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Sample records for clarithromycin-resistant helicobacter pylori

  1. Molecular assessment of clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular assessment of clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori strains using rapid and accurate PCR-RFLP method in gastric specimens in Iran. ... Thirty nine (39) (23/78%) clarithromycin-resistant strains were detected which were identified as 15 (9.15%) A2143G, 15 (9.15%) A2142G and 9 (5.49%) mix strains.

  2. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutatio...

  3. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10(-9) which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens.

  4. Change of point mutations in Helicobacter pylori rRNA associated with clarithromycin resistance in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, Vincenzo; Zullo, Angelo; Giorgio, Floriana; Saracino, Ilaria; Zaccaro, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo; Fiorini, Giulia; Castelli, Valentina; Lo Re, Giovanna; Vaira, Dino

    2014-03-01

    Primary clarithromycin resistance is the main factor affecting the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori therapy. This study aimed: (i) to assess the concordance between phenotypic (culture) and genotypic (real-time PCR) tests in resistant strains; (ii) to search, in the case of disagreement between the methods, for point mutations other than those reported as the most frequent in Europe; and (iii) to compare the MICs associated with the single point mutations. In order to perform real-time PCR, we retrieved biopsies from patients in whom H. pylori infection was successful diagnosed by bacterial culture and clarithromycin resistance was assessed using the Etest. Only patients who had never been previously treated, and with H. pylori strains that were either resistant exclusively to clarithromycin or without any resistance, were included. Biopsies from 82 infected patients were analysed, including 42 strains that were clarithromycin resistant and 40 that were clarithromycin susceptible on culture. On genotypic analysis, at least one of the three most frequently reported point mutations (A2142C, A2142G and A2143G) was detected in only 23 cases (54.8%), with a concordance between the two methods of 0.67. Novel point mutations (A2115G, G2141A and A2144T) were detected in a further 14 out of 19 discordant cases, increasing the resistance detection rate of PCR to 88% (Presistance; and (iii) none of the tested point mutations is associated with significantly higher MIC values than the others.

  5. [A comparison analysis on the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and the detection of clarithromycin resistance according to biopsy sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ah Ra; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2010-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the biopsy sites that are suitable for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and to assess the sensitivity of culture, histology, and dual-priming oligonucleotide (DPO)-based multiplex PCR. Moreover, we evaluated the usefulness of PCR for the detection of 23S rRNA mutations, which are responsible for the clarithromycin resistance of H. pylori. From 90 patients, we obtained biopsy specimens for culture, histology, and Seeplex ClaR-H. pylori PCR (Seegene Inc., Korea). Phenotypic susceptibility to clarithromycin was evaluated using the E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). H. pylori was detected in 48 of 90 patients. The positive rates of infection in the antrum and body were higher than those in the biopsies obtained from the duodenal bulb. The positive rates in histology, PCR, and culture were 46.7%, 42.2%, and 34.4%, respectively. Using histology or PCR, we identified H. pylori in 46 of the 48 patients. 23S rRNA mutations were detected in 8 patients. The clarithromycin E-test showed that all the 10 wild-type patients were susceptible. However, the results of the PCR and E-test of 3 of the 8 mutation-positive patients were discrepant. We observed that a combination of histology and PCR affords a high detection rate of H.pylori infection and that DPO-based PCR can be practically used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and the determination of clarithromycin resistance. These techniques were useful for biopsy sampling simultaneously from the antrum and body for the detection of clarithromycin resistance of multiple strain infection or heteroresistance.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility and clarithromycin resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Vietnam [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Quek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that causes several gastroduodenal disorders such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.  Eradication efforts of H. pylori are often hampered by antimicrobial resistance in many countries, including Vietnam.  Here, the study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among H. pylori clinical isolates across 13 hospitals in Vietnam.  The study further evaluated the clarithromycin resistance patterns of H. pylori strains.  In order to address the study interests, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, epsilometer test and PCR-based sequencing were performed on a total of 193 strains isolated from patients, including 136 children (3–15 years of age and 57 adults (19–69 years of age.  Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the overall resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline was 10.4%, 85.5%, 24.4%, 37.8%, and 23.8% respectively.  The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of clarithromycin-resistant strains was 85.5% with MIC >0.5 μg/mL.  The majority of the clarithromycin resistant isolates (135 of 165 subjects have MICs ranging from 2 μg/mL to 16 μg/mL.  Furthermore, sequencing detection of mutations in 23S rRNA gene revealed that strains resistant and susceptible to clarithromycin contained both A2143G and T2182C mutations.  Of all isolates, eight clarithromycin-resistant isolates (MIC >0.5 μg/mL had no mutations in the 23S rRNA gene.  Collectively, these results demonstrated that a proportion of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains, which are not related to the 23S rRNA gene mutations, could be potentially related to other mechanisms such as the presence of an efflux pump or polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene.  Therefore, the present study suggests that providing susceptibility testing prior to treatment or alternative screening strategies for antimicrobial resistance is important

  7. A Novel Stool PCR Test for Helicobacter pylori May Predict Clarithromycin Resistance and Eradication of Infection at a High Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Erin; Saracino, Ilaria; Fiorini, Giulia; Clark, Courtney; Slepnev, Vladimir; Patel, Denise; Gomez, Clarissa; Ponaka, Reddy; Elagin, Vecheslav; Vaira, Dino

    2017-08-01

    Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori-positive patients; however, resistance to clarithromycin has led to treatment failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA while concurrently detecting mutations associated with resistance to clarithromycin. For this purpose, total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stool specimens from H. pylori-positive and -negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H. pylori as well as to predict the phenotype of the organism and the related outcome for patients treated with clarithromycin. Clarithromycin resistance was determined upon analysis of the PCR result. Patients were also tested by a urea breath test and were subjected to esophagogastroduodenoscopy, followed by histology, culture, and a rapid urease test, in order to obtain a consensus patient infection status. Of 294 total stool samples, 227 were deemed true positive. The sensitivity of H. pylori detection by PCR was 93.8%. Of 213 true-positive samples that were sequenced, 36.2% showed point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance (A2142C, A2142G, A2143G). The final correlation of the mutant genotypes as determined by sequencing with the eradication of infection was 86%. We found that Helicobacter pylori DNA can be detected in human stool specimens with high sensitivity and can therefore be used to determine the presence of the bacterium without obtaining a biopsy sample. Moreover, genotypic resistance to clarithromycin can be predicted without obtaining a biopsy sample, facilitating the choice of the right therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. [The epidemiology of clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori infection in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós; Lotz, Gábor; Kiss, András

    2007-08-05

    Antibiotic susceptibility is a major determinant of the eradication treatment outcome and its local determination is recommended in all regions. The purpose of the study is the assessment of the current prevalence of clarithromycin resistance in our district and an overview of the Hungarian data. A) Biopsy samples were randomly selected from 238 cases examined at the Department of Gastroenterology. The resistance to clarithromycin was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. B) Hungarian congress abstracts dealing with resistance to clarithromycin, published between 1995 and 2006, were reviewed and the prevalence and change over time of the resistance was studied. The use of clarithromycin since its introduction in 1993 was analysed. A) The prevalence of primary clarithromycin resistance was 17.3%. and it was complete in 47.4% and partial in 52.6%. The rate of secondary resistance was of 55.5%. There was a weak positive correlation between age ( r = 0.15), female gender ( r = 0,10) and smoking ( r = 0,16) and prevalence of resistance. B) Clarithromycin resistance was addressed in 8 papers, including 775 cases. The prevalence of resistance determined by phenotypic methods was 3,9%, while fluorescence in situ hybridization detected the resistance in 17.0% of the cases. Regional differences were encountered. Secondary resistance was met in 55.5% using phenotypic and in 49.0% with genotypic methods. C) The use of clarithromycin increased fivefold between 1993-2005. The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance determined by genotypic method is increased as compared to the results of earlier phenotypic methods, which could be due to the more extensive use of macrolides.

  9. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori and mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance in strains isolated from patients in Uruguay Susceptibilidad a los antomicrobianos Helicobacter pylori y mecanismo de resistencia a claritromicina en cepas aisladas de pacientes uruguayos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Torres-Debat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori have not yet been investigated in Uruguay. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most frequently used antibiotics and to determine the mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin. Seventy-nine isolates were obtained from gastric biopsies of 50 adult patients during two periods, 2001 and 2006. The former group enrolled the general population (GP, the latter group Afro-descendant (AD subjects. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole, and levofloxacin were determined using the E-test technique. Amplification was achieved through PCR and nucleic acid sequencing to detect mutations in the site of action of clarithromycin in the rRNA gene 23S. No amoxicillin or tetracycline-resistant strains were found. Clarithromycin resistance was found in 12% of the patients overall: 19.4% resistance in AD patients and no resistance in the GP group. This difference was statistically significant. The highest resistance was seen with metronidazole (36%, present in similar proportions in the two groups: 36.8% (GP and 35.5% (AD. One GP patient and one AD patient had levofloxacin-resistant strains. Sequencing analysis of gene 23S rRNA showed that only mutation in position 2143 was presented in all clarithromycin-resistant strains.

  11. A novel RT-PCR for the detection of Helicobacter pylori and identification of clarithromycin resistance mediated by mutations in the 23S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Javier Jareño; Keller, Peter M; Zbinden, Reinhard; Wagner, Karoline

    2018-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the commercially available LightMix® RT-PCR assay for Helicobacter pylori detection and identification of clarithromycin (CLR) resistance in culture and clinical specimens (gastric biopsies and stool). The H. pylori LightMix® RT-PCR detects a 97bp long fragment of the 23S rRNA gene and allows the identification of 3 distinct point mutations conferring CLR resistance via melting curve analysis. The performance of the H. pylori LightMix® RT-PCR was evaluated using a set of 60 H. pylori strains showing phenotypical CLR susceptibility or CLR resistance (Minimum inhibitory concentrations from 0.016 to 256mg/L). We found high concordance (95%) between phenotypical CLR resistance screening by E-Test® and the Lightmix® RT-PCR. Discrepant results were verified by sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene that always confirmed the results obtained by Lightmix® RT-PCR. Furthermore, H. pylori was detected in clinical biopsy and stool specimens by Lightmix® RT-PCR that identified the correct H. pylori genotype. The LightMix® RT-PCR is an accurate, sensitive and easy to use test for H. pylori and CLR resistance detection and can therefore be readily implemented in any diagnostic laboratory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip: a rapid and accurate assay for detecting mutations for clarithromycin resistance in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shi-Hai; Zhou, Yu-Gui; Shao, Bo; Cui, Ya-Lin; Li, Jian; Yin, Hong-Bo; Song, Xiao-Ping; Cong, Hui; Jing, Feng-Xiang; Jin, Qing-Hui; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Macrolide drugs, such as clarithromycin (CAM), are a key component of many combination therapies used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. However, resistance to CAM is increasing in H. pylori and is becoming a serious problem in H. pylori eradication therapy. CAM resistance in H. pylori is mostly due to point mutations (A2142G/C, A2143G) in the peptidyltransferase-encoding region of the 23S rRNA gene. In this study an enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip was developed to analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the 23S rRNA gene to determine the prevalence of mutations in CAM-related resistance in H. pylori-positive patients. The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. In 63 samples, the incidence of the A2143G mutation was 17.46 % (11/63). The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were concordant with DNA sequencing in 96.83 % of results (61/63). The colorimetric DNA chip could detect wild-type and mutant signals at every site, even at a DNA concentration of 1.53 x 10(2) copies microl(-1). Thus, the colorimetric DNA chip is a reliable assay for rapid and accurate detection of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori that lead to CAM-related resistance, directly from gastric tissues.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori and mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance in strains isolated from patients in Uruguay Susceptibilidad a los antomicrobianos Helicobacter pylori y mecanismo de resistencia a claritromicina en cepas aisladas de pacientes uruguayos

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Torres-Debat; Pérez-Pérez, G; Olivares, A.; Fernández, L.; K. Raisler; Gonzalez, N; Stein, S; M. C. Bazet; W. Alallón; Cohen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori have not yet been investigated in Uruguay. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most frequently used antibiotics and to determine the mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin. Seventy-nine isolates were obtained from gastric biopsies of 50 adult patients during two periods, 2001 and 2006. The former group enrolled the general population (GP), the latter group Afro-descend...

  14. Severe gastrointestinal involvement in adult-onset Henoch–Schönlein purpura associated with clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Guillermo Delgado-García

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing resistance to clarithromycin-containing triple therapy in a H. pylori-infected adult patient with HSP. Gastrointestinal bleeding remains one of the most feared manifestations of HSP. These patients may benefit from H. pylori screening, as this might positively affect their prognosis. Further studies in adults are nevertheless needed to clarify this association and its therapeutic impact.

  15. Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention When to Call the Doctor Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) bacteria are a common cause of digestive illnesses, ... of adults are likely to have had an H. pylori infection — usually without any symptoms. Signs and Symptoms ...

  16. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  17. Characteristics and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Taweesak Tongtawee; Soraya Kaewpitoon; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Chavaboon Dechsukhum; Wilairat Leeanansaksiri; Loyd, Ryan A.; Likit Matrakool; Sukij Panpimanmas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection are genetic susceptibility and poor living conditions. This study aimed to investigate the Mdm2 gene, clarithromycin resistance, and possible risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods. Risk factors and clinical characteristics were analyzed, including patient demographic data, patient income, personal history, possible source of transmission, patient symptoms, endoscopic findings, patterns of clarithromycin resis...

  18. Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) are Gram-negative spiral bacteria which occur in the human stomach. The bacteria were cultured in vitro for the first time in 1983. It is suspected that the bacteria may cause chronic gastritis of type B and may also be a contributory cause of chronic ulceration and cancer...... of the stomach. The bacteria are accompanied by characteristic inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa. The significance for gastritis, chronic ulceration, non-ulcer dyspepsia and carcinoma of the stomach is discussed. HP occurs in a great proportion of the population of the world and the frequency increases...

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalach, Nicolas; Bontems, Patrick; Raymond, Josette

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in children differs from that in adults, from the point of view of epidemiology, host response, clinical features, related diseases, and diagnosis, as well as treatment strategies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection, in both children and adults, is decreasing in the Western World as well as in some developing countries, which contrasts with the increase in childhood asthma and allergic diseases. Recurrent abdominal pain is not specific during H. pylori infection in children. The role of H. pylori infection and failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease remains controversial. The main initial diagnosis is based on upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Nodular gastritis may be a pathognomonic endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection. The infection eradication control is based on validated noninvasive tests. The main cause of treatment failure of H. pylori infection is its clarithromycin resistance. We recommend standard antibiotic susceptibility testing of H. pylori in pediatric patients prior to the initiation of eradication therapy. H. pylori treatment in children should be based on an evaluation of the rate of eradication in the local population, a systematic use of a treatment adapted to the susceptibility profile and a treatment compliance greater than 90%. The last meta-analysis in children did not show an advantage for sequential therapy when compared to a 14-day triple therapy. Finally, the high rate of antibiotic resistance responsible for therapy failure in recent years justifies the necessity of a novel vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection in children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Related Images View Sources Also Known As H. pylori antibody test, stool antigen, breath tests Urea breath test CLO test Rapid urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal Name Helicobacter pylori This article was last ...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Hoffman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori is most frequently associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Antimicrobial intervention, together with proton pump inhibitors, has become the standard therapy for treating this disease. Resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole, two of the most commonly used antimicrobials for treatment of H pylori infections, is often associated with treatment failures and relapse of infection. Clarithromycin resistance arises through mutations leading to base changes in 23S ribosomal RNA subunits, while resistance to metronidazole is due to mutations in the rdxA gene, which encodes a novel nitroreductase that is responsible for reductive activation of the drug. Products of metronidazole activation are mutagenic and can be demonstrated to increase both the mutation frequency and the frequency at which antibiotic resistance arises in H pylori.

  2. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  3. Characteristics and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection are genetic susceptibility and poor living conditions. This study aimed to investigate the Mdm2 gene, clarithromycin resistance, and possible risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods. Risk factors and clinical characteristics were analyzed, including patient demographic data, patient income, personal history, possible source of transmission, patient symptoms, endoscopic findings, patterns of clarithromycin resistance, and patterns of Mdm2 SNIP309. Results. Ingestion of pickled fish (OR = 11.27, 95% CI = 4.31-29.45, p Papaya salad (OR = 8.73, 95% CI = 4.54-16.79, p Papaya salad are positive risk factors. There was high prevalence of clarithromycin resistance. The Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous genotype might be a risk factor for gastric cancer and the fact that it is infrequent in Thailand.

  4. HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakFaktor risiko infeksi Helicobacter pylori adalah tinggal di negara berkembang, kondisi sosial ekonomi yang rendah, jumlah anggota keluarga yang banyak, etnik dan genetik. Tatalaksana dan diagnosis Helicobacter pylori belum memuaskan karena adanya resistensi antibiotik pada pasien Helicobacter pylori. Kami melaporkan seorang pasien perempuan usia 8 tahun 6 bulan yang terinfeksi Helicobacter pylori. Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik, dan hasil laboratorium. Pasien diduga terinfeksi Helicobacter pylori karena mengalami nyeri perut berulang. Dari laboratorium didapatkan serologi IgG Helicobacter pylori positif. Pada hasil endoskopi biopsi ditemukan kuman Helicobacter pylori. Pasien mendapat therapi eradikasi lini pertama untuk infeksi Helicobacter pylori yaitu amoksisilin, klaritromisin dan omeprazol selama dua minggu. Setelah dua minggu pengobatan keluhan pasien tidak ada.Kata kunci: Helicobacter pylori, anak, nyeri perut berulangAbstractRisk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori infection include residency of developing country, poor socioeconomic conditions, crowded family, and possibly an ethnic or genetic as predispositions. The diagnosis and management Helicobacter pylori has not been satisfied yet, however, there is problem of increasing resistancy antibiotic due to Helicobacter pylori. Objective: We report a 8 year and 6 month old girl who suffered from Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis was based on history, clinical finding, and laboratory work-up. Suspicion on the presence of Helicobacter pylori was started when the girl had recurrent abdominal pain. Serology IgG Helicobacter pylori was positive and we had done endoscopic examination and biopsy. Therapy this patient was first line eradication Helicobacter pylori which give amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole for two weeks. There are no sympthoms after two weeks therapyKey word: Helicobacter pylori, children, recurrent abdominal pain

  5. Helicobacter pylori and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substances Chronic Inflammation Common Cancer Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Helicobacter pylori and Cancer On This Page What is ...

  6. Helicobacter pylori-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori infection in Digestive Diseases Week, 2016. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of this infection, infection rates continue to be high in developing countries. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly high in most countries and continues to rise. The management of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcers still leaves much to be desired. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely avoid its appearance. The new rapid stool antigen tests show promising results. The efficacy of standard triple therapy is clearly inadequate and continues to decline, and cannot therefore be recommended. Vonoprazan, when associated with 2 antibiotics, is more effective than traditional proton pump inhibitors, especially in clarithromycin-resistant patients. Non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant) therapy achieves eradication rates of around 90% and has a good safety profile. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. Although some probiotics can increase the efficacy and tolerability of triple therapy, the utility of its association with quadruple concomitant therapy has not been established. If a first treatment with clarithromycin fails, both bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy achieve good-but still suboptimal-results. The combination of bismuth and levofloxacin in the same regimen increases the efficacy of rescue therapy. The management of H. pylori infection by European gastroenterologists is widely heterogeneous and the eradication rates achieved by them are generally unacceptable. In Spain, the highest first-line eradication rate is obtained with quadruple concomitant therapy in 14-day regimens and with double doses of proton pump inhibitors; in second-line therapy, the use of

  7. Antibiotic Resistant Pattern of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Based on Molecular Tests in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of standard treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining because of antibiotic resistance. Clarithromycin resistance is also increasing in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of H. pylori infection and clinical association in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010-March 2012 were enrolled in this study. During gastroscopy, 4 biopsies were collected (2 each from the antrum and body) for CLO-test and histopathology. Only the positive CLO-test gastric tissues was stored at -80° in a freezer until DNA was extracted and a GenoType®HelicoDR test was conducted for detecting mutations in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA (clarithromycin resistance) and mutations in gyrA gene (fluoroquinolone resistance) . Of the total, 119 Lao patients (36.2%) were infected with H. pylori including 59 males (49.6%) and 60 females (50.4%) with a mean age of 46 years. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance of H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 15 (12.6%) and 16 strains (13.4%) respectively. In clarithromycin resistance, the number of patients who had education above primary school and BMI≥ 25 kg/m2 were significantly higher than those who had education below primary school and BMILao was significantly higher than those of non- lowland (highland and midland) Lao ethnic groups (16.7% vs 0%, P-value= 0.039). H. pylori infections remain common in Laos. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection are growing problems. Education above primary school and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 might be predictors for clarithromycin resistance and lowland Lao ethnicity might be predictors for fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection in Laos.

  8. Equally high efficacy of 4, 7 and 10-day triple therapies to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurenkamp, G. J.; van der Ende, A.; Grundmeijer, H. G.; Tytgat, G. N.; van der Hulst, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with ulcer disease the optimal dose and duration of Helicobacter pylori treatment containing omeprazole (O), metronidazole (M) and clarithromycin (C) has yet to be established. The efficacy might be influenced by metronidazole- and clarithromycin-resistance. AIM: To study the

  9. Infecciones por helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Alvarez Gil

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se revisan los conocimientos sobre el papel de Helicobacter pylori en varias enfermedades gastroduodenales como la gastritis crónica (GC, úlcera gástrica (UG, úlcera duodenal (UD y dispepsia no ulcerosa (DNU. La revisión abarca aspectos históricos, microbiológicos, clínicos, epidemiológicos, diagnósticos de laboratorio, terapéuticos y de patogénesis.

    The current knowledge of the role of Helicobacter Pylori in several gastroduodenal  diseases is reviewed. It includes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and nonulcerous dyspepsia. The following aspects are treated in this paper: history, microbiology. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, therapy and pathogenesis.

  10. Helicobacter pylori in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkora, Josef; Rowland, Marion

    2011-09-01

    This article reviewed the important publications on Helicobacter pylori research with children between April 2010 and March 2011. The most interesting studies in the last year lend further weight to the evidence for vertical transmission of H. pylori. The discovery of a potential role for jhp0562, the gene which encodes for the cell envelope protein glycosyltransferase, in the progression to peptic ulcer disease is also very interesting as it may provide a novel way to distinguish children at risk of peptic ulcer disease from those who are not, and so determine those who requires treatment to eradicate H. pylori. The rise in non-H. pylori-associated ulcers and erosions continues to be reported with no apparent risk factors for these ulcers identified to date. High levels of treatment failure continue to be reported, and there remains an urgent need for more effective treatment regimes for children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drouin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro activity against H pylori. Children rarely have symptoms to this infection and, therefore, are a suitable group in which to assess different nonaggressive therapies.

  12. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Drouin

    1999-01-01

    The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro...

  13. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana; Vidya

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study was done at Christian Medical College an d Hospital, Ludhiana for the period of 5 years from January 2006 to December 2010 in the Department of Microbiology. A total of 306 endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens were collected from the suspected cases of the peptic ulcer and were subjected to rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori. This test has high sensitivity and cent percent specificity. The prevalen ce was determined to be 09.48...

  14. Characteristics and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Tongtawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection are genetic susceptibility and poor living conditions. This study aimed to investigate the Mdm2 gene, clarithromycin resistance, and possible risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods. Risk factors and clinical characteristics were analyzed, including patient demographic data, patient income, personal history, possible source of transmission, patient symptoms, endoscopic findings, patterns of clarithromycin resistance, and patterns of Mdm2 SNIP309. Results. Ingestion of pickled fish (OR = 11.27, 95% CI = 4.31–29.45, p<0.0001, salt crab (OR = 8.83, 95% CI = 1.99–39.14, p<0.001, and Papaya salad (OR = 8.73, 95% CI = 4.54–16.79, p<0.01. The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance was 56% (wild type, A2143/2142A, is 23.8%; mutation, A2143/2142CG, is 35.7%; wild type + mutation is 40.5%. The genetic polymorphisms of Mdm2 SNIP309 were SNIP309 T/T homozygous in 78%, SNIP309 G/T heterozygous in 19%, and SNIP309 G/G homozygous in 3%. Conclusion. Pickled fish, salt crab, and Papaya salad are positive risk factors. There was high prevalence of clarithromycin resistance. The Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous genotype might be a risk factor for gastric cancer and the fact that it is infrequent in Thailand.

  15. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to

  16. Helicobacter spp. other than Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-09-01

    Over the last 12 months, new insights into the association of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters with a range of human diseases in children and adults, including hepatobiliary disease, Crohn's disease, sepsis, and gastric disease were published. Studies investigating the presence of non-H. pylori Helicobacters in domestic animals reinforce previous findings that cats and dogs harbor gastric Helicobacter species and thus may be an important source of these organisms in humans. The confounding effect of enterohepatic Helicobacters on the outcome of biomedical research was investigated in several studies and led to recommendations that animals should be screened prior to performing experiments. A number of important and novel investigations regarding pathogenic mechanisms and immune responses to enterohepatic Helicobacters were conducted. Genomic advances in non-H. pylori Helicobacters included description of the complete genome of Helicobacter canadensis, delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies, and identification of a novel cis-regulatory RNA. New insights concerning growth conditions, biochemical characterization, and the effect of certain dietary compounds on Helicobacter spp. have also been reported. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Biopatologia do Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladeira Marcelo Sady Plácido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori induz inflamação persistente na mucosa gástrica com diferentes lesões orgânicas em humanos, tais como gastrite crônica, úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. Os fatores determinantes desses diferentes resultados incluem a intensidade e a distribuição da inflamação induzida pelo H. pylori na mucosa gástrica. Evidências recentes demonstram que cepas do H. pylori apresentam diversidade genotípica, cujos produtos acionam o processo inflamatório por meio de mediadores e citocinas, que podem levar a diferentes graus de resposta inflamatória do hospedeiro, resultando em diferentes destinos patológicos. Cepas H. pylori com a ilha de patogenicidade cag induzem resposta inflamatória mais grave, através da ativação da transcrição de genes, aumentando o risco para desenvolvimento de úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. O estresse oxidativo e nitrosativo induzido pela inflamação desempenha importante papel na carcinogênese gástrica como mediador da formação ou ativação de cancerígenos, danos no DNA, bem como de alterações da proliferação celular e da apoptose.

  18. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  20. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  1. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alakkari, Alaa

    2012-02-01

    Research published over the past year has documented the continued decline of Helicobacter pylori-related peptic ulcer disease and increased recognition of non-H. pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ulcer disease--idiopathic ulcers. Despite reduced prevalence of uncomplicated PUD, rates of ulcer complications and associated mortality remain stubbornly high. The role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia is unclear, with some authors considering H. pylori-associated nonulcer dyspepsia a distinct organic entity. There is increasing acceptance of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but little understanding of how GERD might be more common\\/severe in H. pylori-negative subjects. Research has focused on factors such as different H. pylori phenotypes, weight gain after H. pylori eradication, and effects on hormones such as ghrelin that control appetite.

  2. An Update on Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Treatment in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Khurana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous consensus statements have recommended one- to two-week proton pump inhibitor (PPI-based triple therapies with clarithromycin and either amoxicillin or metronidazole as first-line treatments for children with Helicobacter pylori infection. The objective of the present review was to summarize data from pediatric studies that have examined treatment efficacy, safety, drug resistance and reinfection rates related to anti-H pylori therapies. Data from a recent meta-analysis of pediatric studies were used along with the authors' existing databases and searches of individual studies. Regimens that were identified as greater than 80% efficacious in children included a two-week therapy with a nitroimidazole and amoxicillin in Europe; a two-week regimen of bismuth, amoxicillin and metronidazole in developed countries (except Spain; a one- to two-week regimen of a PPI, clarithromycin and amoxicillin in Northern Europe, Asia and the Middle East; and a two-week regimen of a PPI, clarithromycin and metronidazole in Canada. Although recommended as a first-line treatment in adults, two-week treatment with a PPI, clarithromycin and amoxicillin eradicated only 68% of H pylori infections in North American children. Treatment efficacy was reduced in the presence of metronidazole and/or clarithromycin resistance. Further studies of anti-H pylori treatments in children in North America and developing countries are warranted.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori Clinical Isolates in Hamadan, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Majlesi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveillance data on Helicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibilities are limited in Hamadan, Iran. Since antibiotic resistance is one of the reasons in therapies failure. Objectives: Thus the resistance patterns of H. pylori strains to the antibiotics metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline were evaluated. Patients and Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens of 153 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia, peptic ulcer dyspepsia, and peptic cancer collected during May 2010 to February of 2011, and were cultured on Brucella agar (Merck, Germany under microaerophilic conditions. H. pylori isolates were identified using standard biochemical test. Eighty three (54.2 % specimens had positive results by culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method. Results: Totally in vitro resistance rates were 63.8% for metronidazole, 26.5% for clarithromycin, and 7.2% for amoxicillin. Although, 25.3% of strains showed resistance to two antibiotics, and 3.6% to three antibiotics. Tetracycline resistance was identified in only two isolates. Fifty nine percent of the clarithromycin resistant strains also showed resistance to metronidazole. No gender and age associations with resistance were detected. Conclusion: Our results showed a high incidence of metronidazole resistance (often combined with clarithromycin-resistance in the isolates. Continuous surveillance is recommended to examine the treatment strategies for H. pylori eradication.

  5. Pylera for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleem, Aamir

    2012-02-01

    An ideal antibiotic regimen for Helicobacter pylori should achieve eradication rates of approximately 90%. Current 7-day triple therapy is successful in about two-thirds of patients. A novel treatment is required to achieve higher eradication with minimal induction of bacterial resistance. The aim of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single triple capsule (Pylera) containing bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Extensive literature searches were conducted using PubMed data from 1982 to 2007. This search included headings of H. pylori, bismuth and eradication therapy. The triple capsule Pylera, when given with omeprazole, achieved eradication rates ranging between 84 and 97%. Eradication rates were similar for clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains. Eradication rates with an omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline regimen appeared comparable for metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains. This effect is not seen with the use of triple therapy in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Clinical trials did not report any serious side effects from bismuth-based regimens and compliance was similar to standard triple therapy. Bismuth-based triple therapy using Pylera is a simplified, effective and well-tolerated regimen achieving cure rates of above 90%.

  6. Geographic map and evolution of primary Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitov, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of eradication failure. Primary H. pylori susceptibility patterns, however, are becoming less predictable. Currently, high (> or =20%) clarithromycin resistance rates have been observed in the USA and in developed countries in Europe and Asia, while the highest (> or =80%) metronidazole-resistance rates have been reported in Africa, Asia and South America. Primary quinolone-resistance rates of 10% or more have already been reported in developed countries in Europe and Asia. Primary amoxicillin resistance has been low (0 to geographic region, patient's age and sex, type of disease, birthplace, other infections and other factors. The geographic map and evolution of primary H. pylori resistance are clinically important, should be considered when choosing eradication regimens, and should be monitored constantly at national and global levels in an attempt to reach the recently recommended goal of eradication of more than 95%.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  8. relation between helicobacter pylori, inflammatory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Sept. 2008 Vol 11(3):270-274. RELATION BETWEEN HELICOBACTER PYLORI, INFLAMMATORY. (NEUTROPHIL) ACTIVITY, CHRONIC GASTRITIS, GASTRIC ATROPHY AND. INTESTINAL METAPLASIA. *M. N Tanko, *A. N Manasseh,*G.O Echejoh, *B. M. Mandong , **A. O Malu , **E. N Okeke, **N. Ladep , **E. I. Agaba.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...

  10. Helicobacter pylori and Peptic Ulcers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-17

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. David Swerdlow discusses the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease and trends in hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease in the United States between 1998 and 2005.  Created: 8/17/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/17/2010.

  11. Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection--other Helicobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnick, Jay V; Franceschi, Francesco; Roccarina, D; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated a strong link between Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and iron deficiency anemia. Interesting results have also been obtained for ischemic heart disease, though most putative associations between H. pylori infection and extragastric disease remain speculative. With regard to other Helicobacter species, Helicobacter felis has been shown to play a role in gastric carcinogenesis in mouse models. An increased susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation has been described in animals fed a lithogenic diet and infected with Helicobacter bilis, or co-infected with Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter rodentium. Finally, enterohepatic Helicobacter species have also been exploited to better understand inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Wouter J; Sostres, Carlos; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lanas, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Declining Helicobacter pylori prevalence rates have resulted in a decrease of peptic ulcer bleeding incidence. Moreover, eradication reduces peptic ulcer recurrence rate. Newer studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Guidelines therefore advocate a test-and-treat strategy for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. There is mounting evidence that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment efficacy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some studies observed an improvement of GERD complaints after H. pylori eradication, which underlines that H. pylori treatment is not contra-indicated in GERD patients. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. However, there is growing consensus that H. pylori-positive FD should be assessed as a separate entity. In these patients, eradication can be beneficial and appropriate. Finally, several studies suggest that H. pylori infection may also be associated with beneficial effects for the host. Epidemiologic studies showed an inverse relation between H. pylori infection and asthma and allergy, although data are conflicting and need to be expanded. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Helicobacter pylori: Effect of coexisting diseases and update on treatment regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-11-06

    The presence of concomitant diseases is an independent predictive factor for non-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) peptic ulcers. Patients contracting concomitant diseases have an increased risk of developing ulcer disease through pathogenic mechanisms distinct from those of H. pylori infections. Factors other than H. pylori seem critical in peptic ulcer recurrence in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cirrhotic patients. However, early H. pylori eradication is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent complicated peptic ulcers in patients with ESRD and liver cirrhosis. Resistances to triple therapy are currently detected using culture-based and molecular methods. Culture susceptibility testing before first- or second-line therapy is unadvisable. Using highly effective empiric first-line and rescue regimens can yield acceptable results. Sequential therapy has been included in a recent consensus report as a valid first-line option for eradicating H. pylori in geographic regions with high clarithromycin resistance. Two novel eradication regimens, namely concomitant and hybrid therapy, have proven more effective in patients with dual- (clarithromycin- and metronidazole-) resistant H. pylori strains. We aim to review the prevalence of and eradication therapy for H. pylori infection in patients with ESRD and cirrhosis. Moreover, we summarized the updated H. pylori eradication regimens.

  14. Helicobacter pylori: Effect of coexisting diseases and update on treatment regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The presence of concomitant diseases is an independent predictive factor for non-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) peptic ulcers. Patients contracting concomitant diseases have an increased risk of developing ulcer disease through pathogenic mechanisms distinct from those of H. pylori infections. Factors other than H. pylori seem critical in peptic ulcer recurrence in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cirrhotic patients. However, early H. pylori eradication is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent complicated peptic ulcers in patients with ESRD and liver cirrhosis. Resistances to triple therapy are currently detected using culture-based and molecular methods. Culture susceptibility testing before first- or second-line therapy is unadvisable. Using highly effective empiric first-line and rescue regimens can yield acceptable results. Sequential therapy has been included in a recent consensus report as a valid first-line option for eradicating H. pylori in geographic regions with high clarithromycin resistance. Two novel eradication regimens, namely concomitant and hybrid therapy, have proven more effective in patients with dual- (clarithromycin- and metronidazole-) resistant H. pylori strains. We aim to review the prevalence of and eradication therapy for H. pylori infection in patients with ESRD and cirrhosis. Moreover, we summarized the updated H. pylori eradication regimens. PMID:26558147

  15. Primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains among adults and children in a tertiary referral centre in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dargiene, Gintare; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Jonaitis, Laimas

    2017-01-01

    The study evaluated primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori within the period 2013-2015 and trends of antibiotic consumption over the last decade in Lithuania; 242 adults and 55 children were included in the study. E-tests were performed for amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin......, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. The presence of H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance was additionally tested by PCR. Helicobacter pylori culture was positive in 67 of 242 (28%) adult and in 12 of 55 (21.8%) children samples. Resistance rates among adults by E-tests were as follows: metronidazole...... - 32.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.7-44.7%), ciprofloxacin - 7.5% (95% CI: 3.2-16.3%), rifampicin - 7.5% (95% CI: 3.2-16.3%), amoxicillin - 0%, whereas resistance rates in children were as follows: metronidazole - 25% (95% CI: 8.9-53.2%), rifampicin - 8.3% (CI: 1.5-35.4%), amoxicillin...

  16. Helicobacter pylori and Nonmalignant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  19. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G; de Laat, L; van Oijen, A H; de Boer, W A

    2012-03-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detect halitosis. In this study a possible relation between H. pylori and halitosis was evaluated, using an objective method (gas chromatography, GC) to detect the VSCs, responsible for the halitosis. The levels of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured in mouth breath and in stomach air of 11 H. pylori positive patients and of 38 H. pylori negative patients, all with gastric pathology. Halitosis was also established by organoleptic scoring (OLS) of mouth-breath. The levels of H(2)S, MM and DMS in the mouth-breath and stomach air of the H. pylori positive patients did not differ significantly from those of the H. pylori negative patients. OLS of the mouth-breath resulted in 9 patients with halitosis, 1 out of the H. pylori positive group and 8 out of the H. pylori negative group, which is not statistically different. The concentrations of the VSCs in stomach air were in nearly all cases below the thresholds of objectionability of the various VSCs, indicating that halitosis does not originate in the stomach. The patients with gastric pathology were also compared with control patients without gastric pathology and with normal volunteers. No significant differences in VSCs in mouth breath were observed between these groups. Thus, in this study no association between halitosis and H. pylori infection was found. Halitosis, as established by GC and OLS, nearly always originates within the oral cavity and seldom or never within the stomach.

  20. Effect of pretreatment with Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Ryuzo; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Rimbara, Emiko; Noguchi, Norihisa; Sasatsu, Masanori; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Matsushima, Masashi; Koike, Jun; Igarashi, Muneki; Ozawa, Hideki; Fukuda, Ryuki; Takagi, Atsushi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication clearly decreases peptic ulcer recurrence rates. H. pylori eradication is achieved in 70-90% of cases, but treatment failures due to poor patient compliance and resistant organisms do occur. Lactobacillus gasseri can suppress both clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant strains of H. pylori in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with L. gasseri- containing yogurt on H. pylori eradication. We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial in patients with H. pylori infection. A total of 229 patients were randomized into either a 1-week triple therapy of rabeprazole (10 mg bid), amoxicillin (750 mg bid), and clarithromycin (200 mg bid) or triple therapy plus L. gasseri-containing yogurt. In the yogurt-plus-triple therapy groups, yogurt containing L. gasseri OLL2716 (112 g) was given twice daily for 4 weeks (3 weeks pretreatment and also 1 week during eradication therapy). Clarithromycin resistance was determined by the detection of a mutation in 23S rRNA using nested polymerase chain reaction and the direct sequencing of DNA from pretreatment feces. H. pylori eradication was diagnosed based on the urea breath test and a stool antigen test after 8 weeks of eradication. The status of H. pylori susceptibility to clarithromycin was successively determined in 188 out of 229 samples. The rate of infection with clarithromycin-resistant strains of H. pylori was 27.1%. Overall eradication (intention to treat/per protocol) was 69.3/74.5% for the triple-only group, and 82.6/85.6% for the yogurt-plus-triple group (P = 0.018/P = 0.041). Eradication of primary clarithromycin-resistant strains tended to be higher for yogurt-plus-triple therapy than triple-only therapy (38.5 vs 28.0%, respectively, P = 0.458). This study confirmed that the major cause of treatment failure is resistance to clarithromycin. A 4-week treatment with L. gasseri-containing yogurt improves the efficacy of triple therapy in patients

  1. Sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Calvet, Xavier; O'Connor, Anthony; Mégraud, Francis; O'Morain, Colm A

    2010-01-01

    Alternative treatment regimens for standard triple therapy are urgently needed. To critically review the evidence on the role of "sequential" regimen for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Bibliographical searches were performed in MEDLINE and international congresses. Several pooled-data analyses and meta-analyses have demonstrated that sequential regimen is more effective than standard triple therapy. Sequential therapy is not affected by bacterial (CagA status, infection density) and host factors (underlying disease, smoking). Clarithromycin resistance seems to be the only factor reducing their efficacy. However, even in these patients, an acceptable >75% eradication rate can be achieved. Unfortunately, almost all the studies have been performed in Italy. Whether it is necessary to provide the drugs sequentially or if the 4 components of sequential therapy can be given concurrently is unclear. Nonbismuth quadruple therapy seems to be an effective and safe alternative to triple therapy and is less complex than sequential therapy. Sequential therapy is a novel promising treatment approach that deserves consideration as a treatment strategy for H. pylori infection. However, further robust assessment across a much broader range of patients is required before sequential therapy could supplant existing treatment regimens and be generally recommended in clinical practice.

