Perfect Nonlinear Polynomial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfect nonlinear (PN functions have been an interesting subject of study for a long time and have applications in coding theory, cryptography, combinatorial designs, and so on. In this paper, the planarity of the trinomials xpk+1+ux2+vx2pk over GF(p2k are presented. This class of PN functions are all EA-equivalent to x2.

  18. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Irving; Vilma Charlton; Errol Morrison; Aldeam Facey; Oral Buchanan

    2013-01-01

    The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided...

  19. Apo-ghrelin receptor (apo-GHSR1a Regulates Dopamine Signaling in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras eKern

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin is synthesized in the stomach and its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a is expressed mainly in the central nervous system (CNS. In this review we confine our discussion to the physiological role of GHSR1a in the brain. Paradoxically, despite broad expression of GHSR1a in the CNS, other than trace amounts in the hypothalamus, ghrelin is undetectable in the brain. In our efforts to elucidate the function of the ligand-free ghrelin receptor (apo-GHSR1a we identified subsets of neurons that co-express GHSR1a and dopamine receptors. In this review we focus on interactions between apo-GHSR1a and dopamine-2 receptor (DRD2 and formation of GHSR1a:DRD2 heteromers in hypothalamic neurons that regulate appetite, and discuss implications for the treatment of Prader-Willi syndrome. GHSR1a antagonists of distinct chemical structures, a quinazolinone and a triazole, respectively enhance and inhibit dopamine signaling through GHSR1a:DRD2 heteromers by an allosteric mechanism. This finding illustrates a potential strategy for designing the next generation of drugs for treating eating disorders as well as psychiatric disorders caused by abnormal dopamine signaling. Treatment with a GHSR1a antagonist that enhances dopamine/DRD2 activity in GHSR1a:DRD2 expressing hypothalamic neurons has the potential to inhibit the uncontrollable hyperphagia associated with Prader-Willi syndrome. DRD2 antagonists are prescribed for treating schizophrenia, but these block dopamine signaling in all DRD2 expressing neurons and are associated with adverse side effects, including enhanced appetite and excessive weight gain. A GHSR1a antagonist of structural class that allosterically blocks dopamine/DRD2 action in GHSR1a:DRD2 expressing neurons would have no effect on neurons expressing DRD2 alone; therefore, the side effects of DRD2 antagonists would potentially be reduced thereby enhancing patient compliance.

  20. Efficient Tracking of Large Classes of Experts

    CERN Document Server

    Gyorgy, András; Lugosi, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    In the framework for prediction of individual sequences, sequential prediction methods are to be constructed that perform nearly as well as the best expert from a given class. We consider prediction strategies that compete with the class of switching strategies that can segment a given sequence into several blocks, and follow the advice of a different "base" expert in each block. As usual, the performance of the algorithm is measured by the regret defined as the excess loss relative to the best switching strategy selected in hindsight for the particular sequence to be predicted. In this paper we construct prediction strategies of low computational cost for the case where the set of base experts is large. In particular we derive a family of efficient tracking algorithms that, for any prediction algorithm $\\A$ designed for the base class, can be implemented with time and space complexity $O(n^{\\gamma} \\log n)$ times larger than that of $\\A$, where $n$ is the time horizon and $\\gamma \\ge 0$ is a parameter of the...

  1. Probing Inflation, Reionization, and Neutrinos with CLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias; CLASS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We are beginning a survey to provide a robust detection and characterization of the imprint of inflationary gravitational radiation in the CMB polarization (the so-called "B modes"). The same polarization measurement will provide the ultimate CMB-based cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization. When combined with CMB temperature, lensing and Baryon Acoustic Oscillation data, the optical depth measurement will yield twofold improvements on cosmology-based estimates of the sum of the neutrino masses. To carry out the survey we have built the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS), which is an array of millimeter-wave polarimeters sited at 5200 m in the Atacama Desert. Unique in the field of CMB polarization measurements, CLASS is especially designed to survey 70% of the sky at four frequencies (40-220 GHz) and recover the CMB polarization on all angular scales relevant to inflation and reionization. In this talk I will give an overview of CLASS and discuss progress to date.

