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Sample records for clarias gariepinus fed

  1. (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ezemonye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Gammalin 20 were investigated in a renewal static bioassay with particular reference to behaviour, survival, and histopathological changes. Early symptoms of gammalin 20 lethal poisoning were, respiratory distress, increased physical activity, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and increased breathing activity. Behavioural response was dose dependent and decreased with decreased concentration. The 96-hour lethal concentration (LC50 value was 30 ppb. Histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestinal tissues of fish treated with sublethal concentration of gammalin 20 for twelve weeks showed gill distortion and fusion of adjacent secondary lamella as a result of hyperplasia and excessive mucus accumulation. The liver showed swelling of hepatocytes with mild necrosis, pyknosis, and vacuolation, while the intestine showed yellow bodies of the lamina propria at the tip of the mucosal fold.

  2. Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidney of Clarias gariepinus Fed Chrysophyllum albidum Seedmeal as Maize Replacer

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    W.A. Jimoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the histological changes of kidney and liver of Clarias gariepinus fed diets containing Chrysophyllum albidum as maize replacer. Five isonitrogenous diets containing maize which was replaced by Chrysophyllum albidum at a rate of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were made. The diets without Chrysophyllum albidum seedmeal served as the control. The diets were isonitrogenous and isolipidic. Experimental diets were assigned randomly to the tanks and each group of fish was fed 5% body weight in equal proportion per day. The results of this study showed that there was a marked vacuolation of hepatocytes among the treatments after the experiment which is not dietary treatment related. The experiment showed that it is technically feasible to replace maize with Chrysophyllum albidum seedmeal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus without adverse effect on the histology of kidney and liver.

  3. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayegba, E. O.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  4. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozório Rodrigo; Van Ginneken Vincent; van den Thillart Guido; Verstegen Martin; Verreth Johan

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  5. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van, CJJM Kees; Thillart, van den, G.; M.W.A. Verstegen; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  6. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  7. Growth performance and haematological responses of African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

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    H. E. Dienye

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the haematological indices and biochemical enzymes of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was investigated for a period of eight (8 weeks. M. oleifera leaf meal was substituted for fish meal at 0 (control, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in the six different diets. C. gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight 9.17 ± 0.33 g were randomly distributed into concrete tanks at 10 fish/tank in triplicate treatments and were fed twice daily at 8.00 hrs to 9.00 hrs and 17.00 hrs to 18.00 hrs for 8 weeks. The haematological parameters results showed that packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC and haemoglobin (Hb were 21.00 to 32.00%, 1.00 to 3.60 × 106 mm-3 and 7.00 to 920 g/100 ml respectively in the fish in the experiment. These parameters decreased as M. oleifera leaf meal increased in the diet in both stages of the experiment. The white blood cell (WBC and lymphocytes range obtained were 7.20 to 8.02 × 103 mm-3 and 60.00 to 70.00% respectively in the experiment. There was increase in the WBC and lymphocytes as M. oleifera leaf meal increased in the diet. The serum enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, in the fish fed with diet containing 0, 10 and 20% M. oleifera leaf meal were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The ranges 11.30 to 13.20, 19.57 to 27.00 and 46.80 to 59.00 Ul-1 were recorded for ALT, AST and ALP respectively for the six treatments. In conclusion, haematological test reveal that 10% substitution rate of M. oleifera leaf meal in catfish (C. gariepinus diet would not have any adverse effect on the blood and serum enzyme.

  8. Fecundity studies of the African catifshClarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fed Coppens feed and Unical aqua feed in circular concrete tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor Oscar Eyo; Albert Philip Ekanem; Vincent Ajom Ajom

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine and compare the fecundity ofClarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) fed with Unical aqua feed and Coppens feeds in concrete tanks, including the nature of relationship that exist between fecundity and morphometric indices of fish such as total length and total weight. Methods:An experiment was conducted for 6 months in the fish farm of University of Calabar with two triplicate groups of 50C. gariepinus post-fingerlings. The experimental fish weighing (0.50 ± 0.02) kg were stocked in concrete tanks (circular) of 16.63 m2area. The tanks were labelled A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. Fish in tank A1, A2 and A3 were fed with Coppens feed and fish in tanks B1, B2 and B3 were fed with Unical aqua feed. Feeding was done twice daily (9:00 and 16:00) at 3% of their body weight. Results: Mean fecundity ofC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (68 366.67 ± 15 966. 29) eggs varied significantly (P 0.05) thanC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (50.37% ± 1.29 %). Water quality parameters including ammonia (mg/L), pH, water temperature (°C) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) fell within the recommended range for the culture of fresh water fish. Conclusions: Fecundity ofC. gariepinus reared in concrete tank was significantly influenced by the experimental feed. Therefore, on the bases of affordability and availability to farmers, Unical aqua feed is more economical and is recommended as a cost-effective cultivation of femaleC. gariepinus broodstock.

  9. Stunning of farmed Afircan catfish( Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, S.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Pieterse, C.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether high-pressure injection of air into the brain of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) could render the animal unconscious and insensible immediately and permanently. In the study, 48 African catfish with a live weight of 900-1900 g were restrained an

  10. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.