  2. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardi, Enzo; Goni, Elisabetta; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Di Mario, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding and recurrence rate are strongly linked to Helicobacter pylori infection even if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a relevant role in this setting. Further studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Therefore, a test-and-treat strategy appears to be mandatory for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. Concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), evidence clearly shows that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment. Therefore, H. pylori treatment is not contraindicated in patients with GERD. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. Novel possible mechanisms by which H. pylori may elicit dyspeptic symptoms include alterations of gastric motility, as well as endocrine and acid-secretory abnormalities. Hunger sensations, acid secretion, and gastrointestinal motility are regulated by ghrelin, particularly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment. The improvement of symptoms correlates with enhanced plasma ghrelin levels. Apart from the need for more trials on this topic, these findings may give insight into the underlying pathophysiology of FD symptoms. Recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in the oral cavity may be relevant to its transmission. A potential protective role of H. pylori on inflammatory bowel diseases needs to be better elucidated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B Dogra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:peptic ulcers were earlier believed to be caused by dietary factors, gastric acid, and stress. However, in 1983, Warren and Marshall identified the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and peptic ulcers. It is now well established that most of the peptic ulcers occur as a result of H. pylori infection. But the co-relation between perforated peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection is not yet fully established. Aims and objectives : to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with perforated peptic ulcer. Materials and methods: this was a prospective study carried out in all cases of perforated peptic ulcer reporting in surgical wards of a medical college during 2008-2010. A total of 50 cases, presenting as acute perforation of duodenum and stomach during this period, formed the study group. After resuscitation, all the cases were subjected to emergency exploratory laparotomy. The exact site of perforation was identified, biopsy was taken from the ulcer margin from 2-3 sites and the tissue was sent for H. pylori culture and histopathological examination. Simple closure of perforation, omentoplasty, thorough peritoneal lavage and drainage was carried out. Results: out of the 50 cases of perforated peptic ulcer, 38 happened to be males, and only 12 were females. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 70 years. All the patients underwent only emergency laparotomy. As many as 46 cases (92% turned out to be positive for H. pylori and only four cases (8% were negative for this infection. Postoperatively, patients who were found to be positive for H. pylori were put on anti-H. pylori treatment. Conclusion: there was a high prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with perforated gastroduodenal ulcers.

  4. Optimal First-Line Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection: Recent Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new treatment strategy is needed, as the efficacy of triple therapy containing clarithromycin—the current standard treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection—is declining. Increasing antibiotic resistance of H. pylori is the most significant factor contributing to eradication failure. Thus, selecting the most appropriate regimen depending on resistance is optimal, but identifying resistance to specific antibiotics is clinically challenging. In a region suspected to have high clarithromycin resistance, bismuth quadruple therapy and so-called nonbismuth quadruple therapies (sequential, concomitant, and sequential-concomitant hybrid are some first-line regimen options. However, more research is needed regarding appropriate second-line treatments after first-line treatment failure. Tailored therapy, which is based on antibiotic sensitivity testing, would be optimal but has several limitations for clinical use, and an alternative technique is required. A novel potassium-competitive acid blocker-based eradication regimen could be a valuable eradication option in the near future.

  5. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elios, Mario M; Andersen, Leif P

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects almost half of the population worldwide and represents the major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, such as duodenal and gastric ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune gastritis, and B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Helicobacter pylori induces...

  6. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-08-12

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With half of the world's population being infected with H, pylori and only few antibiotics result in an effective eradication, a successful antibiotic driven worldwide eradication program seems unlikely. In addition, H. pylori eradication is not always beneficial as it has been described that eradication can be associated with an increased frequency of other disorders such as pediatric asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases and Barrett's Esophagus. We have to accept that eradication of this infection is a two-edged sword that is both useful and harmful and we should therefore focus our H. pylori eradication policy toward selectively identify and destroy only the virulent strains. In order to still be able to effectively treat H. pylori infections in the future we need an alternative diagnostic/treatment algorithm. This would involve a shift towards more precise and enhanced disease predicting diagnosis that tries to identify patients with chance of developing severe diseases such as gastric cancer, rather than the current regime that is geared towards find and destroy all H. pylori.

  7. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cag PAI, CagA, VacA and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819

  8. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Silveira VIANNA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Helicobacter pylori has a worldwide distribution and is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases of the digestive system. Treatment to eradicate this microorganism involves the use of a combination of antimicrobials, such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, combined with proton pump inhibitors. Although the current therapy is effective, a high rate of treatment failure has been observed, mainly because of the acquisition of point mutations, one of the major resistance mechanisms developed by H. pylori. This phenomenon is related to frequent and/or inappropriate use of antibiotics. Conclusion This review reported an overview of the resistance to the main drugs used in the treatment of H. pylori, confirming the hypothesis that antibacterial resistance is a highly local phenomenon and genetic characteristics of a given population can influence which therapy is the most appropriate.

  9. Diet and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołubiuk, Łukasz; Imiela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Our diet contains many substances with potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Dietary interventions enable a decrease in H. pylori colonisation and result in a decrease in gastritis prevalence, thus potentially lowering the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development.

  10. Enterohepatic Helicobacter other than Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mateos Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Helicobacter genus includes Gram negative bacteria which were originally considered to belong to the Campylobacter genus. They have been classified in a separate genus since 1989 because they have different biochemical characteristics, with more than 24 species having been identified and more still being studied. H. pylori is the best known. It has an important etiopathogenic role in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Enterohepatic Helicobacter s (EHH other than H. pylori colonize the bowel, biliary tree and liver of animals and human beings with pathogenic potential. The difficulties existing to correctly isolate these microorganisms limit the description of their true prevalence and of the diseases they cause. Many studies have tried to discover the different clinical implications of EHH. Diseases like chronic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hepatocarcinoma, autoimmune hepatobiliary disease, biliary lithiasis, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, Meckel's diverticulum, acute appendicitis and inflammatory bowel disease have been related with different EHH species with different results, although their prevalence is greater than in healthy subjects. However, these data are currently not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Finally, the best known role of EHH in bowel disease is production of acute and chronic diarrhea pictures initially referred to as Campylobacter. H. pullorum has been identified in patients with acute gastroenteritis. The correct identification of EHH as producers of infectious gastroenteritis is found in its antibiotic susceptibility. It is generally macrolide-susceptible and quinolone-resistant.

  11. Helicobacter Pylori : Serological Testing and Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Children With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefichaijan; Mosayebi; Sharafkhah; Kahbazi; Heydarbagi; Rafiei

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization and the occurrence of asthma or other allergies. However, data are inconsistent, and few studies have been performed in children. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate H. pylori seropositivity in children with and without asthma. Patients and Methods This cross-sect...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Helicobacter pylori: Prevalence and antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing evidence links infection of the gastric mucosa by. Helicobacter pylori with the subsequent development of gastric pathologies. The incidence of H. pylori infection in Kenya is staggeringly high. An investigation into the prevalence of H. pylori in patients with dyspepsia and asymptomatic controls from the same ...

  14. Functional and molecular surveillance of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Kuala Lumpur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Teh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent for diseases ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease to gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. Emergence of resistance to antibiotics possesses a challenge to the effort to eradicate H. pylori using conventional antibiotic-based therapies. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the resistance of these strains have yet to be identified and are important for understanding the evolutional pattern and selective pressure imposed by the environment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: H. pylori was isolated from 102 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal diseases, who underwent endoscopy at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility on eleven antibiotics using Etest. Based on susceptibility test, 32.3% of the isolates were found to have primary metronidazole resistance; followed by clarithromycin (6.8% and fluoroquinolones (6.8%. To further investigate the resistant strains, mutational patterns of gene rdxA, frxA, gyrA, gyrB, and 23S rRNA were studied. Consistent with the previous reports, metronidazole resistance was prevalent in the local population. However, clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone and multi-drug resistance were shown to be emerging. Molecular patterns correlated well with phenotypic data. Interestingly, multi-drug resistant (MDR strains were found to be associated with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC than their single-drug resistant (SDR counterparts. Most importantly, clarithromycin-resistant strains were suggested to have a higher incidence for developing multi-drug resistance. CONCLUSION: Data from this study highlighted the urgency to monitor closely the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the Malaysian population; especially that of clarithromycin and multi-drug resistance. Further study is needed to understand the molecular association between clarithromycin resistance and multi

  15. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Helicobacter pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates have fallen considerably in recent years. Antibiotic resistance is thought to be rising. OBJECTIVES: To examine the levels of resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) and clarithromycin (CLA) in H. pylori, isolates were taken in a reference centre in Ireland from 2007 to 2008 and were compared to a similar cohort from a study in 1997. METHOD: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by E-test. Frequencies of spontaneous metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance were measured on an agar plate containing the antibiotics at concentrations of 2x and 4x minimum inhibition concentration values. Clinical data were obtained from charts, laboratory and endoscopy reports. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-two patients were analyzed, 98 were females. Colonies amenable to culture were grown in 219 patients. Thirty-seven had prior attempts at eradication therapy (all with amoxicillin-CLA-proton pump inhibitor. A total of 31.5% of the patients had strains resistant to MTZ and 13.2% of the patients were noted to have strains resistant to CLA. About 8.6% of the patients had strains resistant to both the agents. CLA resistance was 9.3% in those who had no prior eradication therapy compared with 32.4% of those who had. CLA resistance increased from 3.9%, among treatment-naive patients in 1997, to 9.3% in our study. MTZ resistance was 29.1% in the treatment-naive population. In 1997, MTZ resistance in the treatment-naive cohort was 27.1%. MTZ resistance was more likely to occur in females (35.4 vs. 28.5%) than in males. CONCLUSION: This study shows that resistance to CLA among Irish patients infected with H. pylori has increased since 1997. The future of treatment may well lie in the widespread use of sensitivity testing before the treatment. This would promote an accurate treatment.

  17. Pseudomembranous colitis associated with a triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, Anca; Girleanu, Irina; Cojocariu, Camelia; Sfarti, Catalin; Singeap, Ana Maria; Dorobat, Carmen; Grigore, Lucia; Stanciu, Carol

    2013-11-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections in humans, affecting half of world's population. Therapy for H. pylori infection has proven to be both effective and safe. The one-week triple therapy including proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or metronidazole is still recommended as a first-line treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection in countries with low clarithromycin resistance. Generally, this therapy is well-tolerated, with only a few and usually minor side effects. However, rare but severe adverse effects such as pseudomembranous colitis have been reported, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection being the main causative factor in all cases. We report the cases of two women who developed pseudomembranous colitis after a 1-wk triple therapy consisting of pantoprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid, and amoxicillin 1 g bid to eradicate H. pylori infection. A limited colonoscopy showed typical appearance of pseudomembranous colitis, and the stool test for C. difficile toxins was positive. Rapid resolution of symptoms and negative C. difficile toxins were obtained in both patients with oral vancomycin. No relapse occurred during a four and eleven-month, respectively, follow up. These cases suggest that physicians should have a high index of suspicion for pseudomembranous colitis when evaluate patients with diarrhea following H. pylori eradication therapy.

  18. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermato...

  19. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Scott, David R

    2016-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects about 50 % of the world's population, causing at a minimum chronic gastritis. A subset of infected patients will ultimately develop gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, or MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori requires complex regimens that include acid suppression and multiple antibiotics. The efficacy of treatment using what were once considered standard regimens have declined in recent years, mainly due to widespread development of antibiotic resistance. Addition of bismuth to standard triple therapy regimens, use of alternate antibiotics, or development of alternative regimens using known therapies in novel combinations have improved treatment efficacy in specific populations, but overall success of eradication remains less than ideal. Novel regimens under investigation either in vivo or in vitro, involving increased acid suppression ideally with fewer antibiotics or development of non-antibiotic treatment targets, show promise for future therapy.

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ‑9 years and in the 10‑19 years age group respectively.[6] There are many other etiological. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among. Patients Undergoing Upper Gastrointestinal. Endoscopy in a Medical College Hospital in Kerala,.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection and skin disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Zara, Tuba; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçin; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    ..., Behçet's disease, alopecia areata, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. However, more systematic studies are required to clarify the proposed association between Helicobacter pylori and skin diseases...

  2. Nitrofurantoin quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: effect of metronidazole resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D Y; Saeed, M A; Hoffman, J; El-Zimaity, H M; Kwon, D H; Osato, M S

    2001-04-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increasingly been recognized as the major cause of treatment failure for Helicobacter pylori infection. New therapies for patients with metronidazole- or clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori are needed. To investigate the role of nitrofurantoin quadruple therapy for the treatment of H. pylori. Patients with confirmed H. pylori infection received nitrofurantoin (100 mg t.d.s.), omeprazole (20 mg b.d.), Pepto-Bismol (two tablets t.d.s.), and tetracycline (500 mg t.d.s.) for 14 days. Four or more weeks after the end of therapy, outcome was assessed by repeat endoscopy with histology and culture or urea breath testing. Thirty patients were entered, including 25 men and five women; the mean age was 54.9 years. The most common diagnoses were duodenal ulcer (23%) and GERD (18%). The intention-to-treat cure rate was 70% (95% CI: 50.6-85%). Nitrofurantoin quadruple therapy was more effective with metronidazole-sensitive strains (88%; 15 out of 17) than with metronidazole-resistant strains (33%; three out of nine; P=0.008). Two of the treatment failures had pre-treatment isolates susceptible to metronidazole, which were resistant after therapy. Because nitrofurantoin quadruple therapy performed inadequately in the presence of metronidazole resistance, we conclude that nitrofurantoin is unlikely to find clinical utility for the eradication of H. pylori.

  3. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  4. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...

  5. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study assessed the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies among Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It also examines whether anti H. pylori seroprevalence was associated with the severity of the HIV infection or the antiretroviral treatment. Material and Methods: ...

  6. HELICOBACTER PYLORI SEROLOGY AND EVALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been strongly associated with various gastroduodenal diseases worldwide with only a few studies emanating from developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and underlying gastroduodenal pathology in Nigerian ...

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Adlekha, T Chadha, P Krishnan, B Sumangala. Abstract. Background: Helicobacter pylori related gastritis is a major health ailment in developing nations. There is ... Aim: To study the prevalence of H. pylori gastritis in patients undergoing endoscopy and its association with the development of gastrointestinal diseases.

  8. Magnitude of Helicobacter pylori among Dyspeptic patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is predominantly acquired in childhood from family members. The infection can cause dypepepsia, chronic and acute gastritis and gastric cancer. Dyspepsia is the most common illness in the Ethiopian population visiting outpatient department of health facilities, and it has ...

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori related gastritis is a major health ailment in developing nations. There is high morbidity and mortality ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric malignancies. Prevalence of H. pylori infection varies markedly from country to country and in a country, region to region. Aim: To study the prevalence ...

  10. Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection involves interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori is the most ubiquitous bacterial infection worldwide infecting at least 50% of the world's population. Scientific evidence abound on the age long cohabitation of H. pylori and humans. However, following infection, development of disease depends upon three main factors namely: the virulence of the ...

  11. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in gastric carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Sicheng; Moss, Steven F.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor in the development of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma; host genetic variability and dietary co-factors also modulate risk. Because most H. pylori infections do not cause cancer, H. pylori heterogeneity has been investigated to identify possible virulence factors. The strongest candidates are genes within the cag (cytotoxin associated antigen) pathogenicity island, including the gene encoding the CagA protein, as well as polymor...

  12. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    This article aims to examine current best practice in the field reference to first-line, second-line, rescue and emerging treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication. The recommended first-line treatment in published guidelines in Europe and North American is proton pump inhibitor combined with amoxicillin and clarithromycin being the favoured regimen. Rates of eradication with this regimen however are falling alarmingly due to a combination of antibiotic resistance and poor compliance with therapy. Bismuth based quadruple therapies and levofloxacin based regimes have been shown to be effective second line regimens. Third-line options include regimes based on rifabutin or furazolidone, but susceptibility testing is the most rational option here, but is currently not used widely enough. Sequential therapy is promising but needs further study and validation outside of Italy. Although the success of first line treatments is falling, if compliance is good and a clear treatment paradigm adhered to, almost universal eradication rates can still be achieved. If compliance is not achievable, the problem of antibiotic resistance will continue to beset any combination of drugs used for H. pylori eradication.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebule, I A; Longdoh, A N; Paloheimo, I L

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori-infection associated gastritis is known to be a significant risk factor of gastric cancer. Serum levels of Gastrin-17 and Pepsinogen1which are respectively biomarkers of gastric antral and corpus mucosal activity are well known parameters of atrophic gastritis. To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and atrophic gastritis amongst dyspeptic patients and to compare the production of PGI and G-17 in the various atrophic stages. A total of 139 dyspeptic patients aged 46.68±15.50 years [females 106 aged47.23±15.51years, males 33 aged 44.48±14.62] were included during the one year period, March 2008-april 2009 at the district hospital Tombel. The degree of atrophy was determined by the levels of serum pepsinogen1, and gastrin-17 and the presence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies detected by an enzyme immunoassay. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was 79.82% and that for atrophic gastritis was 6.6%. A decrease in mean serum levels of gastin-17 along with increasing antral atrophy was observed; the mean serum levels of pepsinogen1 were reduced during progression of corpus atrophy. A weak reverse correlation(r =-0.036) was found between Gastrin-17 and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

  14. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  15. Molecular Detection of Helicobacter pylori and its Antimicrobial Resistance in Brazzaville, Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontsira Ngoyi, Esther Nina; Atipo Ibara, Blaise Irénée; Moyen, Rachelle; Ahoui Apendi, Philestine Clausina; Ibara, Jean Rosaire; Obengui, O; Ossibi Ibara, Roland Bienvenu; Nguimbi, Etienne; Niama, Rock Fabien; Ouamba, Jean Maurille; Yala, Fidèle; Abena, Ange Antoine; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean Lee; Menard, Armelle; Benejat, Lucie; Sifre, Elodie; Lehours, Philippe; Megraud, Francis

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is involved in several gastroduodenal diseases which can be cured by antimicrobial treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its bacterial resistance to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline in Brazzaville, Congo, by using molecular methods. A cross- sectional study was carried out between September 2013 and April 2014. Biopsy specimens were obtained from patients scheduled for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and were sent to the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters where they were tested by molecular methods for detection of H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by real-time PCR using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-melting curve analysis (FRET-MCA) protocol, for detection of tetracycline resistance by real-time PCR on 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB), for detection of point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of H. pylori gyrA gene, associated with resistance to quinolones, by PCR and sequencing. This study showed a high H. pylori prevalence (89%), low rates of clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance (1.7% and 2.5%, respectively), and a high rate of quinolone resistance (50%). Therefore, the use of standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy is still possible as an empiric first-line treatment as well as prescription of bismuth-based quadruple therapy, which includes tetracycline, but not a levofloxacin-based triple therapy because of the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clarithromycin-Based Triple Therapy is Still Useful as an Initial Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Cruz, Modesto; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Jiménez Abreu, José A; Hosking, Celso; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Akada, Junko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-05-01

    AbstractHelicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Dominican Republic has not been monitored. We assessed H. pylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Dominican Republic, and analyzed H. pylori mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. We recruited 158 dyspeptic patients in Santo Domingo and used agar dilution to test susceptibility to five antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing was used to assess gyrA, gyrB, rdxA, frxA, and 23S rRNA mutations; next-generation sequencing was used to identify other metronidazole resistance-associated genes. Among 64 H. pylori strains isolated, we identified two (3.1%), one (1.6%), and no strains with clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline resistance, respectively. Moreover, high frequency of metronidazole resistance (53/64, 82.8%) was observed, whereas levofloxacin resistance is emerging (23/64, 35.9%). We identified many rdxA and frxA mutations in metronidazole-resistant strains, but no synergistic effect was apparent. We revealed novel mutations in dppA, dppB, fdxA, and fdxB, irrespective of rdxA and frxA mutations. Novel mutations at Ser-14 of trx1 and Arg-221 of dapF were associated with different levels of metronidazole resistance. Most levofloxacin-resistant strains had a substitution at Asn-87 of gyrA, including the strain with the highest levofloxacin resistance, whereas only three substitutions were found at Ser-479 of gyrB with no synergistic effect. Besides the 23S rRNA A2142G mutation, we observed another mutation at T1958G in both clarithromycin-resistant strains. We confirmed high metronidazole and levofloxacin resistance associated with genetic mutations in the Dominican Republic. However, prevalence of clarithromycin resistance was low, suggesting that standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy remains useful as initial treatment of H. pylori infection.

  17. Rosacea is associated with Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Egeberg, A; Gideonsson, R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common skin disease characterized by facial erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Helicobacter pylori infection has been suggested to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of rosacea. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyse the relationship between...... rosacea and infection with Helicobacter pylori. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Data extraction and analyses were performed on descriptive data. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects models with Der...... in the quantitative meta-analysis, comprising a total of 928 rosacea patients and 1527 controls. The overall association between Helicobacter pylori infection and rosacea was non-significant (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.00-2.84, P = 0.052), but analysis restricted to C-urea breath test showed a significant association (OR 3...

  18. Role of probiotics in Helicobacter pylori infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cazzato, Immacolata Alessia; Candelli, Marcello; Nista, Enrico Celestino; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main causal agent of several gastrointestinal disturbances (e.g. chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer). Treatments based on a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors are currently used to eradicate the gastric infection. Despite the high eradication rate reached by standard therapies (_/80%), because of the high incidence of H. pylori-related diseases worldwide new options to improve the eradication rate are needed. Probiotics are defined as...

  19. Effectiveness of Citrus Fruits on Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Due to the increased side effects of the treatment regimens and the development of antimicrobial resistance, a number of natural compounds have been tested as potential alternatives. In this review, we will examine the current knowledge on the effect of Citrus fruits and their derivatives against H. pylori, highlighting the remaining outstanding questions on the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  20. Acid-Adaptive Genes of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yi; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Matrubutham, Uday; Gleeson, Martin A.; Scott, David R.; Sachs, George

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the only neutralophile that has been able to colonize the human stomach by using a variety of acid-adaptive mechanisms. One of the adaptive mechanisms is increased buffering due to expression of an acid-activated inner membrane urea channel, UreI, and a neutral pH-optimum intrabacterial urease. To delineate other possible adaptive mechanisms, changes in gene expression in response to acid exposure were examined using genomic microarrays of H. pylori exposed to different...

  1. Helicobacter Pylori associated global gastric cancer burden

    OpenAIRE

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Hisada, Michie; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is ubiquitous, infecting close to one-half of the world's population, but its prevalence is declining in developed countries. Chronic H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to gastric adenocarcinoma, especially non-cardia type (63% of all stomach cancer or ∼5.5% of the global cancer burden: ∼25% of cancers associated with infectious etiology), and to gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which accounts for up to 8% of all non-Hodgkin ly...

  2. Bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin as first-line Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Shudong; Graham, David Y; Lu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of replacing tetracycline with amoxicillin in bismuth quadruple therapy. Subjects who were infected with Helicobacter pylori and naïve to treatment were randomly (1:1) assigned to receive a 14-day modified bismuth quadruple therapy: lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg (elemental bismuth), twice a day with metronidazole 400 mg four times a day (metronidazole group) or clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day (clarithromycin group). Six weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the twofold agar dilution method. This was a non-inferiority trial. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were randomised. Metronidazole and clarithromycin containing regimens achieved high cure rates: 94 of 97 (96.9%, 95% CI 93.5% to 100%) and 93 of 98 (94.9%, 95% CI 90.5% to 99.3%) by per-protocol and 88.9% (95% CI 83.0% to 94.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI 82.8% to 94.8%) by intention-to-treat, respectively. Amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 1.5%, 45.5% and 26.5%, respectively. Only clarithromycin resistance reduced treatment success (e.g., susceptible 98.6%, resistant 76.9%, p=0.001). Adverse events were more common in the metronidazole group. These results suggest that amoxicillin can substitute for tetracycline in modified 14 day bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatment and still overcome metronidazole resistance in areas with high prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance. Using clarithromycin instead of metronidazole was only effective in the presence of susceptible strains. NCT02175901. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Investigation of association of Helicobacter pylori and simple nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate a possible contribution of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) in the etiopathogenesis of simple nasal polyps. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial. Methods: Twenty five patients with simple nasal polyps underwent nasal polypectomy were studied. Helicobacter pylori DNA was investigated for ...

  4. No Helicobacter pylori, no Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    Virtually all duodenal ulcers (DUs) and the vast majority of gastric ulcers (GUs) are the consequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated inflammation. In DUs, the inflammation is maximal in the antrum and is associated with gastric metaplasia in the bulb. Gastrin homeostasis is disturbed by H. pylori

  5. Helicobacter spp. other than H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2012-09-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last 12 months in the understanding of the biology of non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Several studies have investigated the association between NHPH and human disease, including Crohn's disease, lithiasis, liver disease, coronary disease, gastritis, and pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers. Novel Helicobacter taxa were identified in new vertebrate hosts, and new methodologies in the fields of identification of Helicobacter spp. and evaluation of antibiotic resistance were described. The genome of the first human-derived gastric NHPH strain (Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1) was sequenced, and several studies elucidated functions of different genes in NHPH. A number of important investigations regarding pathogenesis and immunopathobiology of NHPH infections have been published including the description of a new urease in Helicobacter mustelae. Finally, the effects of the gut microbiota and probiotics on NHPH infections were investigated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer.

  7. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori, which has been designated by the WHO as type I carcinogen, has a global prevalence of over 50%. The aim of this study was to determine the association between this bacterium and upper gastrointestinal problems in an endoscopy unit in Ouagadougou, using a molecular diagnostic method.

  8. Relation Between Helicobacter Pylori, Inflammatory (neutrophil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the relation of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic inflammation, atrophy, activity level and intestinal metaplasia. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive patients with dyspepsia. These patients were fasted for 12 hours and gastroscopic biopsy specimens were ...

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Discussion. Helicobacter pylori-infection -infection causes acute gastritis in most infected individuals. In a certain number of patients with persistent infection, chronic active gastritis develops, leading finally to glandular atrophy, a risk factor for gastric adenoma and cancer7 . Correa 19928 postulated the paradigm of gastric.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal

  11. Is Helicobacter pylori always a "bad guy"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsak, Iva; Kolacek, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Various clinical presentations have been ascribed to Helicobacter (H.) pylori. Most importantly, H. pylori is considered the leading cause of gastric cancer worldwide and because of that, in adult population, it is listed as a number one carcinogen. However, children are less prone to develop H. pylori related serious diseases such as peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and cases of malignancy are only sporadically reported. On the other hand, there is an increasing level of evidence suggesting that H. pylori in children could also have a beneficial effect. Recently, several data confirmed previously described inverse relationship of H. pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that an increased prevalence of allergic diseases could be, at least partially, explained by the decreased incidence of H. pylori infection. H. pylori can, to some degree, influence immunological response. It has an ability to promote high proinflammatory cytokine expression in the gastric mucosa shifting immunity towards Th1 response, which could be a plausible explanation for the down-regulated clinical expression of allergies (including asthma) in patients with H. pylori gastritis. Based on these findings the aim of this review is to present "pros and cons" for H. pylori eradication in children.

  12. Investigation of Helicobacter pylori in Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Moridi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP is a motile, gram negative, catalase and oxidase positive bacteria that produce strong urease. H. pylori has been recognized as an etiologic agent of gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric MALT lamphoma. H. pylori infections have been correlated with many throat and larynx disease. More recently it is introduced as group 1 carcinogen. The existence of H. pylori within bouccal cavity and dental plaque has been reported. The nasal cavity can be colonized easily with H. pylori. Objectives: The aim of this Study is to report the result of an investigation of H. pylori genome within the larynx popilomatosis biopsy samples. Materials and Methods: 41 biopsy samples were provided from papillomatosis cases during therapeutic surgery. The biopsy samples were preserved at -80°C until use. The DNA extractions were achieved by the phenole- chloroform method. The cagA of H. pylori were amplified by specific primer sets. Results: H. pylori DNA were detected from 3 out of 41 (0.7% papilloma samples. Conclusions: This result is in agree with another reports about correlation between laryngeal papilomatosis and H. pylori infections

  13. Comparison of efficacy and safety of levofloxacin-containing versus standard sequential therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Hong, Sung Noh; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae J

    2015-02-01

    Declining of eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori in Korea may be partly from the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, especially clarithromycin resistance. To compare the efficacy and the safety of using 10-day standard sequential therapy and levofloxacin-containing sequential therapy as a first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication in Korea. A total of 200 patients with proven Helicobacter pylori infection randomly received 10-day standard sequential therapy (n = 100) or levofloxacin-containing sequential therapy (n = 100). The standard sequential therapy group received rabeprazole and amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole for 5 more days. The levofloxacin-containing sequential therapy group was treated with rabeprazole and amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by rabeprazole, levofloxacin, and metronidazole for 5 more days. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were 79.0% and 78.0% for groups of standard sequential and levofloxacin-containing sequential therapy, respectively (P = 0.863). Per-protocol eradication rates were 84.9% and 81.3%, respectively, for these two therapies (P = 0.498). There were no significant differences between the groups in regard to the eradication rates and adverse events. The 10-day levofloxacin-containing sequential regimen and the standard sequential regimen showed the similar eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori in Korea. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent "omics" advances in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthenet, Elvire; Sheppard, Sam; Vale, Filipa F

    2016-09-01

    The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori "omics" and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April 2015 and March 2016. Helicobacter "omics" is already making an impact and is a growing research field. Ultimately these advances will be translated into a routine clinical laboratory setting in order to improve public health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Novel Insights into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Schumann, E. M. Schneider, and K. Triantafilou. 2005. Lipopolysaccharides from Helicobacter pylori can act as antagonists for Toll -like receptor 4. Cell...lymphocyte receptor for the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin. Cell Host Microbe 3:20-9. 142. Sharma, C. M., S. Hoffmann, F. Darfeuille, J...into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori Name of Candidate: Jeremy Gilbreath Doctor of Philosophy Degree January 10, 2013 DISSERTATION AND

  16. Molecular mimicry in Helicobacter pylori infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Gonciarz, Weronika

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize gastric mucosa in humans and increase the risk of serious diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancers and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of several extragastric diseases has been suggested including immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and dermatological disorders. Also neurological diseases and even lung cancer have attracted researchers concern. The relation between H. pylori infection and a growth retardation in children has also been suggested. Many mechanisms of molecular mimicry between H. pylori and the host have been proposed as a pathogen strategy to manipulate the immune system of the host in order to remain unrecognized and avoid eradication. A lot of effort has been put into the demonstration of homologous sequences between H. pylori and host compounds. However, knowledge about how often autoantibodies or autoreactive T lymphocytes induced during H. pylori infections cause pathological disorders is insufficient. This review provides data on H. pylori antigenic mimicry and possible deleterious effects due to the induction of immune response to the components common to these bacteria and the host. PMID:28652651

  17. Helicobacter pylori: From Infection to Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 380 abstracts, presentations and posters of recent advances were highlighted at the European and International Helicobacter pylori meeting held July 7 to 9, 1995 in Edinburgh, Scotland. New advances abound, with major interest focusing on the simple, safe, inexpensive new `gold standard’ for H pylori eradication therapy: a single week of tid omeprazole 20 mg, metronidazole 400 mg and clarithromycin 250 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg. To avoid false negative results, two biopsies must be taken from the antrum and two from the gastric body at least four weeks after completion of eradication therapy, and ideally should be supplemented with at least one further H pylori test such as a biopsy for urease activity or culture, or a urea breath test. While most patients with a gastric or duodenal ulcer (DU who do not consume nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are infected with H pylori, the association is much less apparent in those with a DU who present with an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. H pylori eradication for nonulcer dyspepsia is not widely recommended, and the patient with a DU given effective H pylori eradication who presents with dyspepsia likely has erosive esophagitis rather than recurrent DU or H pylori. Gastroenterologists are at increased risk of H pylori infection, particularly older gastroenterologists who are very busy endoscopists.

  18. Living Conditions and Helicobacter pylori in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is transmissible and is considered a public health issue which affects people of all ages. The objective of this study was to identify factors (lifestyles, dietary factors, and hygiene conditions related to the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We carried out an observational cross-sectional study with a community sample of adults from the municipalities of Viseu and Sátão, Portugal. The final sample resulted in 166 adults. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding sociodemographic aspects and lifestyles. H. pylori infection was identified using the 13C-urea breath test. Results. No association was found between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or coffee or dietary factors. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in adults who reported higher consumption of fried food and lower consumption of vegetables and fruit. H. pylori infection was significant for the variables of lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom (p=0.02 and well water consumption (p=0.05. Conclusion. A significant association was found for H. pylori infection with the lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom and the consumption of well water.

  19. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial. The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H. pylori infection. About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H. pylori infection. Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H. pylori infection are under way. Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H. pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer; however, a population-based H. pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora. Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  20. Helicobacter pylori Genotypes May Determine Gastric Histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Cristina; Figueiredo, Céu; Carneiro, Fátima; Taveira Gomes, António; Barreira, Raul; Figueira, Paulo; Salgado, Céu; Belo, Luis; Peixoto, António; Bravo, Juan C.; Bravo, Luis E.; Realpe, Jose L.; Plaisier, Anton P.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Ruiz, Bernardo; Correa, Pelayo; van Doorn, Leen-Jan

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The present study aimed to investigate the gastric histopathology in Portuguese and Colombian patients infected with H. pylori and to assess its relationship with bacterial virulence-associated vacA, cagA, and iceA genotypes. A total of 370 patients from Portugal (n = 192) and Colombia (n = 178) were studied. Corpus and antrum biopsy specimens were collected from each individual. Histopathological features were recorded and graded according to the updated Sydney system. H. pylori vacA, cagA, and iceA genes were directly genotyped in the gastric biopsy specimens by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. Despite the significant differences between the Portuguese and Colombian patient groups, highly similar results were observed with respect to the relation between H. pylori genotypes and histopathology. H. pylori vacA s1, vacA m1, cagA+ genotypes were significantly associated with a higher H. pylori density, higher degrees of lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltrates, atrophy, the type of intestinal metaplasia, and presence of epithelial damage. The iceA1 genotype was only associated with epithelial damage in Portuguese patients. These findings show that distinct H. pylori genotypes are strongly associated with histopathological findings in the stomach, confirming their relevance for the development of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology. PMID:11159201

  1. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hashemi, Seyyed Hamid; Nadi, Ebrahim; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Seif-Rabiei, Mohammad-Ali; Roustaei, Uldoz

    2011-01-01

    There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases...

  2. Nobeli auhinna tõi Helicobacter pylori / Juhan Kaldre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldre, Juhan

    2005-01-01

    Nobeli meditsiiniauhind määrati sel aastal Austraalia teadlastele Robin Warrenile ja Barry Marshallile, kes avastasid, et gastriit ning peptiline haavand tekib Helicobacter pylori infektsiooni tulemusena

  3. (Nutmeg) on Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis in albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activities of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. seed (nutmeg) was studied to authenticate traditional use in gastrointestinal disorder. Anti-H. pylori activities using the agar dilution method was investigated in 39 strains of H. pylori comprising 38 clinical ...

  4. High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Resistance to Clarithromycin: a Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancy, infection being a serious health problem in Thailand. Recently, clarithromycin resistant H. pylori strains represent the main cause of treatment failure. Therefore this study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin in Suranaree University of Technology Hospital, Suranree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Northeastern Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast of Thailand. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out between June 2014 and February 2015 with 300 infected patients interviewed and from whom gastric mucosa specimens were collected and proven positive by histology. The gastric mucosa specimens were tested for H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by 23S ribosomal RNA point mutations analysis using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Correlation of eradication rates with patterns of mutation were analyzed by chi-square test. Of 300 infected patients, the majority were aged between 47-61 years (31.6%), female (52.3%), with monthly income between 10,000-15,000 Baht (57%), and had a history of alcohol drinking (59.3%). Patient symptoms were abdominal pain (48.6%), followed by iron deficiency anemia (35.3%). Papaya salad consumption (40.3%) was a possible risk factor for H. pylori infection. The prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin was 76.2%. Among clarithromycin-resistant strains tested, all were due to the A2144G point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Among mutations group, wild type genotype, mutant strain mixed wild type and mutant genotype were 23.8%, 35.7% and 40.5% respectively. With the clarithromycin-based triple therapy regimen, the efficacy decreased by 70% for H. pylori eradication (P<0.01). Recent results indicate a high rate of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin. Mixed of wild type and mutant genotype is the most common mutant genotype in

  5. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Andreas; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2015-09-01

    During the period reviewed, prevalence studies were essentially performed in less economically advanced countries and a high prevalence was found. The traditional risk factors for Helicobacter pylori positivity were mostly found. Transmission studied by molecular typing showed a familial transmission. The eventual role of water transmission was explored in several studies with controversial results. Concerning diagnosis, most of the invasive and noninvasive methods used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection are long standing with efficient performance. The most interesting recent improvements in H. pylori diagnosis include advances in endoscopy, developments in molecular methods, and the introduction of omics-based techniques. Interpretation of old or newer method should take into account the pretest probability and the prevalence of H. pylori in the population under investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Curcumin is a well-established natural molecule with significant biological and pharmaceutical effects. Its effects on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been repeatedly confirmed both in animal and human models. This study directly compared five different samples to evaluate if the effects are general or if they differ among samples. Using a mouse model, we studied the effects of curcumin on lipid peroxide (LPO) level, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and urease activity, number of colonized bacteria, levels of anti-H. pylori antibodies, biofilm formation, IFN-γ, IL-4, gastrin and somatostatin levels in serum, and minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, we evaluated the effects on biofilm production and antibacterial antibody response. In all tests, one sample (Sabinsa) was consistently the most active. All curcumin samples showed some anti-H. pylori effects, but only some of the tested samples had significant activity.

  7. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães; Amaral, Fabrício-Rezende

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved in RAS development. In the present paper we reviewed all previous studies that investigated the association between RAS and H. pylori. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) databases was made of articles published up until July 2015 using the following keywords: Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori and RAS or Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Fifteen experimental studies that addressed the relationship between infection with H. pylori and the presence of RAS and three reviews, including a systematic review and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The studies reviewed used different methods to assess this relationship, including PCR, nested PCR, culture, ELISA and urea breath test. A large variation in the number of patients included in each study, as well as inclusion criteria and laboratorial methods was observed. H. pylori can be detected in the oral mucosa or ulcerated lesion of some patients with RAS. The quality of the all studies included in this review was assessed using levels of evidence based on the University of Oxford's Center for Evidence Based Medicine Criteria. Although the eradication of the infection may affect the clinical course of the oral lesions by undetermined mechanisms, RAS ulcers are not associated with the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and there is no evidence that H. pylori infection drives RAS development.

  8. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  9. The Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Gubina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Helicobacter pylori involves different mechanisms that are both protective and damaging to the host. The innate and the adaptive immune responses lead to inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory responses, allowing for persistence of many infections. Thus, developing new therapeutics and effective vaccines against H. pylori has proven to be arduous. Despite many immunisation experiments, using various routes of immunisation with classical as well as recombinant H. pylori vaccines (urease, CagA, HP-NAP, HspA, DNA, chimeric molecules, live vectors, microspheres, no effective vaccine is currently available for humans. New directions for successful vaccine construction should follow a profound knowledge of immunopathological events during natural H. pylori infection and factors leading to resolution of infection: mandatory is a new knowledge about the interplay of the innate response to H. pylori, mucosal inflammation, H. pylori virulence factors inducing immune responses, regulation of the adaptive responses to H. pylori as well as construction of novel vaccine platforms for achieving a broad immune response, leading to a sterilizing immunity.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Abdullah; Fakhimi-Derakhshan, Koroush; Imanzadeh, Farid; Rezaei, Mohamad; Cavoshzadeh, Zahra; Maham, Saeid

    2013-06-01

    Childhood infectious diseases are one of the most known environmental pathogenic causes of childhood asthma. The high prevalence of both Helicobacter pylori infection and asthma in our country prompted us to assess anyprobable association between them in childhood. This cross-sectional study recruited 196 children aged 6 to 12 years old comprising 98 asthmatic (case group) and 98 healthy (control group) individuals. Urea breath test was performed for all of the children and H. pylori infection was compared between the two groups according to the urea breath test results. Urea breath test was positive in 18 asthmatic (18.36) and 23 (23.36) healthy subjects but was not significantly different between the case and controls (p = 0.380). Further analysis in the asthmatic group revealed association of H. pylori infection withage (p asthma (p = 0.010). However, no significant correlation was found between sex, severity of asthma, controled asthma or abnormal pulmonary function tests with H. pylori infection (p= 0.804, 0.512, 0.854 and 0.292, respectively). Given the results of the study, H. pylori infection was not significantly different between asthmatic and healthy children. In asthmatic patients, there was no significant association between H. pylori infection and sex, severity of disease, control status of disease and normal or abnormal pulmonary function tests. H. Pylori infection had a significant association with increasing age and duration of asthma.

  11. Metalloregulation of Helicobacter pylori physiology and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Angeline Gaddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes over half of the world’s population. Chronic H. pylori infection is associated with increased risk for numerous disease outcomes including gastritis, dysplasia, neoplasia, B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and invasive adenocarcinoma. The complex interactions that occur between pathogen and host are dynamic and exquisitely regulated, and the relationship between the H. pylori and its human host are no exception. To successfully colonize, and subsequently persist, within the human stomach H. pylori must temporally regulate numerous genes to ensure localization to the gastric lumen and coordinated expression of virulence factors to subvert the host’s innate and adaptive immune response. H. pylori achieves this precise gene regulation by sensing subtle environmental changes including host-mediated alterations in nutrient availability and responding with dramatic global changes in gene expression. Recent studies revealed that the presence or absence of numerous metal ions encountered in the lumen of the stomach, or within host tissues, including nickel, iron, copper and zinc, can influence regulatory networks to alter gene expression in H. pylori. These expression changes modulate the deployment of bacterial virulence factors that can ultimately influence disease outcome. In this review we will discuss the environmental stimuli that are detected by H. pylori as well as the trans regulatory elements, specifically the transcription regulators and transcription factors, that allow for these significant transcriptional shifts.

  12. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases.

  13. A fluid model for Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and pediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Karimi; Koroush Fakhimi Derakhshan; Farid Imanzadeh; Mohamad Rezaei; Zahra Cavoshzadeh; Saeid Maham

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood infectious diseases are one of the most known environmental pathogenic causes of childhood asthma. The high prevalence of both Helicobacter pylori infection and asthma in our country prompted us to assess anyprobable association between them in childhood. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 196 children aged 6 to 12 years old comprising 98 asthmatic (case group) and 98 healthy (control group) individuals. Urea breath test was performed for all of the children and ...