  2. Yilmaz Theory of SNe 1a Redshift

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    A redshift-luminosity distance relation in excellent agreement with observations is calculated here for SNe 1a using the Yilmaz gravitational theory. In contrast to the current conventional explanation based on general relativity, the Yilmaz theory does not require a cosmological constant term that implies the existence of "dark energy". The Yilmaz theory requires only one parameter; a mean mass-energy density of the cosmos. The required value is essentially the same as the critical density f...

  3. A escolarização das classes abastadas The schooling of the affluent classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio David Cattani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Após indicar a inadequação do termo elite ou burguesia para designar os detentores de grandes fortunas, este artigo sustenta que as classes dominantes se constroem continuamente e se mobilizam de todas as formas para assegurar sua reprodução ampliada, sua existência cotidiana com vistas à preservação e à transmissão das posições dominantes para seus descendentes. A formação ideológica na família e o período de formação nas instituições escolares são parte importantes do processo de construção de classe. O artigo considera que os estudos sobre a escolarização das classes dedicam-se, de modo geral, à formação universal, com ênfase nos problemas que acometem a população menos privilegiada. Os estudos sobre a formação da classe dominante são recentes e apresentam resultados inusitados tais como a relação instrumental com a educação o que distinguiria o caso brasileiro das estratégias das classes abastadas dos países economicamente mais avançados. Entretanto, como as classes dominantes são heterogêneas elas podem se valer de outras estratégias de escolarização para garantir suas posições e a reprodução de classe.After pointing out the inadequacy of the terms elite or bourgeoisie to label those in possession of great wealth, this article maintains that the dominant classes are constantly constructing and mobilizing themselves in every way to assure their extended reproduction and their everyday coexistence with the aim of preserving and transmitting dominant positions to their descendents. Ideological development within the family and the school years are important elements in the process of class construction. Studies on schooling of class generally address universal education, stressing the problems that afflict the underprivileged population. The education of the dominant class is not often explored as a topic and the few studies available present original results, such as the instrumental

  4. Disability, disparate impact, and class actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael Ashley; Waterstone, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Following Title VII's enactment, group-based employment discrimination actions flourished due to disparate impact theory and the class action device. Courts recognized that subordination that defined a group's social identity was also sufficient legally to bind members together, even when relief had to be issued individually. Woven through these cases was a notion of panethnicity that united inherently unrelated groups into a common identity, for example, Asian Americans. Stringent judicial interpretation subsequently eroded both legal frameworks and it has become increasingly difficult to assert collective employment actions, even against discriminatory practices affecting an entire group. This deconstruction has immensely disadvantaged persons with disabilities. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), individual employee claims to accommodate specific impairments, such as whether to install ramps or replace computer screens, have all but eclipsed a coherent theory of disability-based disparate impact law. Moreover, the class action device has been virtually nonexistent in disability discrimination employment cases. The absence of collective action has been especially harmful because the realm of the workplace is precisely where group-based remedies are needed most. Specifically, a crucial but overlooked issue in disability integration is the harder-to-reach embedded norms that require job and policy modifications. The Article argues that pandisability theory serves as an analogue to earlier notions of panethnicity and provides an equally compelling heuristic for determining class identity. It shows that pandisability undergirds ADA public service and public accommodation class actions in which individualized remedy assessments have been accepted as part of group-based challenges to social exclusion. The Article also demonstrates that this broader vision of collective action is consistent with the history underlying the class action device. Taking

  5. Lattices of Schunck Classes of Finite Universal Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Guo; K.P. Shum

    2003-01-01

    We prove that the set of all Schunck classes of Mal'cev algebras satisfying the maximum condition for subalgebras is a distributive lattice and its sublattice consisting of all Schunck classes of finite algebras is algebraic. This generalizes many results in the literature on Schunck classes. We also obtain some equivalent conditions for a class of algebras to be a Schunck class and investigate the structure of the class (algebras A |τ(A) = {A}), where τ is a subsystem functor.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 08A05, 08B05

  6. Screen for CACNA1A and ATP1A2 mutations in sporadic hemiplegic migraine patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L.L.; Oestergaard, E.; Bjornsson, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the CACNA1A and ATP1A2 gene in a population-based sample of sporadic hemiplegic migraine (SHM). Patients with SHM (n = 105) were identified in a nationwide search in the Danish population. We sequenced all exons and promoter regions...... of the CACNA1A and ATP1A2 genes in 100 patients with SHM to search for possible SHM mutations. Novel DNA variants were discovered in eight SHM patients, four in exons of the CACNA1A gene and four in exons of the ATP1A2 gene. Six of the variants were considered non-pathogenic. The causal role of the two...... remaining DNA variants is unknown until functional studies have been made or independent genetic evidence is discovered. Only very few DNA variants were identified in 100 SHM patients, and regardless of whether the identified variants are causal the CACNA1A and ATP1A2 genes are not major genes in SHM...