  11. Effects of exercise on L-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary L-carnitine and lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorio, Rodrigo O A; Van Ginneken, Vincent J T; Bessa, Rui J B; Verstegen, Martin W A; Verreth, Johan A J; Huisman, Elbertus A

    2010-04-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two L-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected, sixteen fish were induced to a 3-h swim (speed of 1.5 body length (BL)/s), while the other sixteen fish were kept under resting condition. Fish fed 1000 mg L-carnitine accumulated 3.5 and 5 times more L-carnitine in plasma and muscle, respectively, than fish fed the 15 mg L-carnitine. Muscle L-carnitine content was significantly lower in exercised fish than in rested fish. High dietary lipid level (fish oil) led to an increase in muscle n-3 PUFA content and a decrease in SFA and MUFA content. In liver, the increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increased levels of both n-6 and n-3 PUFA. L-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased n-3 PUFA content. Exercise decreased n-3 PUFA in both muscle and liver. Plasma lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, normally associated with increased glycolytic processes, were positively correlated with exercise and inversely correlated with dietary L-carnitine level. L-carnitine supplementation reduced significantly the RQ from 0.72 to 0.63, and an interaction between dietary L-carnitine and lipid was observed (P influence the regulation of FA oxidation selectivity.

  12. Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.; Roques, J.; Heul, van der J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Flik, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximatel

  13. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum leaf and onion (Allium cepa bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

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    OS Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL and onion bulb (OB residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%, OB2 (0.5%, OB3 (1.0%, OB4 (1.5%, OB5 (2.0%, WL6 (0.5%, WL7 (1.0%, WL8 (1.5% and WL9 (2.0%. Fish (mean weight of 1kg were fed twice daily at 3% body weight. Percentage healing and daily healing rate on lateral and caudal parts of the male and female Clarias gariepinus were investigated at 0, 7 and 14 days. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P < 0.05. The results demonstrated that the fish fed with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues showed better performance than the control. Dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus was better on lateral and caudal parts (100%, 14.29; 100%, 14.29 in WL 8 compared to the control (98%, 14.00; 80%, 11.43 respectively. The results obtained showed that the male Clarias gariepinus had better healing compared to the female (100%, 14.29; 82%, 11.71, respectively. Diets with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues had wound healing properties and they could be use in fish farming. Also, the inclusion of 1.5% of walnut leaf residue in fish feed promotes wound healing in Clarias gariepinus.

  14. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Sheikhlar; Abd Razk Alimon; Hassan Daud; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diet...

  15. Dietary effects of African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) on the reproductive indices in male African catifsh (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adekunle Dada; Oluwafunmilayo Aguda

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Tetracarpidium conophorum (T. conophorum) seed powder as dietary supplementation on the reproductive indices in male Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) broodstocks. Methods:Fifteen outdoor concrete tanks consisting of triplicates for each treatment group were used. Triplicate groups of male C. gariepinus [(303.22 ± 1.89) g body weight] were fed with four diets supplemented T. conophorum seed powder respectively, a control diet without T. conophorum seed powder 2 times a day at 3%of body weight for 70 days. Male C. gariepinus broodstocks [average individual weight, (303.22 ± 1.89) g] were randomly distributed with density of 10 fish into 15 outdoor concrete tanks. At the end of the 70-day experiment, gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices were determined. Results:Fish fed experimental diets showed significantly improved gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices over the control treatment. Higher gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices were recorded for the fish fed diet of 200 mg/kg T. conophorum seed powder compared to other experimental diets. The results indicated that supplement diets with medicinal plant (T. conophorum) enhanced growth and improved gonadosomatic index, and reproductive indices of male C. gariepinus broodstocks. Conclusions:T. conophorum have a potential pro-fertility property which can be exploited in fish seed production by hatchery operators.

  16. Histopathological Effects of Gammalin 20 on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Gammalin 20 were investigated in a renewal static bioassay with particular reference to behaviour, survival, and histopathological changes. Early symptoms of gammalin 20 lethal poisoning were, respiratory distress, increased physical activity, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and increased breathing activity. Behavioural response was dose dependent and decreased with decreased concentration. The 96-hour lethal concentration (LC50) value was 30 ppb. Histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestinal tissues of fish treated with sublethal concentration of gammalin 20 for twelve weeks showed gill distortion and fusion of adjacent secondary lamella as a result of hyperplasia and excessive mucus accumulation. The liver showed swelling of hepatocytes with mild necrosis, pyknosis, and vacuolation, while the intestine showed yellow bodies of the lamina propria at the tip of the mucosal fold. environmental monitoring hazardous substances like heavy metals, pesticides

  17. Oxytetracycline resistant bacteria in Clarias gariepinus and Clarias batrachus larvae and the environment

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    Goondi Bharathkumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics and several other chemicals are used in catfish aquaculture as a remedy for various diseases. Reports on the distribution of different groups of bacteria especially the antibiotic resistant bacteria in catfish nursery system are scanty. The present study quantified motile aeromonads, pseudomonads and antibiotic (oxytetracycline resistant bacteria in Clarias gariepinus and C. batrachus larvae and the rearing water from five catfish nurseries of West Bengal, India between March 2007 and July 2007. The C. gariepinus and C. batrachus larvae recorded mean counts of log 7.26±0.18/g and log 6.24±0.64/g, log 6.37±0.41/g and log 4.93±0.51/g, log 5.46±0.22/g and log 4.38±0.53/g and, log 6.27±0.64/g and log 5.57±0.12/g, respectively for total viable bacteria (TVCs, motile aeromonads (MACs, presumptive pseudomonads (PPCs and oxytetracycline resistant bacteria (ARBCs. The levels of TVCs, MACs, PPCs and ARBCs were significantly high in C. gariepinus than in C. batrachus larvae. The rearing water recorded comparatively low bacterial counts than in larvae. The difference between the TVCs of larvae and larval rearing water of C. gariepinus was statistically significant, where as it was insignificant for C. batrachus. The mean proportion of motile aeromonads of C. gariepinus larvae and rearing water was about 4-5 fold higher than in C. batrachus. The catfish nurseries recorded high prevalence of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria ranging from 3.58-35.71% in larval rearing water and 2.05-37.89% in larvae.