  15. RESEARCH Helicobacter pylori eradication: A randomised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2006.102269]. 13. Laine L, Estrada R, Trujillo M, Fukanaga K, Neil G. Randomized comparison of differing periods of twice-a-day triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1996;10(6):1029-33. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.1996.111282000.x]. 14.

  16. Helicobacter pylori resistance to six antibiotics by two breakpoint systems and resistance evolution in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Gergova, Galina; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Spassova, Zoya; Kandilarov, Naiden; Yaneva, Penka; Markovska, Rumyana; Mitov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics is the main cause for eradication failures. Antibiotic resistance in 299 H. pylori strains from 233 untreated adults, 26 treated adults, and 40 untreated children was assessed by E tests and, for metronidazole, by breakpoint susceptibility testing and two breakpoint systems. Using EUCAST breakpoints (EBPs) and previous breakpoints (PBPs), overall resistance rates were: amoxicillin 4.0 and 0.6%, metronidazole 33.8 and 33.8%, clarithromycin 28.1 and 27.4%, levofloxacin 19.4 and 19.4%, tetracycline 3.7 and 1.5%, respectively, and rifampin 8.3% (EBP). Multidrug resistance was detected in treated and untreated adults and an untreated child and included 17 (EBPs) and 15 strains (PBPs). Differences between susceptibility categories were found for amoxicillin (3.5% of strains), clarithromycin (0.7%), and tetracycline (2.2%). Using PBPs, from 2005-2007 to 2010-2015, overall primary clarithromycin resistance continued to increase (17.9-25.6%) as noted in our previous study. However, in 2010-2015, overall primary metronidazole (24.0-31.5%) and fluoroquinolone (7.6-18.3%) resistance rates also increased. Primary resistance rates in children and adults were comparable. Briefly, differences in resistance rates by the two breakpoint systems affected the results for three antibiotics. National antibiotic consumption was linked to macrolide resistance in adults. Current primary H. pylori resistance to three antibiotics increased in all untreated patients and in the untreated adults, with the sharpest rise for the fluoroquinolones. The presence of fivefold H. pylori resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin according to EBPs is alarming.

  17. Improving the standard sequential treatment of Helicobacter pylori with either extended treatment or by adding bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Zehra; Akay, Sinan; Unsal, Belkis

    2017-06-01

    Standard sequential treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication has less success because of increasing clarithromycin resistance. Extended treatment and bismuth containing regimens were, therefore, investigated. Consecutive H. pylori-positive patients with dyspepsia were randomly allocated to one of the three sequential regimens: The first group was given lansoprazole 30mg b.i.d. plus amoxicillin 1g b.i.d. for the first 5days, followed by lansoprazole 30mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500mg b.i.d., and metronidazole 500mg t.i.d. for the second 5days (standard sequential, SS). The second group was given the same regimen but for 7+7days instead of 5+5days (extended sequential, ES). In the third group, colloidal bismuth 600mg b.i.d. was added to the second regimen for 14days (extended sequential+bismuth subcitrate, ES+B). Urea breath test or histology was performed before enrolment and 6weeks after the end of treatment to detect H. pylori. A total of 280 patients were included in the study. Per-protocol eradication rates were 62% (56/90), 72% (56/78), and 75% (54/72) in patients who received SS, ES, and ES+B regimens, respectively. Moreover, intention-to-treat eradication rates were 53% (56/104), 62% (56/90) and 62% (54/86), respectively. The differences in eradication rates between the groups were not statistically significant. Although prolonging of the sequential treatment to 14days may be considered, addition of bismuth to the regimen is of no avail. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection and precancerous lesions of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziri, Adem; Juniku-Shkololli, Argjira; Gashi, Zaim; Berisha, Drita; Haziri, Avni

    2010-01-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, hereditary non-polyposos colon cancer, gastric dysplasia, gastric adenoma, Barrett esophagitis and familiar adenomatous polyposis are confirmed precancerous lesions of the stomach. Most of these conditions are correlated with long-term infections with Helicobacter pylori. Patients which were included in our study underwent gastro endoscopy with multiple biopsies from antrum and corpus ventricle, also urease test and histopathological examination, using special coloring for Helicobacter pylori. 802 patients entered this study, of which 369 female and 483 male. Among female patients 56.4% resulted Helicobacter pylori positive, whereas among male patients this was at a rate of 62.6%. The most affected age was 40-49 years, in which group Helicobacter pylori infection was 64.2%. In each precancerous lesion positivity of Helicobacter pylori infection was very high.-in patients with intestinal metaplasia: 71.7%, with gastric dysplasia: 71.4%, with gastric ulcer: 68.4%, with atrophic gastritis: 66.0% and with Barrett esophagitis: 55.0%. The main purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with precancerous lesions, which resulted to be very high. The highest percentage of infection resulted in patients with intestinal metaplasia (71.7%). Precancerous lesions of stomach are associated with high percentage of Helicobacter pylori infection. This confirms once more the importance of Helicobacter pylori eradication in early stages and patient's surveillance.

  19. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with peptic ulcer disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been identified as an important risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and is probably the most important cause of relapse in those previously treated for peptic ulcer disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of Helicobacter pylori infection as ...

  20. the effect of some nigerian local herbs on helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Nigerian medicinal plants commonly used in the treatment of bacterial infections were tested for antimicrobial activity against twenty local strains of Helicobacter pylori recovered from patients with gastro-duodenal ulcers and gastritis. In vitro agar diffusion assay revealed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of ethanolic ...

  1. Emerging Helicobacter pylori levofloxacin resistance and novel genetic mutation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-11-04

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Nepalese strains is untracked. We determined the antibiotic susceptibility for H. pylori and analyzed the presence of genetic mutations associated with antibiotic resistance in Nepalese strains. This study included 146 consecutive patients who underwent gastroduodenal endoscopy in Kathmandu, Nepal. Among 42 isolated H. pylori, there was no resistance to amoxicillin and tetracycline. In contrast, similar with typical South Asian patterns; metronidazole resistance rate in Nepalese strains were extremely high (88.1 %, 37/42). Clarithromycin resistance rate in Nepalese strains were modestly high (21.4 %, 9/42). Most of metronidazole resistant strains had highly distributed rdxA and frxA mutations, but were relative coincidence without a synergistic effect to increase the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Among strains with the high MIC, 63.6 % (7/11) were associated with frameshift mutation at position 18 of frxA with or without rdxA involvement. However, based on next generation sequencing data we found that one strain with the highest MIC value had a novel mutation in the form of amino acid substituted at Ala-212, Gln-382, Ile-485 of dppA and Leu-145, Thr-168, Glu-117, Val-121, Arg-221 in dapF aside from missense mutations in full-length rdxA. Mutations at Asn-87 and/or Asp-91 of the gyrA were predominantly in levofloxacin-resistant strains. The gyrB mutation had steady relationship with the gyrA 87-91 mutations. Although three (44.4 %) and two (22.2 %) of clarithromycin resistant strains had point mutation on A2143G and A2146G, we confirmed the involvement of rpl22 and infB in high MIC strains without an 23SrRNA mutation. The rates of resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin were high in Nepalese strains, indicating that these antibiotics-based triple therapies are not useful as first-line treatment in Nepal. Bismuth or non-bismuth-based quadruple regimens

  2. Helicobacter pylori and pregnancy-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaropoli, Simona; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is investigated in gastric diseases even during pregnancy. In particular, this Gram-negative bacterium seems to be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, a severe form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. During the last decade, the relationship among H. pylori and several extra-gastric diseases strongly emerged in literature. The correlation among H. pylori infection and pregnancy-related disorders was mainly focused on iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytopenia, fetal malformations, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. H. pylori infection may have a role in the pathogenesis of various pregnancy-related disorders through different mechanisms: depletion of micronutrients (iron and vitamin B12) in maternal anemia and fetal neural tube defects; local or systemic induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines release and oxidative stress in gastrointestinal disorders and pre-eclampsia; cross-reaction between specific anti-H. pylori antibodies and antigens localized in placental tissue and endothelial cells (pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, miscarriage). Since H. pylori infection is most likely acquired before pregnancy, it is widely believed that hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy could activate latent H. pylori with a negative impact not only on maternal health (nutritional deficiency, organ injury, death), but also on the fetus (insufficient growth, malformation, death) and sometime consequences can be observed later in life. Another important issue addressed by investigators was to determine whether it is possible to transmit H. pylori infection from mother to child and whether maternal anti-H. pylori antibodies could prevent infant’s infection. Studies on novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods for H. pylori are no less important, since these are particularly sensitive topics in pregnancy conditions. It could be interesting to study the possible correlation between H

  3. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Riddell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paediatric population, the associations of Helicobacter pylori with gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenitis and duodenal ulcer, and with duodenal gastric surface metaplasia and disorders of the D cell-G cell axis resulting in hypergastrinemia, are well established and in many ways resemble their counterparts in adults. Eradication of H pylori invariably results in the reversal of these diseases with time. There are also suggestions that gastric surface metaplasia is more extensive in children with H pylori, and may be the site of duodenal H pylori infection and associated duodenal erosions or ulcers. There is no consensus as to whether H pylori in children is more or less severe than in adults. In one paediatric cohort, H pylori was associated with increased intensity of inflammation, while other studies suggest that acute inflammation may be less intense in children overall but that chronic inflammation may be increased in intensity, including lymphoid hyperplasia, which in turn may correlate with endoscopic nodularity. Lymphoid hyperplasia and nodular gastritis appear to be more frequent in children than in adults and usually regress following H pylori eradication. However, in children, other diseases or morphological abnormalities, including some loss of glands (atrophy, occasionally intestinal metaplasia, lymphoproliferative diseases including low grade mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, lymphocytic gastritis and hypertrophic gastritis/Menetrier’s disease, are much less frequently associated with H pylori than in adults. Other associations are rarely seen in children, primarily because the time required for these to develop takes the individual to adulthood; for example, while intestinal metaplasia occurs in the pediatric population, the complications of adenoma/dysplasia and carcinoma are rare. In adults, inflammatory and hyperplastic polyps, atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia, and in some patients granulomas

  4. Helicobacter pylori DNA in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victória, Júnia Maria Netto; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Silva, Jeane de Fátima Correia; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2003-04-01

    Considering not only the fact that recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and stomach ulcers are immunologically mediated ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori, but also the recent evidence that anaemia can be associated with both diseases, and the discovery of H. pylori in the oral mucosa led us to hypothesize that this bacteria may be related to RAS pathogenesis. Thirty-six consecutive subjects affected by minor and major forms of RAS and 48 healthy volunteers were included in the present study. The nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect the presence of H. pylori in the oral lesion, the normal contralateral mucosa of patients affected by RAS and the oral mucosa of control subjects. The chi2- and Fisher's tests were used for statistical analysis. No association between RAS lesions and H. pylori was observed. However, 14 out of 36 (38.9%) of the patients with RAS were found to show the presence of H. pylori DNA in the lesion and/or contralateral mucosa. Sixteen out of 48 (33.3%) of the patients without RAS (control subjects) were positive (P > 0.05). The present study does not give support to the assumption that H. pylori could be involved in RAS development.

  5. Paediatric Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayse Esra; Bilici, Meki; Tonbul, Alparslan; Karabel, Musemma; Dogan, Guzide; Tas, Tugba

    2012-01-01

    To compare the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by stool antigen test in children with and without halitosis. Comparative study. Department of Paediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2008 and June 2009. Fifty-three patients aged between 3-15 years who presented to paediatrics outpatient clinic with halitosis and 55 healthy children aged between 4-15 years without halitosis were included in the study. Halitosis was confirmed with organoleptic test. Stool antigen test was performed in both groups. Intergroup proportions were compared using chisquare and Fisher exact tests with significance at p halitosis and 12 of 55 healthy controls (21.8%). The rate of positive H. pylori stool antigen test results were similar between two groups (p > 0.05). Twoweeks eradication treatment was administered to 11 patients with H. pylori infection and halitosis. After treatment, the symptoms of 8 patients with halitosis (72.7%) completely resolved and persisted in 3 patients (27.3%). Seven of the 11 patients who were administered eradication treatment also had abdominal pain along with halitosis. Both symptoms completely resolved in all those patients after treatment. Although no statistically significant difference existed between the rate of H. pylori infections among those with and without halitosis. Eradication treatment was found beneficial in the treatment of children with halitosis and positive H. pylori stool antigen test.

  6. Changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is known as the most important cause of gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, and socioeconomic status. In Japan, H. pylori infection has been highly correlated with the incidence rate of gastric cancer, and a reduction in H. pylori infection is therefore crucial for decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer, especially at the population level. Infection occurs during childhood, commonly before 5 years of age. In Japan, where gastric cancer has ranked as the most common cancer by incidence and mortality for the last several decades, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has dramatically declined by birth cohort effect, mainly due to improvements in the general hygiene environment in childhood. Older generations born before around 1950 show a high prevalence of around 80-90 %, decreasing with age to reach around 10 % or less in those born around the 1990s, and less than 2 % for children born after the year 2000. This change will have generational effects on gastric cancer prevention strategies, both primary and secondary. The risk-stratified approach to gastric cancer prevention should be considered in Japan and other countries which have similarly experienced rapid economic development.

  7. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and the genotypes of resistance to clarithromycin and the heterogeneous genotype to this antibiotic in biopsies obtained from symptomatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Correa, John Jairo; Urruzuno, Pedro; Barrio, Josefa; Martinez, María José; Agudo, Sonia; Somodevilla, Angela; Llorca, Laura; Alarcón, Teresa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use a commercially available kit (GenoType® HelicoDR; Hain Life Science, Germany) to detect Helicobacter pylori infection and clarithromycin resistance genotype in biopsies obtained from symptomatic children. 111 out of 136 (81.6%) biopsies were H. pylori positive by genotype: 47 (42.3%) showed wild-type genotype, 53 resistant genotype (47.7%) and 11 heterogeneous genotype (9.9%). Culture was negative in 27 out of the 111 genotyped biopsies. Mutation A2143G (87.5%), followed by A2142G (7.5%) and double mutant A2142C-A2143G (5%) were found. The 11 heterogeneous genotype biopsies showed wild-type plus A2143G in 9 and plus A2142G in 2. This kit is a rapid, culture-independent method for routine application in biopsies from the pediatric population that allows detection of clarithromycin resistance and heterogeneous genotypes. It is important to know the clinical impact of infection with this type of strains as well as the role in treatment success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Infection, Gastric Cancer and Gastropanel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loor Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is one of the most widespread types of cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection has been clearly correlated with gastric carcinogenesis. At present and in the near future, the most important challenge is and will be the significant reduction of mortality due to GC. That goal can be achieved through the identification of higher-risk patients, such as those with atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. In this review we intend to discuss the importance of diagnosing H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis in preventing gastric cancer, using a new non-invasive test called GastroPanel. This test is a classification algorithm including four biochemical parameters pepsinogen I and II (PGI and PGII, gastrin-17 (G17, and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies (Ig G anti-Hp measured in fasting sera, which allows to classify patients as having atrophic or non-atrophic gastritis and to find whether gastritis is associated or not with H. pylori infection. GastroPanel is not a “cancer test”, but it can and should be used in the screening and diagnosis of subjects with a high cancer risk; still, a careful diagnostic made by superior digestive endoscopy is compulsory to find possible precancerous or cancerous lesions at an early and curable stage.

  9. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the literature published pertaining to Helicobacter pylori eradication over the last year. The general perception among clinicians and academics engaged in research on H. pylori has been that eradication rates for first-line therapies are falling, although some data published this year have cast doubt on this. The studies published this year have therefore focussed on developing alternative strategies for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. In this regard, clear evidence now exists that both levofloxacin and bismuth are viable options for first-line therapy. The sequential and "concomitant" regimes have also been studied in new settings and may have a role in future algorithms also. In addition, data have emerged that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Other studies promote individualized therapies based on host polymorphisms, age, and other such demographic factors.

  10. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anthony; Gisbert, Javier P; McNamara, Deirdre; O'Morain, Colm

    2011-09-01

    This article reviews the literature published pertaining to Helicobacter pylori eradication over the last year. The general perception among clinicians and academics engaged in research on H. pylori has been that eradication rates for first-line therapies are falling, although some data published this year have cast doubt on this. The studies published this year have therefore focussed on developing alternative strategies for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. In this regard, clear evidence now exists that both levofloxacin and bismuth are viable options for first-line therapy. The sequential and "concomitant" regimes have also been studied in new settings and may have a role in future algorithms also. In addition, data have emerged that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Other studies promote individualized therapies based on host polymorphisms, age, and other such demographic factors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Changing patterns of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) discovered in 1982, has strongly been associated with multiple clinical disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. This study described the prevalence of H. pylori among large numbers of patients over two different time periods in Accra, Ghana. Methods: It was a retrospective records ...

  12. Clinical correlates of helicobacter pylori infection in children seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is the commonest global chronic human bacterial infection. Data from developed countries show that acquisition occurs in childhood but manifestation of chronic gastroduodenal diseases occur more commonly in adulthood. H. pylori infection has however been associated ...

  13. Role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of infantile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    between infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) and Helicobacter pylori infection. Materials and. Methods: In a case-control study, 20 infants with confirmed IHPS (Group 1) and 30 age-matched healthy infants (Group 2) were enrolled for the assessment of H. pylori infection. Serological testing of anti-H. pylori antibody ...

  14. Helicobacter Pylori and the Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of stomach cancer that infects a substantial proportion of the Canadian adult population. H pylori can be detected by noninvasive tests and effectively eradicated by medical treatment. Screening for and treatment of H pylori may represent a significant opportunity for preventive oncology.

  15. Nutrients released by gastric epithelial cells enhance Helicobacter pylori growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Karin; van der Ende, Arie

    2004-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori survives and proliferates in the human gastric mucosa. In this niche, H. pylori adheres to the gastric epithelial cells near the tight junctions. In vitro, H. pylori proliferated well in tissue-culture medium near gastric epithelial cells. However, in the absence of

  16. Effect of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori is a leading etiologic agent causing peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. The alternative lifestyle as a biofilm facilitates H. pylori to survive in adverse environments. Here, we investigated effect of curcumin on H. pylori biofilm formation both qualitatively by pellicle assay and quantitatively by crystal violet ...

  17. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ming Liou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The elderly often seek medical attention because of gastroduodenal diseases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is associated with several gastroduodenal diseases and its prevalence increases with age worldwide. It is estimated that 10–15% of infected patients will have peptic ulcer disease and 1% of patients will have gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Notably, the most severe clinical outcomes, i.e., gastric cancer and complicated peptic ulcer diseases, usually occur in elderly patients. Thus the test-and-treatment strategy is not recommended for elderly patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia. However, biopsy specimens for the rapid urease test and histology should be taken from both the antrum and corpus to increase the detection rate in elderly patients, especially in those with atrophic gastritis. The urea breath test may increase the detection rate if the rapid urease test or histology are negative in elderly patients with atrophic gastritis. Standard triple therapy and sequential therapy can achieve satisfactory eradication rates for H. pylori in elderly patients. Elderly patients with peptic ulcers may have a similar benefit from treatment of H. pylori infection as non-elderly patients. Eradication of H. pylori infection may also lead to improvement in histologic grading of gastritis, but the risk of gastric cancer cannot be completely reduced, especially in patients with existing premalignant lesions.

  18. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-03-02

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Biosynthesis in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liao, Tingting; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Tang, Hong; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    This review covers the current knowledge and gaps in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and biosynthesis. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the luminal surface of the human gastric epithelium. Both a constitutive alteration of the lipid A preventing TLR4 elicitation and host mimicry of the Lewis antigen decorated O-antigen of H. pylori LPS promote immune escape and chronic infection. To date, the complete structure of H. pylori LPS is not available, and the proposed model is a linear arrangement composed of the inner core defined as the hexa-saccharide (Kdo-LD-Hep-LD-Hep-DD-Hep-Gal-Glc), the outer core composed of a conserved trisaccharide (-GlcNAc-Fuc-DD-Hep-) linked to the third heptose of the inner core, the glucan, the heptan and a variable O-antigen, generally consisting of a poly-LacNAc decorated with Lewis antigens. Although the glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for the biosynthesis of the H. pylori O-antigen chains have been identified and characterized, there are many gaps in regard to the biosynthesis of the core LPS. These limitations warrant additional mutagenesis and structural studies to obtain the complete LPS structure and corresponding biosynthetic pathway of this important gastric bacterium. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in hyperemesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Khedmat

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vomiting is one of the most common problems during pregnancy periods which happens in 50% of the pregnant women. Hyperemesis gravidarum is a rare status that 1 out of 500 pregnant women suffer from it. Although the reason of HG is unknown, but several studies indicate a relationship between HG and helicobacter pylori . So the aim of this study was to assess the relation between H.pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum and to compare it with healthy ones. Materials and Methods : In this case control study 100 pregnant women with HG and 100 pregnant controls , at the same gestational weeks , referred to the city clinics were studied. Then H.pylori serum immunoglobulin IgG concentration was determined in the case and control groups by ELIZA method and serologic tests and analyzed using SPSS software. Findings: Results showed that the prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with HG (79.8% than in controls (46.8% with a P<0.001 . There were no significant differences in maternal age , gestational age and social economic status between case and control groups . Conclusion : Results of this study indicate that H. pylori can play an important role for etiology of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  1. Helicobacter pylori: prospettive per un vaccino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Del Giudice

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most widespread infections worldwide: it affects more than 50% of the human population, and is responsible for serious gastric pathologies such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis and, in some individuals, gastric cancer. Current treatments with antibiotics are efficacious, but encounters several drawbacks at the level of compliance, side effects, antibiotic resistance, etc.The availability of vaccines could contribute in reducing the burden of H. pylori associated diseases. Several bacterial antigens have been identified as virulence factors and proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Some of these antigens have been tested in experimental animal models of challenge with H. pylori. The experiments in animals have shown that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori is indeed feasible. Several open questions still remain concerning the understanding of the host-microbe relationship and the quality of the immune response which should be induced in order to confer protective immunity in man.The answers to these questions will be crucial in helping the preparation of appropriate vaccine formulations able to efficaciously protect humans both prophylactically and therapeutically. A few clinical trials have been carried out so far with still limited results. Other trials in humans are in progress and are planned for the next few years.The final hope is that these new vaccines will show the expected efficacy against H. pylori and will permit the elimination of this pathogen which has cohabited with humans for more than 100,000 years.

  2. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  3. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Famouri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low.   Sequential Therapy  Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy.   Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.    

  4. Gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Armelle; Péré-Védrenne, Christelle; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2014-09-01

    During the past year, research on non-Helicobacter pylori species has intensified. H. valdiviensis was isolated from wild birds, and putative novel species have been isolated from Bengal tigers and Australian marsupials. Various genomes have been sequenced: H. bilis, H. canis, H. macacae, H. fennelliae, H. cetorum, and H. suis. Several studies highlighted the virulence of non-H. pylori species including H. cinaedi in humans and hyperlipidemic mice or H. macacae in geriatric rhesus monkeys with intestinal adenocarcinoma. Not surprisingly, increased attention has been paid to the position of Helicobacter species in the microbiota of children and animal species (mice, chickens, penguins, and migrating birds). A large number of experimental studies have been performed in animal models of Helicobacter induced typhlocolitis, showing that the gastrointestinal microbial community is involved in modulation of host pathways leading to chronic inflammation. Animal models of H. suis, H. heilmannii, and H. felis infection have been used to study the development of severe inflammation-related pathologies, including gastric MALT lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, since its discovery by Warren and Marshall in 1982. ... Since the discovery of H. pylori by Warren and ..... least 2 antibiotics. Antibiotics that are traditionally used include amoxicillin, nitroimidazole (metronidazole and tinidazole), clarithromycin, tetracycline and bismuth.

  6. Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance: Trends Over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G Lahaie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics can be a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. As the use of antibiotics increases, bacterial resistance to these agents is rising and in many cases is responsible for the failure of treatment regimens. Although the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection requires the use of more than one antibiotic to obtain adequate eradication rates, the efficacy of the currently used antibiotic combinations has been shown to be decreased by resistance to one of the antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in regimens for the treatment of H pylori is increasing in many countries, including Canada. This increase is both in the use of these antibiotics alone for the treatment of nongastrointestinal infections and in their use in association with proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of H pylori infection. In several European and Asian countries, where resistance to antibiotics is being monitored, it has been demonstrated that H pylori resistance to metronidazole and to clarithromycin increased throughout the 1990s. Thus far, the data available in Canada do not show increased resistance to either of these antibiotics. As for other antibiotics used in the treatment of H pylori infection, such as tetracycline and amoxicillin, the rate of resistance to these agents is still very low and does not constitute a significant problem. Because the efficacy of the regimens used in the treatment of H pylori infection is compromised by resistance to the antibiotics used, it is important that H pylori resistance rates in Canada and throughout the world continue to be monitored. Only with such reliable data can the most optimal regimens be recommended.

  7. Rosacea and Helicobacter pylori: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaridou E

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Lazaridou,1 Chrysovalantis Korfitis,2 Christina Kemanetzi,1 Elena Sotiriou,1 Zoe Apalla,1 Efstratios Vakirlis,1 Christina Fotiadou,1 Aimilios Lallas,1 Demetrios Ioannides1 1First Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Aristotle University Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Dermatology, 401 General Army Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Rosacea is a chronic skin disease characterized by facial erythema and telangiectasia. Despite the fact that many hypotheses have been proposed, its etiology remains unknown. In the present review, the possible link and clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of rosacea are being sought. A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed using the terms “rosacea”, “H.pylori”, “gastrointestinal disorders and H.pylori”, “microorganisms and rosacea”, “pathogenesis and treatment of rosacea”, and “risk factors of rosacea”, and selected publications were studied and referenced in text. Although a possible pathogenetic link between H. pylori and rosacea is advocated by many authors, evidence is still interpreted differently by others. We conclude that further studies are needed in order to fully elucidate the pathogenesis of rosacea. Keywords: eradication, Helicobacter pylori, pathogenesis, rosacea

  8. Optimizing clarithromycin-containing therapy for Helicobacter pylori in the era of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Gisbert, Javier P

    2014-08-14

    The efficacy of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection has dramatically declined over the last decade, largely related to increasing clarithromycin resistance rates. From a microbiological standpoint, bismuth quadruple therapy is the ideal replacement since it combines drugs for which resistance does not impair its efficacy. Nonetheless, several obstacles such as availability, complexity or tolerance prevent a general implementation of bismuth quadruple therapy, so non-bismuth quadruple regimens remain the best first-line treatment in clinical practice in many geographical areas. We review the rationale and efficacy of several optimization tools (increasing the length of duration, high-dose acid suppression, probiotics), which have been largely evaluated over the last 5 years to increase the effectiveness of standard triple therapy. Then, we update available evidence on the effectiveness of several non-bismuth quadruple therapies (sequential, concomitant, hybrid, miscellaneous therapy), which have gained interest lately. We also revise evidence on the efficacy of the aforementioned optimization tools for non-bismuth quadruples schemes and, finally we provide a novel regionalized therapeutic algorithm, based on novel formulas recently developed for predicting the outcome of non-bismuth quadruple regimens, upon local antibiotic resistance rates.

  9. Helicobacter pylori-coccoid forms and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Rasmussen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    be detected by PCR in water supplies. There is no substantial evidence for viable H. pylori persisting in water supplies. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental water is a risk factor for H. pylori infection when compared with tap water, and formation of H. pylori biofilm cannot be excluded....... Helicobacter pylori does not seem to take part in biofilm formation in the oral cavity even though the bacterium may be detected....

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, C.; Seruca, R.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  11. Rosacea and Helicobacter pylori: links and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Kemanetzi, Christina; Sotiriou, Elena; Apalla, Zoe; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Fotiadou, Christina; Lallas, Aimilios; Ioannides, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin disease characterized by facial erythema and telangiectasia. Despite the fact that many hypotheses have been proposed, its etiology remains unknown. In the present review, the possible link and clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of rosacea are being sought. A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed using the terms “rosacea”, “H.pylori”, “gastrointestinal disorders and H.pylori”, “microorganisms and rosacea”, “pathogenesis and treatment of rosacea”, and “risk factors of rosacea”, and selected publications were studied and referenced in text. Although a possible pathogenetic link between H. pylori and rosacea is advocated by many authors, evidence is still interpreted differently by others. We conclude that further studies are needed in order to fully elucidate the pathogenesis of rosacea. PMID:28848358

  12. Novel anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Sukhbir K

    2014-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a ubiquitous gastropathogen infecting more than half of the world population. It is associated with dyspepsia, gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, mucus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. Current recommended therapy does not eradicate infection in all treated cases and at least 20% post-treatment patients continue to suffer. Salvage therapy helps some of these nonresponders, but resistance to available antibiotics is mounting. Hence, its treatment still remains a daunting task for the practicing physician. Novel medications with improved efficacy and tolerability and with less chances of resistance are required. The present review attempts to discuss the newer patents in this field, which demonstrate a promising future role in the management of H. pylori infection and its consequent problems.

  13. Helicobacter pylori: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in research in the field of Helicobacter pylori a paradigm shift has occurred. It is now recognized that H pylori is a chronic infection of the stomach causing inflammation. Some patients remain asymptomatic, while others may develop dyspepsia, duodenal or gastric ulcer, gastric cancer or a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the role of H pylori in contributing to nonulcer dyspepsia or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy remains controversial. An effective vaccine against H pylori is years away. Major interest has focused on the questions "who should be investigated and therefore treated" and "what is the latest gold standard for eradication of H pylori"? In Europe, guidelines have been developed to help the practitioner answer these important questions. Canadian guidelines will soon be available. For persons with known peptic ulcer disease there should be unequivocal acceptance that the good clinical practice of eradicating H pylori will result in substantial savings in health care expenses. The original 'classical triple therapy' (bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline [BMT] has now been surpassed by the combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI plus two antibiotics (metronidazole plus clarithromycin; amoxicillin plus clarithromycin; or amoxicillin plus metronidazole, each given twice a day for one week. In Canada, the regimen of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (amoxicillin or clarithromycin was approved recently but gives an eradication rate that is lower than the current target of 90%. According to the European (Mäastricht recommendations, if a single treatment attempt with PPI plus two antibiotics fails, PPI plus BMT is recommended.

  14. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soussan Irani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000, inside the blood vessels (P=0.003, inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036, and muscle layer (P=0.122. Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested.

  15. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  16. Helicobacter pylori y dispepsia, un problema de salud comunitario

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel González-Carbajal Pascual; Ludmila Concepción Izaguirre

    2002-01-01

    Mientras la relación causal entre el Helicobacter pylori y la gastritis crónica, así como la importante conexión entre esta infección, la úlcera gastroduodenal y el cáncer gástrico han sido bien establecidas, la asociación entre la infección por Helicobacter pylori y la dispepsia "no ulcerosa" es un problema que dista mucho de estar esclarecido. Hay autores que no dudan en utilizar tratamiento de erradicación en la dispepsia "no ulcerosa" con Helicobacter pylori, pero existen enfoques alterna...

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection - recent developments in diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Isabel; Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods, a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication therapy. Only highly accurate tests should be used in clinical practice, and the sensitivity and specificity of an adequate test should exceed 90%. The choice of tests should take into account clinical circumstances, the likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests, the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy and the availability of the tests. This review concerns some of the most recent developments in diagnostic methods of H. pylori infection, namely the contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation methodologies for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, such as magnifying endoscopy techniques and chromoendoscopy. In addition, the diagnostic contribution of histology and the urea breath test was explored recently in specific clinical settings and patient groups. Recent studies recommend enhancing the number of biopsy fragments for the rapid urease test. Bacterial culture from the gastric biopsy is the gold standard technique, and is recommended for antibiotic susceptibility test. Serology is used for initial screening and the stool antigen test is particularly used when the urea breath test is not available, while molecular methods have gained attention mostly for detecting antibiotic resistance. PMID:25071324

  18. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection and dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardo, P G; Tugnait, A; Hassan, F; Lynch, D A; West, A P; Mapstone, N P; Quirke, P; Chalmers, D M; Kowolik, M J; Axon, A T

    1995-01-01

    Sixty two patients (mean age 45.6 years) were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination before endoscopy. Information about oral care, smoking, and dentures was obtained and samples of dental plaque collected. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in plaque as sought by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gastric antral biopsy specimens were taken for histological examination. Although H pylori was detected in the antral specimens of 34 patients (54%) all of the cultures of dental plaque were negative, and PCR was only positive from the dentures of one patient. Smokers had poor oral hygiene, visited their dentist less often, and brushed their teeth less frequently. There was no correlation of H pylori gastritis with either dental hygiene or periodontal disease. These results suggest that dental plaque or dentures are not an important reservoir for H pylori and are probably not a significant factor in transmission of the organism. The conflicting results in published works may be caused by differences in sample collection, culture techniques, or oral contamination from gastric juice as a result of gastro-oesophageal reflux at the time of endoscopy. PMID:7672679

  20. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  1. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis in rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Toyoda, Takeshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tatematsu, Masae

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for gastric carcinogenesis in human. In carcinogen-treated Mongolian gerbils, H. pylori infection enhances stomach carcinogenesis, while infection alone induced severe hyperplasia called heterotopic proliferative glands. A high-salt diet or early acquisition of the bacteria exacerbates inflammation and carcinogenesis. Oxygen radical scavengers or anti-inflammatory chemicals as well as eradication of H. pylori are effective to prevent carcinogenesis. H. pylori-associated inflammation induces intestinal metaplasia and intestinalization of stomach cancers independently. It is necessary to control cancer development not only in H. pylori-positive cases but also in H. pylori-negative metaplastic gastritis.

  3. Ten-day Quadruple therapy comprising proton-pump inhibitor, bismuth, tetracycline, and levofloxacin achieves a high eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori infection after failure of sequential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Wen-Chi; Tsay, Feng-Woei; Shih, Chih-An; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Wang, Huay-Min; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Peng, Nan-Jing; Chen, Angela; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2014-02-01

    Sequential therapy has been recommended in the Maastricht IV/Florence Consensus Report as the first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication in regions with high clarithromycin resistance. However, it fails in 5-24% of infected subjects, and the recommended levofloxacin-containing triple rescue therapy only achieves a 77% eradication rate after failure of sequential therapy. To investigate the efficacy of a novel quadruple therapy comprising proton-pump inhibitor, bismuth, tetracycline, and levofloxacin for rescue treatment of sequential therapy. This was a multicenter study in which H. pylori-infected patients who had failed sequential therapy received a 10-day quadruple therapy (esomeprazole (40 mg b.d), tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (120 mg q.d.s.), tetracycline (500 mg q.d.s.), and levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) for 10 days). H. pylori status was examined 6 weeks after the end of treatment. From July 2007 to June 2012, twenty-four subjects received 10-day quadruple therapy. The eradication rates according to intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were both 95.8% (23 of 24; 95% confidence interval, 87.8-103.8%). Adverse events were seen in 25.0% (6 of 24) of the patients. Drug compliance was 100.0% (24/24). The 10-day quadruple therapy comprising proton-pump inhibitor, bismuth, tetracycline, and levofloxacin achieves a very high eradication rate for H. pylori infection after failure of sequential therapy. It is well tolerated and has great potential to become a good choice of rescue treatment following non-bismuth-containing quadruple therapy in regions with high clarithromycin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate thefrequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopyeastern Anatolia.Materials and methods: The patients whose endoscopicantral biopsies were taken for any reason in our endoscopyunit in February-June 2010 period were includedand retrospectively investigated. The frequency of Helicobacterpylori was determined as separating the patientsaccording to general, sex and the age groups. Antral biopsieswere stained with hematoxylin-eosin and modified giemsamethod and examined under light microscope andreported as (+ mild, (++ moderate, (+++ severe positiveaccording to their intensities.Results: Biopsy specimens of 1298 patients were includedinto the study. The mean age was 47.5 ± 17.5 years(range 14-88 and 607 of these patients (47% were male.Histopathological evaluation revealed that, 918 of the patientswere (71% positive and 379 (29% were negativefor Helicobacter pylori. Approximately 60% of our patientshad mild, 29% had moderate and 11% had severe positivityfor Helicobacter pylori. No significant difference wasfound in the frequency of Helicobacter pylori betweenwomen and men. The frequencies of Helicobacter pyloriwere 73.2%, 71.5%, 68.6% and 70.4%, respectively, inthe age groups of 14-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 yearsand 61-88 years.Conclusion: The frequency of Helicobacter pylori was71% in Eastern Anatolia Region. No statistically significantdifference was found between genders and agegroups in term of the frequency of Helicobacter pylori.

  5. Effect of dietary anti-Helicobacter pylori-urease immunoglobulin Y on Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Nomura, S; Masaoka, T; Goshima, H; Kamata, N; Kodama, Y; Ishii, H; Kitajima, M; Nomoto, K; Hibi, T

    2004-07-01

    Recently, chicken egg yolk was recognized as an inexpensive antibody source, and the therapeutic usefulness of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in oral passive immunization has been investigated. Although multiple antibiotic treatments eradicate most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, therapy fails in 10-15% of cases due to the development of drug resistance. Consequently, it is important that new, more broadly based therapies for the treatment of H. pylori infection should be identified. The present study evaluated the effect, on H. pylori infection, of IgY prepared from egg yolk of hens immunized with H. pylori urease (anti-HpU IgY). Seventeen asymptomatic volunteers diagnosed as H. pylori-positive by the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) were orally administered anti-HpU IgY for 4 weeks. Four weeks later, UBT values were significantly decreased although no case showed H. pylori eradication. An H. pylori-positive 53-year-old female gastritis patient administered anti-HpU IgY plus lansoprazole for 8 weeks showed a decrease in serum pepsinogen (PG) I and UBT values as well as an increase in the PG I/II ratio. In conclusion, anti-HpU IgY may mitigate H. pylori-associated gastritis and partially attenuate gastric urease activity. Furthermore, anti-HpU IgY combined with antacids appears to ameliorate gastric inflammation. These encouraging results may represent a novel approach to the management of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease.

  6. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geraghty, Joe; Thumbs, Alexander; Kankwatira, Anstead; Andrews, Tim; Moore, Andrew; Malamba, Rose; Mtunthama, Neema; Hellberg, Kai; Kalongolera, Lughano; O'Toole, Paul; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D Mark; Gordon, Melita

    2015-01-01

    HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption...

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and fasting plasma glucose concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Peach, H; Barnett, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background—Helicobacter pylori infection raises basal and meal stimulated serum gastrin concentrations and lowers iron stores, which may in turn reduce fasting plasma glucose concentrations in the population.

  8. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H...

  9. Is Helicobacter Pylori a Possible Etiopathogenic Factor in Chronic Tonsillitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Elmas Ozgun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Helicobacter pylori is the major gastric pathogen which has an important role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic gastritis. We investigated the presence of Helicobacter pylori as an extragastric reservoir in the tonsillectomy specimens to display if it is an etiologic factor in the development of chronic tonsilitis. Material and Method: In the current study, 100 cases with chronic tonsilitis were examined in bilateral tonsillectomy specimens. The colonization of the microorganism have be...

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  11. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  12. Rescue Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier P. Gisbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After 30 years of experience in H. pylori treatment, however, the ideal regimen to treat this infection has still to be found. Nowadays, apart from having to know well first-line eradication regimens, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. In designing a treatment strategy, we should not only focus on the results of primary therapy alone but also on the final—overall—eradication rate. The choice of a “rescue” treatment depends on which treatment is used initially. If a first-line clarithromycin-based regimen was used, a second-line metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy may be used afterwards, and then a levofloxacin-based combination would be a third-line “rescue” option. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based “rescue” therapy constitutes an encouraging 2nd-line strategy, representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure, with the advantage of efficacy, simplicity and safety. In this case, quadruple regimen may be reserved as a 3rd-line “rescue” option. Even after two consecutive failures, several studies have demonstrated that H. pylori eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several “rescue” therapies are consecutively given.

  13. Feasibility of shortening 14-day hybrid therapy while maintaining an excellent Helicobacter pylori eradication rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeng-Yih; Hsu, Ping-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Graham, David Y; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    The need for new effective Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has focused efforts on the development and optimization of regimens with excellent eradication rates such as 14-day hybrid therapy. This study evaluated whether the duration of hybrid therapy could be reduced while maintaining a high eradication rate and to examine the effect of antibiotic resistance on outcome. Three separate multicenter pilot studies were carried out concurrently. To reduce selection bias, eligible subjects were randomized to 10-day, 12-day, or 14-day hybrid therapy consisting of esomeprazole 40 mg and amoxicillin 1 gm twice daily for 10, 12, or 14 days plus clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for the final 7 days. The primary outcome was H. pylori eradication per-protocol assessed at least 8 weeks after therapy. A total of 220 subjects were entered. The per-protocol analyses contained 60, 61, 61 subjects in the 10-, 12- and 14-day therapy studies, respectively. The eradication rates, per-protocol, were similar: 95% (95% confidence interval (CI); 89.5-100%) for 10-day, 95.1% (95% CI; 89.7-100%) for 12-day, and 93.4% (95% CI; 87.2-99.7%) for 14-day hybrid therapies. Antibiotic resistance was infrequent; however, all metronidazole or clarithromycin resistances were cured with 12- and 14-day therapies. These results suggest that in regions of moderate to low clarithromycin and/or metronidazole resistance it may be feasible to shorten hybrid therapy to 10 or 12 days. Further study is needed to compare hybrid and concomitant therapy in regions with moderate-to-high clarithromycin and/or metronidazole resistance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and typhoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, A.M.; Verspaget, H.W.; Ali, S.; Visser, L.G.; Veenendaal, R.A.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van; Widjaja, S.; Surjadi, C.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the association between typhoid fever and Helicobacter pylori infection, as the latter microorganism may influence gastric acid secretion and consequently increase susceptibility to Salmonella typhi infection. Anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA antibody titres (ELISA) and gastrin concentration

  16. SURVIVAL OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN A NATURAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode by which Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of most gastric ulcers, is transmitted remains undetermined. Epidemiological evidence suggests these organisms are waterborne; however, H. pylori has rarely been grown from potential water sources. This may be due to th...