  7. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, Jan; van Waarde, A

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic beha

  8. Earth and Sky, Unit 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The assignment known as ‘Earth and sky’ is the final first year course at Unit 1a. The aim of the assignment is to strengthen the student’s abilities to manage a project process individu- ally. The process involves develop- ing the ability to make independent decisions.The point of departure...... for the ‘Earth and sky’ assignment is ex- perience students acquired during their group study tour to Austra- lia. Building in particular on the re- search conducted on the Sydney Opera House and the architectur- al principles of spatial creation that this building represents....

  9. Reliability and agreement in student ratings of the class environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Christ, Theodore J

    2016-09-01

    The current study estimated the reliability and agreement of student ratings of the classroom environment obtained using the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT; Christ, Nelson, & Demers, 2012; Nelson, Demers, & Christ, 2014). Coefficient alpha, class-level reliability, and class agreement indices were evaluated as each index provides important information for different interpretations and uses of student rating scale data. Data for 84 classes across 29 teachers in a suburban middle school were sampled to derive reliability and agreement indices for the REACT subscales across 4 class sizes: 25, 20, 15, and 10. All participating teachers were White and a larger number of 6th-grade classes were included (42%) relative to 7th- (33%) or 8th- (23%) grade classes. Teachers were responsible for a variety of content areas, including language arts (26%), science (26%), math (20%), social studies (19%), communications (6%), and Spanish (3%). Coefficient alpha estimates were generally high across all subscales and class sizes (α = .70-.95); class-mean estimates were greatly impacted by the number of students sampled from each class, with class-level reliability values generally falling below .70 when class size was reduced from 25 to 20. Further, within-class student agreement varied widely across the REACT subscales (mean agreement = .41-.80). Although coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability are commonly reported in research with student rating scales, class-level reliability and agreement are not. The observed differences across coefficient alpha, class-level reliability, and agreement indices provide evidence for evaluating students' ratings of the class environment according to their intended use (e.g., differentiating between classes, class-level instructional decisions). (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Increasing the number of thyroid lesions classes in microarray analysis improves the relevance of diagnostic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Fred Fontaine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic markers for thyroid cancers identified by microarray analysis have offered limited predictive accuracy so far because of the few classes of thyroid lesions usually taken into account. To improve diagnostic relevance, we have simultaneously analyzed microarray data from six public datasets covering a total of 347 thyroid tissue samples representing 12 histological classes of follicular lesions and normal thyroid tissue. Our own dataset, containing about half the thyroid tissue samples, included all categories of thyroid lesions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Classifier predictions were strongly affected by similarities between classes and by the number of classes in the training sets. In each dataset, sample prediction was improved by separating the samples into three groups according to class similarities. The cross-validation of differential genes revealed four clusters with functional enrichments. The analysis of six of these genes (APOD, APOE, CLGN, CRABP1, SDHA and TIMP1 in 49 new samples showed consistent gene and protein profiles with the class similarities observed. Focusing on four subclasses of follicular tumor, we explored the diagnostic potential of 12 selected markers (CASP10, CDH16, CLGN, CRABP1, HMGB2, ALPL2, ADAMTS2, CABIN1, ALDH1A3, USP13, NR2F2, KRTHB5 by real-time quantitative RT-PCR on 32 other new samples. The gene expression profiles of follicular tumors were examined with reference to the mutational status of the Pax8-PPARgamma, TSHR, GNAS and NRAS genes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that diagnostic tools defined on the basis of microarray data are more relevant when a large number of samples and tissue classes are used. Taking into account the relationships between the thyroid tumor pathologies, together with the main biological functions and pathways involved, improved the diagnostic accuracy of the samples. Our approach was particularly relevant for the classification of microfollicular adenomas.