  18. Male-specific DNA markers from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, B; Egedi, S; Bártfai, R; Orbán, L

    2000-01-01

    We searched for sex-specific DNA sequences in the male and female genomes of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) by comparative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays performed on pooled DNA samples. Two sex-linked RAPD markers were identified from the male DNA pool and confirmed on individual samples, showing good agreement with phenotypic sex. Both markers were isolated, cloned and characterized. The first marker (CgaY1) was nearly 2.6 kb long, while the length of second one (CgaY2) was 458 bp. Southern blot analysis with a CgaY1 probe showed strong hybridizing fragments only in males and not in females under stringent conditions, indicating the presence of multiple copies of CgaY1 in the male genome. When tested by zoo blot on the genomes of two closely related species from the Clariidae family, CgaY1 hybridized to the DNA of Heterobranchus longifilis and generated a faint male-specific band at low stringency. CgaY2 produced similar hybridization pattern in both sexes of C. gariepinus, C. macrocephalus and H. longifilis. Specific primers were designed to the sequences and the markers were amplified in multiplex PCR reactions together with a control band common to all individuals. This allowed for rapid, molecular sexing of the species on the basis of a simple three band (male) versus one band (female) pattern. According to our knowledge these are the first sex-specific DNA markers isolated from a siluroid fish species. PMID:11766847

  19. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2001-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  20. Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,

  1. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  2. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so

  3. Annual correlative changes in gonads and pituitary gonadotropes of feral African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Peute, J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of male and female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) can be divided into a breeding period (May–August), a resting period (September–February) and a period of full gametogenesis (March–April). The pituitary gonadotropin (GTH) content and the ultrastructure of the gonadotrop

  4. Essais d'adaptation de production massive de juvéniles de Clarias gariepinus en conditions rurales

    OpenAIRE

    Micha, JC.; Rukera Tabaro, S.; Ducarme, C.

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive Trials for Intensive Clarias gariepinus fingerling to Rural Conditions. Artificial reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) have been tested under less controlled conditions to adapt the intensive technology used by Aquafarm (Tihange, Belgium) to rural conditions present in developing countries. The main aim was to compare the efficiency of ovaprim a synthesised hormone with catfish pituitary extracts. Fecundity and quality of e...

  5. Evaluation of red seaweed Gracilaria arcuata as dietary ingredient in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Shamlol, Faozi S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried marine seaweed, Gracilaria arcuata for the first time as dietary ingredient in partial substitution of fishmeal on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group; D2; D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% G. arcuata meal respectively. One hundred and eighty African catfish weighing 9.62 ± 0.42 g, (mean ± SE) was divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fishes showed significant differences (P  0.05) were observed between the control group and fishes fed D2 for all previous parameters. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with a diet containing G. arcuata than in the control group and D2 which contains 10% of G. arcuata. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with G. arcuata included in 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and D2. However, the study recommended that C. gariepinus can accept this ingredient up to 10% in their diets. More defined experiments therefore seem to be necessary in order to determine the maximum level of this marine seaweed in diets with amino acid supplementation for African catfish.

  6. The food and feeding habits of African mud catfish clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) caught from the wild.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayinla, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Food and feedigng habits of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) was studied died using numerical, frequncy of occurrence and volumetric analysis. The three different stages of development of C. gariepinus collected from Olupanna Reservoir in Oyo State of Nigeria were investigated. Phytoplankton was the most important food item of C. gariepinus fingerling, juvenile and adult on the basis of numerical and frequency of occurance methods. Volumetrically insects and insect parts were the most i...

  7. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  8. Relative Importance of Various Predators in Clarias gariepinus Fry Mortality in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Sulem S.Y.; Brummett, R. E.; WorldFish Center

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the relative importance of the most common predators of Clarias gariepinus fry, increasing levels of protection were afforded to exclude amphibians, aquatic arthropods and birds. At a stocking density of 10 larvae/m▓ in nursing ponds, fencing off amphibians resulted in a 28 per cent decrease in mortality. Holding fry in hapas to protect them from both amphibians and aquatic arthropods decreased mortality by an insignificant 5.7 per cent. Installation of bird-netting over the hapas...

  9. Relative importance of various predators in Clarias gariepinus fry mortality in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Sulem, S.Y.; Brummett, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the relative importance of the most common predators of Clarias gariepinus fry, increasing levels of protection were afforded to exclude amphibians, aquatic arthropods and birds. At a stocking density of 10 larvae/sq.m. in nursing ponds, fencing off amphibians resulted in a 28 per cent decrease in mortality. Holding fry in hapas to protect them from both amphibians and aquatic arthropods decreased mortality by an insignificant 5.7 per cent. Installation of bird-netting over the...

  10. On-farm feed resources for catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Phonekhampheng, Oudom

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to collected information African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production systems, and the chemical composition and nutritive value of potentially available feedstuffs. Moreover, the apparent digestibility (AD) of nutrient and amino acids (AA) in raw, sun-dried and ensiled Golden Apple snails (GAS) was evaluated, as well as the potential of GAS to replace fish meal in the diet for growing African catfish fingerlings. The farmers used traditional feedstuffs such as mai...

  11. A karyological analysis of the artificial hybridization between Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Heterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes, 1840 (Pisces; Clariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Teugels, G.G.; Ozouf-Costazt, C.; Legendre, Marc; Parrent, M.

    1992-01-01

    A karyological analysis of an artificial hybridization (reciprocical crosses) between two African clariid catfish, #Clarias gariepinus$ (Burchell, 1822) and #Heterobranchus longifilis$ Valencienne, 1840, was performed. #C. gariepinus$ has a standard karyotype of 2n = 56, while #H. longifilis$ has 2n = 52. The hybrids revealed an intermediate karyotype (2n = 54), and it appears as if they have totalized the haploid chromosome number of both parental species, excluding gynogenesis or androgenes...