  17. Correlation of Serum Anti- Helicobacter pylori Immunoglobulin A (IGA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgA antibodies has been reported to vary among populations and in relation to strains of Helicobacter pylori bacterium. However, there has been conflicting reports on the association between IgA serological status and the histological variables of chronic gastritis. This study ...

  18. correlation of serum anti-helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin a (iga)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. It is now established that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is believed to be the commonest bacterial infection of man, is the major causative agent of chronic gastritis.1 This chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa which is histologically characterized by mucosal infiltration by plasma cells has been ...

  19. Therapeutic options after failed Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Weel, J. F.; van der Ende, A.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many of the currently used Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens fail to cure 5-20% of the patients. Those patients will remain at risk of developing a potentially fatal complication of peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, a new attempt to cure H. pylori infection after initial failure of

  20. The impact of Helicobacter pylori on atopic disorders in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Holster (Ingrid); A.J. Vila (Anne J.); D. Caudri (Daan); C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); G.I. Perez; M.J. Blaser (Martin J.); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Western populations has steadily decreased. This has been suggested as one of the factors involved in the recent increase of asthma and allergy. Some studies have reported a negative association between H. pylori and asthma and

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAn estimated 4 to 5 million individuals in the Netherlands are actively infected with Helicobacter pylori. Eradication of this bacterium becomes more difficult as the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide. Most H. pylori infections are now diagnosed by

  2. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with the Lewis and ABO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a basic risk factor for chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Based on some studies, the reason is binding of H. pylori to H and Leb antigens in gastric mucosa. However, some other findings have not determined any association between the infection and these antigens.

  3. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections: Mitigating factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... basis of novel low cost, efficient, large-scale and alternative/complementary solutions with minimal side effects to decrease or eradicate ... Key words: Helicobacter pylori, treatment regimen, factors affecting treatment, alternative approaches, .... treatment for H. pylori infection has been fraught with difficulty.

  4. Prevalence Of Helicobacter pylori In Gastric Biopsies Of Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection as seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Benin City Nigeria was 16% which was significant using the students T-test (P<0.05). Eighty one gastric biopsy specimens received in the microbiology laboratory were cultured on chocolate agar. Of the H. pylori ...

  5. Helicobacter Pylori –Infected Patients | Eltayeb | Sudan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of Helicobacter pylori on gastric carcinogenesis is still unclear but it is considered to predispose carriers to gastric cancer. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the extent of DNA damage of normal gastric epithelial cells and H. Pylori positive & negative gastritis ...

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection: past, present and future | Jemilohun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by Warren and Marshall in 1982 was preceded by nearly a hundred year of inconspicuous publications in regard to spiral bacteria, achlorhydria, gastritis, gastric urease, and antimicrobial therapy for peptic ulcers. The infection has now been implicated in the etiopathogenesis ...

  7. Why do we still have Helicobacter Pylori in our Stomachs

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Ierardi, Enzo; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2015-01-01

    The existence of any infectious agent in a highly acidic human stomach is contentious, but the chance finding of Helicobacter pylori is by no means an accident. Once H. pylori colonises the gastric mucosa, it can persist for a lifetime, and it is intriguing why our immune system is able to tolerate its existence. Some conditions favour the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, but other conditions oppose the colonisation of this bacterium. Populations with high and extremely low prevalence...

  8. Evidence of mother-child transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar,Mario Luis; Kawakami,Elisabete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomical status is a major risk factor for natural acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in developing countries. Its transmission route is unknown but studies suggest person-to-person transmission. AIM: To evaluate seropositivity of anti-H. pylori antibodies in family members of infected symptomatic index patients as compared to family members of symptomatic uninfected index patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve family members of 38 ...

  9. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Ontario: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Naja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has been classified by the World Health Organization as a type I carcinogen. Nearly 50% of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with H pylori. Prevalence patterns of the infection are different between developing and developed countries. The present study had two objectives – to estimate the prevalence of H pylori infection in Ontario, and to evaluate the relationship between the infection and various demographic characteristics and selected lifestyle factors.

  10. "Targeted disruption of the epithelial-barrier by Helicobacter pylori"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and induces chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric cancer. Through cell-cell contacts the gastric epithelium forms a barrier to protect underlying tissue from pathogenic bacteria; however, H. pylori have evolved numerous strategies to perturb the integrity of the gastric barrier. In this review, we summarize recent research into the mechanisms through which H. pylori disrupts intercellular junctions and disrupts the gastric epithelial barrier.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Associated Lymphocytic Gastritis in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Jeong; Eom, Dae Woon; Park, Kieyoung

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) is a rare subtype of chronic gastritis. It is defined as dense proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) more than 25 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells. The known major causes of LG are celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori associated LG (HpLG) has more enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic tendencies than chronic H. pylori gastritis. A 12-year-old girl with postprandial epigastric pain was diagnosed HpLG on endoscopic biopsy. After the...

  12. Review: clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been associated with gastric disorders. The situation of H. pylori infection in China-where a high prevalence of H. pylori infection, a high incidence of gastric cancer, and widespread resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin exist-is quite different from that in Western countries. In order for Chinese clinicians to better manage H. pylori infection, a Chinese Study Group on H. pylori published four consensus reports regarding the management of H. pylori infection in China between 1999 and 2012. The eradication rate with standard triple therapy was pylori in China in recent years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Analysis of the infection status of saliva Helicobacter pylori in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Che, Tuanjie; Ju, Jun; Yang, Sen; He, Xiangyi; Zhang, Ying

    2014-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of saliva Helicobacter pylori in Lanzhou and investigate Helicobacter pylori-related diseases. Helicobacter pylori was detected through bacterial culture, Gram stain microscopy, and urease test from saliva samples collected from 941 residents of Lanzhou. The infection rate and growth of Helicobacter pylori among the residents were analyzed in terms of different oral health conditions, oral disease, gender, urban and rural status, and age. The rate of Helicobacter pylori-positive saliva in Lanzhou was 42.72%. The status of Helicobacter pylori infection showed significant difference among subjects with different oral hygiene and oral diseases. The rate of Helicobacter pylori-positive saliva among females was 47.89%, which was greater compared with the rate among males (38.45%, P = 0.004, chi2 = 8.492). The rate of Helicobacter pylori-positive saliva in the town was 33.99%, which was less than the rate for the villages (50.93%, P = 0.000, chi2 = 27.551). The rate of Helicobacter pylori-positive saliva among residents aged 10 to 59 showed a flat trend with no significant differences. However, the rate of Helicobacter pylori-positive saliva among residents over 60 years old showed a significant increase. No significant difference was found in the growth of saliva Helicobacter pylori (P = 0.086). The rate of Helicobacter pylori-positive saliva is related to the subjects' oral hygiene, oral disease, gender, age, and living conditions.

  14. Significance of dormant forms of Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Reshetnyak, Tatiana Magomedalievna

    2017-01-01

    Nearly half of the global population are carriers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in the healthy human stomach. H. pylori can be a pathogen and causes development of peptic ulcer disease in a certain state of the macroorganism. It is well established that H. pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Decontamination of the gastric mucosa with various antibiotics leads to H. pylori elimination and longer remission in this disease. However, the reasons for repeated detection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD after its successful eradication remain unclear. The reason for the redetection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD can be either reinfection or ineffective anti-Helicobacter therapy. The administration of antibacterial drugs can lead not only to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms, but also contribute to the conversion of H. pylori into the resting (dormant) state. The dormant forms of H. pylori have been shown to play a potential role in the development of relapses of PUD. The paper discusses morphological H. pylori forms, such as S-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped, and coccoid ones. The authors proposes the classification of H. pylori according to its morphological forms and viability. PMID:28785141

  15. Effects of Community Screening for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, Maria; Hansen, Jane Møller; Wildner-Christensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication improves the prognosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), dyspepsia, and possibly gastric cancer. Hp screening tests are accurate and eradication therapy is effective. Hp population screening seems attractive. The aim of this study was to evaluate...... the long-term effect of Hp population screening and eradication on dyspepsia prevalence and the incidence of PUD, and as secondary outcomes to assess the effect on health-care consumption and quality of life. METHODS: At baseline in 1998-1999 20,011 individuals aged 40-65 years were randomized to Hp...... screening and eradication or a control group with no screening. Both groups received a questionnaire on dyspepsia and quality of life. Register data were obtained for all randomized individuals. RESULTS: Baseline questionnaire response rate was 63%. Of the 5,749 screened, 1,007 (17.5%) individuals were Hp...

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first...... degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested...... with a rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole...

  17. CONVENTIONAL VIDEOENDOSCOPY CAN IDENTIFY HELICOBACTER PYLORI GASTRITIS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alexandre; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Prestes, Manoel Alberto; Costa, Maiza da Silva; Petisco, Roberta Dombroski; Ramos, Gabriela Piovezani

    2016-01-01

    Studies with latest technologies such as endoscopy with magnification and chromoendoscopy showed that various endoscopic aspects are clearly related to infection by Helicobacter pylori (HP). The description of different patterns of erythema in gastric body under magnification of images revived interest in identifying these patterns by standard endoscopy. To validate the morphologic features of gastric mucosa related to H. pylori infection gastritis allowing predictability of their diagnosis as well as proper targeting biopsies. Prospective study of 339 consecutive patients with the standard videoendoscope image analysis were obtained, recorded and stored in a program database. These images were studied with respect to the presence or absence of H. pylori, diagnosed by rapid urease test and/or by histological analysis. Were studied: a) normal mucosa appearance; b) mucosal nodularity; c) diffuse nonspecific erythema or redness (with or without edema of folds and exudate) of antrum and body; d) mosaic pattern with focal area of hyperemia; e) erythema in streaks or bands (red streak); f) elevated (raised) erosion; g) flat erosions; h) fundic gland polyps. The main exclusion criteria were the use of drugs, HP pre-treatment and other entities that could affect results. Applying the exclusion criteria, were included 170 of the 339 patients, of which 52 (30.58%) were positive for HP and 118 negative. On the positive findings, the most associated with infection were: nodularity in the antrum (26.92%); presence of raised erosion (15.38%) and mosaic mucosa in the body (21.15%). On the negative group the normal appearance of the mucosa was 66.94%; erythema in streaks or bands in 9.32%; flat erosions 11.86%; and fundic gland polyps 11.86%. Endoscopic findings are useful in the predictability of the result and in directing biopsies. The most representative form of HP related gastritis was the nodularity of the antral mucosa. The raised erosion and mucosa in mosaic in the body

  18. 16S rRNA mutation-mediated tetracycline resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique); M.R. de Zoete; N.L.A. Arents (Niek); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost Helicobacter pylori strains are susceptible to tetracycline, an antibiotic commonly used for the eradication of H. pylori. However, an increase in incidence of tetracycline resistance in H. pylori has recently been reported. Here the mechanism of tetracycline

  19. Helicobacter pylori y dispepsia, un problema de salud comunitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel González-Carbajal Pascual

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Mientras la relación causal entre el Helicobacter pylori y la gastritis crónica, así como la importante conexión entre esta infección, la úlcera gastroduodenal y el cáncer gástrico han sido bien establecidas, la asociación entre la infección por Helicobacter pylori y la dispepsia "no ulcerosa" es un problema que dista mucho de estar esclarecido. Hay autores que no dudan en utilizar tratamiento de erradicación en la dispepsia "no ulcerosa" con Helicobacter pylori, pero existen enfoques alternativos a este problema. La realización de tratamiento de erradicación en los pacientes con dispepsia "no ulcerosa" pudiera beneficiar o no a los enfermos y a la comunidad, pero seguramente no puede dejar de beneficiar a las transnacionales productoras de medicamentos que cosechan cuantiosas ganancias con la comercialización de los bloqueadores de la bomba de protones y los antibióticos que se incluyen en cualquier esquema de terapia erradicadora de la infección por Helicobacter pylori. El alivio de los síntomas dispépticos como consecuencia del tratamiento de erradicación del Helicobacter pylori no ha sido comprobado. El problema de realizar tratamiento de erradicación de la infección a los pacientes con dispepsia "no ulcerosa" continúa siendo un dilema y, por tanto, no debe indicarse sistemáticamente.Although the causative relationship between Helicobacter pylori and chronic gastritis as well as the important connection of this infection with gastric-duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer are well established, the association of Helicobacter pylori infection and non-ulcer dispepsia is a problem that is still unclear. Some authors do not hesitate in using Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment in cases of non-ulcer dispepsia but there are other alternative approaches to this problem. The eradication treatment in patients with non-ulcer dispepsia may or may not benefit patients and the community, but will benefit for sure the big drug

  20. Non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters detected in the stomach of humans comprise several naturally occurring Helicobacter species in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baele, Margo; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2009-04-01

    Besides the well-known gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, other Helicobacter species with a spiral morphology have been detected in a minority of human patients who have undergone gastroscopy. The very fastidious nature of these non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH) makes their in vitro isolation difficult. These organisms have been designated 'Helicobacter heilmannii'. However, sequencing of several genes detected in NHPH-infected tissues has shown that the 'H. heilmannii' group comprises at least five different Helicobacter species, all of them known to colonize the stomach of animals. Recent investigations have indicated that Helicobacter suis is the most prevalent NHPH species in human. This species has only recently been isolated in vitro from porcine stomach mucosa. Other NHPH that colonize the human stomach are Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter salomonis and 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii'. In numerous case reports of human gastric NHPH infections, no substantial information is available about the species status of the infecting strain, making it difficult to link the species with certain pathologies. This review aims to clarify the complex nomenclature of NHPH species associated with human gastric disease and their possible animal origin. It is proposed to use the term 'gastric NHPH' to designate gastric spirals that are morphologically different from H. pylori when no identification is available at the species level. Species designations should be reserved for those situations in which the species is defined.

  1. Alopecia areata is not associated with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hafez Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is an immune-mediated form of hair loss that occurs in all ethnic groups, ages, and both sexes. Helicobacter pylori has been associated with many extra-digestive dermatological conditions. The causal relation between alopecia areata and Helicobacter pylori is discussed in this study. Materials and Methods: We have screened for the presence of H. pylori in patients with AA, in order to determine any potential role in its patho-physiology. We have prospectively studied 31 patients with alopecia areata and 24 healthy volunteers of similar gender, for the presence of H. pylori stool antigen (HpSAg. Results: Optical density values for H. pylori infection was positive in 18 of the 31 patients evaluated (58.1%, while in 13 patients, the values did not support H. pylori infection (41.9%. In the control group, 10 of the 24 (41.7% had positive results. Within the group of alopecia areata, there was no significant difference between HpSAg positive and negative patients. Conclusions: The results have shown that a relation between Helicobacter pylori and alopecia areata is not supported. We advise that H. pylori detection need not to be included in the laboratory work up of alopecia areata.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Céu; Seruca, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... pathways. As such, this review highlights the consequences of H. pylori infection on the integrity of DNA in the host cells. By down-regulating major DNA repair pathways, H. pylori infection has the potential to generate mutations. In addition, H. pylori infection can induce direct changes on the DNA...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  3. Current Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Gold

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infects approximately 50% of the world’s population and is a definitive cause of gastroduodenal disease (ie, gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers in children and adults. Four consensus conferences held around the globe have brought together clinicians, scientists, epidemiologists and health care economists to discuss the role of the gastric pathogen H pylori in human gastroduodenal disease. At each of these conferences, the overriding objective was to reach a consensus on the development of practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of H pylori-infected individuals. However, it was not until the Canadian H pylori Consensus Conference, held in November 1997, that the issues of H pylori infection in children were addressed. Therapies for H pylori infection in children, presented in part at the First Canadian Paediatric H pylori Consensus Conference, held in Victoria, British Columbia, November 1998, are reviewed in this paper.

  4. Relationship of Halitosis with Gastric Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    HajiFattahi, Farnaz; Hesari, Maryam; Zojaji, Homayoun; Sarlati, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori may be one of the main causes of halitosis. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection with halitosis. Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 44 dyspeptic patients with a mean age of 34.29±13.71 years (range 17 to 76 years). The case group included 22 patients with halitosis and no signs of diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure, upper respiratory tract infection, malignancies, deep carious teeth, severe periodontitis, coated tongue, dry mouth or poor oral hygiene. Control group included 22 patients without halitosis and the same age, sex, systemic and oral conditions as the case group. Halitosis was evaluated using organoleptic test (OLT) and Helicobacter pylori infection was evaluated by Rapid Urease Test (RUT) during endoscopy. The data were statistically analyzed using chi square, Mann Whitney and t-tests. Results: Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in 20 (91%) out of 22 halitosis patients, and 7 control subjects (32%) (P<0.001). Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori gastric infection can be a cause of bad breath. Dentists should pay more attention to this infection and refer these patients to internists to prevent further gastrointestinal (GI) complications and probable malignancies. PMID:26622273

  5. [Helicobacter pylori infection in children with celiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimpu, Silvia; Bozomitu, Laura; Cârdei, E; Oltean, Carmen; Burlacu, M; Anton, Dana; Trandafir, Laura; Mihăilă, Doina; Moraru, D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate symptomatology, endoscopic and histopathologic changes of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastritis lesions without Helicobacter pylori infection on children diagnosed with celiac disease. 15 children under gluten-free diet were selected and, because of the recurrence of the dyspeptic syndrome, an upper digestive endoscopy associated with histopathologic exam was performed. Considering the histopathologic result we made two groups: first group (8 children with celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection) and second group (7 children with celiac disease without Helicobacter pylori infection, but associated with gastritis lesions). The main symptom was diffuse abdominal pain in both groups. The endoscopic antrum aspects were congestive with striped aspect (first group--12.5%, second group--42.9%) and congestive with nodulation (first group--25%, second group--14.3%). The histopathologic diagnosis were: moderate active chronic pangastritis (first group--25%, second group--14.3%) moderate active chronic gastritis (first group--25%,second group--14.3%), lymphocytic gastritis (first group--12.5%, second group--14.3%). The histopathologic exam remains the gold standard for celiac disease, gastritis lesions and Helicobacter pylori infection.

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shokrzadeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection has been known to be associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, the relationship between H. pylori infection and dyspeptic symptoms remains controversial. Furthermore, it is still not clear which factors are associated with H. pylori infection in the Iranian population. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients and factors associated with H. pylori infection in the Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 303 patients with dyspeptic symptoms underwent endoscopy. Clinical data and a questionnaire about gastrointestinal symptoms were collected from each patient. H. pylori status was evaluated by histological examination. Among the 303 patients, 263 (86.8% were found to be positive for H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylori infection decreased significantly with age. There was no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between the patients with and those without a family history of gastroduodenal diseases. Among 250 patients with abdominal pain, 219 (87.6% were infected with H. pylori. Among 211 patients with epigastric abdominal pain, 185 (87.7% were infected with H. pylori. It was observed that belching was significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P = 0.03. Dyspepsia triggered by the consumption of tea was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (P = 0.03. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was quite high in Iran. Belching and dyspepsia triggered by tea consumption was related with H. pylori infection.

  7. Acid-Adaptive Genes of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Matrubutham, Uday; Gleeson, Martin A.; Scott, David R.; Sachs, George

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the only neutralophile that has been able to colonize the human stomach by using a variety of acid-adaptive mechanisms. One of the adaptive mechanisms is increased buffering due to expression of an acid-activated inner membrane urea channel, UreI, and a neutral pH-optimum intrabacterial urease. To delineate other possible adaptive mechanisms, changes in gene expression in response to acid exposure were examined using genomic microarrays of H. pylori exposed to different levels of external pH (7.4, 6.2, 5.5, and 4.5) for 30 min in the absence and presence of 5 mM urea. Gene expression was correlated with intrabacterial pH measured using 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-carboxyfluorescein and compared to that observed with exposure to 42°C for 30 min. Microarrays containing the 1,534 open reading frames of H. pylori strain 26695 were hybridized with cDNAs from control (pH 7.4; labeled with Cy3) and acidic (labeled with Cy5) conditions. The intrabacterial pH was 8.1 at pH 7.4, fell to 5.3 at pH 4.5, and rose to 6.2 with urea. About 200 genes were up-regulated and ∼100 genes were down-regulated at pH 4.5 in the absence of urea, and about half that number changed in the presence of urea. These genes included pH-homeostatic, transcriptional regulatory, motility, cell envelope, and pathogenicity genes. The up-regulation of some pH-homeostatic genes was confirmed by real-time PCR. There was little overlap with the genes induced by temperature stress. These results suggest that H. pylori has evolved multifaceted acid-adaptive mechanisms enabling it to colonize the stomach that may be novel targets for eliminating infection. PMID:14500513

  8. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Hamza; Selimoglu, Mukadder A; Otlu, Baris; Yildirim, Ozge; Ozer, Ali

    2014-05-01

    There are limited data regarding the pattern of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in children. Evaluation of prevalence of drug resistance and virulence-factor genotype in children with Hp gastritis and to investigate whether there is any relation between drug resistance and genotype were our aims in this study. Ninety-eight children with polymerase chain reaction-positive Hp gastritis were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction assays were used for the determination of virulence factors. The resistance rates to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 23.5%, 11.7%, and 3.9%, respectively. All strains carried vacA genotype, and 51%, 70.4%, 49%, 34.7%, and 25.5% were cagA-, cagE-, babA2-, iceA1-, and iceA2-positive, respectively. Of those 98 specimens, 81.6%, 19.4%, 38.8%, and 63.3% carried vacAs1, vacAs2, vacAm1, and vacAm2, respectively. Dominant vacA type was s1am2 (32.7%), followed by s1am1 (14.3%) and s2m2 (12.2%). Significant rates of clarithromycin resistance were observed in cagE-, iceA1-, babA2-, and vacAs1c-positive groups. In those with metronidazole resistance, vacAs1 and vacAs1c were more common (P < 0.05). The cagE-positive and vacA s1a/m2 genotypes, which are correlated with increased antibiotic resistance, were predominant in our population. In countries where Hp infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  10. Improved Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rate of Tailored Triple Therapy by Adding Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus in Northeast Region of Thailand: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Tongtawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus to Helicobacter pylori eradication in different periods of therapeutic protocol. Methods. Infected patients were randomized to one-week tailored triple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid/metronidazole 400 mg tid if clarithromycin resistant, and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid with placebo (group 1, n=100; one week of pretreatment with probiotics (group 2, n=100; and one week of pretreatment with probiotic followed by one week of the same probiotics after treatment (group 3, n=100. Result. PP analysis involved 292 patients, 98 in group 1, 97 in group 2, and 97 in group 3. Successful eradication was observed in 229 patients; by PP analysis, the eradication rates were significantly higher (P<0.01, 95% CI; 0.71–0.97 in group 2 and group 3 than group 1. ITT analysis eradication rates were significantly higher in group 2 and group 3 than group 1 (P<0.01 95% CI; 0.72–0.87, and there is no significant difference between the three groups (P=0.32 in terms of adverse events. Conclusion. Adding probiotics before or before and after tailored treatment can improve Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. This trial is registered with Thai Clinical Trials Registry number: TCTR20141209001.

  11. Investigating the Effect of Periodontal Treatment on Recurrence of Dyspepsia Caused by Helicobacter Pylori

    OpenAIRE

    A Haerian-Ardakani; H Salman Roghani; M Nourelahi; Y Asadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Helicobacter Pylori has a major documented role in gastric and duodenal ulcer. It is assumed that dental plaque might be a reservoir for Helicobacter pylori. Thus, the purpose of this study was to find a possible relationship between presence of H. Pylori in dental plaque, gastritis and periodontitis. Methods:Sixty patients with symptoms of gastritis and periodontitis participated in our study in whom the presence of Helicobacter Pylori was confirmed in both stool test and d...

  12. Extremely high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Shiota, Seiji; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Tung, Nguyen Lam; Fujioka, Toshio; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-05-14

    To revealed the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the Bhutanese population. We recruited a total of 372 volunteers (214 females and 158 males; mean age of 39.6 ± 14.9 years) from three Bhutanese cities (Thimphu, Punaka, and Wangdue). The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on five different tests: the rapid urease test (CLO test), culture, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and serum anti H. pylori-antibody. The serological test showed a significantly higher positive rate compared with the CLO test, culture, histology and IHC (P Bhutan was 73.4%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection significantly decreased with age (P Bhutan may be attributed to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection: New pathogenetic and clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than half of the world’s human population, but only 1% to 3% of infected people consequently develop gastric adenocarcinomas. The clinical outcome of the infection is determined by host genetic predisposition, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental factors. The association between H. pylori infection and chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been well established. With the exception of unexplained iron deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, H. pylori infection has no proven role in extraintestinal diseases. On the other hand, there is data showing that H. pylori infection could be beneficial for some human diseases. The unpredictability of the long-term consequences of H. pylori infection and the economic challenge in eradicating it is why identification of high-risk individuals is crucial. PMID:24914360

  14. Extraintestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori: A concise review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frank; Rayner-Hartley, Erin; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been clearly linked to peptic ulcer disease and some gastrointestinal malignancies. Increasing evidence demonstrates possible associations to disease states in other organ systems, known as the extraintestinal manifestations of H. pylori. Different conditions associated with H. pylori infection include those from hematologic, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, neurologic, and dermatologic systems. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of the evidence that supports or refutes the associations of H. pylori and its proposed extraintestinal manifestations. Based on data from the literature, PUD, mucosal associated lymphoid tumors lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma has well-established links. Current evidence most supports extraintestinal manifestations with H. pylori in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, urticaria, Parkinson’s, migraines and rosacea; however, there is still plausible link with other diseases that requires further research. PMID:25232230

  15. Relationship of Halitosis with Gastric Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz HajiFattahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori may be one of the main causes of halitosis. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of Heli- cobacter pylori infection with halitosis.Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 44 dyspeptic patients with a mean age of 34.29±13.71 years (range 17 to 76 years. The case group included 22 patients with halitosis and no signs of diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure, upper respiratory tract infection, malignancies, deep carious teeth, severe  periodontitis,  coated  tongue,  dry  mouth  or poor  oral  hygiene.  Control group included 22 patients without halitosis and the same age, sex, systemic and oral conditions as the case group. Halitosis was evaluated using organoleptic test (OLT and Helicobacter pylori infection was evaluated by Rapid Urease Test (RUT during endoscopy. The data were statistically analyzed using chi square, Mann Whitney and t-tests.Results: Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in 20 (91% out of 22 halitosis patients, and 7 control subjects (32% (P<0.001.Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori gastric infection can be a cause of bad breath. Dentists should pay more attention to this infection and refer these patients to in- ternists to prevent further gastrointestinal (GI complications and probable malig- nancies.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Update: Gastric Cancer, Reliable Therapy, and Possible Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    David Y Graham

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to development of diverse gastric and extra-gastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, so there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associa...

  17. The effect of Helicobacter pylori on asthma and allergy

    OpenAIRE

    D?Elios, Mario Milco

    2010-01-01

    Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially eli...

  18. Helicobacter pylori in humans: Where are we now?

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Arshad Hussain; Shamila Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been associated with colonization of gastro duodenal mucosa of humans from millions of years. The main burden of the disese is in the developing countries, due to overcrowding and poor hygiene. If left untreated it leads to lot of sequlae from minor to sinister diseases over a period of time. The main challenges that remain are prevention of H. pylori-related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine, which can address all th...

  19. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa’s cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important...

  20. Helicobacter pylori and its Association with Gastric and Oesophageal Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Simán, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common infections in man. The infection is often acquired during childhood and usually results in a chronic life-long inflammation in the gastric mucosa. The aim of our studies was to investigate the association between H. pylori seropositivity and the development of gastric and oesophageal carcinomas. Nested case-control studies were performed in the Malmö Preventive Medicine cohort consisting of 32,906 subjects. Tumour cases were identified by the Swed...

  1. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    It is accepted that the success of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment using standard triple therapy is declining. Resistance, particularly to clarithromycin, has been shown in numerous countries to be rising to a level where the use of standard triple therapy in its current form may no longer be justified. The two major factors influencing resistance are prior exposure to the antibiotic and compliance with therapy. Regimes based on bismuth and levofloxacin, which had previously been mainly second-line options, are now emerging as superior first-line options. Trials of sequential and concomitant therapies are also showing the usefulness of these treatments in different populations. Options for third and subsequent line therapies include furazolidone and rifabutin-based regimes. Susceptibility testing should be performed to maintain accurate data on resistance levels, and has also clinical utility in difficult to eradicate cases. None of these, however, will be successful unless compliance is improved upon. If compliance is assured and eradication confirmation pursued, it has been repeatedly illustrated that near full eradication is achievable.

  2. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    This review summarizes important studies regarding Helicobacter pylori therapy published from April 2012 up to March 2013. To begin with, the updated European Consensus Guidelines were published last year, highlighting the role of bismuth and nonbismuth quadruple regimen as first-line treatments. Cure rates for standard triple therapy remain acceptable in quite a few settings nowadays, and some reports on innovative triple therapies look promising. One study evaluating bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line therapy was reported. Regarding nonbismuth quadruple regimens, there is a trend of superiority emerging for the "concomitant" therapy over the "sequential" regimen. "Hybrid" therapy, a combination of sequential and concomitant therapy, has also shown advantage over sequential therapy. Levofloxacin-based therapies appear to be useful and versatile in second- and third-line therapies, with interesting results for newer generation quinolones, which may partially overcome antibiotic resistance. Some promising works have been reported for bismuth-based rescue therapy, using individualized therapies upon antimicrobial information, as well as for rifabutin fourth-line therapy. Probiotics appear to have an effect in terms of reducing side effects and improving compliance, but data on improvement of eradication rates remain controversial.

  3. Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin A and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassow Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract VacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin A of Helicobacter pylori, induces apoptosis in epithelial cells of the gastic mucosa and in leukocytes. VacA is released by the bacteria as a protein of 88 kDa. At the outer surface of host cells, it binds to the sphingomyelin of lipid rafts. At least partially, binding to the cells is facilitated by different receptor proteins. VacA is internalized by a clathrin-independent mechanism and initially accumulates in GPI-anchored proteins-enriched early endosomal compartments. Together with early endosomes, VacA is distributed inside the cells. Most of the VacA is eventually contained in the membranes of vacuoles. VacA assembles in hexameric oligomers forming an anion channel of low conductivity with a preference for chloride ions. In parallel, a significant fraction of VacA can be transferred from endosomes to mitochondria in a process involving direct endosome-mitochondria juxtaposition. Inside the mitochondria, VacA accumulates in the mitochondrial inner membrane, probably forming similar chloride channels as observed in the vacuoles. Import into mitochondria is mediated by the hydrophobic N-terminus of VacA. Apoptosis is triggered by loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, recruitment of Bax and Bak, and release of cytochrome c.

  4. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  5. Helicobacter pylori in humans: Where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arshad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been associated with colonization of gastro duodenal mucosa of humans from millions of years. The main burden of the disese is in the developing countries, due to overcrowding and poor hygiene. If left untreated it leads to lot of sequlae from minor to sinister diseases over a period of time. The main challenges that remain are prevention of H. pylori-related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine, which can address all these issues including beneficial aspects of H. pylori. The literature pertaining to different aspects of H. pylori were scrutinized from Pubmed. Material on clinical behavior, complications of chronic gastric involvement, and prevention besides role of H. pylori in nongastric diseases and the latest trends of management was collected for research and review. We continue to face many challenges.The prevention of cancer of the stomach, a worst sequlae of H. pylori continues to be a big challenge despite population screening and prevention surveys being underway in many countries. On the other hand continued scientific work has now unfolded involvement of H. pylori in extragastric diseases like cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, sideroblastic anemia, mental diseases, and collagen vascular diseases. In contrast, the beneficial effects of H. pylori with respect to allergic diseases and obesity are now clear. Moreover, problem of drug resistance for eradication of H. pylori has arisen for which novel treatments are being tried. Lactobacillus reuteri having anti H. pylori action is emerging as one of the promising treatment.

  6. Association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wu, Junbei; Zhang, Guoxin

    2013-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is recognized as a worldwide public health threat. Some studies have suggested that individuals with asthma have a lower rate of H. pylori infection, but the relation remains controversial. This meta-analysis was carried out to quantify the association between H. pylori infection and asthma. Published information on the prevalence of H. pylori in individuals with asthma was collected to assess the potential associations between H. pylori infection and the risk of asthma. Fourteen eligible studies were selected for analysis. Data on the study populations, detection method of H. pylori, and publication year were summarized. Meta-regression models and subgroup analyses were established to screen the factors resulting in heterogeneity. Of the 106 articles retrieved, 14 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The 14 studies involved 28 283 patients, with a total H. pylori infection rate of 40.53%. This meta-analysis found a significantly lower rate of H. pylori infection in the asthmatics than in the controls (odds ratio=0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.96, P=0.013). Subgroup analysis indicated a similar infection rate of CagA-positive H. pylori infection in the asthmatic group and the control group (odds ratio=0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.41-1.28, P=0.03). The pooled data suggest that asthmatics have a significantly lower rate of H. pylori infection. Large-scale and multicenter studies should be carried out to further determine the relation between this bacterium and allergic disorders.

  7. Animal Model Reveals Potential Waterborne Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne H. pylori could cause gastric infection. Groups of immunocompetent C57/BL6 Helicobacter-free mice were exposed to static concentrations (1.29 × 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) CFU/L) of H. pylori in their drinking water for 4 weeks. One group of Helicobacter-free mice was exposed to uncontaminated water as a negative control. H. pylori morphology changes in water were examined using microscopy Live/Dead staining. Following exposure, H. pylori infection and inflammation status in the stomach were evaluated using quantitative culture, PCR, the rapid urease test, and histology. None of the mice in the negative control or 10(5) groups were infected. One of 20 cages (one of 40 mice) of the 10(6) group, three of 19 cages (four of 38 mice) of the 10(7) CFU/L group, 19 of 20 cages (33 of 40 mice) of the 10(8) group, and 20 of 20 cages (39 of 40 mice) of the 10(9) CFU/L group were infected. Infected mice had significantly higher gastric inflammation than uninfected mice (27.86% higher inflammation, p pylori in water is infectious in mice, suggesting that humans drinking contaminated water may be at risk of contracting H. pylori infection. Much work needs to be performed to better understand the risk of infection from drinking H. pylori-contaminated water. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. "Helicobacter Pylori" Infection in Five Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Vemuri, Murali; Gunatilake, Deepthi; Tewari, Sidhartha

    2008-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of "Helicobacter pylori" infection has been reported among people with intellectual disability, especially those residing in hospital and similar settings. Surveys of inpatients have found unusually high rates of gastrointestinal malignancy, to which "H. pylori" infection predisposes. Methods: "Helicobacter pylori"…

  9. Helicobacter pylori - a seasoned pathogen by any other name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Niyaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a well known inhabitant of human stomach which is linked to peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. It was recently shown in several studies that H. pylori can be harnessed as a surrogate marker of human migration and that its population structure and stratification patterns exactly juxtapose to those of Homo sapiens. This is enough a testimony to convey that H. pylori may have coevolved with their host. Several protective effects of H. pylori colonization have been considered as evidence of a presumed symbiotic relationship. Contrary to this assumption is the presence of a strong virulence apparatus within H. pylori; why a co-evolved parasite would try inflicting its host with serious infection and even causing cancer? The answer is perhaps embedded in the evolutionary history of both the bacterium and the host. We discuss a hypothetical scenario wherein H. pylori may have acquired virulence genes from donors within its environment that varied with change in human history and ecology. The H. pylori genomes sequenced to date portray fairly high abundance of such laterally acquired genes which have no assigned functions but could be linked to inflammatory responses or other pathogenic attributes. Therefore, the powerful virulence properties and survival strategies of Helicobacter make it a seasoned pathogen; thus the efforts to portray it as a commensal or a (harmless 'bacterial parasite' need rethinking.

  10. Reduced genome size of Helicobacter pylori originating from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Wang, Li-Li; Tian, Zi-Bing; Yu, Xin-Jun; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major pathogen colonizing the human stomach, shows great genetic variation. Comparative analysis of strains from different H. pylori populations revealed that the genome size of strains from East Asia decreased to 1.60 Mbp, which is significantly smaller than that from Europe or Africa. In parallel with the genome reduction, the number of protein coding genes was decreased, and the guanine-cytosine content was lowered to 38.9%. Elimination of non-essential genes by mutations is likely to be a major cause of the genome reduction. Bacteria with a small genome cost less energy. Thus, H. pylori strains from East Asia may have proliferation and growth advantages over those from Western countries. This could result in enhanced capacity of bacterial spreading. Therefore, the reduced genome size potentially contributes to the high prevalence of H. pylori in East Asia.

  11. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Tsukamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents.

  12. Helicobacter pylori eradication - an update on the latest therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, Julian; Chakravarty, Bhaskar

    2014-05-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can be challenging in certain circumstances. There is no current first-line therapy that is curative in all patients. This article summaries the role of emerging novel therapies in the treatment of 
H. pylori. Known as sequential therapy and salvage therapy, these new therapeutic strategies are thought to produce eradication rates superior to currently recommended first-line therapies. This article outlines the growing body of evidence supporting their efficacy. Sequential therapy and salvage therapy have emerged recently as alternative regimens for the eradication of H. pylori. Although current guidelines continue to recommend established therapies for first-line management of H. pylori, general practitioners should be aware of these new strategies such that these options could be applied when traditional therapy fails.

  13. NOD1-Mediated Mucosal Host Defense against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 in gastric epithelial cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against H. pylori. The detection of H. pylori-derived ligands by cytosolic NOD1 induces several host defense factors, including antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanisms by which NOD1 contributes to mucosal host defense against H. pylori infection of the stomach.

  14. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Mitsuru; Kiriyama, Yuka; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cao, Xueyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents. PMID:28771198

  15. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  16. Anti- Helicobacter pylori Effects Of The Methanol Extracts Of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulb is of considerable importance in African cooking and in salads . Various species have been reported to have anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolaemic, fibrinolytic, anti-ulcer and diuretic potentials. Crude methanol extracts of Allium ascalonicum bulb was screened against three strains of Helicobacter pylori (UCH 97001, ...

  17. Helicobacter pylori in childhood : aspects of prevalence, diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad-Baars, Petronella Elisabeth Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we present the results of our research on Helicobacter pylori infections in childhood, focusing on the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of the infection. Our studies were conducted in the Netherlands, Europe and Indonesia. We discuss diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens,

  18. Comparative study of methods of diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Diagnostic tests currently in use for the detection of Helicobacter pylori have been classified into either non-invasive or invasive categories, with each having its merits and demerits, as well as superiority over the other depending on the clinical setting. This study compared the accuracy of the ...

  19. Seroprevalance of Helicobacter pylori amongst anti retroviral naive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives: HIV Infection at any stage alters patients' immunity. The pattern of several diseases including incidence and prevalence has changed due to the HIV pandemic. Infections, infestations and malignancies present more frequently and often in an unusual pattern. Helicobacter pylori is the main cause ...

  20. Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on the prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infection with Helicobacter pylori infection is widespread in our environment. However, whether this fact has any bearing on the prevalence and pattern of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) system in our population of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients has not been much studied. Aim: We ...

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis | Ebule | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori-infection associated gastritis is known to be a significant risk factor of gastric cancer. Serum levels of Gastrin-17 and Pepsinogen1which are respectively biomarkers of gastric antral and corpus mucosal activity are well known parameters of atrophic gastritis. Objectives: To determine the ...

  2. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sugano (Kentaro); J. Tack (Jan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); D.Y. Graham (David Y.); E. El-Omar; S. Miura (Soichiro); K. Haruma (Ken); M. Asaka (Masahiro); N. Uemura (Naomi); P. Malfertheiner

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate

  3. Pattern of gastritis and Helicobacter pylori colonization of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach causes chronic active gastritis. The pattern of gastritis is related to the disease outcome. This study aimed to determine the predominant gastritis pattern in Nigerian dyspeptic patients with a view to predicting gastroduodenal disease outcomes. Methods: Patients referred ...

  4. Helicobacter pylori among preschool children and their parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed the role of parental infection status in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection in a large population-based sample of preschool-aged children. The subjects, who lived in Ulm, Germany, and in two nearby communities, were screened for school fitness between January...

  5. Is Helicobacter Pylori a Possible Etiopathogenic Factor in Chronic Tonsillitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmas Ozgun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Helicobacter pylori is the major gastric pathogen which has an important role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic gastritis. We investigated the presence of Helicobacter pylori as an extragastric reservoir in the tonsillectomy specimens to display if it is an etiologic factor in the development of chronic tonsilitis. Material and Method: In the current study, 100 cases with chronic tonsilitis were examined in bilateral tonsillectomy specimens. The colonization of the microorganism have been evaluated with hematoxylin-eosin and giemsa stains under the light microscope.Results: Helicobacter pylori has been detected in 33 cases (33% on one side of the bilateral tonsillectomy specimens while it has been seen in 15 cases (15% on both sides which demonstrated positivity in 48 cases (48% in total. No colonization has been observed in the remaining 52 cases (52%. Discussion: Due to the considerable positivity in our study, the histopathologic evaluation of tonsillary Helicobacter pylori colonization may be instrumental in the etiologic association with chronic tonsillitis.

  6. Serum bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I. M. E.; van Deuren, M.; Sprong, T.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Namavar, F.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; van der Meer, J. W. M.