  11. Mutation classes of certain quivers with potentials as derived equivalence classes

    CERN Document Server

    Ladkani, Sefi

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the marked bordered unpunctured oriented surfaces with the property that all the Jacobian algebras of the quivers with potentials arising from their triangulations are derived equivalent. These are either surfaces of genus g with b boundary components and one marked point on each component, or the disc with 4 or 5 points on its boundary. We show that for each such marked surface, all the quivers in the mutation class have the same number of arrows, and the corresponding Jacobian algebras constitute a complete derived equivalence class of finite-dimensional algebras whose members are connected by sequences of Brenner-Butler tilts. In addition, we provide explicit quivers for each of these classes. We consider also 10 of the 11 exceptional finite mutation classes of quivers not arising from triangulations of marked surfaces excluding the one of the quiver X_7, and show that all the finite-dimensional Jacobian algebras in such class (for suitable choice of potentials) are derived equivalent only ...

  12. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Production from Class 2 and Class 3 Hydrate Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Zhang, Keni

    2008-05-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules are lodged within the lattices of an ice-like crystalline solid. The vast quantities of hydrocarbon gases trapped in hydrate formations in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a new and promising energy source. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Class 3 hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids. Both classes of deposits have been shown to be good candidates for exploitation in earlier studies of gas production via vertical well designs - in this study we extend the analysis to include systems with varying porosity, anisotropy, well spacing, and the presence of permeable boundaries. For Class 2 deposits, the results show that production rate and efficiency depend strongly on formation porosity, have a mild dependence on formation anisotropy, and that tighter well spacing produces gas at higher rates over shorter time periods. For Class 3 deposits, production rates and efficiency also depend significantly on formation porosity, are impacted negatively by anisotropy, and production rates may be larger, over longer times, for well configurations that use a greater well spacing. Finally, we performed preliminary calculations to assess a worst-case scenario for permeable system boundaries, and found that the efficiency of depressurization-based production strategies are compromised by migration of fluids from outside the system.

  14. Dyslipidemias as generating issue in Biochemistry classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional didactic model is based on the transmission of the teacher's encyclopedic knowledge. In this model, the teaching of Science aims at the transmission of dominant values, regarded as absolute truths. The teacher is seen is an expert on scientific contents who transmits them to students without motivating them, and without taking into consideration their previous ideas and life experience. This model contributes to the formation of professionals who accept those values uncritically. An effective approach to break up this traditional teaching model in Biochemistry is the use of a generating issue. A Generating Issue is the starting point to the knowledge construction process which, in turn, replaces traditional models. Thus, this study aimed at developing a lesson for a 12th grade class at IF Fluminense on the following content: alcohol, carboxylic acid, ester, and esterification reaction, using dyslipidemias as the Generating Issue. To verify the value of such methodology in Biochemistry classroom, data was collected by applying a questionnaire and images with texts produced by students. In addition, they had a class based on the methodology known as Three Pedagogical Moments, proposed by Delizoicov et al. (2007. Several didactic resources designed by the authors were used, such as slide presentation, tridimensional molecular models, and a roulette game named “Bioquimicados”, based on the Facebook game “Perguntados” ("Trivia Crack". After this, students developed more grounded scientific concepts, making use of terms common in scientific language. This suggests that the use of the Generating Issue in a lesson based on problematization, and supported by a ludic activity, provided a meaningful contribution to improve the students' understanding of the scientific content. This type of non-traditional class promotes greater student motivation, resulting in meaningful learning.