  12. The use of hematology method and blood endoparasite observation for determining catfish (Clarias gariepinus) health in fishery Mangkubumen, Boyolali

    OpenAIRE

    AGUNG BUDIHARJO; NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI; INTAN ESTETIKA ALAMANDA

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to find out the health condition of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) based on hematology and to find out the blood endoparasite type of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) bred in Mangkubumen Boyolali. The sample collection of catfish in this research was conducted in Mangkubumen, Boyolali. The catfish becoming the sample had following criteria: 3 month old, 100-150 gr weight, and 20-25 cm long. The sample of catfish was taked from 5 pools, it was taken 10 fishes from each pool. The ...

  13. Effect of dietary administration of the herbal additive siamweed (Chromolaena odorata) on growth performance and haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle Ayokanmi Dada; Oladoye Francis Sonibare

    2015-01-01

    This work was conducted to study the effect of diets supplemented with different levels of aqueous extract of siamweed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf powder on growth performance, feed utilization and some blood parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings in 2014 at the Federal University of Technology, Nigeria. Fingerlings of about 6.84-6.86 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g) of C. odorata leaf extract powder for eight weeks. The h...

  14. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepin

  15. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  16. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy; Hossam Ali Gadalla; Fatma Mostafa Abd El-Hamied

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (C. gariepinus) experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L) for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results:neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect.

  17. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  18. Effects of 17a-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle, development and semen release response in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.; Eding, E.H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle development in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were investigated in an attempt to improve semen collection from this species. Treatment of larvae with dietary 17alpha-methyltestosterone at 50 mg kg(-1) for days 12-33 or days 12-40

  19. Presence of the walking catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell (Siluriformes, Clariidae in Minas Gerais state hydrographie basins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas Alves

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The first official occurrence of the exotic species Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 in the Rio Paraopeba (São Francisco river basin, the Rio Grande (Paraná river basin, and the Rio Doce (Doce river basin, is reported, with comments on the possible ecological consequences and on the conservation of freshwater fish biodiversity due to non-native species introductions.

  20. Presence of the walking catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) (Siluriformes, Clariidae) in Minas Gerais state hydrographie basins, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas Alves; Volney Vono; Fábio Vieira

    1999-01-01

    The first official occurrence of the exotic species Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in the Rio Paraopeba (São Francisco river basin), the Rio Grande (Paraná river basin), and the Rio Doce (Doce river basin), is reported, with comments on the possible ecological consequences and on the conservation of freshwater fish biodiversity due to non-native species introductions.

  1. Early development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), focusing on the ontogeny of selected organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Wuertz, S.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development of Clarias gariepinus was studied from oocyte activation to the end of endogenous feeding (164 h post-fertilization, 164 h-PF). The ontogeny of the eyes, the ear, the heart, the digestive tract and the notochord were described histologically: (i) eyes were not pigmented at hatc

  2. Textile effluent induced genotoxic effects and oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, S O; Bassey, B O; Alimba, C G; Ajani, E K

    2012-09-01

    Human and ecological disorder experienced in industrial settlements as a result of improper disposal of chemicals such as textile effluent calls for careful surveillance on the state of the environment. This study investigated the toxicity of textile effluent discharge using biochemical and cytogenetic responses to ascertain the acute and sub lethal effects on Clarias gariepinus. The 96 h LC50 of C. gariepinus exposed to the textile effluent was 8.203 ml L(-1). Fourteen day exposures to 1, 2, 4 and 6 ml L(-1) doses were conducted and several toxicological endpoints were evaluated. Sub lethal genotoxicity and biochemical study was also carried out for fourteen days. The genotoxicity studies utilized micronucleus test while the biochemical studies quantified serum anti-oxidant status Total Protein (TP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) of the exposed fish. Toxicity factor indicates that the 96 h LC50 was significantly more toxic than the 24 h LC50 (p effluent at the tested concentrations induced micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in the peripheral blood of exposed fish. Micronucleus, notch and binucleated cell formation were significant (p 0.05). The results obtained from this study showed that textile effluent increase cytogenetic damage and altered anti-oxidant status in C. gariepinus. Chemicals in the effluent can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the aquatic organism hence affecting man. PMID:24163963

  3. Lower than expected mercury concentration in piscivorous African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desta, Zerihun [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway) and Awassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia)]. E-mail: zerihun.desta@gmail.com; Borgstrom, Reidar [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Rosseland, Bjorn Olav [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Dadebo, Elias [Awassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia)

    2007-04-15

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg), stable isotopes of nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) and carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and the diet of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in Lake Awassa, Ethiopia, were studied from January 2003 to February 2004. Values of the {delta}{sup 15}N were used as an index of trophic position in four length groups and compared to actual stomach contents. The diet of C. gariepinus within the length range of 201-600 mm L {sub T} mainly consisted of the small barb Barbus paludinosus, aquatic insects, and mollusks. The proportion of fish prey in the diet was 60% by volume, irrespective of fish size. The differences in {delta}{sup 15}N values of individuals within and between length classes were less than 3 per mille , and were not significantly related to total length, showing the similarity in trophic niche of the different sizes, which corresponded to recorded stomach contents. Mercury concentrations were in the range of 0.002-0.154 mg kg{sup -1} ww, and had no significant relationship to total length. Hence, even large specimens of C. gariepinus have Hg values below the WHO threshold of 0.2 mg kg{sup -1} ww. The slope of the regression line between log [Hg] and {delta}{sup 15}N was small, 0.06, indicating the absence of trophic shifts and biomagnification of Hg in larger specimens in our samples. The low Hg concentrations in C. gariepinus compared to the Hg concentrations in other piscivorous fish species in Lake Awassa, such as Barbus intermedius and B. paludinosus, may be due to its dependence on invertebrate preys at small size, diet switching towards low Hg prey fish at larger size, and growth biodilution owing to higher growth rate.