    2009-01-01

    The two major primary antibody deficiency disorders are X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CVID patients have an elevated risk for gastric cancer and extra-nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Both diseases are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  7. Assessment of Helicobacter pylori eredication in patients on NSAID treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; de Leest, H.T.J.I.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; van Baarlen, J.; Steen, K.S.S.; Lems, W.F.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Kuipers, E.J.; Houben, H.H.M.L.; Janssen, M.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial, we measured the sensitivity and specificity of Helicobacter pylori IgG-antibody titer changes, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, immunohistochemical (IHC) stains and culture results in NSAID using

  8. Helicobacter pylori infections and gastric cancer: The West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori infections and gastric cancer: The West African experience. ... Although most strains of Hp are positive for the virulent factor cagA gene as well as vacA s1, m1 or s1, m2; there is no consistent association with GC. Some studies have attributed the low incidence of GC to low prevalence of strains with ...

  9. Empiric treatment based on Helicobacter Pylori serology cannont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and ... disease; patients with 'alarm' signs (78%), cancer (78%) and peptic ulcers (81%) had similar seropositivity rates to patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (81%).

  10. Helicobacter pylori : the causative agent of peptic ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review examines Helicobacter pylori as an organism and as the causative agent of peptic ulcers. The review also examined the classification of ulcers, how the bacterium produces the ulcer, some of the virulence factors possessed by the organism, its metabolism and growth requirements. The incidence and ...

  11. Association of specific haplotype of TNFα with Helicobacter pylori ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 87; Issue 3. Association of specific haplotype of TNF with Helicobacter pylori-mediated duodenal ulcer in eastern Indian population. Meenakshi Chakravorty Dipanjana Datta De Abhijit Choudhury Amal Santra Susanta Roychoudhury. Research Note Volume 87 Issue 3 ...

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in Africa: Pathology and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic motile curve rod that inhabits the gastric mucosa of the human stomach. The organism chronically infects billions of people worldwide and is one of the most genetically diverse of bacterial species. Infection with the bacterium which leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric ...

  13. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on deep vein thrombosis seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the role of homocysteine metabolism due to Helicobacter pylori infection on the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with Behcet's disease (BD). Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Teaching hospital. Subject: Fifty-five patients with BD divided into groups, with DVT and ...

  14. effect of helicobacter pylori infection on deep vein thrombosis seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Objective: To investigate the role of homocysteine metabolism due to Helicobacter pylori infection on the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with Behcet's disease (BD). Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Teaching hospital. Subject: Fifty-five patients with BD divided into groups, with DVT and ...

  15. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections: Mitigating factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic spiral or motile rod that infects about half the world's population with a very high prevalence in the developing world. It is an important aetiological factor in the development of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric atrophy and B cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue ...

  16. Helicobacter pylori y enfermedad péptica ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Padrón Pérez

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión dirigida a los médicos de la familia sobre la relación del Helicobacter pylori y la enfermedad péptica ulcerosa. Se incluyen datos epidemiológicos y métodos diagnósticos de la infección. El papel de Helicobacter pylori en la génesis de las recidivas ulcerosas y la significativa disminución de las recurrencias posterior a la erradicación con la terapia antimicrobiana, son aspectos abordados en el presente trabajo. La inmunización como arma de prevención y tratamiento sería un importante logro que se menciona como una futura alternativa para combatir la úlcera asociada a la infecciónA review on the connection of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcer disease was made for the family physicians. Epidemiological data and diagnostic methods were included. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the genesis of ulcer relapses and the significant reduction of recurrences after the erradication with antimicrobial therapy are approached in the present paper. Immunization as an instrument of prevention and treatment would be an important achievement that is mentioned as a future alternative to fight ulcer associated with the infection

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Hyperplastic Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Bela; Pai, Rish K

    2016-12-01

    Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are routinely encountered during upper endoscopy and often arise in the setting of abnormal surrounding mucosa, particularly Helicobacter pylori, autoimmune gastritis, and reactive gastropathy. Not infrequently gastroenterologists fail to biopsy the surrounding mucosa, thus determining the underlying etiology of the gastric hyperplastic polyp can be difficult. Recently, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society published guidelines on the use of special stains. The society guidelines indicate that H pylori are not usually present in hyperplastic polyps and special stains in this setting may have limited utility. We analyzed the histologic features of 32 gastric hyperplastic polyps in which the nonpolypoid mucosa demonstrated H pylori gastritis. A consecutive series of 50 hyperplastic polyps in which no surrounding mucosa was sampled was also analyzed. When H pylori are identified in biopsies of the nonpolypoid mucosa, it is also commonly present within the polyp tissue (22/32, 69%). The majority of H pylori organisms were identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin stain (16/22, 72%). In contrast, H pylori were only seen in 2/50 consecutive hyperplastic polyps in which the surrounding mucosa was not sampled. Compared with the hyperplastic polyps that lack the organisms, H pylori associated hyperplastic polyps more commonly had dense lymphoplasmacytic inflammation (P = .0001) and neutrophils within gastric epithelium (P = .036). Polyp location, number, size, and presence of intestinal metaplasia was not associated with H pylori These results provide empirical data to guide evaluation of hyperplastic polyps for H pylori. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection: Bacterium and host relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić-Milutinović Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of a half of the mankind. Duodenal ulcer is found in 15-25%, t gastric ulcer in 13%, while gastric adenocarcinoma develops in 1% of all infected individuals. Pathogenesis of H. pylori infection is related to the virulence factors of the bacterium, environmental (dietary habits, hygiene, stress and host factors (age, sex, blood type. Colonization of the gastric mucosa is related to the motility of the bacterium, presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS and various bacterial enzymes. Gastric mucosal injury is the result of H. pylori LPS, vacuolization cytotoxin (vacA, cytotoxin associated protein (cagA, heat shock proteins and factors responsible for neutrophil chemotaxis and activity. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa and zones of ectopic gastric epithelium. H. pylori infection is transmitted via oral-oral, fecal-oral and iatrogenic way (during endoscopy. Higher prevalence of the infection is associated with lower socioeconomic level, lack of drinking water, and living in a community. Acute H. pylori gastritis is superficial pangastritis progressing into the chronic phase after 7-10 days. Gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia can develop during the course of H. pylori infection. Clearly defined factors that influence the outcome of H. pylori infection include bacterial strain, distribution of gastritis, acid secretion and gastric mucosal atrophy.

  19. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  20. Reverse sequential therapy achieves a similar eradication rate as standard sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Feng-Woei; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Tsai, Tzung-Jium; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Peng, Nan-Jin; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-02-01

    resistance rate of clarithromycin and metronidazole was 4.2%. Both therapies achieved a high eradication rate for clarithromycin-resistant strains (100% vs 100%, respectively) and metronidazole-resistant strains (81.8% vs 95%, respectively) by intention-to-treat analysis. Ten-day reverse sequential therapy and standard sequential therapy are equally effective for H. Pylori eradication. The finding indicates that the sequence of antibiotics administered in sequential therapy does not influence the efficacy of the treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Gastric Autoantigenic Proteins in Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Sook; Lee, Su-Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Yeom, Jeongsuk; Park, Eun-Sil; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Jun, Jin-Su; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Ko, Gyung-Hyuck; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study tried to identify novel gastric autoimmune antigens that might be involved in aggravating the atrophic gastritis among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection using two-dimensional immunoblotting analysis. Materials and Methods Proteins from gastric mucosal antrectomy specimens and AGS cells (gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from a Caucasian patient who had received no prior therapy) were 2-dimensionally immunoblotted separately with a pool of 300 sera from H. pylroi-infected patients at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Results Thirty-eight autoantigenic proteins including alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP+], alpha enolase, gastrokine-1, gastric triacylglycerol lipase, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, and peroxiredoxin-2 were identified in the gastric mucosal tissue. Fourteen autoantigenic proteins including programmed cell death 6-interacting protein, serum albumin and T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma were identified in the AGS cells. Albumin, alpha-enolase, annexin A3, cytoplasmic actin 1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein and leukocyte elastase inhibitor were commonly observed autoantigenic proteins in both gastric mucosal tissue and AGS cells. Alpha-enolase, glutathione S-transferase P, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, human mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATP) subunit beta, mitochondrial 60 kDa heat shock protein, peroxiredoxin-2, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 and Tryptophan-Aspartic acid (WD) repeat-containing protein 1 showed 60% or higher amino acid positivity. Conclusion These newly identified gastric autoimmune antigens might be useful in the control and prevention of gastroduodenal disorders, and might be valuable in breaking the vicious circle that exists in gastroduodenal disorders if their pathophysiological roles could be understood in the progress of chronic atrophic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, intestinal

  2. What Do We Do about Helicobacter pylori?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Hawkey

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause ulcers by different mechanisms. Under some circumstances, patients infected with H pylori may be less prone to NSAID-associated ulcers than those who are H pylori-negative. Eradication trials have yielded differing results. However, those who have studied patients who have a past history of ulcer disease and are already established on NSAIDs have shown no benefit from H pylori eradication.

  3. Comparison of three diagnostic methods to confirm Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opavski Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori induces gastric inflammation in host and such gastritis increases the risk of gastric and duodenal ulceration as well as adenocarcinoma. Because peptic ulcer disease is the major cause of morbidity, accurate diagnosis of H. pylori infection is very important. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard among diagnostic tests for Helicobacter infections. If gastroscopy is performed, histopathology and urease test are the most often used. Still, culturing of this bacterium is essential for drug susceptibility testing and analysis of virulence factors. Objective The aim of this study was to compare three diagnostic procedures - histopathology, urease test and culture, which are used to verify H. pylori infection. Method Three pairs of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of 28 dyspeptic patients undergoing endoscopy. Nineteen patients were not pretreated with antibiotics, while nine had received eradication therapy earlier. One pair of biopsy specimens was used for histopathologic examination, the second for urease test and the third was simultaneously cultured on nonselective and selective solid media. Isolate was identified as H. pylori on the basis of colony morphology, morphological properties and biochemical tests. Results In 14 out of 28 patients, H. pylori infection was confirmed on the basis of results of all diagnostic procedures. The concordance of these three methods was very good, because the results of histopathology, urease test and culture corresponded in 26 from 28 patients. Conclusion The conclusion of our study is that culture, as the method with high degree of concordance with other two procedures and the only that can give information on drug susceptibility of Helicobacter, is recommended for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection along with histopathology and urease test.

  4. Eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori ameliorates halitosis and tongue coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Svetislav; Bojic, Bozidar; Popovic, Branka; Milasin, Jelena

    2015-03-01

    The influence of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection on the development of oral pathoses remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of gastric H. pylori infection on occurrence of halitosis and coated tongue. Ninety-eight patients with dyspepsia were included in the study and their salivary samples and gastric biopsies were analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by Nested-PCR. Halitosis and coated tongue were assessed at the initial examination and 3 months after systemic eradication therapy against H. pylori. Gastric biopsies of 66 patients were positive for H. pylori. Only one saliva sample was H. pylori positive. At initial examination, halitosis was observed in 20 patients (30.3%) out of 66 who had gastric H. pylori infection and in only 3 patients (9.4%) out of 32 without H. pylori infection (p = 0.0236). Coated tongue was diagnosed in 18 (27.2%) patients with the infection compared to only 2 (6.25%) patients negative for gastric H. pylori (p = 0.0164). Patients with gastric infection were treated with the triple eradication therapy (Amoxicillin, Clarythromycin, Pantoprazol) and their gastric biopsies and oral status were examined 3 months later. Halitosis was significantly more prevalent in the group of patients with persistent H. pylori infection (42.1%) compared to only 6.4% of patients in the group where infection was successfully eradicated (p = 0.0012). Coated tongue was diagnosed in 47.4% of patients where H. pylori was still present after eradication therapy and in only 6.4% where eradication succeeded (p = 0.0003). Our findings suggest that eradication of gastric H. pylori significantly alleviates halitosis and coated tongue, the two oral conditions that may be considered as extragastric manifestations of this common chronic bacterial infection.

  5. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  6. Bactericidal and Morphological Effects of NE-2001, a Novel Synthetic Agent Directed against Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Guofei; Ni CHENG; Dong, Lei; Muramatsu, Mutsumi; Xiao, Shudong; Wang, Ming-Wei; Zhu, De-Xu

    2005-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of NE-2001 were tested against 24 clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and compared with those of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and furazolidone. The MIC50 and MIC90 of this synthetic compound on the isolates were 8 and 16 μg/ml, respectively. This action was highly selective against Helicobacter pylori; there was a >4-fold difference between the concentration of NE-2001 required to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori and that required to i...

  7. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xia; Ge Meng; Qing Zhang; Li Liu; Hongmei Wu; Hongbin Shi; Xue Bao; Qian Su; Yeqing Gu; Liyun Fang; Fei Yu; Huijun Yang; Bin Yu; Shaomei Sun; Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire...

  8. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non-gonococcal urethritis. It is possible that H. pylori may be transmitted via the act of fellatio in the urethra. Further research is required to explore the role of H. pylori in sexually transmitted urethritis.

  9. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AMONG CHILDREN AND THERAPY SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.A. Kornienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the low therapy efficiency of many gastrobduodenal diseases is the increasing resistance to the antibiotics helicobacter pylori (Н. pylori, which is conditioned by the mutations of its various genes. The most practical importance is attributed to the 23s RRNA mutations, underlying resistance to claritromicin. According to the international consensus maastrichtb3, the scheme of treatment with the inhibitor of the proton pump, claritromicin and metronidasol is recommended as the 1st line therapy. The present work assesses the resistance of Н. pylori to claritromicin aided by pcrbdiagnostics of the 23s RRNA mutation of rna in the biopsy material of the mucous coat of stomach and standard treatment scheme efficiency if compared with the onebantibiotic scheme – amoxicillin, bismuth and inhibitor of the proton pump. 68 children with Н. pylori bassociated diseases have been examined. The frequency of resistance of Н. pylori to claritromicin made up 28%. The standard 10bday long scheme of treatment was efficient among 14% of the patients, the 7bday long schemes with amoxicillin, bismuth and omeprazole were efficient among 40% of the patients, the 10bday long schemes with amoxicillin, bismuth and omeprazole were efficient among 75% of the patients; with omeprazole replaced by esomeprazole the efficiency was observed among 83% of the patients along with the good treatment tolerance.Key words: helicobacter pylori, antibiotic resistance, eradication.

  10. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Mona M; Kandil, Hisham O; Elshafei, Arwa H

    2014-02-01

    Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy are the most common conditions affecting pregnancy, occurring in about 80% of all pregnancies and always disappearing on the 16th to 18th weeks of gestation. This may be mild and it does not affect the general condition of the patient (the condition is called emesis gravidarum), or it may be severe enough to affect the patient physically and psychologically, causing intractable vomiting, electrolyte imbalance, weight loss >5%, impairment of liver and kidney functions and dehydration. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common bacterium affecting humans. It is a gram-negative helix-shaped microaerophilic bacterium transmitted by the oro-oral or feco-oral route. It is more prevalent in developing countries and affects young children. Acute infection manifests as acute gastritis and stomach pain, whereas chronic infection causes chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, 2% of which may develop into stomach cancer. The authors tried to investigate the association between H pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum. Fifty patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 50 patients with normal pregnancy were included in the study. H pylori infection was determined using a 1-step H pylori test device (serum/plasma), which is a qualitative membrane-based immunoassay. Regarding maternal age, gestational age and socioeconomic status, there is no statistical difference between both groups. There is a marked statistical difference between both groups in terms of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and frequency of vomiting. There is a powerful correlation between H pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum.

  11. Evaluation of Salivary Antibodies to Detect Infection with Helicobacter pylori

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    Mark B Loeb

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. Infection with this bacterium stimulates the production of immunoglobulin (Ig G antibody. Salivary IgG antibody tests to detect H pylori infection offer a convenient and noninvasive method of diagnosis. To evaluate an IgG salivary antibody kit, saliva was collected from 157 out-patients with dyspepsia referred for endoscopy to a tertiary centre. A salivary IgG ELISA antibody assay was performed using the Helisal Helicobacter pylori (IgG assay kit, and at least four gastric biopsies were obtained. H pylori infection was confirmed by demonstration of the organism on Warthin-Starry silver stain (sensitivity 85%, specificity 55%. The prevalence of infection with H pylori was 30%. When the analysis was redone, excluding those treated with eradication therapy, the results were similar (sensitivity 86%, specificity 58%. The positive predictive value of the assay was 45% and the negative predictive value was 90%. Despite the ease of sampling, the assay used has limited diagnostic utility, lacking the predictive value to indicate which patients referred with dyspeptic symptoms to a tertiary care setting are infected with H pylori.

  12. The effect of Helicobacter pylori on asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Amedei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially elicits a T helper (Th-1 response. Many H. pylori factors, such as the neutrophil-activating factor of H. pylori (HP-NAP, are able to drive Th-1 polarization and to display a powerful inhibition of allergic Th-2 response. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about the effects of H. pylori on asthma and allergy. Special attention has been drawn to HP-NAP as a potential novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of asthma and atopy.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating factor, protein, Th-1/Th-2, Treg, asthma

  13. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghasempour Shirazi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: There is no relationship between helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant woman. Considering the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in our country, there is a need for studies with more samples and more diagnostic methods.

  14. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load and cytoki...

  15. Pre-endoscopic screening for Helicobacter pylori and celiac disease in young anemic women

    OpenAIRE

    Vannella, Lucy; Gianni, Debora; Lahner, Edith; Amato, Antonio; Grossi, Enzo; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Annibale, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of pre-endoscopic serological screening for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and celiac disease in women aged < 50 years affected by iron-deficiency anemia (IDA).

  16. Effect of dosing schemes of amoxicillin on eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori with amoxicillin-based triple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takahisa; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamade, Mihoko; Uotani, Takahiro; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Yamada, Takanori; Osawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    In standard regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection, amoxicillin is dosed twice daily, although the bactericidal effect of amoxicillin depends on the %time-above-MIC. We aimed to examine whether dosing schemes of amoxicillin influenced eradication rates of amoxicillin-based regimens. One hundred eighty-seven patients infected with clarithromycin-sensitive strains of H. pylori were treated with PPI, clarithromycin 200 mg bid and amoxicillin 750 mg bid, 500 mg tid or 500 mg qid for 1 week and 125 infected with clarithromycin-resistant strains were treated with PPI, metronidazole 250 mg bid and amoxicillin 750 mg bid, 500 mg tid or 500 mg qid for 1 week. Eradication rates (ITT) of the triple PPI/amoxicillin/clarithromycin therapy with bid, tid and qid dosings of amoxicillin were 77.8% (49/63), 93.5% (58/62), and 91.9% (57/62), respectively. Those of the triple PPI/amoxicillin/metronidazole therapy were 80.5% (33/41), 90.5% (38/42), and 95.2% (40/42), respectively. Eradication rates in regimens with tid and qid dosing of amoxicillin were higher than those of regimens with the bid dosing of amoxicillin. The dosing scheme of amoxicillin significantly influenced eradication rates of triple therapies. Although amoxicillin is empirically dosed twice daily, amoxicillin should be dosed at least three times daily in amoxicillin-based triple therapies. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Genotypic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Strains Correlates with Susceptibility Test and Treatment Outcomes after Levofloxacin- and Clarithromycin-Based Therapies▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jyh-Ming; Chang, Chi-Yang; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Wang, Yu-Chi; Chen, Mei-Jyh; Lee, Yi-Chia; Hung, Hsu-Wei; Chian, Hung; Chang, San-Chun; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of genotypic resistance to levofloxacin (gyrA mutations) and its agreement with treatment outcomes after levofloxacin-based therapy have not been reported. We aimed to assess the correlation. Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients who received levofloxacin-based and clarithromycin-based triple therapies in a previous randomized trial were analyzed for point mutations in gyrA and 23S rRNA. PCR followed by direct sequencing was used to assess the gyrA and 23S rRNA mutations. An agar dilution test was used to determine the MICs of clarithromycin and levofloxacin. We found that the agreement between genotypic and phenotypic resistance to levofloxacin was best when the MIC breakpoint was >1 μg/ml (kappa coefficient, 0.754). The eradication rates in patients with and without gyrA mutations were 41.7% and 82.7%, respectively (P = 0.003). The agreement between genotypic and phenotypic resistance to clarithromycin was best when the MIC breakpoint was >2 μg/ml (kappa, 0.694). The eradication rates in patients with and without 23S rRNA mutations were 7.7% and 93.5%, respectively (P levofloxacin-based triple therapy and genotypic and phenotypic resistance were 0.244 and 0.190, respectively. In conclusion, gyrA and 23S rRNA mutations in H. pylori strains appeared to be better markers than phenotypic resistance in the prediction of treatment outcomes. The optimal breakpoints for levofloxacin and clarithromycin resistance appeared to be >1 μg/ml and >2 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:21189342

  18. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori sigma54 promoter-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lara E; Brahmachary, Priyanka; Hoover, Timothy R

    2006-06-01

    Several Helicobacter pylori flagellar genes require sigma(54) for their transcription. Predicted H. pylori sigma(54)-dependent promoters display a preference for A at position -23 instead of C or T as occurs in promoters from most other bacteria. Substitution of the A at position -23 of the H. pylori flaB promoter with a C did not effect expression of a flaB'-'xylE reporter gene in H. pylori, whereas T or G substitutions at this position drastically reduced expression. Results of gel mobility shift assays that used DNA probes corresponding to core promoter sequences and a H. pylori sigma(54) protein fused to the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein suggested that H. pylori sigma(54) has a higher affinity for promoters with an A at the -23 position. The failure to observe an effect on expression for the flaB mutant promoter with the A to C substitution at the -23 position indicates that sequences flanking the core promoter region may assist binding of H. pylori sigma(54) to the mutant flaB promoter. Alternatively, H. pylori RNA polymerase or the sigma(54)-dependent activator FlgR may compensate for the reduced affinity of sigma(54) for the mutant flaB promoter.

  19. What constitutes an Arabian Helicobacter pylori? Lessons from comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Albert, M John; Al Abkal, Hanan; Siddique, Iqbal; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori, the human gastric pathogen, causes a variety of gastric diseases ranging from mild gastritis to gastric cancer. While the studies on H. pylori are dominated by those based on either East Asian or Western strains, information regarding H. pylori strains prevalent in the Middle East remains scarce. Therefore, we carried out whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis of three H. pylori strains isolated from three native Arab, Kuwaiti patients. H. pylori strains were sequenced using Illumina platform. The sequence reads were filtered and draft genomes were assembled and annotated. Various pathogenicity-associated regions and phages present within the genomes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the genetic relatedness of Kuwaiti strains to various lineages of H. pylori. The core genome content and virulence-related genes were analyzed to assess the pathogenic potential. The three genomes clustered along with HpEurope strains in the phylogenetic tree comprising various H. pylori lineages. A total of 1187 genes spread among various functional classes were identified in the core genome analysis. The three genomes possessed a complete cagPAI and also retained most of the known outer membrane proteins as well as virulence-related genes. The cagA gene in all three strains consisted of an AB-C type EPIYA motif. The comparative genomic analysis of Kuwaiti H. pylori strains revealed a European ancestry and a high pathogenic potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Helicobacter pylori gastritis in HIV-infected patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Daniel T; Morgan, Christopher J; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are different: H. pylori is transmitted by gastro- or fecal-oral routes and is associated with low socioeconomic conditions, while HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, infected body fluids, and transplacentally. If the host responses to these infections were independent, the prevalence of H. pylori should be similar in HIV-infected and non-infected patients. Yet, several studies have detected a lower prevalence of H. pylori in patients with HIV infection, whereas other studies found either no differences or greater rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-positive subjects. To review studies that addressed the issue of these two simultaneous infections and attempt to determine whether reliable conclusions can be drawn from this corpus of often contrasting evidence. Electronic literature search for relevant publications, followed by manual search of additional citations from extracted articles. The initial search yielded 44 publications; after excluding case reports, reviews, narrowly focused articles, and duplicate reports, there remained 29 articles, which are the corpus of this review. With one exception, all studies reported higher rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-negative subjects. Five studies also examined the CD4 lymphocyte counts and found an inverse correlation between the degree of immunosuppression and the prevalence of active H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that it is likely that H. pylori needs a functional immune system to successfully and persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  2. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Public Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khean-Lee; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified an infected sibling as an important risk factor. An oral–oral route of spread has been substantiated with several studies showing the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity. Studies have shown the presence of H. pylori in drinking water and the role of poor living conditions and sanitation in H. pylori infection, supporting an oral–fecal route of spread. Screening for H. pylori as a gastric cancer prescreening strategy has been described in Japan, and the importance of H. pylori eradication as a gastric cancer–prevention strategy has now been further emphasized in Japanese guidelines. Two studies have shown a decrease in the burden of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori eradication. PMID:21896079

  3. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in female Vietnamese immigrants to Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Su Jung; Yi, Sun Young; Park, Hye Sook; Park, Bo Hyun

    2012-02-14

    To investigate the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its relationship to nutritional factors in female Vietnamese immigrants to Korea. A total of 390 female immigrants from Vietnam and 206 Korean male spouses participated in the study. Blood samples from 321 female immigrants and 201 Korean male spouses were analyzed for H. pylori antibodies. Data on age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking status, dietary nutritional factors and gastrointestinal symptoms were collected using questionnaires. The daily intakes of the following nutrients were estimated: energy, protein, niacin, lipid, fiber, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, folate, cholesterol, and vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C and E. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity was lower in the immigrants than in age-matched Korean females (55.7% vs 71.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and the domestic population of Vietnam. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity among married couples was 31.7% for both spouses. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of smoking, amount of alcohol consumed, or nutritional factors between the H. pylori-positive and negative groups. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity was lower among female Vietnamese immigrants than among Korean females. Nutritional factors did not differ between the H. pylori-positive and negative groups.

  4. Inverse Association Between Helicobacter pylori Gastritis and Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.

  5. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: Relationship with the gastric infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available. PMID:25110422

  7. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

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    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection prevents allergic asthma in mouse models through the induction of regulatory T cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Isabelle C; Dehzad, Nina; Reuter, Sebastian; Martin, Helen; Becher, Burkhard; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2011-01-01

    .... The increase in asthma rates has been linked epidemiologically to the rapid disappearance of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that persistently colonizes the human stomach, from Western societies...

  9. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Tepehuanos Aged 15 Years and Older in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos (an indigenous ethnic group living in rural Mexico). The prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 156 Tepehuanos in Durango State, Mexico, using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of Tepehuanos associated with seropositivity were investigated. In total, 103 (66%) of the 156 participants (mean age 31.03  ±  16.71 years) had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies. Fifty-four (52.4%) of the 103 seropositive individuals had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. Males and females had comparable seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in women with pregnancies than those without this obstetric characteristic. Logistic regression showed that Helicobacter pylori infection was positively associated with low education (OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.13-10.00; P = 0.02) and laborer occupation (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.14-6.42; P = 0.02). This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos and of the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with laborer occupation. Results warrants further research.

  10. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Tepehuanos Aged 15 Years and Older in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos (an indigenous ethnic group living in rural Mexico. The prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 156 Tepehuanos in Durango State, Mexico, using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of Tepehuanos associated with seropositivity were investigated. In total, 103 (66% of the 156 participants (mean age years had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies. Fifty-four (52.4% of the 103 seropositive individuals had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. Males and females had comparable seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in women with pregnancies than those without this obstetric characteristic. Logistic regression showed that Helicobacter pylori infection was positively associated with low education (OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.13–10.00; and laborer occupation (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.14–6.42; . This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos and of the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with laborer occupation. Results warrants further research.

  11. Current progress toward eradicating Helicobacter pylori in East Asian countries: differences in the 2013 revised guidelines between China, Japan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-02-14

    New 2013 guidelines on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been published in China, Japan, and South Korea. Like the previous ones, these new guidelines differ between the three countries with regard to the indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnostic methods, and treatment regimens. The most profound change among all of the guidelines is that the Japanese national health insurance system now covers the expenses for all infected subjects up to second-line treatment. This makes the Japanese indications for eradication much wider than those in China and South Korea. With regard to the diagnosis, a serum H. pylori antibody test is not recommended in China, whereas it is considered to be the most reliable method in Japan. A decrease relative to the initial antibody titer of more than 50% after 6-12 mo is considered to be the most accurate method for determining successful eradication in Japan. In contrast, only the urea breath test is recommended after eradication in China, while either noninvasive or invasive methods (except the bacterial culture) are recommended in South Korea. Due to the increased rate of antibiotics resistance, first-line treatment is omitted in China and South Korea in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Notably, the Japanese regimen consists of a lower dose of antibiotics for a shorter duration (7 d) than in the other countries. There is neither 14 d nor bismuth-based regimen in the first-line and second-line treatment in Japan. Such differences among countries might be due to differences in the approvals granted by the governments and national health insurance system in each country. Further studies are required to achieve the best results in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection based on cost-effectiveness in East Asian countries.

  12. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor. PMID:28321154

  13. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524

  14. Oral and gastric Helicobacter pylori: effects and associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Veiga

    Full Text Available This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries.A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT. Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori.The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR=1.64, 95%CI=1.08-2.52, residence area (urban, OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.03-2.29 and parents´ professional situation (unemployed, OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.02-1.23. Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3.The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status.

  15. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y; Kramer, Jennifer R; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P=0.06). We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known.

  16. Diet, microbial virulence, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Timothy L; Peek, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the strongest known risk factors for this malignancy. H. pylori strains exhibit a high level of genetic diversity, and the risk of gastric cancer is higher in persons carrying certain strain types (for example, those that contain a cag pathogenicity island or type s1 vacA alleles) than in persons carrying other strain types. Additional risk factors for gastric cancer include specific human genetic polymorphisms and specific dietary preferences (for example, a high-salt diet or a diet deficient in fruits and vegetables). Finally, iron-deficiency anemia is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Recent studies have provided evidence that several dietary risk factors for gastric cancer directly impact H. pylori virulence. In this review article, we discuss mechanisms by which diet can modulate H. pylori virulence and thereby influence gastric cancer risk.

  17. Extradigestive Manifestation of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Sherman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection fulfills each of Koch's postulates as a human pathogen causing chronic active gastritis. Disease consequences that develop in a subset of infected subjects include peptic ulcerations, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. More recently, multiple publications have advocated a role for H pylori infection in causing a variety of extraintestinal manifestations. Many of these reports suffer from being case reports or case series without adequate controls. As a result, purported manifestations may simply be coincidental in nature. On the other hand, increasing evidence supports H pylori infection as a cause of sideropenic (refractory iron deficiency anemia. Moderate evidence supports H pylori gastric infection as a cause of some cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura due to molecular mimicry. Guidelines should be adjusted in accordance with advancing knowledge in the field.

  18. Halitosis and helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wenhuan; Li, Juan; Xu, Liming; Zhu, Jianhong; Hu, Kewei; Sui, Zhenyu; Wang, Jianzong; Xu, Lingling; Wang, Shaofeng; Yin, Guojian

    2016-09-01

    Halitosis is used to describe any disagreeable odor of expired air regardless of its origin. Numerous trials published have investigated the relation between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and halitosis, and even some regimes of H pylori eradication have been prescribed to those patients with halitosis in the clinic. We conducted a meta-analysis to define the correlation between H pylori infection and halitosis. To evaluate whether there is a real correlation between H pylori infection and halitosis, and whether H pylori eradication therapy will help relieve halitosis. We searched several electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfangdata) up to December 2015. Studies published in English and Chinese were considered in this review. After a final set of studies was identified, the list of references reported in the included reports was reviewed to identify additional studies. Screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction and quality assessment was undertaken independently and in duplicate. All analyses were done using Review Manager 5.2 software. A total of 115 articles were identified, 21 of which met the inclusion criteria and presented data that could be used in the analysis. The results showed that the OR of H pylori infection in the stomach between halitosis-positive patients and halitosis-negative patients was 4.03 (95% CI: 1.41-11.50; P = 0.009). The OR of halitosis between H pylori-positive patients and H pylori-negative patients was 2.85 (95% CI: 1.40-5.83; P = 0.004); The RR of halitosis after successful H pylori eradication in those H pylori-infected halitosis-positive patients was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.39; P halitosis before successful H pylori eradication therapy was 4.78 (95% CI: 1.45-15.80; P = 0.01), compared with after successful H pylori eradication therapy. There is clear evidence that H pylori infection correlates with halitosis. H pylori infection might be important in the

  19. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. Material and methods A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. Results The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non?gonococcal urethritis. Conclusions It is possible that H. py...

  20. A comparison of Helicobacter pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter spp. Binding to canine gastric mucosa with defined gastric glycophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Irina; Freitas, Daniela P; Magalhães, Ana; Faria, Fátima; Lopes, Célia; Faustino, Augusto M; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2014-08-01

    The gastric mucosa of dogs is often colonized by non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH), while H. pylori is the predominant gastric Helicobacter species in humans. The colonization of the human gastric mucosa by H. pylori is highly dependent on the recognition of host glycan receptors. Our goal was to define the canine gastric mucosa glycophenotype and to evaluate the capacity of different gastric Helicobacter species to adhere to the canine gastric mucosa. The glycosylation profile in body and antral compartments of the canine gastric mucosa, with focus on the expression of histo-blood group antigens was evaluated. The in vitro binding capacity of FITC-labeled H. pylori and NHPH to the canine gastric mucosa was assessed in cases representative of the canine glycosylation pattern. The canine gastric mucosa lacks expression of type 1 Lewis antigens and presents a broad expression of type 2 structures and A antigen, both in the surface and glandular epithelium. Regarding the canine antral mucosa, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion score whereas in the body region the SabA-positive H. pylori strain was the strain that adhered more. The canine gastric mucosa showed a glycosylation profile different from the human gastric mucosa suggesting that alternative glycan receptors may be involved in Helicobacter spp. binding. Helicobacter pylori and NHPH strains differ in their ability to adhere to canine gastric mucosa. Among the NHPH, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion capacity in agreement with its reported colonization of the canine stomach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Canadian Helicobacter pylori Consensus Conference Update: Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Hunt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Canadian Helicobacter pylori Consensus Conference took place in April 1997. The initial recommendations of the conference were published in early 1998. An update meeting was held in June 1998, and the present paper updates and complements the earlier recommendations. Key changes included the following: the recommendation for testing and treating H pylori infection in patients with known peptic ulcer disease was extended to testing and treating patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia; it was decided that the urea breath test (not serology should be used for routine diagnosis of H pylori infection unless endoscopy is indicated for another reason; and recommended therapies were a twice daily, seven-day regimen of a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg or ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg, plus clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1000 mg, or plus clarithromycin 500 or 250 mg and metronidazole 500 mg. The need was reiterated to have funding for readily accessible, accurate testing for H pylori infection with the urea breath test. It was strongly recommended that regional centres be established to monitor the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant H pylori infections. The initial consensus document referred to pediatric issues that were not addressed in this update but were the subject of a subsequent Canadian Helicobacter Study Group meeting, and will be published later in 1999.

  2. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  3. Helicobacter pylori and Antibiotic Resistance, A Continuing and Intractable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Bin; Dai, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen with a high global prevalence, is the causative pathogen for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, especially chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric malignancies. Antibiotic therapies remain the mainstay for H. pylori eradication; however, this strategy is hampered by the emergence and spread of H. pylori antibiotic resistance. Exploring the mechanistic basis of this resistance is becoming one of the major research questions in contemporary biomedical research, as such knowledge could be exploited to devise novel rational avenues for counteracting the existing resistance and devising strategies to avoid the development of a novel anti-H. pylori medication. Encouragingly, important progress in this field has been made recently. Here, we attempt to review the current state and progress with respect to the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance for H. pylori. A picture is emerging in which mutations of various genes in H. pylori, resulting in decreased membrane permeability, altered oxidation-reduction potential, and a more efficient efflux pump system. The increased knowledge on these mechanisms produces hope that antibiotic resistance in H. pylori can ultimately be countered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current and future insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma worldwide. H. pylori treatment still remains a challenge, since many determinants for successful therapy are involved such as individual primary or secondary antibiotics resistance, mucosal drug concentration, patient compliance, side-effect profile and cost. While no new drug has been developed, current therapy still relies on different mixture of known antibiotics and anti-secretory agents. A standard triple therapy consisting of two antibiotics and a proton-pump inhibitor proposed as the first-line regimen. Bismuth-containing quadruple treatment, sequential treatment or a non-bismuth quadruple treatment (concomitant) are also an alternative therapy. Levofloxacin containing triple treatment are recommended as rescue treatment for infection of H. pylori after defeat of first-line therapy. The rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness of any regimens involving these remedies. Therefore, adding probiotic to the medications, developing anti-H. pylori photodynamic or phytomedicine therapy, and achieving a successful H. pylori vaccine may have the promising to present synergistic or additive consequence against H. pylori, because each of them exert different effects. PMID:26798626

  5. Helicobacter pylori is undetectable in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Birol; İnce, Ali Tüzün; Gültepe, Bilge; Gücin, Zuhal; Malya, Fatma Ümit; Tozlu, Mukaddes; Şentürk, Hakan; Bağcı, Pelin; Çelikel, Çiğdem Ataizi; Aker, Fügen; Özkara, Selvinaz; Paşaoğlu, Esra; Dursun, Nevra; Özgüven, Banu Yılmaz; Tunçel, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    About half of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium associated with gastric cancer and considered to be a risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Whether the bacterium is associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, believed to be a precursor of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of H. pylori DNA in tissue sections of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The presence of H. pylori DNA was tested in a retrospective controlled study of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissues from 24 patients who underwent surgery for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Histologically normal tissues surrounding neoplasms were used as control. H. pylori DNA was evaluated after deparaffinization, DNA extraction, and purification, and results were evaluated statistically. Samples were collected from 13 males and 11 females with mean age 59 years (range 44-77), and consisted of 19 cases of main-duct and three cases of branched-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Two patients were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. H. pylori DNA was not detected either in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm tissue, or in surrounding normal tissue. Although H. pylori has been implicated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, it may not play a key role in the development of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitric oxide synthetase and Helicobacter pylori in patients undergoing appendicectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether Helicobacter pylori forms part of the normal microenvironment of the appendix, whether it plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis, and whether it is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) in appendicular macrophages. METHODS: Serology for H. pylori was performed on 51 consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy. Appendix samples were tested for urease activity, cultured and stained for H. pylori, graded according to the degree of inflammatory infiltrate, and probed immunohistochemically for iNOS expression. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 21 (range 7-51) years. Seventeen patients (33 per cent) were seropositive for H. pylori but no evidence of H. pylori was found in any appendix specimen. However, an enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in seropositive patients (P < 0.04) and the expression of macrophage iNOS in the mucosa of normal and inflamed appendix specimens was increased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: H. pylori does not colonize the appendix and is unlikely to be a pathogenic stimulus for appendicitis. Priming effects on mucosal immunology downstream from the foregut may occur after infection with H. pylori.

  7. Helicobacter pylori vaccination: is there a path to protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-09-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogenic, extracellular bacterium that colonizes the stomach in approximately 50% of the world population. It strongly interacts with the gastric epithelium and mostly causes asymptomatic gastritis. The colonization of H. pylori leads to ulcer development in around 20% of infected patients and may progress to gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in 1%. Thus, H. pylori is the major cause of gastric cancer worldwide. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Since its discovery in the early eighties by Warren and Marshall, research has been focused on the investigation of H. pylori biology, host-pathogen interaction, prevention and treatment. Although H. pylori induces a strong humoral and local cellular immune response, the pathogen is not cleared and establishes a chronic infection after encounters in childhood. The ability to colonize the stomach is mediated by several virulence factors that change the host environment, promote adhesion to the epithelium, influence the gastric inflammation and induce immune evasion. H. pylori can be eradicated by antibiotic treatment in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor, but efficacy is decreasing. Current therapies are expensive, have side effects and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance, underlining the need for novel therapeutics.

  8. Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in vivo by novel endoscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-07-28

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a worldwide problem. Endoscopic observation of H. pylori infection in vivo would be helpful to obtain an immediate diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe recent advances in endoscopic technology and to review the available literature pertaining to its clinical application in H. pylori infection. Endoscopic visualization of H. pylori infection is not always feasible using conventional endoscopy. Thus, advanced endoscopic techniques have been developed with the aim of providing a precise and ''real-time'' endoscopic diagnosis. Recently, new endoscopic techniques such as magnifying endoscopy, narrow band imaging, I-Scan, endocytoscopy and endomicroscopy help focus examination of the stomach to diagnose disease in a time-efficient manner, and the analysis of mucosal surface details is beginning to resemble histologic examination. The new detailed images have enabled endoscopists to observe microscopic structures, such as gastric pit patterns, microvessels and cell morphology. Accordingly, endoscopic prediction of H. pylori infection is possible by analysis of surface architecture of the mucosa, which influences the clinical management. These endoscopic techniques might lead us to easier diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori-related diseases.

  9. Helicobacter pylori: A Brief History of a Still Lacking Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruggiero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the human population worldwide. Soon after its discovery, the causative relationships between H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma were evidenced. Then, a significantly increased risk of developing gastric cancer was found to be associated with H. pylori infection. The efficacy of the treatment for H. pylori, based on a proton pump inhibitor plus antibiotics, has dropped below 80%, mainly due to antibiotic resistance. Vaccination would overcome antibiotic resistance and would lead to the eradication of this pathogen; however, in spite of almost twenty-five years of investigation on H. pylori vaccine candidates and good protective results obtained in animal models, no vaccine is currently licensed. This review focuses on the studies on the efficacy of those H. pylori vaccine candidates that underwent clinical trials. Efficacy trials have given unsatisfactory results, so far, with bacterial colonization remaining unaffected by vaccination. However, a vaccine able to counteract H. pylori-induced diseases, such as gastric cancer, even without providing sterilizing immunity, could be considered valuable.