  15. GOALS OF PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ramzaninezhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical education in school life and for health points to the need to the better understands goal's participation of students in school education classes. This study was an attempt to investigate students' goals for participates in physical education (PE classes. 455 random out of 72673 students of junior and senior high schools with the age range of 11 to 19 years (M=14.67. A 28-items survey was administrated to assess (a demographics and (b Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity (PEPAS, on a 5-point Likert scale [23]. A panel of experts (n=10 reviewed the translated from of survey and provided feedback and comments on content validity of the instrument, and 50 student participated in pilot study. The analysis of the result indicated that the Individual development (the physiological efficiency and Psychic equilibrium was rated the highest goal of participating in physical activity followed by the social interaction (the group interaction and cultural involvement and the environmental coping (the spatial orientation and object manipulation. One-way Tukeys' post hoc comparison revealed significant difference between groups of subject differentiated on the basis gender age, Junior/senior high school, physical activity out of school, school team member ships, and physical activity on summer & holidays as Independent factors. The multivariate effect of these factors on some of the student's purpose was significant. The unvaried analyses showed that these factors had a significant effect on some of goals. These findings indicate the importance of ranking of students' purposes for engaging in PE classes. It is also necessary that these goals to be considered by the parents & teachers point of view.

  16. Soapbox: Class matters in parenting interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Class and income level influence parenting styles and values, yet are rarely discussed in treatment approaches and parenting interventions with families. In this soapbox article, I argue that discrepancies in outcome, retention, and participation could be fruitfully addressed through a fuller understanding of the needs, realities, and parenting goals of families struggling with financial disadvantage. I compare and contrast ethnographic studies of parenting in low socioeconomic environments with the types of strategies and interventions commonly advanced in parent training programs and suggest that clinicians must become more aware of the cultural and socioeconomic overtones of those interventions in determining whether, how, and when to use them with families. PMID:26888155

  17. Students’ Weakness Detective in Traditional Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Altuhaifa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Artificial Intelligent in Education in learning contexts and domains, the traditional classroom is tough to find students’ weakness during lecture due to the student’s number and because the instruction is busy with explaining the lesson. According to that, choosing teaching style that can improve student talent or skills to performs better in their classes or professional life would not be an easy task. This system is going to detect the average of students’ weakness and find either a solution for this or instruction a style that can increase students’ ability and skills by filtering the collection data, understanding the problem. After that, it provides a teaching style.

  18. DYNAMICS IN A CLASS OF NEURON MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics in a class of discrete-time neuron mod-els. The neuron model we discussed, defined by such periodic input-output mapping as a sinusoidal function, has a remarkably larger memory capacity than the conven-tional association system with the monotonous function. Our results show that the orbit of the model takes a conventional bifurcation route, from stable equilibrium, to periodicity, even to chaotic region. And the theoretical analysis is verified by numerical simula...

  19. DYNAMICS IN A CLASS OF NEURON MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junping; Ruan Jiong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics in a class of discrete-time neuron mo-dels. The neuron model we discussed, defined by such periodic input-output mapping as a sinusoidal function, has a remarkably larger memory capacity than the conven-tional association system with the monotonous function. Our results show that the orbit of the model takes a conventional bifurcation route, from stable equilibrium, to periodicity, even to chaotic region. And the theoretical analysis is verified by numerical simulations.

  20. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Molgaard; Vach, Werner; Kent, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent class analysis (LCA) is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP......), the aim of this study was to explore and descriptively compare the application of LCA when using questionnaire summary scores and when using single items to subgrouping of patients based on multidimensional data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from 928 LBP patients in an observational study were...

  1. Renverser la classe inversée

    OpenAIRE

    Nagels, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pédagogie universitaire Cette année, j'ai vécu une expérience renversante de formation. Plus fort encore que la classe inversée, j'ai renversé totalement mon enseignement à distance consacré à l'initiation à la psychologie cognitive pour les auditeurs du CNAM de Bretagne. Le slogan du cours était « un élève, cinquante professeurs ». Compte rendu à trois voix…

  2. Bolstering the U.S.Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Making every attempt to boost the sluggish U.S.economy, U.S.President Barack Obama has pledged incentive programs including tax cuts for the middle class that have "for generations,made our economy the envy of the world." But the program may not be a panacea as income inequality in the United States becomes entrenched.Zhang Monan,a researcher with the State Information Center,discussed this issue in an article recently published in the China Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow.

  3. A FESA Class Control Flow graph generator

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the work that was done during a summer student internship in the CERN BE-BI-SW group in the summer of 2015. The project proposal was to improve an existing tool for generating flowcharts from the design of a class and then create a GUI for the tool. The end result of the project is the improvement of the tool, so that the developer can have an overall image of the class’s design. Also, the GUI is functional at its current state and it can be extended with further work in order to be more user-friendly and offer more options to the user.