  4. Lower than expected mercury concentration in piscivorous African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg), stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C), and the diet of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in Lake Awassa, Ethiopia, were studied from January 2003 to February 2004. Values of the δ15N were used as an index of trophic position in four length groups and compared to actual stomach contents. The diet of C. gariepinus within the length range of 201-600 mm L T mainly consisted of the small barb Barbus paludinosus, aquatic insects, and mollusks. The proportion of fish prey in the diet was 60% by volume, irrespective of fish size. The differences in δ15N values of individuals within and between length classes were less than 3 per mille , and were not significantly related to total length, showing the similarity in trophic niche of the different sizes, which corresponded to recorded stomach contents. Mercury concentrations were in the range of 0.002-0.154 mg kg-1 ww, and had no significant relationship to total length. Hence, even large specimens of C. gariepinus have Hg values below the WHO threshold of 0.2 mg kg-1 ww. The slope of the regression line between log [Hg] and δ15N was small, 0.06, indicating the absence of trophic shifts and biomagnification of Hg in larger specimens in our samples. The low Hg concentrations in C. gariepinus compared to the Hg concentrations in other piscivorous fish species in Lake Awassa, such as Barbus intermedius and B. paludinosus, may be due to its dependence on invertebrate preys at small size, diet switching towards low Hg prey fish at larger size, and growth biodilution owing to higher growth rate

  5. Evaluation of Response Patterns in Somatic and Otolith Features of Laboratory- Reared and Wild Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Taofeek A. Babatunde; Azubuike V. Chukwuka

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the responses of somatic and otolith features in Clarias gariepinus under chronic exposure conditions to industrial effluents in the laboratory for 60 days and in the wild for 6 months. Fish were collected upstream and downstream bi-monthly from a river receiving composite mixtures of industrial effluent while laboratory-rearedC. gariepinus were exposed to the same effluent mixtures in 60 days static renewal/bioassay using concentrations of 6.11, 3.05 and 2.2...

  6. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  7. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  8. The introduction of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 into Brazilian inland waters: a growing threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecely Rodrigues Alves Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of the introduced species Clarias gariepinus in lagoa Encantada (Ilhéus, Bahia State was studied. Samples were obtained with gillnets between May 2002 and February 2004. All individuals caught exceeded the average length at first maturity cited in literature. Males and females in maturation stages indicate that the species is already established in the lake.A biologia de Clarias gariepinus, uma espécie introduzida, foi estudada na lagoa Encantada (Ilhéus, Bahia. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de espera, entre maio de 2002 e fevereiro de 2004. Todos os indivíduos capturados estavam acima do tamanho médio de primeira maturação citado na literatura. A ocorrência de machos e fêmeas em estágio de maturação indica que a espécie já está estabelecida na lagoa.

  9. Monogenean parasites of the African catifsh Clarias gariepinus from two ifsh farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Edet Theresa Arit; Ekanem Albert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, mean intensity, and abundance of monogenean parasites in Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) from two selected fish farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods:Eighty specimens of C. gariepinus from the two farms (40 each) were necropsied for parasitological analysis. Skin, gill and fin biopsies were prepared from each specimen following standard methods for microscopic analysis. Parasitological indices including dominance (D), prevalence, mean intensity and abundance were calculated according to standard formulae. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. Results:C. gariepinus from the two farms were infested with a total of ninety individuals of monogenean parasites belonging to three species including Macrogyrodactylus clarii (M. clarii), Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. D index showed that the three monogenean species were eudominant (D-value>10%). Gyrodactylus sp. was more abundant (46) followed by Dactylogyrus sp. (23) while M. clarii was the lowest (21). Prevalence, meaning intensity and abundance of monogenean parasites in the two farms, varied insignificantly higher (P>0.05). Prevalence in both farms were higher in female C. gariepinus than that in male. Monogenean parasites exhibited organ specificity as M. clarii and Dactylogyrus sp. were recovered from the gills while Gyrodactylus sp. colonized the skin and fin. Conclusions:High abundance of these parasites may lead to poor growth performance and high mortality in C. gariepinus, leading to huge monetary loss and low profit margin by increasing production cost due to the cost of treatments.

  10. Pengujian Perilaku Predator dan Anti-Predator pada Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Transgenik F3

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati, Putri

    2015-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) transgenic F3 containing Pangasius hypothalmus growth hormone (PhGH) genes can growth twice the average weight of the control population. However, before transgenic African catfish are released and utilized, their genetic impact on the natural environment must be examined. Predator avoidance is one of the major fitness traits determining potential environment risk. To determine the predator avoidance ability and growth performance of transgenic African cat...

  11. Effect of dietary administration of the herbal additive siamweed (Chromolaena odorata on growth performance and haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayokanmi Dada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to study the effect of diets supplemented with different levels of aqueous extract of siamweed (Chromolaena odorata leaf powder on growth performance, feed utilization and some blood parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus fingerlings in 2014 at the Federal University of Technology, Nigeria. Fingerlings of about 6.84-6.86 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g of C. odorata leaf extract powder for eight weeks. The highest specific growth rate (0.96±1.16 % day–1 and best food conversion ratio (2.87±0.26 were obtained in fish fed 0.5 g 100 g−1C. odorata leaf extract powder diet treatment. There were significant differences in fish carcass protein, lipid or ash content among the treatments (p0.05 but there were greater improvement in the white blood cells of fish fed on dietary C. odorata leaf extract powder compared to the fish fed the control diet. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with C. odorata leaf extract powder improved growth rate, feed utilization, white blood cells and survival of C. gariepinus fingerlings.