  10. Environmental determinants of transformation efficiency in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary E; Lam, Anna; Bhatnagar, Srijak; Solnick, Jay V

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori uses natural competence and homologous recombination to adapt to the dynamic environment of the stomach mucosa and maintain chronic colonization. Although H. pylori competence is constitutive, its rate of transformation is variable, and little is known about factors that influence it. To examine this, we first determined the transformation efficiency of H. pylori strains under low O2 (5% O2, 7.6% CO2, 7.6% H2) and high O2 (15% O2, 2.9% CO2, 2.9% H2) conditions using DNA containing an antibiotic resistance marker. H. pylori transformation efficiency was 6- to 32-fold greater under high O2 tension, which was robust across different H. pylori strains, genetic loci, and bacterial growth phases. Since changing the O2 concentration for these initial experiments also changed the concentrations of CO2 and H2, transformations were repeated under conditions where O2, CO2, and H2 were each varied individually. The results showed that the increase in transformation efficiency under high O2 was largely due to a decrease in CO2. An increase in pH similar to that caused by low CO2 was also sufficient to increase transformation efficiency. These results have implications for the physiology of H. pylori in the gastric environment, and they provide optimized conditions for the laboratory construction of H. pylori mutants using natural transformation.

  11. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D'Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymaa Enany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ, clarithromycin (CLR, tetracycline (TET, and amoxicillin (AMX by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach.

  13. Strategies used by helicobacter pylori to establish persistent infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host’s entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host. Thirty-four years after the discovery of this bacterium, there are still many unanswered questions. For example, which strategies help the bacterium to survive in this inhospitable microniche? This question is slightly easier to answer if we presume the same clinical concept for both persistent infection and disease. Understanding the mechanisms governing H. pylori persistence will improve identification of the increased risk of diseases such as gastric cancer in patients infected with this bacterium. A well-defined and long-term equilibrium between the human host and H. pylori allows bacterial persistence in the gastric microniche; although this coexistence leads to a high risk of severe diseases such as gastric cancer. To escape the bactericidal activity of stomach acid, H. pylori secretes large amounts of surface-associated and cytosolic urease. The potential to avoid acidic conditions and immune evasion are discussed in order to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, and data on bacterial genetic diversity are included. Information on the mechanisms related to H. pylori persistence can also provide the direction for future research concerning effective therapy and management of gastroduodenal disorders. The topics presented in the current review are important for elucidating the strategies used by H. pylori to help the bacterium

  14. Helicobacter pylori's unconventional role in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion S Dorer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, that is resident in the human stomach and causes chronic disease (peptic ulcer and gastric cancer was radical on many levels. Whereas the mouth and the colon were both known to host a large number of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiome, the stomach was thought to be a virtual Sahara desert for microbes because of its high acidity. We now know that H. pylori is one of many species of bacteria that live in the stomach, although H. pylori seems to dominate this community. H. pylori does not behave as a classical bacterial pathogen: disease is not solely mediated by production of toxins, although certain H. pylori genes, including those that encode exotoxins, increase the risk of disease development. Instead, disease seems to result from a complex interaction between the bacterium, the host, and the environment. Furthermore, H. pylori was the first bacterium observed to behave as a carcinogen. The innate and adaptive immune defenses of the host, combined with factors in the environment of the stomach, apparently drive a continuously high rate of genomic variation in H. pylori. Studies of this genetic diversity in strains isolated from various locations across the globe show that H. pylori has coevolved with humans throughout our history. This long association has given rise not only to disease, but also to possible protective effects, particularly with respect to diseases of the esophagus. Given this complex relationship with human health, eradication of H. pylori in nonsymptomatic individuals may not be the best course of action. The story of H. pylori teaches us to look more deeply at our resident microbiome and the complexity of its interactions, both in this complex population and within our own tissues, to gain a better understanding of health and disease.

  15. The Multiple Carbohydrate Binding Specificities of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneberg, Susann

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Adhesion of microbes to the target tissue is an important determinant for successful initiation, establishment and maintenance of infection, and a variety of different candidate carbohydrate receptors for H. pylori have been identified. Here the different the binding specifities, and their potential role in adhesion to human gastric epithelium are described. Finally, recent findings on the roles of sialic acid binding SabA adhesin in interactions with human neutrophils and erythrocytes are discussed.

  16. Is There a Role for Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria P; Goni, Elisabetta; Di Mario, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The role of probiotics in Helicobacter pylori therapy remains unclear. Lactobacilli can be shown to inhibit H pylori in vitro. Some strains of Lactobacilli may exert specific antimicrobial effects. There is no strong evidence of a benefit on eradication rate when probiotics are added to a regimen. Despite promising results obtained using compounds of L reuteri and S boulardii, high-quality trials are needed to define the role of probiotics as adjuvant therapy. Variables that remain to be studied with L reuteri, currently the most promising strain, include dosage, frequency of administration, administration in relation to meals, and duration of therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gastroretentive dosage forms: overview and special case of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardonnet, P L; Faivre, V; Pugh, W J; Piffaretti, J C; Falson, F

    2006-03-10

    The challenge to develop efficient gastroretentive dosage forms began about 20 years ago, following the discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshall. In order to understand the real difficulty of increasing the gastric residence time of a dosage form, we have first summarized the important physiologic parameters, which act upon the gastric residence time. Afterwards, we have reviewed the different drug delivery systems designed until now, i.e. high-density, intragastric floating, expandable, superporous hydrogel, mucoadhesive and magnetic systems. Finally, we have focused on gastroretentive dosage forms especially designed against H. pylori, including specific targeting systems against this bacterium.

  18. HELICOBACTER PYLORI PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Some previously published studies have suggested an inverse relationship between celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori, raising the possibility of the protective role Helicobacter pylori could have against celiac disease development. Nevertheless, this association is inconclusive. Objectives To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in celiac subjects. Methods Between January 2013 and June 2014, patients over 18 years old undergoing upper endoscopy who required both gastric and duodenal biopsies were included for analysis. Enrolled subjects were divided in two groups: those with a diagnosis of celiac disease and those without a celiac disease diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence was compared between groups. Among celiac patients, endoscopic markers of villous atrophy as well as histological damage severity were compared between those with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. Results Overall, 312 patients were enrolled. Seventy two of them had a diagnosis of celiac disease. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence among celiac disease patients was 12.5%, compared to 30% in non-celiac patients [OR=0.33 (0.15-0.71]. There was not a significant difference in terms of the severity of villous atrophy in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection compared to those without it. There was a slight increase in the prevalence of endoscopic markers in those Helicobacter pylori-negative celiac subjects. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori infection seems to be less frequent in celiac patients; among those celiac subjects with concomitant Helicobacter pylori infection, histological damage degree and presence of endoscopic markers suggesting villous atrophy seem to be similar to those without Helicobacter pylori infection.

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ESOPHAGITIS GRADES AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernandao; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Ribeiro, Irma Cláudia Saboya; Bertoldi, Andressa de Souza; Batistão, Venessa Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) is related to the development of gastric lesions and lymphoma; however, it is not known if there is a relation with gastroesophageal reflux disease and reflux esophagitis. To evaluate HP's relationship with esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, being evaluated 9576 patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic examination during the period between January and December 2015. Were included patients with any esophageal alteration at the examination; greater than 18; of both genders; independent of the complaint or the reason for the examination, illness or drug use. Were excluded those with active bleeding during the examination and in use of anticoagulants. The variables gender, age, esophagitis and result of the urease test, were studied. For statistical analysis was used the Epi Info software 7.1.5.2. Most of the samples consisted of women and the overall average age was 46.54±16.32 years. The presence of infection was balanced for gender: 1204 (12.56%) women and 952 (13.92%) men. Relating degree of esophagitis HP- and HP+ was observed that the type A was the most common (58.79%, n=1460); 604 (24.32%) had grade B; 334 (13.45%) grade C, and 85 (3.42%) grade D. In the relation between the grade of esophagitis with gender, esophagitis A was predominant in women and present in 929 (63.33%), followed by type B, 282 (46.68%), 136 C (40.71%) and D 30 (35.29%). In men 531 (36.36%) showed type A, 322 (53.31%) B, 198 (59.28%) C, and 55 (64.70%) D. Among the groups 40-50 and over 60 years there was a significant difference in whether have or not have HP+. There is no significant difference between HP infection and the different grades of esophagitis. A infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (HP) é relacionada com o desenvolvimento de lesões e linfoma gástricos; porém, ainda não se sabe ao certo se há relação dele com a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esofagite

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative flagellated bacillus that usually colonizes gastric pits under the mucus layer and in close association to gastric epithelial cells. Approximately, 50% of the normal population across the world harbor H. pylori, though only 10‑20% of them become symptomatic.[3,4] There is an association of H. pylori infection with the ...

  1. helicobacter pylori serology and evaluation of gastroduodenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thology in Nigerian patients with dyspepsia and ascertain the usefulness of H. pylori lgG screening in decreasing endoscopic workload in ... serum H. pylori IgG cannot be used as a screening procedure to reduce endoscopic workload in Nige- rian patients with .... of the patients with gastric cancer. we. 133"“ l. Submucosal ...

  2. Helicobacter pylori : Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-test strips for metronidazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were used for susceptibility testing. Results. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in children was 73.3%, and 54.8% in adults. All the H. pylori investigated in this study were largely sensitive to clarithromycin (100%, minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) <2 ìg/ml) ...

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M

    2001-01-01

    were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log......, a marker of the body iron stores. In this analysis, we paid particular attention to the role of dietary iron intake and CagA, an established virulence factor of the agent. METHODS: The analysis is based on a cross-sectional national health and nutrition survey among healthy people in Germany conducted......-transformed serum ferritin concentration as dependent variable and H. pylori infection and several potential confounding factors as independent variable was fitted. In this model, H. pylori infection was associated with a 17.0% decrease of the serum ferritin concentration (95% CI = 9.8-23.6). The association...

  4. Periodontal therapy improves gastric Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, S; Bojic, B; Jankovic, Lj; Dapcevic, B; Popovic, B; Cakic, S; Milasin, J

    2009-10-01

    The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for H. pylori that could be responsible for the refractoriness of gastric infection to triple therapy (antibiotics, antimicrobials, and proton pump inhibitors). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of combined periodontal and triple therapy vs. triple therapy alone, in gastric H. pylori eradication in persons with H. pylori in the subgingival biofilm. Individuals positive for H. pylori in their gastric and oral samples, as determined by nested PCR, were treated either with periodontal and triple therapy or with triple therapy alone. Our results indicate that 77.3% of those treated with the combined therapy exhibited successful eradication of gastric H. pylori, compared with 47.6% who underwent only triple therapy. Analysis of these data suggests that periodontal treatment in combination with systemic therapy could be a promising approach to increasing the therapy's efficacy and decreasing the risk of infection recurrence.

  5. Two Decades of Helicobacter pylori: A Review of the Fourth Western Pacific Helicobacter Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Fallone

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 3 to 6, 2002, Helicobacter enthusiasts gathered in Perth, Australia for the Fourth Western Pacific Helicobacter Congress to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the modern discovery of this organism by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren. The meeting included state-of-the-art lectures highlighting the breakthroughs that have occurred since the discovery of this bacterium. As well, advances from the forefront of current Helicobacter pylori research were presented, particularly in the realm of genomics and molecular biology. A symposium about vaccines and trends for future H pylori research completed this congress. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the highlights from this conference, emphasizing new advances.

  6. Role of Probiotics in the Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zare Javid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped, microaerophilic organism that colonizes the stomach of humans and causes chronic-active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancers, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach and MALT (mucosal-associated lymphoid tumor lymphomas. H. pylori colonizes the stomach of over 50 % the world’s human population, primarily those who reside in developing nations. Infection is generally first acquired in children, who may be entirely asymptomatic, and then persists for life, unless specific eradication therapy is initiated. All infected individuals have mucosal inflammation in the stomach in response to the organism, but only a subset will develop disease complications, such as an ulcer in the stomach or proximal duodenum and cancer in either the body or the antrum of the stomach. It is estimated that the lifetime risk of developing peptic ulceration is roughly 15%. However, this is an exceedingly important disease, because it has serious morbidity and mortality. Eradication of H. pylori infection is not successful when using antibiotics as monotherapy or dual therapy using combinations of an acid-suppressing agent and an antibiotic or two antibiotics without acid blockage. Multiple studies show that some probiotic strains can inhibit the growth of H. pylori. To date, probiotics do not appear to have a role as sole therapy for use in the prevention or treatment of H. pylori infection. However, there is increasing evidence that a variety of probiotic agents are useful as adjunctive therapy, which can both enhance the success of eradicating the gastric pathogen while, reduce the frequency and severity of adverse effects arising from the other agents that are employed in current combination treatment regimens. Future studies should assess the role of prebiotics and synbiotics and products derived from probiotics as additional options for use in the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection

  7. Iron deficiency and Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendt, N; Kool, P; Teesalu, K; Lillemäe, K; Maaroos, H-I; Oona, M

    2011-09-01

    To examine the relationship between iron deficiency (ID) and Helicobacter pylori infection in school-aged children. Altogether 363 children from ambulatory admission were consecutively enrolled in the study. Haemoglobin (Hb), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), IgG against H. pylori and IgA against tissue transglutaminase were measured. The criteria for ID were sTfR > 5.7 mg/L in children aged 7-12 years and sTfR > 4.5 mg/L in older children, for anaemia Hb < 115 g/L in the younger group and Hb < 130 g/L for older boys and Hb < 120 g/L for girls. Iron deficiency was found in 17% of the children, 5% had also anaemia. H. pylori colonization was detected in 27% and serum markers for coeliac disease in 0.6% of the children. The prevalence of ID and H. pylori seropositivity was higher in older children (23% and 29%, vs 9% and 22%, respectively). Children with H. pylori were significantly shorter [length SDS 1.0 (0.98-1.01) vs 0.98 (0.97-0.99)]. Older children had risk for ID (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, p = 0.03). Although the prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity was higher in the ID group, it was not significantly associated with ID in multivariate analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was not associated with ID. The associated factor for ID was age. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. Indigenous Greenlanders have a higher sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori than Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Byg, Keld-Erik; Andersen, Leif P

    2003-01-01

    To assess the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Greenlanders and compare with the sero-prevalence in Caucasian Danes.......To assess the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Greenlanders and compare with the sero-prevalence in Caucasian Danes....

  9. Alterations in penicillin-binding protein 1A confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique); D. Schuijffel; A.A. van Zwet (Anton); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost Helicobacter pylori strains are susceptible to amoxicillin, an important component of combination therapies for H. pylori eradication. The isolation and initial characterization of the first reported stable amoxicillin-resistant clinical H. pylori isolate (the

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and parasites in symptomatic children examined for Helicobacter pylori antibodies, antigens, and parasites in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohanna, Mabrook A; Al-Zubairi, Lutf M; Sallam, Abdul K

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and parasites in symptomatic children examined for H. pylori antibodies, antigens, and parasites in Yemen. A record-based study was carried out at Specialized Sam Pediatric Center in Sana'a, Yemen for 3 years between 2011-2013. Out of the 43,200 patients seen for different causes through that period, 1008 (2.3%) (females: 675 [67%]; males: 333 [33%]) had gastric complaints, and were subjected to an examination of blood and stool for H. pylori and parasites. Data regarding age and gender was also collected. The age of the patients ranged from 3-15 years. The prevalence of H. pylori among children examined for H. pylori was 65%, 30% of them were males, and 35% were females (chi square [I2]=142, p<0.01]). The prevalence in the 6-8 years age group was 83%, and it was 52% in the age group of 12-15 years. The prevalence of giardiasis was 10%, and amoebiasis was 25%. Prevalence of H. pylori infection among children was high, and was more prevalent in the age group of 6-8 years than in the other age groups. Females were more affected than males. Parasites (amoebiasis and giardiasis) infestation was less prevalent.

  11. Helicobacter-negative gastritis: a distinct entity unrelated to Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, R M; Sonnenberg, A

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter-negative gastritis is diagnosed when no organisms are detected in a gastric mucosa with typical features of Helicobacter gastritis (Hp-gastritis). If Helicobacter-negative gastritis consisted mostly of 'missed' Helicobacter infections, its prevalence should represent a constant percentage of these infections in a population, and their clinico-epidemiological features would overlap. To compare the epidemiologic patterns of Hp-positive and Hp-negative gastritis. From a pathology database, we extracted demographic, clinical and histopathological data from patients with gastric biopsies (1.2008-12.2013). We allocated patients to high (≥12%) and low (≤6%) H. pylori prevalence regions defined by ZIP code-based data. The prevalence of H. pylori-positive and -negative gastritis by sex, age and state were expressed as a per cent of the total study population stratified accordingly. Of 895 323 patients, 10.6% had Hp-gastritis and 1.5% Helicobacter-negative gastritis. Hp-gastritis, but not Helicobacter-negative gastritis, was more common in males than females (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.16-1.19). While Hp-gastritis was more prevalent in high than in low-prevalence areas (OR 3.65, 95% CI: 3.57-3.74), Helicobacter-negative gastritis was only minimally affected by the underlying H. pylori prevalence (1.7% vs. 1.5%). The age-specific prevalence of Hp-gastritis peaked in the 4th to 5th decades; Helicobacter-negative gastritis exhibited a low and relatively flat pattern. The geographic distribution of H. pylori-positive and -negative gastritis showed no significant correlation. Intestinal metaplasia was found in 13.0% of patients with Hp-gastritis and in 6.1% of those with Helicobacter-negative gastritis (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.40-0.47). These data suggest that Helicobacter-negative gastritis is, in the vast majority of cases, a nosologically and epidemiologically distinct entity that deserves further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The immunohistochemical demonstration of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, Mark Anthony

    2009-08-01

    The finding of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is rare, with less than 40 reported cases in the literature. A condition of unknown etiology, several hypotheses exist including infectious and congenital. We report a case of ectopic gastric tissue in the rectum of a 47-year-old female, and her subsequent clinical course. Furthermore for the first time, we present immunohistologic evidence of the presence of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopic gastric tissue.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, V V; Ignat, A; Ciubotariu, G; Ciubară, A; Moscalu, M; Burlea, M

    2016-11-01

    Some studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection would be a protective factor for the gastroesophageal reflux. The aim of this study was to explore this fact. A group of 72 children, admitted in a pediatric gastroenterology regional center in Northeast Romania, diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux by 24-hour continuous esophageal pH monitoring (results were interpreted using the Boix-Ochoa score), underwent upper endoscopy with gastric biopsy to detect the presence of H. pylori by the rapid urease testing and for bacteriological and histologic examination. 19 children (26.39%) had H. pylori infection, while 53 (73.61%) did not. The grade of esophagitis was classified according to the Los Angeles classification system. Out of 47 children with esophagitis A, 16 (34.04%) had H. pylori infection, while out of the 25 children with esophagitis B, only 3 (12%) had H. pylori infection, with statistic significance (χ(2) = 54.69, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Regarding the value of the Boix-Ochoa score, it appears that the presence of the H. pylori determines lower pH-metry scores (F = 8.13, P = 0.0015, 95% CI). The presence of the H. pylori was not an important factor in the gastroesophageal reflux. On the other hand its relationship with esophagitis appears to be inverse ratio. The fact that the H. pylori presence is statistically greater in the grade A esophagitis could confirm the hypothesis that the bacteria would slow down the development of the esophagitis. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  14. Severe gastritis decreases success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar

    2016-05-01

    In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.

  15. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal

    2016-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world's population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class I definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with

  16. Helicobacter heilmannii-associated Gastritis: Clinicopathologic Findings and Comparison with Helicobacter pylori-associated Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ji Eun; Chang, Sun Hee; Kim, Hanseong; Chi, Je G.; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yang, Jeon Ho; Lee, June Sung; Moon, Young-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of Helicobacter heilmannii-associated gastritis and to compare H. heilmannii-associated gastritis with H. pylori-associated gastritis. We reviewed 5,985 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens. All cases of chronic gastritis with Helicobacter infection were evaluated with the Updated Sydney System, and the grades of all gastritis variables were compared between H. heilmannii-associated gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastritis groups. There were 10 cases of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis (0.17%) and 3,285 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis (54.9%). The organisms were superficially located within the mucous layer without adhesion to epithelial cells. Interestingly, in one case many intracytoplasmic H. heilmannii organisms were observed in parietal cells with cell damage. A case of low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma concomitant with H. heilmannii infection was detected. Compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis, H. heilmannii-associated gastritis showed less severe neutrophilic activity (pgastritis devoid of erosion or ulcer (p=0.0309). In conclusion, we present the detailed clinicopathologic findings of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis. H. heilmannii-associated gastritis is uncommon and milder than H. pylori-associated gastritis, however it may be noteworthy with respect to the development of MALT lymphoma. PMID:17297253

  17. Treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of Parkinson's disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H H; Qiu, J; Friis, S

    2012-01-01

    It has been speculated that gastrointestinal infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP) contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used nationwide Danish registers to investigate this hypothesis.......It has been speculated that gastrointestinal infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP) contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used nationwide Danish registers to investigate this hypothesis....

  18. Citric acid inhibits growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro: a new strategy for eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazgornik, Jan; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    About 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori. The association of peptic ulcer disease with Helicobacter pylori is well documented. Therefore eradication is obligatory. However, the high costs of multidrug therapy, the resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics as well as the sometimes present drug intolerance are limiting factors. The inhibitory effect of 3% hydrogen peroxide, 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, 2% ascorbic acid, citric acid in combination with sodium citrate, 7% and 14% citric acid solutions, respectively, on nine Helicobacter pylori strains were tested in vitro. Citric acid showed a potent inhibitory activity on growth of Helicobacter pylori strains in vitro. This was observed not only when citric acid was applied alone but also if citric acid was given together with low concentration of sodium citrate. Two percent ascorbic acid inhibited three, sodium bicarbonate two and hydrogen peroxide one of the nine tested Helicobacter pylori strains, respectively. Citric acid is a cheap substance present in many fruits and produced by food industry, and it demonstrated powerful inhibitory effect on the growth of Helicobacter pylori strains. On the basis of our findings citric acid should be further evaluated for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  19. Functional dyspepsia and dyspepsia associated with Helicobacter pylori infection: Do they have different clinical characteristics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Rodríguez-García

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The patients with dyspepsia infected with Helicobacter pylori had similar clinical characteristics to the non-infected patients and could not be differentiated a priori. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with functional dyspepsia was 58% and increased with age.

  20. Helicobacter Pylori: Vías de transmisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alonso Bayona Rojas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de Helicobacter pylori como agente etiológico en diversas patologías se asocia con una alta tasa de morbimortalidad y genera un fuerte impacto en nuestra sociedad y en los sistemas de salud. En ese sentido, la presente revisión de literatura pretende analizar y comprender la ruta de transmisión de este patógeno con el objeto de prevenir su propagación. El conocimiento de la epidemiología y el modo de transmisión permite prevenir la propagación e identificar poblaciones de alto riesgo, especialmente en áreas que tienen altas tasas de linfoma gástrico, cáncer gástrico y úlcera gástrica. Helicobacter Pylori: Transmission RoutesAbstractThe importance of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent in several pathologies is associated with a high rate of morbi mortality, which generates a strong impact in our society and in the health systems. The present literature review sought to analize and understand the route of transmission of this pathogen to prevent its spread. Knowledge of the epidemiology and mode of transmission of this pathogen is important to prevent its spread and be useful in identifying high-risk populations, especially in areas with high rates of gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastric ulcer

  1. [Current value of quinolones in Helicobacter pylori therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasz, S; Miehlke, S; Berning, M; Morgner, A; Labenz, J

    2011-08-01

    Eradication rates in first-line Helicobacter pylori therapy have been declining over the last decades, mainly due to increasing resistance against the recommended antibiotics clarithromycin and metronidazole. Thus, there is a need to evaluate novel regimens and substances to offer effective alternative treatment strategies. New generation quinolones, like levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, exhibit a broad-spectrum activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains and are mostly well tolerated. Based on a large number of studies, quinolones have been introduced in second-line and rescue treatment and are recommended for these indications in current guidelines. Various studies have investigated alternative strategies for first-line treatment including quinolone-based regimens. In the context of increasing resistance rates of Helicobacter pylori against quinolones some risks and benefits have to be considered when using quinolones as a first-line strategy. Besides numerous studies investigating levofloxacin and moxifloxacin there are some promising results for the new substance sitafloxacin, which might overcome primary resistance of Helicobacter pylori against conventional quinolones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Induction of the Gastrin Promoter Through GC-Rich DNA Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Tamara P.; Gray, Brian M.; Eaton, Kathyrn A.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection has been linked to the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. H. pylori- infected patients and animal models develop hypergastrinemia, chronic gastritis, and gastric atrophy. Since gastrin is an important regulator of gastric acid secretion and cell growth, H. pylori regulation of this hormone has been implicated in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effect of H. pylori infection on gastrin gene expression in m...

  3. Antibiotics resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Shiota, Seiji; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Uchida, Tomohisa; Fujioka, Toshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2013-09-07

    To survey the antibiotic resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains isolated from Bhutanese population. We isolated 111 H. pylori strains from the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients in Bhutan in 2010. The Epsilometer test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and tetracycline (TET). Nineteen of the isolated H. pylori strains were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. The isolated strains showed the highest rate of antibiotic resistance to MNZ (92/111, 82.9%). Among the 92 MNZ-resistant strains, 74 strains (80.4%) showed high-level resistance (MIC ≥ 256 μg/mL). Three strains were resistance to LVX (2.7%). These strains were also resistance to CIP. None of the strains showed resistance to CLR, AMX and TET. CLR-based triple therapy is a more effective treatment approach over MNZ-based triple therapy for H. pylori infection in Bhutan.

  4. Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: Is the end coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Young; Choi, Duck Joo; Chung, Jun-Won

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with gastro-duodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a group I carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacillus. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26558152

  5. Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Shatha; Lina, Taslima T; Gonzalez, Jazmin; Pinchuk, Irina V; Beswick, Ellen J; Reyes, Victor E

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium has cells with features that make them a powerful line of defense in innate mucosal immunity. Features that allow gastrointestinal epithelial cells to contribute in innate defense include cell barrier integrity, cell turnover, autophagy, and innate immune responses. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral shape gram negative bacterium that selectively colonizes the gastric epithelium of more than half of the world’s population. The infection invariably becomes persistent due to highly specialized mechanisms that facilitate H. pylori’s avoidance of this initial line of host defense as well as adaptive immune mechanisms. The host response is thus unsuccessful in clearing the infection and as a result becomes established as a persistent infection promoting chronic inflammation. In some individuals the associated inflammation contributes to ulcerogenesis or neoplasia. H. pylori has an array of different strategies to interact intimately with epithelial cells and manipulate their cellular processes and functions. Among the multiple aspects that H. pylori affects in gastric epithelial cells are their distribution of epithelial junctions, DNA damage, apoptosis, proliferation, stimulation of cytokine production, and cell transformation. Some of these processes are initiated as a result of the activation of signaling mechanisms activated on binding of H. pylori to cell surface receptors or via soluble virulence factors that gain access to the epithelium. The multiple responses by the epithelium to the infection contribute to pathogenesis associated with H. pylori. PMID:25278677

  6. Genetic signatures for Helicobacter pylori strains of West African origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennady K Bullock

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that colonizes the stomach in about half of the human population. Most persons colonized by H. pylori remain asymptomatic, but the presence of this organism is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Multiple populations and subpopulations of H. pylori with distinct geographic distributions are recognized. Genetic differences among these populations might be a factor underlying geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence. Relatively little is known about the genomic features of African H. pylori strains compared to other populations of strains. In this study, we first analyzed the genomes of H. pylori strains from seven globally distributed populations or subpopulations and identified encoded proteins that exhibited the highest levels of sequence divergence. These included secreted proteins, an LPS glycosyltransferase, fucosyltransferases, proteins involved in molybdopterin biosynthesis, and Clp protease adaptor (ClpS. Among proteins encoded by the cag pathogenicity island, CagA and CagQ exhibited the highest levels of sequence diversity. We then identified proteins in strains of Western African origin (classified as hspWAfrica by MLST analysis with sequences that were highly divergent compared to those in other populations of strains. These included ATP-dependent Clp protease, ClpS, and proteins of unknown function. Three of the divergent proteins sequences identified in West African strains were characterized by distinct insertions or deletions up to 8 amino acids in length. These polymorphisms in rapidly evolving proteins represent robust genetic signatures for H. pylori strains of West African origin.

  7. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: Cause or bystander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Daniel S; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Sakkas, Lazaros I; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research. PMID:24574735

  8. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  9. [Helicobacter pylori gastritis: assessment of OLGA and OLGIM staging systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slama, Sana; Ben Ghachem, Dorra; Dhaoui, Amen; Jomni, Mohamed Taieb; Dougui, Mohamed Hédi; Bellil, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis presents a risk of cancer related to atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Two recent classifications OLGA (Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment) and OLGIM (Operative Link on Gastritic Intestinal Metaplasia assessment) have been proposed to identify high-risk forms (stages III and IV). The aim of this study is to evaluate the OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in H pylori gastritis. A descriptive study of 100 cases of chronic H pylori gastritis was performed. The revaluation of Sydney System parameters of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, of gastric antrum and corpus, allowed identifying respectively the stages of OLGA and OLGIM systems. The progressive risk of our H pylori gastritis was 6% according to OLGA staging and 7% according to OLGIM staging. Significant correlation was revealed between age and OLGA staging. High-risk gastritis according to OLGIM staging was significantly associated with moderate to severe atrophy. High-risk forms according to OLGA staging were associated in 80% of the cases to intestinal metaplasia. OLGA and OLGIM systems showed a highly significant positive correlation between them with a mismatch at 5% for H pylori gastritis. The OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in addition to Sydney System, allow selection of high risk forms of chronic gastritis requiring accurate observation.

  10. Methods for detecting the environmental coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.

  11. Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: Is the end coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Young; Choi, Duck Joo; Chung, Jun-Won

    2015-11-06

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with gastro-duodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a group I carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacillus. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication.

  12. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala

    2010-10-01

    Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.

  13. Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.

  14. Probiotics as an adjuvant treatment in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin Yan; Liu, Fei

    2017-04-01

    Over 80% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are asymptomatic. Increased resistance to antibiotics and decreased compliance to the therapeutic regimens have led to the failure of eradication therapy. Probiotics, with direct and indirect inhibitory effects on H. pylori in both animal models and clinical trials, have recently been used as a supplementary treatment in H. pylori eradication therapy. Probiotics have been considered useful because of the improvements in H. pylori eradication rates and therapy-related side effects although treatment outcomes using probiotics are controversial due to the heterogeneity of species, strains, doses and therapeutic duration of probiotics. Thus, despite the positive role of probiotics, several factors need to be further considered during their applications. Moreover, adverse events of probiotic use need to be noted. Further investigations into the safety of adjuvant probiotics to H. pylori eradication therapy are required. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of a complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data have indicated that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect the risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness show the sophisticated relationship between H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility, heteroresistance, and updated treatment strategies in Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascellino MT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maria Teresa Mascellino,1 Barbara Porowska,2 Massimiliano De Angelis,1 Alessandra Oliva1 1Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Cardio-Thoracic, Vascular, General Surgery and of Organ Transplants, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy Abstract: In this review, we discuss the problem of antibiotic resistance, heteroresistance, the utility of cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests in Helicobacter pylori (Hp eradication, as well as the updated treatment strategies for this infection. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing all over the world, especially for metronidazole and clarithromycin, because of their heavy use in some geographical areas. Heteroresistance (simultaneous presence of both susceptible and resistant strains in different sites of a single stomach is another important issue, as an isolate could be mistakenly considered susceptible if a single biopsy is used for antimicrobial tests. We also examined literature data regarding eradication success rates of culture-guided and empiric therapies. The empiric therapy and the one based on susceptibility testing, in Hp eradication, may depend on several factors such as concomitant diseases, the number of previous antibiotic treatments, differences in bacterial virulence in individuals with positive or negative cultures, together with local antibiotic resistance patterns in real-world settings. Updated treatment strategies in Hp infection presented in the guidelines of the Toronto Consensus Group (2016 are reported. These suggest to prolong eradication therapy up to 14 days, replacing the old triple therapy with a quadruple therapy based on proton pump inhibitor (PPI, bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline for most of the patients, or as an alternative quadruple therapy without bismuth, based on the use of PPI, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and clarithromycin. The new drug vonoprazan, a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker recently

  17. Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection | Jemilohun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. pylori) play in the pathogenesis of diseases that present clinically as dyspepsia, such as chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, since its discovery by ...

  18. The role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheh, Alexander; Fox, James G

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori overturned the conventional dogma that the stomach was a sterile organ and that pH valueshypochlorhydria, duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. It is now appreciated that the human stomach supports a bacterial community with possibly 100s of bacterial species that influence stomach homeostasis. Other bacteria colonizing the stomach may also influence H. pylori-associated gastric pathogenesis by creating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and modulating inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize the available literature concerning the gastric microbiota in humans, mice, and Mongolian gerbils. We also discuss the gastric perturbations, many involving H. pylori, that facilitate the colonization by bacteria from other compartments of the gastrointestinal tract, and identify risk factors known to affect gastric homeostasis that contribute to changes in the microbiota.

  19. Helicobacter pylori: Genomic Insight into the Host-Pathogen Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn P. Haley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of genomic analyses has revolutionized the study of human health. Infectious disease research in particular has experienced an explosion of bacterial genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data complementing the phenotypic methods employed in traditional bacteriology. Together, these techniques have revealed novel virulence determinants in numerous pathogens and have provided information for potential chemotherapeutics. The bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori, has been recognized as a class 1 carcinogen and contributes to chronic inflammation within the gastric niche. Genomic analyses have uncovered remarkable coevolution between the human host and H. pylori. Perturbation of this coevolution results in dysregulation of the host-pathogen interaction, leading to oncogenic effects. This review discusses the relationship of H. pylori with the human host and environment and the contribution of each of these factors to disease progression, with an emphasis on features that have been illuminated by genomic tools.

  20. The Effects of Two Novel Copper-Based Formulations on Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Holton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of two novel copper-based inorganic formulations for their activity against 60 isolates of Helicobacter pylori (Hp. The two copper-based formulations were tested against three NCTC Helicobacter pylori isolates and 57 clinical strains isolated from the UK and Italy in time-kill assays. Both copper-based formulations were bio-cidal against all Helicobacter pylori strains tested reducing the viable count by 4–5 log within 2 h. These two copper-based anti-microbial agents deserve further study in relation to the treatment of H. pylori-related gastric disease.

  1. Helicobacter pylori gastritis, a presequeale to coronary plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant C. Raut

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are considered the most common human pathogen colonizing gastric mucosa. Gastritis with or without H. pylori infection is associated with increase in levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP but a more pronounced increase is noted in gastritis with H. pylori infection. Increasing level of homocysteine, due to decreased absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid, together with increased CRP levels in gastritis with H. pylori infection may be the earliest event in the process of atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Retrospective study conducted at tertiary care hospital in Mumbai by Department of Biochemistry in association with Department of Surgery. Eighty patients who underwent gastroscopy in view of gastritis were subjected to rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and hs-CRP were analyzed using chemiluminescence immuno assay. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and linear regression used for statistical analysis. Patients with H. pylori gastritis had significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 (271.6±101.3 vs 390.6±176.7 pg/mL; P=0.0005, as well as higher levels of homocysteine (17.4±7.4 vs 13.8±7.8 mmol/L; P=0.037 and hs-CRP (2.5±2.9 vs 1.2±1.1 mg/L; P=0.017, than in patients without H. pylori gastritis. However, folic acid showed (8.9±3.2 vs 10.0±3.6 ng/mL; P=0.171 no significant difference. Elevated homocysteine and hs-CRP in H. pylori gastritis may independently induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to cardiovascular pathology.

  2. Relatedness of Helicobacter pylori populations to gastric carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Wang, Li-Li; Xin, Yong-Ning; Jiang, Man; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects half of the human population. The infection is associated with chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and peptic ulcers. It is also a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Phylogenetic analysis of global strains reveals there are seven populations of H. pylori, including hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, hpEastAsia, hpEurope, hpNEAfrica, hpAsia2 and hpSahul. These populations are consistent with their geographical origins, and possibly result from geographical separation of the bacterium leading to reduced bacterial recombination in some populations. For each population, H. pylori has evolved to possess genomic contents distinguishable from others. The hpEurope population is distinct in that it has the largest genome of 1.65 mbp on average, and the highest number of coding sequences. This confers its competitive advantage over other populations but at the cost of a lower infection rate. The large genomic size could be a cause of the frequent occurrence of the deletion of the cag pathogenicity island in H. pylori strains from hpEurope. The incidence of gastric cancer varies among different geographical regions. This can be attributed in part to different rates of infection of H. pylori. Recent studies found that different populations of H. pylori vary in their carcinogenic potential and contribute to the variation in incidence of gastric cancer among geographical regions. This could be related to the ancestral origin of H. pylori. Further studies are indicated to investigate the bacterial factors contributing to differential virulence and their influence on the clinical features in infected individuals. PMID:23236231

  3. Age of the association between Helicobacter pylori and man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshan Moodley

    Full Text Available When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya, they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88-116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43-56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36-52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya.

  4. Association between systemic lupus erythematosus and Helicobacter pylori seronegativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Amr H; Schmid, Wendi R; Binder, Steven R; Bacino, Debra K; Harley, John B

    2004-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative spiral bacterium that is clearly associated with a variety of gastrointestinal pathologies. A number of non-gastrointestinal diseases have also been associated with H. pylori. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity as part of a larger serologic survey in a group of 466 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 466 controls. We studied subjects for seropositivity against 5 antigens including mumps, measles, rubella, varicella zoster, and H. pylori. The 466 SLE patients were taken from a total of 290 pedigrees multiplex for SLE and matched to 466 controls for age (+/- 3 yrs), sex, and ethnicity to non-SLE affected individuals, taken mostly from the same collection of pedigrees multiplex for SLE. Assays for seropositivity were performed using a heterogeneous immunoassay technique. Pearson's chi-square was used to test for association of categorical variables and Student t-test for continuous variables. Logistic regression was used to compute the odds ratio for H. pylori seropositivity in patients and controls. There was a significant difference only in H. pylori seropositivity between SLE cases and their controls. The results were not altered by intrafamilial correlation. Subset analysis by race and sex showed that the differences between the African-American female patients with SLE and their matched controls were responsible for this association. Female African-American patients with SLE had a lower prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity compared to controls (38.1% vs 60.2%, OR 0.41, p = 0.0009, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Of the 113 African-American female SLE patients in the study group, 43 were seropositive for H. pylori. The mean age of onset for SLE was older in the seropositive group (34.4 yrs) compared to the seronegative SLE patients (28.0 yrs) (t = 2.11, p = 0.039). Of 5 serologic tests performed, only the frequency of H. pylori seropositivity was different between SLE cases and their controls

  5. The Helicobacter pylori theory and duodenal ulcer disease. A case study of the research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A H; Gjørup, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the medical research process from the time of the generation of a new theory to its implementation in clinical practice. The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) theory, i.e. the theory that H. pylori plays a significant causal role in duodenal ulcer disease was chosen as a case....... MATERIAL: Abstracts from 1984 to 1993, identified in the CD-Rom, Medline system, ("Silverplatter"), using the search terms Campylobacter pylori and Helicobacter pylori, and reviews and editorials about H. pylori in some of the most widespread clinical journals. RESULTS: 2204 papers on H. pylori were....... pylori in duodenal ulcer disease had been published in some of the most widespread clinical journals. In half of the papers the authors were convinced of the causal role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer disease, while in the remainder they were sceptical. In seven cases the authors stated which patients...

  6. Transcriptional Regulation of the Nickel and Iron Metabolism in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUp to 50 % of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori. Colonization of the mucus layer of the human stomach by H. pylori, is lifelong unless treated with antibiotics (26). H. pylori, which is a neutralophilic bacterium, survives in the mucus layer of the human

  7. Effects of prolonged chlorine exposures upon PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of low doses of free chlorine on the detection by qPCR of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cells by qPCR in tap water was monitored. H. pylori target sequences (within suspended, intact cells at densities of 102 to 103 cells /ml) were rendered undetectable by qPCR an...

  8. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included…

  9. Co-occurrence of Helicobacter pylori with faecal bacteria in Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Overwhelming evidence implicates Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as an etiologic agent of gastrointestinal diseases including gastric cancer. The mode of transmission of this pathogen remains poorly understood. Objective: This investigation is to establish the presence of H. pylori in the waters of the Nairobi ...

  10. The prevalence and related symptomatology of Helicobacter pylori in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Andersen, L P; Pærregaard, Anders

    1998-01-01

    in 46/66 by culture and histology. The presence of H. pylori was significantly associated with active or inactive chronic gastritis. The presence of H. pylori was associated with both parents being born in a country with a high prevalence and a low social class. Helicobacter pylori-positive children had...

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection affects mitochondrial function and DNA repair, thus, mediating genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Desler, Claus; Boggild, Sisse

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for the development of atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms explaining the effects of H. pylori infection are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection is known to induce genetic instability in both nuclear...

  12. Accurate, Noninvasive Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA from Stool Samples: Potential Usefulness for Monitoring Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shuber, Anthony P.; Ascaño, Jennifer J.; Boynton, Kevin A.; Mitchell, Anastasia; Frierson, Henry F.; El-Rifai, Wa’el; Powell, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    A novel DNA assay demonstrating sensitive and accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples is reported. Moreover, in three individuals tested for therapeutic response, the assay showed the disappearance of H. pylori DNA during treatment. Thus, this noninvasive molecular biology-based assay has the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori DNA.