  4. THttpServer class in ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, Joern; Linev, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    The new THttpServer class in ROOT implements HTTP server for arbitrary ROOT applications. It is based on Civetweb embeddable HTTP server and provides direct access to all objects registered for the server. Objects data could be provided in different formats: binary, XML, GIF/PNG, and JSON. A generic user interface for THttpServer has been implemented with HTML/JavaScript based on JavaScript ROOT development. With any modern web browser one could list, display, and monitor objects available on the server. THttpServer is used in Go4 framework to provide HTTP interface to the online analysis.

  5. Special cohomology classes for modular Galois representations

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Building on ideas of Vatsal, Cornut proved a conjecture of Mazur asserting the generic nonvanishing of Heegner points on an elliptic curve E as one ascends the anticyclotomic Z_p-extension of a quadratic imaginary extension K/Q. In the present article Cornut's result is extended by replacing the elliptic curve E with the Galois cohomology of Deligne's 2-dimensional l-adic representation attached to a modular form of weight 2k>2, and replacing the family of Heegner points with an analogous family of special cohomology classes.

  6. Betweenness Centrality in Some Classes of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raghavan Unnithan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several centrality measures that have been introduced and studied for real-world networks. They account for the different vertex characteristics that permit them to be ranked in order of importance in the network. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the influence of a vertex over the flow of information between every pair of vertices under the assumption that information primarily flows over the shortest paths between them. In this paper we present betweenness centrality of some important classes of graphs.

  7. Random Series of Trace Class Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    In this lecture, we present some results on Gaussian (or Rademacher) random series of trace class operators, mainly due jointly with F. Lust-Piquard. We will emphasize the probabilistic reformulation of these results, as well as the open problems suggested by them. We start by a brief survey of what is known about the problem of characterizing a.s. convergent (Gaussian or Rademacher) series of random vectors in a Banach space. The main result presented here is that for certain pairs of Banach spaces $E,F$ that include Hilbert spaces (and type 2 spaces with the analytic UMD property), we have

  8. PRE-LISTENING METHODS IN LISTENING CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYijun; WangQingjiang

    2004-01-01

    At it is often the case, listening to English is not easy for English students and it is more difficult for Non-English major students. Many students have associated listening courses with pain and boredom and often complain that they benefit little from listening lessons. So, it is necessary for English teachers to realize the importance of how to make listening class more interesting and to know how to motivate students so that they can make progress in listening comprehension. Some practical and interesting teaching methods are discussed.

  9. On a Class of Generalized Sampling Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we discuss a class of so-called generalized sampling functions. These functions are defined to be the inverse Fourier transform of a family of piece-wise constant functions that are either square integrable or Lebegue integrable on the real number line. They are in fact the generalization of the classic sinc function. Two approaches of constructing the generalized sampling functions are reviewed. Their properties such as cardinality, orthogonality, and decaying properties are discussed. The interactions of those functions and Hilbert transformer are also discussed.

  10. Modulator of Apoptosis 1: A Highly Regulated RASSF1A-Interacting BH3-Like Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Law

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulator of apoptosis 1 (MOAP-1 is a BH3-like protein that plays key roles in both the intrinsic and extrinsic modes of cell death or apoptosis. MOAP-1 is part of the Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A/MOAP-1 pro-apoptotic extrinsic signaling pathway that regulates apoptosis by utilizing death receptors such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL to inhibit abnormal growth. RASSF1A is a bona fide tumor suppressor gene that is epigenetically silenced by promoter-specific methylation in numerous human cancers. MOAP-1 is a downstream effector of RASSF1A that promotes Bax activation and cell death and is highly regulated during apoptosis. We speculate that MOAP-1 and RASSF1A are important elements of an “apoptotic checkpoint” that directly influences the outcome of cell death. The failure to regulate this pro-apoptotic pathway may result in the appearance of cancer and possibly other disorders. Although loss of RASSF1A expression is frequently observed in human cancers, it is currently unknown if MOAP-1 expression may also be affected during carcinogenesis to result in uncontrolled malignant growth. In this article, we will summarize what is known about the biological role(s of MOAP-1 and how it functions as a downstream effector to RASSF1A.