  12. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources.

  13. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  14. Ionoregulatory Impairment in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Combined Stressors of Lead and Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowumi O ADEWALE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of aquatic ecosystem with heavy metals and pesticides has increased dramatically over the years, and this has generated a lot of attention by environmental experts. There are reports on impacts of different single toxicants on aquatic organisms but not much has been done to investigate the impacts of mixtures of toxicants on aquatic life. In this study we investigated the effects of multiple stressors of Pb and cypermethrin on ionoregulation in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Adults C. gariepinus were exposed to either borehole water (control, 2 mg/L Pb, 0.5 μg/L cypermetrin or a mixture of 2 mg/L Pb and 0.5 μg/L cypermethrin for 96 h, after which the levels of plasma Na+, Cl- and K+ were determined as a measure of branchial ionoregulatory disturbance. The exposure of C. gariepinus to 0.5 μg/L cypermethrin resulted in a significant reduction in plasma Na+ (43% decrease and Cl- (31% decrease but a 2-fold increase in plasma K+ concentrations. Exposure to a mixture of cypermethrin and Pb resulted in 53% decrease in plasma Na+, 40% decrease in plasma Cl- and a 3- fold increase in plasma K+. There was no significant difference between the control and those exposed to just only 2 mg/L Pb for all the parameters measured. The results of this study indicated that exposure of aquatic organisms to combined stressors of heavy metals pollution as well as pesticide contamination could have a serious effect on the physiology especially on ionic regulation in the exposed fish.

  15. Effect of garlic peel on growth, hematological parameters and disease resistance againstAeromonas hydrophila in African catfishClarias gariepinus(Bloch) fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karthik Thanikachalam; Marimuthu Kasi; Xavier Rathinam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of dietary doses of garlic (Allium sativum L.) peel on the hematological and disease resistance of African catfish [Clarias gariepinus(C. gariepinus) ] fingerlings against the infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogenAeromonas hydrophila.Methods:Powdered garlic peel was incorporated into the diets at (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and1.5%) and fed to catfish fingerlings for20 days. After the feeding trial, biochemical (serum total protein, albumin and globulin), hematological parameters (white blood cells and red blood cells) of the fish were examined. Fish were challenged withAeromona hydrophila (A. hydrophila) after20days of post feeding and percentage mortalities were recorded up to10 days after post challenge.Results: Enhanced serum protein, albumin and globulin in fish fed with all the dosages of garlic peel when compared to control group. Significantly highest red blood cell and white blood cell counts were recorded in garlic peel incorporated diet fed groups compared to control group. The results also demonstrate that low survival rate (55.5±11.0)% in control groups and significantly higher survival rates were recorded in all the garlic peel fed groups after challenging withA. hydrophila. However no significant impact was noticed with regard to body weight gain, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio of fish fed with different levels of garlic peel inclusion and control group.Conclusions:These results indicate that garlic peel enhances the hematological parameters even at a low level(0.5%) incorporation and makesC. gariepinus highly immunopotent and more resistant to infection byA. hydrophila.

  16. Diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) differ in biomarker responses to the pesticide chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Goh, Yong-Meng; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Lazorchak, James M; Abdullah, Maha; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-07-01

    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus. PMID:26994807

  17. Evaluación del ensilado químico de pescado en la alimentación de Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 - Fish chemical silage evaluation in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo Pérez, J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar el efecto biológico y económico del ensilado químico de pescado, como única fuente de proteína animal en la alimentación de alevines de Clarias gariepinus, se ensilo manchuelo entero (Opisthonema oglinum, con tres combinaciones de ácidos orgánicos e inorgánicos: 3% de ácido fórmico; 2% ácido sulfúrico 98% y 2% de ácido fórmico y un tercer ensilado con 2,6% de ácido fosfórico y 2,6% de ácido cítrico. Con cada ensilado se confecciono una dieta húmeda, las cuales fueron comparadas con un Alimento Comercial en la alimentación de alevines de Clarias gariepinus durante 60 días. En los resultados obtenidos no hubo diferencias significativas (P>0.05 en los indicadores de crecimiento, utilización del alimento y supervivencia al sustituir totalmente la harina de pescado por los ensilados químicos de pescado. El análisis económico mostró un ahorro de 20 a 30% de los costos de producción por concepto de alimentaciónAbstractThe objetive of this work was to evaluate the biologic and economic effects of chemical fish silage as a unique animal protein source in Clarias gariepinus feeding. Ensiled Opisthonema oglinum with three combinations of organic and inorganic acids: 3% of formic acid; 2% sulfuric acid 98% and 2% formic acid and other with 2,6% phosphoric acid and 2,6% of citric acid. From each silage moist diets was prepared and were compared with comercial foods in Clarias gariepinus feeding during 60 days. There were not significant differences (P>0.05, in growth, feed utilization and survival indicators. The economic analysis showed a cost production sabe between 20 and 30%.

  18. Bacterial Flora from Healthy Clarias gariepinus and their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Efuntoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from Clarias gariepinus from 3 farms in Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria was investigated. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of isolates revealed that majority of the bacteria belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also recovered. E. coli strains were highly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline (82.4%. Majority of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to ampicillin (63.6%, amoxycillin (54.5%, nalidixic acid (63.6% and oxytetracycline (72.7%, whereas most of the Salmonella spp. were resistant to erythromycin (85.7%, gentamycin (71.4%, amoxicillin (57.1%, chloramphenicol (57.1% and sulphamethoxazole (57.1%. All isolates were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, novobiocin and ofloxacin. While the presence of potentially pathogenic bacterial species as observed in the study may not present a serious human health hazard because of heat treatment accorded fish before consumption, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains should not be ignored because of the potential for horizontal gene transfer in the food chain.