  13. Helicobacter pylori HP1034 (ylxH) is required for motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Karin; van der Ende, Arie

    2004-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori motility is essential for the colonization and persistence in the human gastric mucosa. So far, more than 50 genes have been described to play a role in flagellar biosynthesis. H. pylori YlxH (HP1034) is annotated as an ATP-binding protein. However, H. pylori YlxH

  14. The influence of Helicobacter pylori on oesophageal acid exposure in GERD during acid suppressive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, FTM; Kuipers, EJ; Ganesh, S; Sluiter, WJ; Klinkenberg-Knol, EC; Lamers, CBHW; Kleibeuker, JH

    Background: Helicobacter pylori exaggerates the effect of acid suppressive drugs on intragastric pH. It is unknown whether this is relevant for the treatment of GERD. Aim: To compare oesophageal acid exposure and symptoms in H. pylori-negative and H. pylori-positive GERD patients during low and

  15. Is the sensitivity to gastric acid inhibition Helicobacter pylori status-dependent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies using 24-h intragastric pH monitoring suggest that treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor is less effective in Helicobacter pylori-negative than in H. pylori-positive subjects. AIM: To survey and discuss the available information on the interaction between H. pylori status

  16. Helicobacter pylori-associated malignancies: Genetics, Epidemiology and Gastric Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Capelle (Lisette)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractHelicobacter pylori infection affects at least 50% of the world population. The chronic inflammation caused by H. pylori can progress to pre-malignant gastric lesions, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric MALT lymphoma. The widespread high prevalence of H. pylori explains that gastric

  17. Detection of Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA genotypes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori(H. Pylori) is one of the most common pathogens affecting human kind, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. Invasive and non- invasive methods have been used to diagnose H. pylori infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been broadly and successfully used to ...

  18. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in rural school children using 13C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in young children in developing countries appear to be a major cause for chronic under nutrition and diarrhea syndrome with failure to thrive. H. pylori are spiral gram-negative bacteria, whose infection is implicated in duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, non-ulcer dyspepsia and gastritis.

  19. Detection of Helicobacter pylori urease antigen in saliva in patients with different gastric H. pylori status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-07-01

    Finding a simple, accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis method is a substantial challenge for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of H. pylori urease antigen in saliva with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa. Saliva samples and gastric biopsies were taken from 153 consenting Moroccan patients. Saliva samples were analyzed using an immunochromatographic test for urease antigen H. pylori detection. Thereafter, the gastric biopsies were analyzed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this bacterium. From a total of 153 recruited Moroccan patients, H. pylori was detected in 28 (18.30%), 87 (57.24%), and 69 (45.10%) cases by saliva test, histology, and PCR, respectively. A significant association was observed between the presence of H. pylori antigen in saliva and age. However, no association was found with sex, H. pylori virulence factors, gastric disease outcome, and density of the bacterium on the gastric mucosa. Considering that only 90 patients presented concordant results on H. pylori diagnosis (positive or negative) by both histology and PCR, the immunochromatographic test showed very low sensitivity (29.79%) and high specificity (90.70%). Of these two tests, the positive and negative predictive values were 77.78% and 54.17%, respectively. The accuracy of the test for salivary detection of urease antigen H. pylori was 58.89%. This study demonstrated a low detection rate of H. pylori antigens in saliva compared with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa, suggesting that saliva cannot be used as a suitable sample for the diagnosis of H. pylori in our study population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. Ethnicity association of Helicobacter pylori virulence genotype and metronidazole susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfizah, Hanafiah; Rukman, Awang Hamat; Norazah, Ahmad; Hamizah, Razlan; Ramelah, Mohamed

    2013-02-28

    To characterise the cag pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates by analysing the strains' vacA alleles and metronidazole susceptibilities in light of patient ethnicity and clinical outcome. Ninety-five H. pylori clinical isolates obtained from patients with dyspepsia living in Malaysia were analysed in this study. Six genes in the cagPAI region (cagE, cagM, cagT, cag13, cag10 and cag67) and vacA alleles of the H. pylori isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The isolates' metronidazole susceptibility was also determined using the E-test method, and the resistant gene was characterised by sequencing. More than 90% of the tested isolates had at least one gene in the cagPAI region, and cag67 was predominantly detected in the strains isolated from the Chinese patients, compared with the Malay and Indian patients (P colonisation by different H. pylori genotypes is dependent on the host's genetic makeup and may play an important role in the clinical outcome.

  1. Helicobacter pylori update: gastric cancer, reliable therapy, and possible benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to the development of diverse gastric and extragastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, therefore there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to the development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associated with inflammation, which is induced by H pylori infection, yet the bacteria also cause genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells. H pylori eradication reduces both. However, many factors must be considered in determining whether treating this bacterial infection will prevent cancer or only reduce its risk-these must be considered in designing reliable and effective eradication therapies. Furthermore, H pylori infection has been proposed to provide some benefits, such as reducing the risks of obesity or childhood asthma. When tested, these hypotheses have not been confirmed and are therefore most likely false. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Helicobacter pylori exhibit corkscrew motion while swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Maira; Hardcastle, Joseph; Bansil, Rama

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped bacterium associated with ulcers, gastric cancer, gastritis among other diseases. In order to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the stomach H. pylori has to go across the viscoelastic mucus layer of the stomach. Many studies have been conducted on the swimming of H. pylori in viscous media however none have taken into account the influence of cell-body shape on the trajectory. We present an experimental study of the effects of body shape in the swimming trajectory of H. pylori in viscous media by a quantitative analysis of the bacterium rotation and translation in gels using phase contrast microscopy and particle tracking techniques. Preliminary microscopic tracking measurements show very well defined helical trajectories in the spiral-shaped wild type H. pylori. These helical trajectories are not seen in rod-shaped mutants which sometimes display whirling motion about one end acting as a hinge. We will present an analysis of the different trajectories for bacteria swimming in media with different viscoelastic parameters. Supported by the National Science Foundation PHY PoLS.

  3. Role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ghada M; Nashaat, Ehab H

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and the value of adding a non teratogenic regimen for its treatment in intractable cases. Eighty hyperemesis gravidarum cases were recruited from Ain Shams University out patient clinics. A complete history was taken including history of medical disorders and chronic medications intake as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After general and local examination, ultrasound was done for all cases to exclude obstetric causes of hyperemesis. Eighty normal pregnant women acted as control. Serum test for H. pylori IgG antibody titre was done for all patients and controls. Seventy-one cases among the 80 HG cases and twenty-four out of the 80 controls were H. pylori positive. Eight HG cases developed severe intractable vomiting. Three of them developed attacks of hematemesis. Gastroscopy done for the eight cases revealed antral gastritis and duodenitis. Gastric and duodenal erosions were found in two cases. The eight patients received a non teratogenic regimen for treatment. Attacks of vomiting decreased and pregnancy continued till delivery of healthy newborns. Screening for H. pylori should be added to the investigations of hyperemesis gravidarum cases. Non teratogenic treatment can be considered in intractable cases.

  4. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer.

  5. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-06-07

    To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity.

  7. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection: which regimen first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Alessandro; Gravina, Antonietta Gerarda; Miranda, Agnese; Loguercio, Carmela; Romano, Marco

    2014-01-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a well-known human pathogen that plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancies. Although H. pylori is susceptible to several antimicrobials, this infection has proven challenging to cure because of the increasing prevalence of bacterial strains that are resistant to the most commonly used antimicrobials, particularly clarithromycin. An effective (i.e., > 90%) first-line therapy is mandatory for avoiding supplementary treatments and testing, and more importantly for preventing the development of secondary resistance. This study reviews the recent literature on first-line therapies for H. pylori. The eradication rates following standard triple therapy (a proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin) for H. pylori infection are declining worldwide. Several first-line strategies have been proposed to increase the eradication rate, including extending the treatment duration to 14 d, the use of a four-drug regimen (bismuth-containing quadruple, sequential, and concomitant treatments), and the use of novel antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones. However, the efficacy of these regimens is controversial. A first-line eradication regimen should be based on what works best in a defined geographical area and must take into account the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in that region.

  8. A new look at anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Tsay, Feng-Woei; Hsu, Ping-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2011-09-21

    With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the treatment success of standard triple therapy has recently declined to unacceptable levels (i.e., 80% or less) in most countries. Therefore, several treatment regimens have emerged to cure Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Novel first-line anti-H. pylori therapies in 2011 include sequential therapy, concomitant quadruple therapy, hybrid (dual-concomitant) therapy and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy. After the failure of standard triple therapy, a bismuth-containing quadruple therapy comprising a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole can be employed as rescue treatment. Recently, triple therapy combining a PPI, levofloxacin and amoxicillin has been proposed as an alternative to the standard rescue therapy. This salvage regimen can achieve a higher eradication rate than bismuth-containing quadruple therapy in some regions and has less adverse effects. The best second-line therapy for patients who fail to eradicate H. pylori with first-line therapies containing clarithromycin, amoxicillin and metronidazole is unclear. However, a levofloxacin-based triple therapy is an accepted rescue treatment. Most guidelines suggest that patients requiring third-line therapy should be referred to a medical center and treated according to the antibiotic susceptibility test. Nonetheless, an empirical therapy (such as levofloxacin-based or furazolidone-based therapies) can be employed to terminate H. pylori infection if antimicrobial sensitivity data are unavailable.

  9. Helicobacter pylori stores nickel to aid its host colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stéphane L; Miller, Erica F; Maier, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    The transition metal nickel (Ni) is critical for the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori. Indeed the element is a required component of two enzymes, hydrogenase and urease, that have been shown to be important for in vivo colonization of the host gastric mucosa. Urease accounts for up to 10% of the total cellular H. pylori protein content, and therefore the bacterial Ni demand is very high. H. pylori possess two small and abundant histidine-rich, Ni-binding proteins, Hpn and Hpn-like, whose physiological role in the host have not been investigated. In this study, special husbandry conditions were used to control Ni levels in the host (mouse), including the use of Ni-free versus Ni-supplemented food. The efficacy of each diet was confirmed by measuring the Ni concentrations in sera of mice fed with either diet. Colonization levels (based on rank tests) of the Δhpn Δhpn-like double mutants isolated from the mice provided Ni-deficient chow were statistically lower than those for mice given Ni in their diet. In contrast, H. pylori wild-type colonization levels were similar in both host groups (e.g., regardless of Ni levels). Our results indicate that the gastric pathogen H. pylori can utilize stored Ni via defined histidine-rich proteins to aid colonization of the host.

  10. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  11. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Joe; Thumbs, Alexander; Kankwatira, Anstead; Andrews, Tim; Moore, Andrew; Malamba, Rose; Mtunthama, Neema; Hellberg, Kai; Kalongolera, Lughano; O'Toole, Paul; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D Mark; Gordon, Melita

    2015-01-01

    HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption. We have investigated to what extent HIV and H. pylori infections are associated with hypochlorhydria in a Malawian cohort of patients undergoing endoscopy. 104 sequential symptomatic adults referred for gastroscopy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, had blood taken for rapid HIV testing and fasting serum gastrin analysis. Gastric fluid was aspirated for pH testing, and gastric biopsies were taken. After 9/104 HIV-infected patients who were already established on anti-retroviral therapy were excluded, 17/95 (25.0%) were seropositive for untreated HIV, and 68/95 (71.6%) patients were H. pylori positive by histology. Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH>4.0) was present in 55.8% (53/95) of patients. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 2.91, [1.02-7.75], p=0.046). While single infection with HIV was not significantly independently associated with hypochlorhydria. H. pylori and HIV co-infection was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 6.25, [1.33-29.43], p=0.020) than either infection alone, suggesting an additive effect of co-infection. HIV infection was associated with higher serum gastrin levels (91.3 pM vs. 53.1 pM, p=0.040), while H. pylori infection was not (63.1 pM vs. 55.1 pM, p=0.610). Irrespective of H. pylori and HIV status, most patients (>90%) exhibited pangastritis. Only three patients had histological evidence of gastric atrophy, of which only one was HIV-infected. H. pylori infection was associated with fasting hypochlorhydria, while HIV was not independently associated. HIV and H. pylori co-infection, however, was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria than H. pylori infection alone. The mechanism of this apparent additive effect between HIV and H. pylori remains

  12. Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis C virus coinfection in Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Masry Samir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide. It has been shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori plays an important role in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies, and its eradication has been advocated. The association between H. pylori infection and liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C virus has been documented in different parts of the world; nevertheless, no conclusive data is available in Egypt. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the status of H. pylori infection was sought in 90 patients with chronic HCV infection and in 66 HCV-free healthy controls. Results: The study showed that the H. pylori positivity was increased significantly (P = 0.03 in the HCV-infected patients when compared to that in healthy controls, where H. pylori infection was found in 50 (55.6% out of 90 of the HCV-infected patients versus 26 (39.4% out of 66 of the healthy controls. In HCV-infected patients, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was increased significantly (P = 0.04 from chronic active hepatitis to cirrhosis. H. pylori infection was present in 6/18 (33.3%, 10/21 (47.6%, 16/27 (59.3%, 18/24 (75.0% patients with chronic active hepatitis, Child-Pugh score A, Child-Pugh score B and Child-Pugh score C, respectively. More importantly, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HCV-infected patients was increased very significantly (P = 0.003 with increasing Meld (model for end-stage liver disease score. The prevalence of H. pylori was documented in 9/28 (32.1% patients with Meld score ≤10 and in 41/62 (66.1% patients with Meld score> 10. Conclusion: It may be stated that our results collectively reflect a remarkable increase in H. pylori prevalence with advancing hepatic lesions, and the eradication treatment may prove beneficial in those patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  13. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Geraghty

    Full Text Available HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption. We have investigated to what extent HIV and H. pylori infections are associated with hypochlorhydria in a Malawian cohort of patients undergoing endoscopy.104 sequential symptomatic adults referred for gastroscopy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, had blood taken for rapid HIV testing and fasting serum gastrin analysis. Gastric fluid was aspirated for pH testing, and gastric biopsies were taken.After 9/104 HIV-infected patients who were already established on anti-retroviral therapy were excluded, 17/95 (25.0% were seropositive for untreated HIV, and 68/95 (71.6% patients were H. pylori positive by histology. Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH>4.0 was present in 55.8% (53/95 of patients. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 2.91, [1.02-7.75], p=0.046. While single infection with HIV was not significantly independently associated with hypochlorhydria. H. pylori and HIV co-infection was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 6.25, [1.33-29.43], p=0.020 than either infection alone, suggesting an additive effect of co-infection. HIV infection was associated with higher serum gastrin levels (91.3 pM vs. 53.1 pM, p=0.040, while H. pylori infection was not (63.1 pM vs. 55.1 pM, p=0.610. Irrespective of H. pylori and HIV status, most patients (>90% exhibited pangastritis. Only three patients had histological evidence of gastric atrophy, of which only one was HIV-infected.H. pylori infection was associated with fasting hypochlorhydria, while HIV was not independently associated. HIV and H. pylori co-infection, however, was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria than H. pylori infection alone. The mechanism of this apparent additive effect between HIV and H. pylori

  14. Recent Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka Pygmies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Valeria; Maady, Ayas; Nkwescheu, Armand; Siri, Jose; Elamin, Wael F.; Falush, Daniel; Linz, Bodo; Achtman, Mark; Moodley, Yoshan; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Both anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8%) than non-Baka (80.2%). We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication of H. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using coalescent simulations

  15. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with protection against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Perry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a lifelong and typically asymptomatic infection of the stomach, profoundly alters gastric immune responses, and may benefit the host in protection against other pathogens. We explored the hypothesis that H. pylori contributes to the control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.We first examined M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma and H. pylori antibody responses in 339 healthy Northern Californians undergoing routine tuberculin skin testing. Of 97 subjects (29% meeting criteria for latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI, 45 (46% were H. pylori seropositive. Subjects with LTBI who were H. pylori-seropositive had 1.5-fold higher TB antigen-induced IFN-gamma responses (p = 0.04, ANOVA, and a more Th-1 like cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared to those who were H. pylori seronegative. To explore an association between H. pylori infection and clinical outcome of TB exposure, we evaluated H. pylori seroprevalence in baseline samples from two high risk TB case-contact cohorts, and from cynomolgus macaques experimentally challenged with M. tuberculosis. Compared to 513 household contacts who did not progress to active disease during a median 24 months follow-up, 120 prevalent TB cases were significantly less likely to be H. pylori infected (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.0.36-0.83, p = 0.005, though seroprevalence was not significantly different from non-progressors in 37 incident TB cases (AOR: 1.35 [95% CI 0.63-2.9] p = 0.44. Cynomolgus macaques with natural H. pylori infection were significantly less likely to progress to TB 6 to 8 months after M. tuberculosis challenge (RR: 0.31 [95% CI 0.12-0.80], p = 0.04.H. pylori infection may induce bystander effects that modify the risk of active TB in humans and non-human primates. That immunity to TB may be enhanced by exposure to other microbial agents may have important implications for vaccine development and disease control.

  16. HELICOBACTER PYLORI: THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF PEPTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    room temperature, and in this state it fails to grow on subculture. .... H. pylori weaken the protective mucous coating of the stomach and duodenum, which allows acid to get through to the sensitive lining beneath. Both the acid and the bacteria irritate the ... the organism from gastric acid by converting urea to ammonia and ...

  17. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection among symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating meals cooked at home alone or supplemented with meals from the eateries did not influence the immunochromatographic antibody reactions. Conclusions: The prevalence of H.pylori in our dyspeptic subjects was lower than in other parts of Nigeria. Methodological differences not withstanding. It is probably timely to ...

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Noach, L. A.; Rauws, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    H. pylori is undoubtedly the dominant factor in the multifactorial peptic ulcer diathesis. We should not ignore the other contributing factors but rather try to identify how they interact with the organism and initiate the ulcerative process. The interplay of acid attack and mucosal defence is

  19. [The treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korwin, J D; Lozniewski, A

    1996-12-14

    H. pylori causes inflammatory lesions of the stomach and duodenum. At the present time eradication is essentially recommended in case of gastric or duodenal ulcer. The choice of the appropriate drug depends on the characteristics of the H. pylori infection, the localization deep in the gastric mucosa, the physico-chemical properties of the gastric medium, especially the acidity which deactivates antibiotics, slow bacterial growth and the germ's sensitivity to antibiotics. Anti-infectious treatment is now based on a three-drug regimen combining an antisecretory drug (proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist) and two antibiotics: clarithromycin associated with amoxicillin or an imidazol derivative (metronidazol or tinidazol) or tetracycline. Two antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin) as well as three anti-secretory agents (lansoprazole, omeprazole, ranitidine) have been authorized in France for three-drug regimens of 1 or 2 weeks leading to approximately 90% eradication. Special attention should be placed on the risk of resistance to antibiotics (macrolids and imidazol derivatives) and patient compliance required for successful eradication of H. pylori. Other therapeutic schemes are under assessment and a vaccine is being prepared. Eradication of H. pylori has totally changed the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, eliminating the need for long-term treatment and avoiding complications.

  20. Factors influencing the eradication of Helicobacter pylori with triple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D Y; Lew, G M; Malaty, H M; Evans, D G; Evans, D J; Klein, P D; Alpert, L C; Genta, R M

    1992-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and the epidemic form of gastric carcinoma. Eradication of H. pylori infection has proven to be difficult. Recently, combinations of antimicrobial drugs have been shown to eradicate greater than 50% of infections; however, the results have proven variable, and the factors influencing effectiveness of therapy are unclear. In the present study, the effectiveness of a triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection was evaluated. Triple therapy consisted of 2 g tetracycline, 750 mg metronidazole, and five or eight tablets of bismuth subsalicylate daily in 93 patients (70 with duodenal ulcer, 17 with gastric ulcer, and 6 with simple H. pylori gastritis). Combinations of a sensitive urea breath test, serology, culture, and histology were used to confirm the presence of infection, eradication, or relapse. Eradication was defined as inability to show H. pylori greater than or equal to 1 month after ending therapy. The overall eradication rate was 87%. The factors evaluated for their effect on predicting eradication included age, gender, type of disease, duration of therapy, amount of bismuth subsalicylate [five or eight Pepto-Bismol tablets daily (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH)], and compliance with the prescribed medications. Stepwise regression showed that compliance was the most important factor predicting success; the success rate was 96% for patients who took greater than 60% of the prescribed medications and 69% for patients who took less. For those taking greater than 60% of the prescribed therapy, the eradication rates were similar (a) for patients receiving therapy for 14 days or when tetracycline and bismuth subsalicylate were taken for an additional 14 days; (b) for patients with duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and simple H. pylori gastritis; and (c) whether five or eight bismuth subsalicylate tablets were taken. It is concluded that triple therapy is

  1. Overview of the phytomedicine approaches against Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) successfully colonizes the human stomach of the majority of the human population. This infection always causes chronic gastritis, but may evolve to serious outcomes, such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori first line therapy recommended by the Maastricht-4 Consensus Report comprises the use of two antibiotics and a proton-pomp inhibitor, but in some regions failure associated with this treatment is already undesirable high. Indeed, treatment failure is one of the major problems associated with H. pylori infection and is mainly associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance. In order to counteract this situation, some effort has been allocated during the last years in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives beyond antibiotics. These include vaccines, probiotics, photodynamic inactivation and phage therapy, which are briefly revisited in this review. A particular focus on phytomedicine, also described as herbal therapy and botanical therapy, which consists in the use of plant extracts for medicinal purposes, is specifically addressed, namely considering its history, category of performed studies, tested compounds, active principle and mode of action. The herbs already experienced are highly diverse and usually selected from products with a long history of employment against diseases associated with H. pylori infection from each country own folk medicine. The studies demonstrated that many phytomedicine products have an anti-H. pylori activity and gastroprotective action. Although the mechanism of action is far from being completely understood, current knowledge correlates the beneficial action of herbs with inhibition of essential H. pylori enzymes, modulation of the host immune system and with attenuation of inflammation. PMID:24914319

  2. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  3. Overview of the phytomedicine approaches against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) successfully colonizes the human stomach of the majority of the human population. This infection always causes chronic gastritis, but may evolve to serious outcomes, such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori first line therapy recommended by the Maastricht-4 Consensus Report comprises the use of two antibiotics and a proton-pomp inhibitor, but in some regions failure associated with this treatment is already undesirable high. Indeed, treatment failure is one of the major problems associated with H. pylori infection and is mainly associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance. In order to counteract this situation, some effort has been allocated during the last years in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives beyond antibiotics. These include vaccines, probiotics, photodynamic inactivation and phage therapy, which are briefly revisited in this review. A particular focus on phytomedicine, also described as herbal therapy and botanical therapy, which consists in the use of plant extracts for medicinal purposes, is specifically addressed, namely considering its history, category of performed studies, tested compounds, active principle and mode of action. The herbs already experienced are highly diverse and usually selected from products with a long history of employment against diseases associated with H. pylori infection from each country own folk medicine. The studies demonstrated that many phytomedicine products have an anti-H. pylori activity and gastroprotective action. Although the mechanism of action is far from being completely understood, current knowledge correlates the beneficial action of herbs with inhibition of essential H. pylori enzymes, modulation of the host immune system and with attenuation of inflammation.

  4. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Factors in Relation to Helicobacter pylori Infection

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    Seyyed Ali Mard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Helicobacter pylori (HP and diet are both risk factors for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary habits common in Khuzestan province. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011–2013 on 374 patients. Participants were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire and tissue sample of the antrum was sent for pathology lab. The histopathological major variables were graded on a scale of 3 (mild, moderate, and severe and data analyzed using nonparametric tests. Results. In this study, of 160 patients (43% that were determined, 8.1 percent had severe contamination. Among dietary patterns, relationship between energy intake and carbohydrate with H. pylori was significant. A direct association was found between mean daily intakes of sausage (P=0.001 and burgers (P<0.05 with HP infection. Low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits was the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. Conclusion. There is a possibility that some dietary factors such as consumption of fast foods and low intake of fresh vegetables may increase the chance of HP and severity of this infection.

  6. The internalization of Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the failure of H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Fa; Zhong, Yao; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ping; Xie, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear. To investigate the relationship between H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells and H. pylori eradication failure. Forty-two clinical strains isolated from H. pylori-positive patients with different outcomes after treatment with furazolidone-based therapy were examined (17 failures and 25 successes). The H. pylori strains were shown to be susceptible to amoxicillin and furazolidone, and the patients also exhibited good compliance. Genotyping was performed for cagA and vacA (s and m). The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains to amoxicillin, furazolidone, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was determined by E-tests. The levels of H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells were detected by gentamicin colony-forming unit assays. The internalization level in the eradication success group was 5.40±5.78 × 10-3  cfu/cell, and the median was 6.194 × 10-3  cfu/cell; the internalization level in the eradication failure group was 8.98±5.40 × 10-3  cfu/cell, and the median was 10.28 × 10-3  cfu/cell. The eradication failure group showed a greater invasion level than the eradication success group (P.05). The results showed that H. pylori invasion of the gastric epithelia might play a role in eradication failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Periodontal therapy as adjunctive treatment for gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Yan, Xiang; Zhou, YongNing; Li, Wei Xin

    2016-02-07

    Helicobacter pylori is estimated to affect about half the world's population and is considered as the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Eradication of H. pylori infection accelerates ulcer healing and prevents relapse, reducing incidence of H. pylori-related gastric diseases. Numerous studies have provided evidence that the oral cavity could be a potential reservoir for H. pylori. The presence of oralH. pylori might affect the efficiency of eradication therapy and act as a causal force for its recurrence. Conversely, other investigators have indicated that the colonization and growth of H. pylori differs between the oral cavity and the stomach. Considering the open debate on the topic, it's necessary to clarify whether periodontal therapy is an effective adjunctive treatment for gastric H. pylori infection. To assess the effects of periodontal therapy plus eradication therapy versus eradication therapy alone for gastric H. pylori infection. The secondary objective is to compare the non-recurrence rate at long-term follow up in different treatment groups. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1980 to August 2015), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to August 2015). We also searched both ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP portal in October 2015. We handsearched the reference lists of included studies to identify relevant trials. RCTs comparing periodontal therapy plus eradication treatment with eradication treatment alone, regardless of language of publication. Two reviewers selected the trials that met the inclusion criteria and extracted the details of each study independently. The data were pooled using both fixed-effect and random-effects models and results calculated as odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on an intention-to-treat analysis. However, because there

  8. Present and past Helicobacter pylori infection in Mexican school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Eugenia; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Mera, Robertino; Vilchis, Jenny; Moran, Segundo; Rivera, Octavio; Coria, Rafael; Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo; Duque, Ximena

    2014-02-01

    In developing countries, more than 50% of children have serological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, serological tests for H. pylori did not differentiate between active and past infection. The objectives of this study were to estimate the frequency of active and past H. pylori infection utilizing functional urea breath test (UBT) and serological tests and evaluate factors associated with the infection. A total of 675 school children, 6-13 years of age, participated. UBT was performed to detect active H. pylori infection. Blood samples were obtained to determine iron status and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to the H. pylori whole-cell and to Cag A antigens by antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Weight, height, and sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. A total of 37.9% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 34.2-41.6) of school children had active or past H. pylori infection; of them, 73.8% (CI95% 68.4-79.2) were carrying CagA-positive strain, 26.5% (CI95% 23.2-29.8) had active infection, and 11.4% (95%CI: 9.0-13.8) had evidence of past H. pylori infection. School children with iron deficiency and low height for age had higher risk of H. pylori infection: [OR to active or past infection was 2.30 (CI 95% 1.01-5.23) and to active infection it was 2.64 (CI 95% 1.09-6.44)] compared to school children with normal iron status and height for age or with normal iron status but low height for age or with iron deficiency and normal height for age. The estimated prevalence of infection depends of the test utilized. Frequency of H. pylori infection and carrying CagA-positive strains was high in this population. Malnutrition was associated with active H. pylori infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Early Development of Refl ux Esophagitis after Successful Helicobacter Pylori Eradication in Superfi cial Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H H Jeon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between gastroesophageal refl ux disease (GERD and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is still debated. Recently, we had a patient of GERD who had developed it shortly after H. pylori eradication therapy. A 72-year-old man was diagnosed by endoscopy as suffering from severe superfi cial gastritis in the stomach body. A rapid urease test showed H. pylori infection. He was then started on proton pump inhibitor (PPI based therapy for two weeks eradicating H.pylori. After completion of H. pylori eradication, he complained of a heart-burn sensation. Follow-up endoscopy showed refl ux esophagitis, of grade B according to the Los Angeles classifi cation. Since the patient had developed GERD after completion of the triple therapy, their suggests that H. pylori eradication must have triggered the development of de novo GERD after a short period of time. Keywords: GERD, Helicobacter pylori, PPI.

  10. Prevalence of Coinfection with Gastric Non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) Species in Helicobacter pylori-infected Patients Suffering from Gastric Disease in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; He, Lihua; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Gong, Yanan; Flahou, Bram; Cao, Qizhi; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-08-01

    The Helicobacter heilmannii sensu lato (H. heilmannii s.l.) group consists of long, spiral-shaped bacteria naturally colonizing the stomach of animals. Moreover, bacteria belonging to this group have been observed in 0.2-6% of human gastric biopsy specimens, and associations have been made with the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric MALT lymphoma in humans. To gain insight into the prevalence of H. heilmannii s.l. infections in patients suffering from gastric disease in China, H. heilmannii s.l. species-specific PCRs were performed on DNA extracts from rapid urease test (RUT)-positive gastric biopsies from 1517 patients followed by nucleotide sequencing. At the same time, Helicobacter pylori cultivation and specific PCR was performed to assess H. pylori infection in these patients. In total, H. heilmannii s.l. infection was detected in 11.87% (178/1499) of H. pylori-positive patients. The prevalence of H. suis, H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto (s.s.), and H. salomonis in the patients was 6.94%, 2.20%, 0.13%, 0.07%, and 2.54%, respectively. Results revealed that all patients with H. heilmannii s.l. infection were co-infected with H. pylori, and some patients were co-infected with more than two different Helicobacter species. Helicobacter heilmannii s.l. infections are fairly common in Chinese patients. This should be kept in mind when diagnosing the cause of gastric pathologies in patients. Helicobacter suis was shown to be by far the most prevalent H. heilmannii s.l.species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of Primary Antimicrobial Resistance of H. pylori in Turkey: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocazeybek, Bekir; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance has increased to the 20% or more in different regions of the world. Clarithromycin resistance is known to be responsible for most of the treatment failures in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline) of H. pylori strains in different geographical regions of Turkey. An Internet search was performed using PubMed and the ULAKBIM Turkish Medical Database. The terms "primary antibiotic resistance (separately; amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline) of H. pylori" with and without "Turkey" or "different geographical regions of Turkey" were searched among articles published in both English and Turkish language within the time span from 1999 to 2015. Data analysis was performed using MedCalc 12.7.0. Each article was weighted according to the number of isolated H. pylori strains. Pooled proportion analysis was performed. Twenty-one Turkish studies including 1059 H. pylori strains were included in this review. The overall primary antibiotic resistance rates of H. pylori strains isolated in Turkey were as follows: amoxicillin 3 (0.971%), clarithromycin 425 (24.864%), metronidazole 75 (33.747%), tetracycline 2 (3.511%), and levofloxacin 31 (23.769%). Primary antibiotic resistance against H. pylori in Turkey shows differences between geographical regions and population densities. There is an increase in primary resistance rates to clarithromycin and metronidazole in different years. The data are not sufficient for tetracycline, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. High clarithromycin resistance rates were mostly detected in overpopulated cities like Ankara (north), Izmir (west), Istanbul (west), and Bursa (west). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Successful isolation of Helicobacter pylori after prolonged incubation: A case report of prolonged incubation for H. pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of Helicobacter pylori from a gastric biopsy is the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, the primary isolation of H. pylori from gastric biopsies is rather demanding. The duration of incubation for the isolation of H. pylori has been recommended to be five to seven days: in the present case, we found that a prolonged incubation period allowed the successful isolation of H. pylori from a patient with ulcus ventriculi. Biopsies were placed directly into transport medium and processed for culture within two hours. On day 14, one suspected H. pylori-like colony appeared on one of the plates. The isolate was confirmed to be H. pylori based on its typical colony morphology, negative Gram stain, and positive urease, catalase and oxidase tests. The isolate, requiring 14 days recovery, later exhibited the normal growth characteristics of H. pylori strains, indicating its unusually long incubation requirement was a temporary predicament.

  13. Review: Impact of Helicobacter pylori on Alzheimer's disease: What do we know so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulberis, Michael; Kotronis, Georgios; Thomann, Robert; Polyzos, Stergios A; Boziki, Marina; Gialamprinou, Dimitra; Deretzi, Georgia; Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Kountouras, Jannis

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori has changed radically gastroenterologic world, offering a new concept in patients' management. Over time, more medical data gave rise to diverse distant, extragastric manifestations and interactions of the "new" discovered bacterium. Special interest appeared within the field of neurodegenerative diseases and particularly Alzheimer's disease, as the latter and Helicobacter pylori infection are associated with a large public health burden and Alzheimer's disease ranks as the leading cause of disability. However, the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and Alzheimer's disease remains uncertain. We performed a narrative review regarding a possible connection between Helicobacter pylori and Alzheimer's disease. All accessible relevant (pre)clinical studies written in English were included. Both affected pathologies were briefly analyzed, and relevant studies are discussed, trying to focus on the possible pathogenetic role of this bacterium in Alzheimer's disease. Data stemming from both epidemiologic studies and animal experiments seem to be rather encouraging, tending to confirm the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori infection might influence the course of Alzheimer's disease pleiotropically. Possible main mechanisms may include the bacterium's access to the brain via the oral-nasal-olfactory pathway or by circulating monocytes (infected with Helicobacter pylori due to defective autophagy) through disrupted blood-brain barrier, thereby possibly triggering neurodegeneration. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori infection might influence the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. However, further large-scale randomized controlled trials are mandatory to clarify a possible favorable effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology, before the recommendation of short-term and cost-effective therapeutic regimens against Helicobacter pylori-related Alzheimer's disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  14. Functional dyspepsia and dyspepsia associated with Helicobacter pylori infection: Do they have different clinical characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, J L; Carmona-Sánchez, R

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes motor, secretory, and inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders and therefore the term "functional" has been questioned when referring to dyspepsia associated with this bacterium. Patients with dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori infection could have clinical characteristics that differentiate them a priori from those with true functional dyspepsia. To determine whether there are clinical differences between patients with functional dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia that enable their a priori identification and to know the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with functional dyspepsia. A total of 578 patients with dyspepsia with no significant lesions detectable through endoscopy were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of Helicobacter pylori. The clinical characteristics, medical history, comorbidities, and use of health resources were compared between the two groups. A sub-analysis pairing the groups by age and sex in a 1:1 ratio was carried out to reduce bias. A total of 336 patients infected with Helicobacter pylori were compared with 242 non-infected patients. The prevalence of infection in the patients with dyspeptic symptoms and no endoscopically detectable lesions was 58%. The initial analysis showed that the cases with dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori infection were more frequently associated with overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, but the paired analysis nullified all these differences. The patients with dyspepsia infected with Helicobacter pylori had similar clinical characteristics to the non-infected patients and could not be differentiated a priori. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with functional dyspepsia was 58% and increased with age. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. The Possible Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dan-dan Cheng; Cong He; Hong-hui Ai; Ying Huang; Nong-hua Lu

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which colonizes the stomach can cause a wide array of gastric disorders, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Recently, accumulating evidence has implicated H. pylori infection in extragastrointestinal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases. At the same time, many scholars have noted the relationship between H. pylori infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Despite the ...

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection Aggravates Diet-induced Insulin Resistance in Association With Gut Microbiota of Mice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Cong; Yang, Zhen; Cheng, Dandan; Xie, Chuan; Zhu, Yin; Ge, Zhongming; Luo, Zhijun; Lu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR) yet the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. The vital role of gut microbiota in triggering IR has been increasingly reported, however, no study has explored the correlation of gut microbiota and H. pylori-associated IR. Using H. pylori-infected mice model fed different diet structures, we demonstrated that H. pylori infection significantly aggravated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabo...

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection induces hyperammonaemia in Mongolian gerbils with liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Suto, H; Azuma, T; Ito, S; Ohtani, M; Dojo, M; Ito, Y; Kohli, Y; Kuriyama, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—We previously reported the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on hyperammonaemia in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the role of H pylori as a cause of hyperammonaemia is controversial. We developed an animal model with liver cirrhosis and investigated the effect of H pylori infection on hyperammonaemia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS—Five week old male Mongolian gerbils were inoculated orally with broth culture of H pylori. Forty eight gerbils were divided into four ...

  18. Detection of Helicobacter pylori using PCR in dental plaque of patients with and without gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandari, Amir; Mahmoudpour, Ali; Abolfazl, Nader; Lafzi, Ardeshir

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) accounts for gastritis, peptic ulcer and is a probable cause of gastric cancer. Since its detection in the oral cavity, concerns have been raised about dental plaque as a reservoir for reinfection. The aim of this study was to detect the organism in the dental plaque and to determine the association, if any, between H. pylori gastritis and dental plaque contamination causing H. pylori. Study design: A polymerase chain reaction-based method was u...

  19. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in advanced gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irami Araújo-Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUD: There is substantial evidence that infection with Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the development of gastric cancer and that it is rarely found in gastric biopsy of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. On advanced gastric tumors, the bacteria can be lost from the stomach. AIMS: To analyze the hypothesis that the prevalence of H.pylori in operated advanced gastric carcinomas and adjacent non-tumor tissues is high, comparing intestinal and diffuse tumors according to Lauren's classification METHODS: A prospective controlled study enrolled 56 patients from "Hospital Universitário", Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, with advanced gastric cancer, treated from February 2000 to March 2003. Immediately after partial gastrectomy, the resected stomach was opened and several mucosal biopsy samples were taken from the gastric tumor and from the adjacent mucosa within 4 cm distance from the tumor margin. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lauren's classification for gastric cancer was used, to analyse the prevalence of H. pylori in intestinal or diffuse carcinomas assessed by the urease rapid test, IgG by ELISA and Giemsa staining. H. pylori infected patients were treated with omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for 7 days. Follow-up endoscopy and serology were performed 6 months after treatment to determine successful eradication of H. pylori in non-tumor tissue. Thereafter, follow-up endoscopies were scheduled annually. Chi-square and MacNemar tests with 0.05 significance were used. RESULTS: Thirty-four tumors (60.7% were intestinal-type and 22 (39.3% diffuse type carcinomas. In adjacent non-tumor gastric mucosa, chronic gastritis were found in 53 cases (94.6% and atrophic mucosa in 36 patients (64.3%. All the patients with atrophic mucosa were H. pylori positive. When examined by Giemsa and urease test, H. pylori positive rate in tumor tissue of intestinal type carcinomas was

  20. A Novel Assay for Easy and Rapid Quantification of Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersoe, Mette E; Rasmussen, Lone; Andersen, Leif P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells could be a new way to counteract infections with this organism. We here present a novel method for quantification of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to cells. METHODS: Helicobacter pylori is allowed to adhere to AGS...... of the method, we demonstrate that adhesion of both a sabA and babA deletion mutant of H. pylori is significantly reduced compared to the wild type. CONCLUSION: The method offers a number of applications and may be used to compare the adherence potential of different strains of H. pylori to either cells...... or different materials or to screen for potential anti-adhesive compounds. The results presented here suggest that this easy and reproducible assay is well suited for quantitative investigation of H. pylori adhesion....

  1. Supporting data for analysis of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome

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    Christina A. Snider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the composition of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome at multiple phases of bacterial growth (Snider et al., 2015 [1]. H. pylori was grown in a serum-free medium and at serial time points, aliquots were centrifuged and fractionated to yield culture supernatant, a soluble cellular fraction, and a membrane fraction. Samples were analyzed by single dimensional LC-MS/MS analyses and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT. Here we present data showing the numbers of assigned spectra and proportional abundance of individual proteins in each of the samples analyzed, along with a calculation of the level of enrichment of individual proteins in the supernatant compared to the soluble cellular fraction.

  2. Helicobacter pylori treatment: Still a work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Frank J; Wilmot, Jonathan; Birk, John W

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common worldwide bacterium, possessing adaptability that has created difficulty achieving eradication. While the standard treatment was thought to be triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, growing rates of treatment failure and antibiotic resistance have stimulated research into novel regimens. Quadruple therapy with bismuth has been compared for both first- and second-line treatments, but eradication still has not reached expected goals. Innovative regimens including sequential and concomitant therapy, as well as the introduction of new antibiotics into previous treatment schedules, have shown promising improvements in eradication rates. We discuss and compare these unique regimens, reviewing the current literature to deduce those which are most likely to provide the highest success in curing H. pylori infection.

  3. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Daniela; Nunes, Cláudia; Martins, M Cristina L; Sarmento, Bruno; Reis, Salette

    2014-09-10

    Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. Since the classification as a group 1 carcinogenic by International Agency for Research on Cancer, the importance of the complete H. pylori eradication has obtained a novel meaning. Hence, several studies have been made in order to deepen the knowledge in therapy strategies. However, the current therapy presents unsatisfactory eradication rates due to the lack of therapeutic compliance, antibiotic resistance, the degradation of antibiotics at gastric pH and their insufficient residence time in the stomach. Novel approaches have been made in order to overcome these limitations. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview about the current therapy and its limitations, while highlighting the possibility of using micro- and nanotechnology to develop gastric drug delivery systems, overcoming these difficulties in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori by invasive test: histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major cause of gastric cancer, is essential for managing infected patients. Among various diagnostic methods, histology plays a pivotal role in detecting H. pylori and it also provided more information about the degree of inflammation and associated pathology, such as, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and gastric cancer. The diagnosis of H. pylori could be performed in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, however the specificity can be improved by special stains such as modified Giemsa, Warthin-Starry silver, Genta, and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains. Thus, at least two kinds of stain methods are recommended for diagnosis in practice; H&E staining is routine and Giemsa stain seems to have advantage over other stains because of its simplicity and consistency. IHC stain may be useful in special situations. However, histology has several limitations, including higher cost, longer turnaround time, dependence on the skills of the operator, and interobserver variability in assessment. Furthermore, the density of H. pylori can vary at different sites, possibly leading to sampling error, and the sensitivity of histology may decrease in patients taking proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The updated Sydney system recommend to take five biopsy specimens from different sites; however if this is not possible, the gastric body greater curvature could be a better site to detect current H. pylori infections, especially in the presence of peptic ulcer bleeding, AG and IM, or gastric cancer. In the presence of peptic ulcer bleeding, histology is also the most reliable test. PPIs can affect the result of histology and should be stopped 2 weeks before testing. Postbiopsy bleeding may be increased in patients with anticoagulation therapy, so careful precautions should be taken.