  11. US Forest Service Watershed Condition Class and Assessment Status 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The map contains the Watershed Condition Class and assessment status for the assessment year of 2011. The layer is symbolized by the Watershed Condition Class for...

  12. Postgraduates’ Attitudes towards Group Works in Oral English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕思迪

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated four postgraduates’ attitudes towards group work in oral English class in Tianjin Foreign Studies University. Two sources of data were collected, including interviews and class observations.

  13. Suggestopedia, Sophrology and the Traditional Foreign Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1982-01-01

    Describes suggestopedia and sophrology techniques and shows how to apply them within the limitations of the traditional foreign language classroom. Cites beginning French classes at Scarborough College as an example of these techniques improving class atmosphere and student motivation. (EKN)

  14. Use of a Concentration Game for Environmental Chemistry Class Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Danica A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration game can be used as a complete class or a portion of it to help reinforce the material being presented or for review sessions. An environmental chemistry class review is presented with the use of the concentration game.

  15. 25 CFR 502.3 - Class II gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3 Class II gaming. Class II gaming means: (a) Bingo or lotto (whether or not electronic, computer... pattern on such cards; (b) If played in the same location as bingo or lotto, pull-tabs, punch boards,...

  16. CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW CLASS OF ORTHOGONAL ARRAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanqi PANG

    2007-01-01

    By using the generalized Hadamard product, difference matrix and projection matrices, we present a class of orthogonal projection matrices and related orthogonal arrays of strength two. A new class of orthogonal arrays are constructed.

  17. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    followed our expedition, during which the teachers and pupils used our articles and photographs as dynamic illustrations for their geology classes (see Galland et al., this session). The observations collected during the expedition will now be developed for public conferences and popular science exhibitions to reach a wider audience.

  18. (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' Electronic Transition of Protonated Coronene at 15 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C A; Hardy, F-X; Gause, O; Maier, J P

    2014-03-20

    The electronic spectrum of protonated coronene in the gas phase was measured at vibrational and rotational temperatures of ∼15 K in a 22-pole ion trap. The (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' electronic transition of this larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cation has an origin band maximum at 14 383.8 ± 0.2 cm(-1) and shows distinct vibrational structure in the (1) (1)A' state. Neither the origin nor the strongest absorptions to the blue coincide with known diffuse interstellar bands, implying that protonated coronene is not a carrier.

  19. How "healthful" are aerobics classes? Exploring the health and wellness messages in aerobics classes for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the health messages communicated by aerobics instructors in aerobics classes for women. A theoretical framework influenced by adult learning theory and feminist pedagogy was used in this qualitative study. Over a 3-month period, the practices of five aerobics instructors working at one nonprofit fitness center and one wellness facility were explored. The methods of data collection were one interview with each aerobics instructor and 14 site visits to conduct participant observations and to retrieve of documents. Despite the nonprofit and wellness-based environment of the exercise facilities in this research, there was still an overemphasis on the physical aspect of aerobics classes. Therefore, the potential wellness-related benefits of aerobics classes for women, especially in environments that identified themselves as promoting wellness, were not fully realized. PMID:17148107

  20. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3). PMID:19398590

  1. A modified BRST approach for Hamiltonians with second class constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A BRST approach for a dynamical system with second class constraints based on intermediate first class ones is analyzed in a simple case. From it, a very direct scheme involving only the original constraints is derived. By generalizing the later, a modified BRST formalism is stated: it avoids any dimensional reduction or first class intermediate algebra, and is applicable to an arbitrary second class algebra. (Author)

  2. Indiscernibles, EM-Types, and Ramsey Classes of Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Scow, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The author has previously shown that for a certain class of structures $\\mathcal {I}$ , $\\mathcal {I}$ -indexed indiscernible sets have the modeling property just in case the age of $\\mathcal {I}$ is a Ramsey class. We expand this known class of structures from ordered structures in a finite relational language to ordered, locally finite structures which isolate quantifier-free types by way of quantifier-free formulas. This result is applied to give new proofs that certain classes of...