  19. Characterization of dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were characterized using [3H]spiperone as radioligand. Specific binding of [3H]spiperone to pituitary membranes reached equilibrium within 60 min of incubation. The binding of the radioligand was tissue specific since the amount of binding was linear with pituitary membrane content in the incubations. In addition, pituitary membranes were observed to bind considerably more [3H]spiperone, compared to membrane preparation of various other tissues. Saturation experiments revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity/low capacity binding sites. The binding characteristics, estimated by Scatchard analysis, were: Kd = 3.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-9) M and Bmax = 105 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was displaceable with dopamine and with various specific D2 agonists and antagonists. The nature of displacement curves resembles those observed in studies on mammalian dopamine receptors. Binding experiments with cell fractions, obtained after centrifugation of dispersed pituitary cells over a Percoll density gradient, showed that most [3H]spiperone binding was obtained in an enriched gonadotropic cell fraction. This observation indicates that the receptor characteristics, estimated with the [3H]spiperone assay, are representative for dopamine receptors on the gonadotropic cells

  20. Estrogen-2-hydroxylase in the brain of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity, involved in the biosynthesis of catecholestrogens, was localized in the brain of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, by means of a radiometric assay using [2-3H]estradiol as substrate. Fore- and midbrain were divided in 18, 500-microns thick, transverse sections from which small defined areas were punched out and assayed. The estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity was calculated from the release of tritium during hydroxylation, and expressed in femtomole catecholestradiol.milligram-1 tissue.hour-1. The enzyme could be demonstrated throughout the brain. A high activity (greater than 350 fmol) was observed in the telencephalon, in particularly the rostral part and the area ventralis pars dorsalis; in the diencephalon in the preoptic region, including the magnocellular part of the preoptic nucleus and the rostral part of the anterior periventricular nucleus; and in the area tuberalis, including the nucleus lateralis tuberis, the rostral part of the nucleus anterior tuberis, the caudal part of the nucleus posterior periventricularis, and in the nucleus recessus posterioris. Also a high activity was detected in the mesencephalic tectum opticum and the dorsolateral part of the torus semicircularis. The ventral mesencephalon showed a moderate (200-350 fmol) to low (less than 200 fmol) activity, whereas the lowest activity was found in the hindbrain (118 fmol). The significance of the biosynthesis of catecholestrogens in the brain is discussed in light of the negative feedback mechanism of gonadal steroids on gonadotropin release

  1. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  2. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the impacts of carbofuran on endocrinology of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, for the first time and evaluated cortisol (CRT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (TST) and the oxidative stress markers including SOD, CAT, GSTs, GSH. The toxic effects on the metabolic enzymes, G6PDH and LDH, in addition to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage as biomarkers in Nile catfish, to sublethal exposures of carbofuran (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) were studied. Statistically significant differences between selected parameters between control and carbofuran-treated fish were recorded. Carbofuran caused a significant (pcarbofuran-treated fish. Toxicity of carbofuran on liver, kidney, gills, gonads and muscles after 35 days of exposure was found. Glycogen levels showed a highly significant decrease in liver and gills (p0.05) in gonads of treated fish. The two metabolic enzymes G6PDH and LDH in all tissues exhibited significant decreases (pcarbofuran. LPO levels increased significantly (pcarbofuran. There was a significant (pcarbofuran and allow us to consider catfish as a good bioindicator to reflect the endocrine disrupting impacts of carbofuran, and reflect the potential of this pesticide to cause disturbance in antioxidant defense system as well as metabolism and induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage in contaminated ecosystems.

  3. Cytogenotoxicity of Abattoir Effluent in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Using Micronucleus Test

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    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenotoxic potential of abattoir effluent from Bodija, Nigeria, was investigated using micronucleus test in Clarias gariepinus. Fish was exposed to five different concentrations: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.1% of the effluent for 7, 14, and 28 days. Tap water and 0.02 mL/L of benzene were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed in the effluent in accordance with standard methods. After exposure, blood was collected from the treated and control fish and slides were prepared for micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormality evaluation in the peripheral erythrocytes. The effluent induced significant (p<0.05 increase in the frequency of MN in a time dependent manner. Similarly, the frequency of total nuclear abnormalities (blebbing, notch, bud, binucleation, and vacuolation was higher in the exposed fish than the negative control. Electrical conductivity, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, arsenic, and copper analyzed in the effluent may have provoked the observed cytogenetic damage. The findings herein suggest the presence of clastogens and cytotoxins in Bodija abattoir wastewater which are capable of increasing genomic instability in aquatic biota.

  4. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran pesticide on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): hematological, biochemical and cytogenetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2014-05-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of two sublethal concentrations of carbofuran pesticide (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) on hematological and blood biochemical parameters of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and to evaluate the genotoxic potential of carbofuran on the erythrocytes of C. gariepinus for the first time by micronucleus and erythrocyte alteration assays. The results revealed a significant (pcarbofuran exposure caused a significant (pCarbofuran caused many genotoxic and morphological alterations in erythrocytes such as formation of micronuclei (MN), echinocytes, acanthocytes, tear like drop cells, microcytes and erythrocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm and pale nucleus. The exposed groups have shown significant variations in frequencies of MN and altered erythrocytes in comparison to control group, and these frequencies increased significantly (pcarbofuran concentration. Therefore, current results present a clear evidence of the response of C. gariepinus to carbofuran and allow us to consider that C. gariepinus as a good bioindicator to reflect the toxicity and the genotoxic potential of carbofuran that might be released into the aquatic ecosystems.