  5. The Effects of Two Novel Copper-Based Formulations on Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    John Holton; Dino Vaira; Giovanna Lo Re; Cristina Zaccaro; Saracino, Ilaria M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two novel copper-based inorganic formulations for their activity against 60 isolates of Helicobacter pylori (Hp). The two copper-based formulations were tested against three NCTC Helicobacter pylori isolates and 57 clinical strains isolated from the UK and Italy in time-kill assays. Both copper-based formulations were bio-cidal against all Helicobacter pylori strains tested reducing the viable count by 4–5 log within 2 h. These two copper-based anti-microbial ag...

  6. [Helicobacter pylori infection: what else besides gastric problems?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheptulin, A A

    2014-01-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori infection (HPI) in the development of chronic gastritis, ulcer disease, MALT-lymphoma, stomach cancer, and other diseases is considered. HPI is directly or indirectluy associated with colon adenoma and colorectal cancer, hepatic disorders, coronary heart disease, idiopathic iron deficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia. The role of HPI in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease remains to be elucidated. HPI is negatively related to bronchial asthma and chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of HPI and the aforementioned pathologies await further investigations.

  7. Determinants of Disease Outcome following Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola L Jones

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is primarily acquired during childhood, causes chronic, active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is associated with the development of gastric malignancies. However, only a small number of infected individuals ever develop the more severe sequelae of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancers. Therefore, the identification of bacterial and host factors that play a role in determining the outcomes and pathophysiology of infection is a major focus of current research. Recent advances in the understanding of disease pathogenesis are critically considered, with particular reference to the paediatric population.

  8. Inflammation, Immunity, and Vaccines for Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya

    2015-09-01

    During the last year, a variety of studies have been published that increases our understanding of the basic mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in Helicobacter pylori infection and progression to gastric cancer. Innate immune regulation and epithelial cell response were covered by several studies that contribute with new insights in the host response to H. pylori infection. Also, the adaptive immune response to H. pylori and particularly the role of IL-22 have been addressed in some studies. These advances may improve vaccine development where new strategies have been published. Two major studies analyzed H. pylori genomes of 39 worldwide strains and looked at the protein profiles. In addition, multi-epitope vaccines for therapeutic use have been investigated. Studies on different adjuvants and delivery systems have also given us new insights. This review presents articles from the last year that reveal detailed insight into immunity and regulation of inflammation, the contribution of immune cells to the development of gastric cancer, and understanding mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Attempts to enhance the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Chang Seok; Baik, Gwang Ho

    2014-05-14

    Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole present challenges in maintaining optimal eradication rates. Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance and consumption pattern is important in selecting a reliable regimen. In addition, adverse effect profiles of therapeutic regimens are important and must be addressed to enhance compliance rates. Various methods of enhancing the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been investigated, including changing combinations or durations of established drugs, adding adjuvant drugs, or development of new molecules or agents. Bismuth-containing quadruple, sequential, concomitant, and levofloxacin-based triple therapies are replacing the long-standing standard of the triple regimen. Despite the encouraging results of these regimens, individualized approaches like treatment after antibiotics resistance test or CYP2C19 genotyping would be the mainstream of future therapy. Because scientific, economic, and technical problems make these advance therapies unfit for widespread use, future development for H. pylori therapy should be directed to overcome individualized antibiotic resistance. Although various novel regimens and additive agents have indicated favorable outcomes, more studies or validations are needed to become a mainstream H. pylori therapy.

  10. Current options for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Sotirios D; Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is crucial for prevalent disease's management, including gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, whereas novel extradigestive causal associations are increasingly being recognized. Despite long-standing efforts, there is not as yet an optimal empirical therapy to eradicate H. pylori. In the present article the authors review current options for H. pylori eradication. Advantages and disadvantages of each of the recommended regimens, and the perspectives for their rational use in clinical practice, are critically discussed. The continuous rising of antimicrobial resistance has accounted for the declined efficiency of standard triple therapies, yielding 20%). Such treatments include the bismuth-containing quadruple therapy, concomitant, sequential and levofloxacin-based regimens, the later mainly designated, together with rifabutin-based therapies as second-line/rescue options. Clinicians should be aware of the local resistance pattern and maintain first-line eradication to levels > 90% (per-protocol efficacy). This will prevent both exposing the patient to repeated treatments and spreading of secondary antimicrobial resistance. In the future, perspectives of tailored therapy and a prophylactic vaccine will obviate any treatment concern.

  11. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2014-07-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world's population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections.

  12. Identifying the major proteome components of Helicobacter pylori strain 26695.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung-Je; Jeon, Beong-Sam; Park, Jeong-Won; Jung, Tae-Sung; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Woo-Kon; Choi, Yeo-Jeong; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Park, Seong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Uck; Choe, Mi-Young; Jung, Seun-Ae; Byun, Eun-Young; Baik, Seung-Chul; Youn, Hee-Shang; Ko, Gyung-Hyuck; Lim, DongBin; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2002-04-01

    The whole genome sequences of Helicobacter pylori strain 26695 have been reported. Whole cell proteins of H. pylori strain 26695 cells were obtained and analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, using immobilized pH gradient strips. The most abundant proteins were shown in the region of pI 4.0-9.5 with molecular masses from 10 to 100 kDa. Soluble proteins were precipitated by the use of 0-80% saturated solutions of ammonium sulfate. Soluble proteins precipitated by the 0-40% saturations of ammonium sulfate produced similar spot profiles and their abundant protein spots had acidic pI regions. However, a number of soluble proteins precipitated by more than 60% saturation of ammonium sulfate were placed in the alkaline pI regions, compared to those precipitated by 40% saturation. In addition, we have performed an extensive proteome analysis of the strain utilizing peptide MALDI-TOF-MS. Among the 345 protein spots processed, 175 proteins were identified. The identified spots represented 137 genes. One-hundred and fifteen proteins were newly identified in this study, including DNA polymerase III beta-subunit. These results might provide guidance for the enrichment of H. pylori proteins and contribute to construct a master protein map of H. pylori.

  13. Rapid evolution of distinct Helicobacter pylori subpopulations in the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Thorell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H. pylori of European and African origin throughout the Americas, without substantial input from pre-Columbian (hspAmerind bacteria. In the US, strains of African and European origin have remained genetically distinct, while in Colombia and Nicaragua, bottlenecks and rampant genetic exchange amongst isolates have led to the formation of national gene pools. We found three outer membrane proteins with atypical levels of Asian ancestry in American strains, as well as alleles that were nearly fixed specifically in South American isolates, suggesting a role for the ethnic makeup of hosts in the colonization of incoming strains. Our results show that new H. pylori subpopulations can rapidly arise, spread and adapt during times of demographic flux, and suggest that differences in transmission ecology between high and low prevalence areas may substantially affect the composition of bacterial populations.

  14. Cell-cycle inhibition by Helicobacter pylori L-asparaginase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Scotti

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major human pathogen causing chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. One of the mechanisms whereby it induces damage depends on its interference with proliferation of host tissues. We here describe the discovery of a novel bacterial factor able to inhibit the cell-cycle of exposed cells, both of gastric and non-gastric origin. An integrated approach was adopted to isolate and characterise the molecule from the bacterial culture filtrate produced in a protein-free medium: size-exclusion chromatography, non-reducing gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, mutant analysis, recombinant protein expression and enzymatic assays. L-asparaginase was identified as the factor responsible for cell-cycle inhibition of fibroblasts and gastric cell lines. Its effect on cell-cycle was confirmed by inhibitors, a knockout strain and the action of recombinant L-asparaginase on cell lines. Interference with cell-cycle in vitro depended on cell genotype and was related to the expression levels of the concurrent enzyme asparagine synthetase. Bacterial subcellular distribution of L-asparaginase was also analysed along with its immunogenicity. H. pylori L-asparaginase is a novel antigen that functions as a cell-cycle inhibitor of fibroblasts and gastric cell lines. We give evidence supporting a role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-related diseases and discuss its potential diagnostic application.

  15. Caveolin-1 Protects B6129 Mice against Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M.; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P. A.; Burgermeister, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies (“humming bird”) compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells. PMID:23592983

  16. Caveolin-1 protects B6129 mice against Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Hitkova

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav1 is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS, infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies ("humming bird" compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1. Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1 to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87 and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1 to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells.

  17. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkar, Zohreh; Jafarnejad, Majid; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary Artery Disease is known as the main cause of death in industrialized countries. Relation between this disease and some infections such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) has been shown in several studies. The purpose of this study was to dermine the relationship between Hypylori and mycardical infarctions. Methods: Seventy-three myocardial infarction patients and 78 individuals with no history of this disease were compared. Patients and control matched for age and sex person to person by the match method. Levels of serum IgA and IgG antibodies against H. pylori were measured by Elisa method. Also, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL measured in both groups and data were compared between two groups in terms of relation with cardiac risk factors. Results: From 151 participants, 73 were patients and 78 were control subjects. The percentage of IgG positive cases against H. pylori was 57.5% in the case group and 32.1% in the control group (p=0.002, OR: 2.87 CI: 95%; 1.5-5.6). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in IgA positive cases between the two groups (42.5% and 48.7% in the case and control groups, respectively) (p=0.44; OR: 0.78 95% CI; 0.41-1.48). The study showed 74.2% of cases in the case group and 45.2% in the control group were positive for both IgG and IgA (p=0.01; OR: 3.5 95% CI; 1.3-9.5). No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of relation between H. pylori related antibodies level and heart disease classic risk factors (smoking, hypertension,…), sex, and age, but between dyslipidemia and H. pylori related antibodies was significant differences in case group (p=0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, it seems there is a relation between H. pylori infection and myocardial infarction. Also, between dislipidemia and H. Pylori antibodies in case group were significant difference. Therefore, H. pylori can be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis or can be exacerbate effect of other risk factors

  18. Rapid improvement of Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ulas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are one of the most common bacterial infections, seen in humans, worldwide and their possible relationships to different diseases are a focus of attention nowadays. H. pylori may cause some extra intestinal manifestations some of which are dermatological conditions, including Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. We describe a 49-year-old man who presented with HSP triggered by gastric H. pylori infection. Treatment of H. Pylori infection was accompanied by prompt resolution of the gastrointestinal manifestations and purpuric rashes. These findings suggest a causative role for H. pylori in the occurrence of HSP.

  19. Importance of post-treatment follow-up to secure sufficient eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roug, Stine; Madsen, Lone Galmstrup

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the care for Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases, we wanted to evaluate the completeness of follow-up after H. pylori eradication therapy in a single Danish endoscopy unit. Furthermore, the eradication rates and possible clinical characteristics associated with failure of eradicat......To optimize the care for Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases, we wanted to evaluate the completeness of follow-up after H. pylori eradication therapy in a single Danish endoscopy unit. Furthermore, the eradication rates and possible clinical characteristics associated with failure...

  20. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: What should be the gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983, numerous detection methods for the presence of the bacterium have been developed. Each one of them has been associated with advantages and disadvantages. Noninvasive tests such as serology, 13C urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen tests are usually preferred by the clinicians. Serology has its own limitation especially in endemic areas while 13C UBT is technically very demanding. The stool antigen detection method, although specific, is usually associated with poor sensitivity. The 13C UBT is believed to be specific, but with present revelation of the fact that stomach is colonized by many other urease producing bacteria makes it questionable. Histology, culture, rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the tests which are carried out on antral biopsies collected by invasive means. Histology has been proposed to be very sensitive and specific but the question is how by simply looking the morphology of the bacteria in the microscope, one can claim that the curved bacterium is exclusively H. pylori. Rapid urease test (RUT), the doctor’s test, is also challenged because the presence of other urease producing bacteria in the stomach cannot be denied. Moreover, RUT has been reported with poor sensitivity specially, when density of the bacterium is low. Isolation of H. pylori is essential to investigate its growth requirements, antibiotic susceptibility testing, studying virulence factor to develop vaccine and many more explorations. It has also got several disadvantages i.e., special condition for transporting, media, incubation and few days waiting for the colonies to appear, apart from the speed essentially needed to process the specimens. Till date, majority of the microbiological laboratories in the world are not equipped and trained to isolate such fastidious bacterium. The option left is PCR methods to detect H. pylori’s DNA in gastric mucosa, gastric juice, saliva, dental

  1. Helicobacter pylori and cardiovascular complications: a mechanism based review on role of Helicobacter pylori in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease comprises a wide class of cardiovascular abnormalities, including ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. It is the leading cause of death all over the world. Several traditional and novel risk factors, such as infectious and noninfectious agents, have been associated with heart disease. Out of these, Helicobacter pylori has been recently introduced as an important etiological factor for heart disease. Numerous seroepidemiological findings observed H. pylori antibodies in the blood of a patient with cardiovascular complications. The bacteria survive in the epithelial cells of gastric organs and cause digestive complications. Excess inflammatory pathogenesis and prognosis stimulate an immune response that further causes significant disturbances in various factors like cytokines, fibrinogen, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, heat shock protein, and white blood cell count, and provoke a number of problems such as atherosclerosis and prothrombic state, and cross-reactivity which eventually leads to heart diseases. H. pylori releases toxigenic nutrients, chiefly vacuolating cytotoxin gen A (Vac A and cytotoxin associated gene A (Cag A, of which Cag A is more virulent and involved in the formation of cholesterol patches in arteries, induction of autoimmune disorder, and release of immune mediated response. Although numerous mechanisms have been correlated with H. pylori and heart disease, the exact role of bacteria is still ambiguous.

  2. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangda, Sonam; Richter, James M; Kuenzang, Pema; Wangchuk, Kinley; Choden, Tashi; Tenzin, Karma; Malaty, Hoda M

    2017-12-01

    Bhutan is a small mountainous country between Tibet and India with relatively homogenous population. According to the World Health Organization, gastric cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in Bhutan. This study examined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children in Bhutan with emphasis on water source and living conditions. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiologic study was conducted among schoolchildren who attended public schools in Thimphu, Bhutan. Between 2015 and 2016, blood samples from schoolchildren were collected after obtaining an informed consent from the school management and the children's parents. Demographic information, parents' education, family size living in the same household, and aspects of household environment including type of latrines, boiling drinking water were collected. All serum samples were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) by commercial ELISA kits. There were 327 children between 4 and 19 years of age participated, 44% boys, mean age = 13.6 ± 3 years. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 66% with no difference between boys and girls (66 vs 64%, respectively), P = .42. H. pylori prevalence was 75% among both 4-7 and 15-19 years and not statically different from that of the 8-10 or 11-14 age groups (59% and 63%, respectively), P = .1. H. pylori prevalence was inversely correlated with the level of mother's education (70% vs 55%) for those without and with a college education, respectively (OR = 2.3; 95%CI = 0.9-1.7), P = .08. The total number of people living in the same household did not correlate with H. pylori sero-prevalence, but households had less than 3 children had lower prevalence than those with 3 or more children (62% vs 71%, respectively OR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0-2.6], P = .05). H. pylori infection is prevalent among all age group children in Bhutan. The results suggest that transmission of H. pylori is related to personal care practices that directly correlate with

  3. How Helicobacter pylori infection controls gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Adam J; Backert, Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Infection of the human stomach mucosa by Helicobacter pylori induces strong inflammatory responses and a transitory hypochlorhydria which can progress in ~2 % of patients to atrophic gastritis, dysplasia, or gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection of gastric biopsies or cultured gastric epithelial cells in vitro represses the activity of endogenous or transfected promoter of the alpha-subunit (HKα) of gastric H,K-adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase), the parietal cell enzyme mediating acid secretion. Some mechanistic details of H. pylori-mediated repression of HKα and ensuing hypochlorhydria have been recently elucidated. H. pylori strains expressing a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island are known to upregulate the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The NF-κB-binding regions in the HKα promoter were identified and shown to repress its transcriptional activity. Interaction studies have indicated that although active phosphorylated NF-κB p65 is present in infected cells, an NF-κB p50/p65 heterodimeric complex fails to bind to the HKα promoter. Point mutations at -159 and -161 bp in the HKα promoter NF-κB binding sequence prevent the binding of NF-κB p50 and prevent H. pylori repression of point-mutated HKα promoter activity. The T4SS factors CagL, CagE, CagM, and possibly CagA and the lytic transglycosylase Slt, are mechanistically involved in NF-κB activation and repression of HKα transcription. CagL, a T4SS pilus component, binds to the integrin α(5)β(1) to mediate translocation of virulence factors into the host cell and initiate signaling. During acute H. pylori infection, CagL dissociates ADAM 17 (a disintegrin and a metalloprotease 17) from the integrin α(5)β(1) complex and stimulates ADAM17-dependent release of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulation, ERK1/2 kinase activation, and NF-κB-mediated repression of HKα. These studies suggest that H

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children. Antimicrobial Resistance and Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Milagrosa; Villalon, Flor N; Eizaguirre, Francisco J; Delgado, Maider; Muñoz-Seca, Ignacio M; Fernández-Reyes, María; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of the recent recommendations for managing Helicobacter pylori infection in children in a university hospital in Southern Europe. Antimicrobial resistance and response to eradication therapy were also determined. The presence of H. pylori was studied in 143 children: by gastric biopsy culture (GBC), (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen immunochromatography test (SAIT) in 56 children; by GBC and UBT in 20, by GBC and SAIT in 18, and by GBC alone in 49. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-test. Infection was defined as a positive culture or positivity in both UBT and SAIT. Disease progression was studied in 118 patients. First evaluation of symptoms was carried out at 3-6 months after diagnosis and/or after treatment of the infection. H. pylori was detected in 74 from the 143 children analyzed (100% GBC positive, 98.1% UBT positive, and 58.1% SAIT positive). The main symptom was chronic abdominal pain (n = 121). Macroscopic antral nodularity was observed in 29.7% of infected patients and in 5.8% of uninfected patients, respectively. Resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was found in 34.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Eradication when susceptible antimicrobials were used occurred in 78.7% (48/61) versus 37.5% (3/8) when the treatment included a drug with resistance (p = .024). In patients with recurrent abdominal pain, symptoms resolved in 92.9% (39/42) patients with HP eradication versus 42.9% (6/14) without HP eradication (p pylori diagnostic screening and treatment because most of them had only recurrent abdominal pain, but remission of their symptoms was associated with H. pylori eradication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HELICOBACTER PYLORI SEROPOSITIVITY AND HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamal

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe nausea and vomiting associated with weight loss, ketonemia, and electrolyte imbalance in pregnancy is called hyperemesis gravidarum (HG. Its cause is unknown but there are some hypotheses like hormonal mechanisms, psychological and emotional factors and Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to find an association between (HG and H. pylori infection. For this purpose in a prospective study from Aug. 2001 to Feb. 2002, the serum antibodies against H. pylori in 39 patients with HG was compared with IgG titers of 55 asymptomatic pregnant women at the same gestational age as controls. Venous blood was taken after the patients had given their written consent. Specific serum antibodies (immunoglobulin IgG directed against H. pylori was measured by fluorescent enzyme-immunoassay. IgG titers less than 15 was considered negative, IgG titers more than 20 were regarded positive and IgG titers between 15-20 were considered as suspicious and required repeating the test after 2-4 weeks. Chi square, Mann Whitney and Student t test were used for statistical analysis of the data. Positive serum IgG concentrations were found in 26 of the 39 hyperemesis patients (66.7% compared with 23 of 55 controls (41.8%. The difference was statistically significant(P<0.015. The mean IgG titers in hyperemesis group were 25 compared to 10.5 in control group(P<0.05. It seems that H. pylori infection is significantly associated with HG.

  6. Phasevarion mediated epigenetic gene regulation in Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogitha N Srikhanta

    Full Text Available Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression. In Haemophilus influenzae and pathogenic Neisseria, the random switching of the modA gene, associated with a phase-variable type III restriction modification (R-M system, controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a "phasevarion", via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable type III R-M systems are also found in Helicobacter pylori, suggesting that phasevarions may also exist in this key human pathogen. Phylogenetic studies on the phase-variable type III modH gene revealed that there are 17 distinct alleles in H. pylori, which differ only in their DNA recognition domain. One of the most commonly found alleles was modH5 (16% of isolates. Microarray analysis comparing the wild-type P12modH5 ON strain to a P12ΔmodH5 mutant revealed that six genes were either up- or down-regulated, and some were virulence-associated. These included flaA, which encodes a flagella protein important in motility and hopG, an outer membrane protein essential for colonization and associated with gastric cancer. This study provides the first evidence of this epigenetic mechanism of gene expression in H. pylori. Characterisation of H. pylori modH phasevarions to define stable immunological targets will be essential for vaccine development and may also contribute to understanding H. pylori pathogenesis.

  7. Host Determinants of Expression of the Helicobacter pylori BabA Adhesin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary E Kable; Lori M Hansen; Cathy M Styer; Samuel L Deck; Olena Rakhimova; Anna Shevtsova; Kathryn A Eaton; Miriam E Martin; Pär Gideonsson; Thomas Borén; Jay V Solnick

    2017-01-01

    Expression of the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin A (BabA) is more common in strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer, rather than asymptomatic colonization...

  8. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...

  9. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  10. Helicobacter pylori--a risk factor for the developement of the central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Michałowska, Magdalena; Turno-Krecicka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    To prove the influence oftte Helicobcter pylor for the development of the central serous chororetinopathy. We examined 55 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy confirmed by fluorescein angiogram and 55 controls. Each patient provided venous blood sample for IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) and a stool specimen for Helicobacter pylori antigens. 44% in CSC patients were positive results of stool examine and only 29% in group comtrol. In 67% of the patients we proved the presence of the antibodies IgG--anty Helicobacter pylori and in 47% controls. The difference was statistically significant. Helicobacter pylori infection is statistically more frequently among the patients with CSC diagnosis than in healthy population.

  11. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aparna Singh; Nathaniel Hodgson; Ming Yan; Jungsoo Joo; Lei Gu; Hong Sang; Emmalena Gregory-Bryson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host.METHODS:In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes.We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector,pIVET8,which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors,pIVET11 and pIVET12.Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H.pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase.Additionally,each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene.We used a mouse macrophage cell line,RAW 264.7 and mice,as selective media to identify specific genes that H.pylori expresses in vivo.Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H.pylori.This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes.RESULTS:In this study,we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens.These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families,including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs.Virulence factors,vacA and cagA,were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H.pylori infection,colonization and pathogenesis.Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems.Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H.pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H.pylori RNA isolated from H.pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages.We compared the expression profile of H.pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H.pylori only

  12. Helicobacter Pylori eradication therapy: getting research into practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) is the primary cause of duodenal ulcer (DU). Guidelines recommend that all patients with DU be considered for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Therapy (HPET). However, the proportion of patients with DU on long term anti-ulcer medication receiving HPET is small. This study examined the effectiveness of the continuing medical education (CME) network of the Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) in promoting best practice in DU treatment among GPs in an eastern region of Ireland. Ninty eight GPs recruited from the CME network of the ICGP were randomised in two cohorts. Cohort 1 received an (early) intervention; GPs were asked to identify their patients with DU receiving long term anti-ulcer medication and prescribe HPET according to defined criteria. Cohort 2 received the intervention later. Prescribing of HPET was monitored using routine prescribing data. Twenty per cent (286\\/1,422) of patients in cohort 1 and 19.2% (127\\/661) in cohort 2 had a DU. After exclusions, 53% (152\\/286) in cohort 1 and 30.7% (39\\/127) in cohort 2, were eligible for HPET. A significantly higher proportion of patients in cohort 1 received HPET compared with cohort 2 during the early intervention period (13.8% vs 0.0%, p<0.05). Reasons for not prescribing HPET included concurrent illness in patients, failure to comply with treatment. Best practice guidelines on HPET treatment of DU can be successfully applied using CME networks. This model could be repeated in another therapeutic area where established research is not yet current practice.

  13. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  14. A novel nanobody against urease activity of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, Leila Safaee; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rasooli, Iraj; Bazl, Masoumeh Rajabi; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimizadeh, Walead; Bakherad, Hamid; Zare, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis and in some cases with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and even adenocarcinoma. Antibiotic therapy has significant limitations, such as the high cost and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, generating the need for new treatments. The administration of antibody against H. pylori is a new effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we successfully developed a single-variable domain of heavy chain antibody against recombinant UreC. A VHH phagemid library was constructed from immune camel heavy chain antibodies. The nanobodies were displayed on M13 phage. Library selection was performed against UreC recombinant protein. A specific single-variable domain of heavy chain antibody against UreC was screened in five rounds of panning. The nanobody with the highest score in the phage ELISA was selected for soluble expression. The nanobody was purified with a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column and confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. Affinity, specificity, and urease inhibitory properties of the nanobody were assayed. Here we showed the isolation and purification of a specific nanobody with high affinity against UreC recombinant protein that can inhibit urease activity. The isolated UreC nanobody can specifically detect and bind to UreC and inhibit urease activity. This nanobody could be a novel class of treatment measure against H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a New Saliva Test for Helicobacter pylori Infection

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    OF Bathe

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recently introduced saliva test measuring immunoglobulin (Ig G antibodies to Helicobacter pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. ELISA has previously been validated against IgG serological tests; however, it is not considered the definitive test for H pylori infection. Using endoscopic antral biopsies as the ’gold standard’ for comparison, the saliva test was validated on 70 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms admitted to St Paul’s Hospital Gastroenterology Clinic for gastroduodenoscopy. Thirty-five patients (50% had histological evidence of gastritis and, by using acridine orange stain, the bacterium was visualized in 25 patients (71%. A biopsy was considered positive when the bacterium was visualized. The saliva test was determined to be 80% sensitive and 80% specific for H pylori infection when the cut-off for a positive test was 0.3 ELISA U/mL. Positive and negative predictive values were 69% and 88%, respectively. More study is required to assess the clinical utility of the test.

  16. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Goodman

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  17. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Developing after Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Abe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old man underwent endoscopic hemostatic therapy for hemorrhagic gastric ulcer in September 2002. After healing of the gastric ulcer, he underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in February 2003. In August 2007, an irregular tumor was detected in the lower esophagus at annual checkup for gastric cancer screening using X-ray. Endoscopic examination showed that the lower margin of the tumor almost coincided with the esophagogastric junction and that a short segment of Barrett’s epithelium existed near the tumor. Biopsies of the tumor showed moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Mild reflux esophagitis and minor hiatal hernia was also observed, and the previously treated gastric ulcer was not recurrent. Absence of H. pylori was confirmed by serum antibody and urea breath test. Surgical resection of the lower esophagus and proximal stomach was performed. The tumor invaded into the muscularis propria of the esophageal wall but had no evidence of lymph node metastasis. Based on macroscopic and pathological findings, the tumor was recognized as esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previous endoscopic examination did not detect any apparent signs of tumor in the esophagogastric junction. As far as we know, this is the first report documenting a newly developed esophageal adenocarcinoma after the successful eradication of H. pylori.

  18. A case of Menetrier's disease without Helicobacter pylori or hypoalbuminemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Mina; Sultan, Ahmad; Zalata, Khaled; Abd El-Haleem, Ibrahim; Hassan, Adel; El-Ebeidy, Gamal

    2015-01-01

    Menetrier's disease is a rare premalignant hypertrophic gastropathy. It is characterized by huge gastric mucosal folds, peripheral edema due to protein loss and upper GIT symptoms such as epigastric pain, discomfort, nausea and vomiting. Female patient 35 years old complaining of severe epigastric pain, dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting for 1 year. Upper GIT endoscopy and CT scan revealed thickening of gastric mucosa. Endoscopic biopsy was non-specific but showed moderate grade dysplasia and no Helicobacter pylori infection. All laboratory investigations were within normal including serum albumin. She underwent total gastrectomy with marked postoperative improvement of symptoms after recovery. Postoperative pathology revealed gastric fovular hyperplasia and glandular atrophy which are diagnostic for Menetrier's disease. the preoperative diagnosis of Menetrier's disease in this case was challenged by its unusual features. There were neither H. pylori nor hypoalbuminemia. Literature review showed similarcases which can raise the suspicion of the presence of an undescribed subtype of the disease. Menetrier's disease should be suspected in cases of upper GIT symptoms and hypertrophied gastric mucosa with or without H. pylori or hypoalbuminemia. The preoperative diagnosis could not be confirmed unless a whole mucosal thickness biopsy is performed. Surgical management is a good option when medical treatment fails to relieve the symptoms and erase the risk of malignancy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of esomeprazole versus omeprazole against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Luigi; Perna, Federico; Figura, Natale; Ricci, Chiara; Holton, John; D'Anna, Luigi; Miglioli, Mario; Vaira, Dino

    2003-02-01

    Esomeprazole is an enantiomorph of omeprazole, which inhibits gastric acid secretion more effectively than omeprazole. As proton pump inhibitors also exert an antibacterial activity, we aimed to compare esomeprazole and omeprazole for their antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori in vitro. We studied 52 H. pylori isolates obtained from gastric biopsies and inoculated onto agar plates containing the acid-converted drugs at different concentrations. The minimal concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50% and 90% of isolates were defined as MIC(50) and MIC(90). The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of esomeprazole were 16 and 32 mg/L; and those of omeprazole were 32 and 64 mg/L. Overall, 63.5% of isolates showed the same susceptibility to both drugs; 17 isolates were two- to 64-fold more susceptible to esomeprazole and two isolates were two-fold more susceptible to omeprazole. The increased antimicrobial activity in vitro of esomeprazole against H. pylori could contribute to improving the outcome of the eradication treatment of such an infection.

  20. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Ahmet Kemal; Ozel, A Melih; Ozturk, Ramazan; Yildirim, Sukru; Yazgan, Yusuf; Demirturk, Levent

    2005-11-01

    Use of mucolytic agents that result in reduced mucous viscosity of the gastric mucous has been suggested to have an additive effect in curing Helicobacter pylori infection. Seventy Hpylori-positive patients were given either eradication treatment consisting of 500 mg clarithromycin bid and 30 mg lansoprazole bid for 10 days plus 10 mL (400 mg) N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) liquid tid (AC group) or eradication treatment only (control group). The results were compared 1 month after the completion of the treatment. Fifty-eight patients were available for statistical analysis. Of the 28 patients in the AC group, 14 (50.0%) eradicated the infection after treatment, whereas only 7 of 30 (23.3%) patients in the control group had negative results. The difference between the AC group and the control group was statistically significant (P = 0.034). In both groups, there was no difference in the number of smokers and in the eradication rates between smokers and nonsmokers. Eradication treatment with or without NAC caused no significant side effects in either group. Our findings suggest that NAC has an additive effect on the eradication rates of H pylori obtained with dual therapy with lansoprazole and clarithromycin. NAC does not have any known activity against H pylori, but it may improve the delivery of antibiotics at the site of infection due to its ability to reduce the thickness of the mucus.

  1. Helicobacter pylori: its discovery and relevance for medicine Helicobacter pylori: su descubrimiento e importancia en la medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pajares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1979, Warren was first to observe these bacteria in an inflamed gastric epithelium, and subsequently in peptic ulcer-associated gastritis. In 1981, Marshall starts his research and cultivates the bacteria, performs prospective studies, and administers therapy regimens using antibiotics and bismuth salts. The organism was designated Campylobacter-like after its similarity with said genus. In 1984, Marshall manages to meet Koch's postulates using self-inoculation by ingesting a bacterial culture, which resulted in gastritis that was then treated and cured with bismuth salts and metronidazole. The Gastroenterological Society of Australia rejected the abstract with preliminary data. In 1983, "The Lancet" published such data in two brief letters with the same heading, with each being signed by one of these two researchers. Cooperating with microbiologists they classify the new bacteria within the Helicobacter genus as the pylori species. Gastritis and peptic ulcer are currently considered infectious diseases. Their diagnosis and therapy include bacterial detection methods and antibiotics, respectively. In addition, a causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori and both gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma has been established, and its association with some extra-digestive conditions has been suggested.

  2. Novel and Effective Therapeutic Regimens for Helicobacter pylori in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common gastrointestinal bacterial strain closely associated with the incidence of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. A current research and clinical challenge is the increased rate of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori, which has led to a decreased H. pylori eradication rate. In this article, we review recent H. pylori infection and reinfection rates and H. pylori resistance to antibiotics, and we discuss the pertinent treatments. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following keywords: Helicobacter pylori, infection, reinfection, antibiotic resistance, bismuth, proton pump inhibitors, vonoprazan, susceptibility, quintuple therapy, dual therapy, and probiotic. The prevalence of H. pylori has remained high in some areas despite the decreasing trend of H. pylori prevalence observed over time. Additionally, the H. pylori reinfection rate has varied in different countries due to socioeconomic and hygienic conditions. Helicobacter pylori monoresistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin was common in most countries. However, the prevalence of amoxicillin and tetracycline resistance has remained low. Because H. pylori infection and reinfection present serious challenges and because H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin remains high in most countries, the selection of an efficient regimen to eradicate H. pylori is critical. Currently, bismuth-containing quadruple therapies still achieve high eradication rates. Moreover, susceptibility-based therapies are alternatives because they may avoid the use of unnecessary antibiotics. Novel regimens, e.g., vonoprazan-containing triple therapies, quintuple therapies, high-dose dual therapies, and standard triple therapies with probiotics, require further studies concerning their efficiency and safety for treating H. pylori. PMID:28529929

  3. Novel and Effective Therapeutic Regimens for Helicobacter pylori in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a common gastrointestinal bacterial strain closely associated with the incidence of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. A current research and clinical challenge is the increased rate of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori, which has led to a decreased H. pylori eradication rate. In this article, we review recent H. pylori infection and reinfection rates and H. pylori resistance to antibiotics, and we discuss the pertinent treatments. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following keywords: Helicobacter pylori, infection, reinfection, antibiotic resistance, bismuth, proton pump inhibitors, vonoprazan, susceptibility, quintuple therapy, dual therapy, and probiotic. The prevalence of H. pylori has remained high in some areas despite the decreasing trend of H. pylori prevalence observed over time. Additionally, the H. pylori reinfection rate has varied in different countries due to socioeconomic and hygienic conditions. Helicobacter pylori monoresistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin was common in most countries. However, the prevalence of amoxicillin and tetracycline resistance has remained low. Because H. pylori infection and reinfection present serious challenges and because H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin remains high in most countries, the selection of an efficient regimen to eradicate H. pylori is critical. Currently, bismuth-containing quadruple therapies still achieve high eradication rates. Moreover, susceptibility-based therapies are alternatives because they may avoid the use of unnecessary antibiotics. Novel regimens, e.g., vonoprazan-containing triple therapies, quintuple therapies, high-dose dual therapies, and standard triple therapies with probiotics, require further studies concerning their efficiency and safety for treating H. pylori.

  4. Novel and Effective Therapeutic Regimens for Helicobacter pylori in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common gastrointestinal bacterial strain closely associated with the incidence of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. A current research and clinical challenge is the increased rate of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori, which has led to a decreased H. pylori eradication rate. In this article, we review recent H. pylori infection and reinfection rates and H. pylori resistance to antibiotics, and we discuss the pertinent treatments. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following keywords: Helicobacter pylori, infection, reinfection, antibiotic resistance, bismuth, proton pump inhibitors, vonoprazan, susceptibility, quintuple therapy, dual therapy, and probiotic. The prevalence of H. pylori has remained high in some areas despite the decreasing trend of H. pylori prevalence observed over time. Additionally, the H. pylori reinfection rate has varied in different countries due to socioeconomic and hygienic conditions. Helicobacter pylori monoresistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin was common in most countries. However, the prevalence of amoxicillin and tetracycline resistance has remained low. Because H. pylori infection and reinfection present serious challenges and because H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin remains high in most countries, the selection of an efficient regimen to eradicate H. pylori is critical. Currently, bismuth-containing quadruple therapies still achieve high eradication rates. Moreover, susceptibility-based therapies are alternatives because they may avoid the use of unnecessary antibiotics. Novel regimens, e.g., vonoprazan-containing triple therapies, quintuple therapies, high-dose dual therapies, and standard triple therapies with probiotics, require further studies concerning their efficiency and safety for treating H. pylori.

  5. Antibacterial activity of trichorabdal A from Rabdosia trichocarpa against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, S; Basnet, P; Ishii, E; Tamura, T; Namba, T

    1997-06-01

    Rabdosia trichocarpa is used in a popular home-made remedy for gastric and stomachic complaints in Japan. A diterpene, trichorabdal A from R. trichocarpa, showed a very strong in vitro antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori. With regard to the antibacterial activity of the extract and constituents of R. trichocarpa against H. pylori, the effect of traditional use of this plant for the treatment of gastritis is probably due to the suppression of H. pylori since the extract of R. trichocarpa particularly inhibits the growth of H. pylori. It could be a promising native herb treatment for patients with gastric complaints including gastric ulcer caused by H. pylori.

  6. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Lycopodium cernuum (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori, a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium is a major etiological agent in duodenal, peptic and gastric ulcers. In this study, gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. H. pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology ...

  7. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht IV/ Florence Consensus Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malfertheiner, Peter; Megraud, Francis; O'Morain, Colm A

    2012-01-01

    Management of Helicobacter pylori infection is evolving and in this 4th edition of the Maastricht consensus report aspects related to the clinical role of H pylori were looked at again in 2010. In the 4th Maastricht/Florence Consensus Conference 44 experts from 24 countries took active part...

  8. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  9. Helicobacter pylori and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Michael; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B; Møller Hansen, Jane

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have reported a possible association between use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). We conducted this case-control study to assess if Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) potentiates the risk of serious UGB in SSRI ...

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection as a triggering factor of attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visy, Beáta; Füst, George; Bygum, Anette

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is considered among the causative factors of urticaria and angioedema. Having conducted a study on 65 patients, Hungarian authors reported in 2001 that successful eradication of H. pylori is followed by a significant reduction in the number of attacks in ...

  11. Effect of a community screening for Helicobacter pylori: a 5-Yr follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jane M; Wildner-Christensen, Mette; Hallas, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) screening and eradication may reduce the incidence of gastric cancer, AND AIMS: peptic ulcer, and ulcer complications, and it may reduce symptoms in a small proportion of individuals with functional dyspepsia. This study aimed to assess the effect of co...

  12. Helicobacter pylori and the birth cohort effect: Evidence for stabilized colonization rates in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); A.J. Vila (Anne J.); I.L. Holster (Ingrid); G.I. Perez-Perez (Guillermo I.); M.J. Blaser (Martin J.); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has declined over recent decades in developed countries. The increasing prevalence with age is largely because of a birth cohort effect. We previously observed a decline in H. pylori prevalence in 6- to 8-year-old Dutch children from 19%

  13. Helicobacter pylori in children with asthmatic conditions at school age, and their mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. den Hollander (Wouter); A.M.M. van der Sonnenschein-Voort (Agnes); I.L. Holster (Ingrid); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); G.I. Perez; H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); M.J. Blaser (Martin J.); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Helicobacter pylori prevalence in Western countries has been declining simultaneously with increases in childhood asthma and allergic diseases; prior studies have linked these phenomena. Aims To examine the association between H. pylori colonisation in children and risk of

  14. Randomized study comparing 1 with 2 weeks of quadruple therapy for eradicating Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, W. A.; Driessen, W. M.; Potters, V. P.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether the recommended 2-wk triple therapy for eradicating Helicobacter pylori could be reduced to 1 wk, and thus we tried to determine the optimal treatment duration for triple therapy. A group of 111 consecutive patients with H. pylori-proven chronic peptic ulcer disease was

  15. Intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori: an endoscopic bioptic study of the gastric antrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Dekker, W.; Blok, P.; Ferwerda, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    To study the relationship between intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori infection, 2274 gastroscopic antral biopsies taken from 533 patients were examined. Overall, intestinal metaplasia was found in 135 patients (25.3%) and H pylori in 289 patients (54.2%). The prevalence of intestinal

  16. Subpopulations of Helicobacter pylori are responsible for discrepancies in the outcome of nitroimidazole susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Kleibeuker, JH; van Zwet, AA; de Jong, A.

    Metronidazole susceptibility testing by E test,vas compared to that by disk diffusion for 263 Helicobacter pylori isolates and to that by breakpoint agar dilution for 90 H. pylori isolates. In 5% and 6% of the cases, respectively. results were discrepant. For each of 52 clinical isolates an E test

  17. The effect of different strains of Helicobacter pylori on platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Corcoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori is the major causative agent in peptic ulcer disease and is strongly implicated in the development of gastric cancer. It has also been linked, less strongly, to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which certain strains of H pylori induce platelet aggregation through interactions with platelet glycoprotein Ib have been previously described.

  18. Importance of post-treatment follow-up to secure sufficient eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roug, Stine; Madsen, Lone Galmstrup

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the care for Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases, we wanted to evaluate the completeness of follow-up after H. pylori eradication therapy in a single Danish endoscopy unit. Furthermore, the eradication rates and possible clinical characteristics associated with failure...

  19. Rapid increase in the prevalence of metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderWouden, EJ; vanZwet, AA; Thijs, JC; Vosmaer, GDC; Oom, JAJ; deJong, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of primary metronidazole resistance of Helicobacter pylori was studied in one Dutch hospital from 1993 to 1996 and in two additional Dutch hospitals in 1993 and 1996. All cultures of antral biopsy specimens yielding H. pylori in the study period were evaluated, except those from

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study to determ...