  3. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Verk, Marcel C; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    2008-01-01

    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of t

  4. TRPA1: A Gatekeeper for Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Diana M.; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Tsunozaki, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Tissue damage evokes an inflammatory response that promotes the removal of harmful stimuli, tissue repair, and protective behaviors to prevent further damage and encourage healing. However, inflammation may outlive its usefulness and become chronic. Chronic inflammation can lead to a host of diseases, including asthma, itch, rheumatoid arthritis, and colitis. Primary afferent sensory neurons that innervate target organs release inflammatory neuropeptides in the local area of tissue damage to promote vascular leakage, the recruitment of immune cells, and hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli. TRPA1 channels are required for neuronal excitation, the release of inflammatory neuropeptides, and subsequent pain hypersensitivity. TRPA1 is also activated by the release of inflammatory agents from nonneuronal cells in the area of tissue injury or disease. This dual function of TRPA1 as a detector and instigator of inflammatory agents makes TRPA1 a gatekeeper of chronic inflammatory disorders of the skin, airways, and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23020579

  5. X-1A in flight over lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) returning from an Air Force test flight over Edwards Air Force Base, California in late 1953. A North American F-86A Sabre as chase plane will follow the X-1A to touchdown. The Rogers Dry Lake is the whitish area under the planes with the airfield at the edge of the dry lake. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six flights between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 test flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the aircraft shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system

  6. Effects of Social Class and Interactive Setting on Maternal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Ginsberg, Erika

    The speech that upper-middle class mothers used with their young children was compared to that used by working class mothers. Mother-child interaction was recorded in four settings: mealtime, dressing, reading, and playing with toys. Also investigated were mothers' child rearing beliefs and goals. Participants included 33 upper-middle class and 30…

  7. A scalable pairwise class interaction framework for multidimensional classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias, Jacinto; Gámez, Jose A.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre;

    2016-01-01

    We present a general framework for multidimensional classification that cap- tures the pairwise interactions between class variables. The pairwise class inter- actions are encoded using a collection of base classifiers (Phase 1), for which the class predictions are combined in a Markov random field...

  8. Skipping Economics Classes: A Case Study from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Terence Tai-Leung; Cheung, Ka-Shing; Hui, Pik-Hung

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of student attendance of economics classes. Course-specific and individual-specific factors are shown to have significant impacts on class attendance. It was found that female students and overseas students skip classes less often. Surprisingly, students involved in extra-curricular activities attend…

  9. 40 CFR 205.155 - Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle class and manufacturer...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.155 Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation. (a) Motorcycles must be grouped into classes determined...

  10. Inflection Classes, Gender, and the Principle of Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Clark's 1987 Principle of Contrast seems inconsistent with the synonymy exhibited by inflectional affixes in languages with inflection classes. But if inflection class membership identifies the inflection class of the lexemes to which it attaches, then inflection affixation complies with this principle. Grammatical implications are suggested. (76…

  11. Bringing an Online Credit Research Class from Concept to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven; White, Scott

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the LaGuardia Community College Library's launch of a fully-online one-credit research class. The authors discuss the process for creating the class, from the technical specifications to the pedagogical approach to the course content and delivery. The authors also discuss the challenges of providing a fully online class to…

  12. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  13. Class Formation, Politics, and Institutions: Schooling in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes extent to which Marxist theories of social class influence can explain structure of schooling in the United States. Argues that theoretical and empirical flaws exist in Marxist studies and concludes that effects of class processes have been minimal compared to Europe because of a political system that has limited social class influences…

  14. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  15. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1508.27. (b) Actions requiring an environmental assessment. Classes of actions that will... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact...

  16. 29 CFR 1202.8 - Hearings on craft or class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearings on craft or class. 1202.8 Section 1202.8 Labor... craft or class. In the event the contesting parties or organizations are unable to agree on the..., specifying the craft or class of employees eligible to participate in the designation of representatives....

  17. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  18. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  19. The Cultures of Social Class and Religious Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Although social class impacts the assumptions, values, and normative practices of Religious Education, the lack of public discourse on class diminishes awareness of and critical reflection on this impact. This article describes social class as a largely unarticulated and embodied performance of identity inflected through hierarchical practices of…

  20. Task-based Teaching and Learning in English Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍蓉芳

    2008-01-01

    In technical college English listening class, task-based teaching and learning method can not only create harmonious environment for students' learning, but also motivate students' enthusiasm in listening class, thus students can benefit a great deal in listening class and the listening can be carried out successfully.