  5. The effects of Moina artificial diet and nutrase xyla supplemented artificial diet on growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Babalola, T.O.O.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Moina, artificial diet (55% CP) and nutrase xyla supplemented artificial diet on growth performances and survival rates of Clarias gariepinus larvae. A combination of Moina and artificial diet (with or without nutrass xyla) resulted in higher growth performance and survival rates during a 12-day nursing time with specific growth rates of 30.04-32.15% d super(-1) and survival rates of 87.5-90%. Best growth performance and survival rat...

  6. Sublethal Effects of Paraquat on Some Plasma Organic Constituents (Metabolic Parameters of African Catfish: Clarias gariepinus (Osteichthys-Clariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okenabirhie Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma levels of glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride were determined in Clarias gariepinus exposed to sublethal concentrations of paraquat (0.30 and 0.15 mg L-1. There were significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma glucose (showing hypoglycemia situation, plasma protein and triglyceride with a significant increase (p<0.050 in plasma cholesterol when compared with the control. These changes were directly proportional to the toxicant concentration and the exposure periods thus it is dose dependent and time-dependent.

  7. Chromosomal differentiation between populations of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the Göksu Delta and Orontes River (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Arzu; Ergene, Serap

    2011-01-01

    The karyotype of Clarias gariepinus was described by means of G-banding, C-banding, Q-banding, and Ag-NORs (NORs) staining in this study. Samples were collected from 2 regions of Turkey: the Göksu Delta and Orontes River. Although samples from both regions had the same diploid chromosome number and fundamental arm number, (2n = 56, FN = 100), they had remarkable differences in karyotype formula and distribution of rDNA sites, according to silver nitrate staining and G-banding. While the karyo...

  8. Estudo de carcaça do bagre africano (Clarias gariepinus em diferentes categorias de peso Study of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus carcass in different weight categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Pinto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar carcaças de Clarias gariepinus, em três categorias de peso (P1=inferior a 1kg; P2=de 1 a 2kg e P3=superior a 2kg, para analisar o rendimento de carcaça com cabeça (RCC, sem cabeça (RCS, filé (RFI, músculos abdominais (RMA, partes comestíveis (RPC, tronco limpo (RTL, porcentagem de pele (PPE, cabeça (PCA, vísceras (PVI, resíduos totais (PRE e determinar a composição proximal do filé (proteína bruta, umidade, gordura e cinza. Foram utilizados 60 bagres, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 3 tratamentos com 20 repetições, em nível de significância de 5%. O rendimento de filé foi maior para P2 (38,61% que para P1 e P3. O rendimento das partes comestíveis e tronco limpo foram superiores para P2 (RPC=46,27% e RTL=56,67%, mas sem diferirem do P3. O rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça foi maior para P3, não diferindo de P2. O P2 foi inferior para PPE (4,64%, PCA (23,62% e PRE (53,73%, sem diferir de P3, para porcentagem de cabeça e de resíduos totais. Não houve diferença significativa para rendimentos dos músculos abdominais, carcaça com cabeça e vísceras. P2 (2,25% e 77,49% não diferiu do P1 (1,51% e 77,78% e P3 (3,03% e 76,39%, para gordura e umidade, respectivamente, enquanto, para proteína bruta, não houve diferença significativa. Conclui-se que P2 apresentou melhores rendimentos de filetagem, ao passo que a composição proximal do filé, nas três categorias de peso, foi relativamente similar, com aumento de deposição de gordura nos peixes acima de 1kg de peso vivo.The aim of this experiment was to study Clarias gariepinus carcass in three weight categories (P1=below 1kg; P2= 1 to 2kg and P3=over 2kg to analyze yield of carcass with head (YCH, without head (YCW, fillet (YF, abdominal muscles (YAM, eatable parts (YEP, dressed out (YDO and percentages of skin (PSK, head (PHE, viscera (PVI, total residues (PTR; and to determine the proximate composition of fillet (crude

  9. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of steroids and steroid glucuronides in the seminal vesicle fluid of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis was carried out to identify steroids and steroid glucuronides in the seminal vesicle fluid of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, collected in the Hula nature reserve (Israel) during the breeding season. Full mass spectra of 5β-pregnane-3α,17α-diol-20

  10. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Hmoud F.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC 50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  11. Effect of peanut powder (Arachis hypogeae L., 1753) on zootechnic parameters and sex inversion in catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Dougnon T; Elie, Montchowui; Messanvi, Gbeassor

    2015-01-01

    Benin is currently experiencing an overexploitation of piscatorial resources; this requires the research of endogenous means to increase the biomass of fish produced thanks to fish farming activities. The present study intends to improve the zootechnic performances and inverse the sex in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Therefore, 240 larvae obtained from artificial reproduction were used for this study. Three different feed were tested. The control feed (TO) was without peanut powder; contrary, the two experimental feeds were containing the powder at the rates of 10% (T1) and 20% (T2). The best growth of 94.51±27.14 g was recorded with the treatment T2 and 71.32±25.58 g from treatment T1 and finally 54.83±22.19 g from the control group. The sex inversion rate varied from 50% in the control group to 66.13% in lot 1 then 80.13% in lot 2. However, survival rates were low and varied from 26.25% for T2, to 30% in TO then 42.5% in T1. This study permitted to get better results about the zootechnic parameters and the sex inversion in Clarias gariepinus at incorporation rates of 10% and 20% of peanut powder "Arachis hypogeae." PMID:26571988

  12. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with [3H]pregnenolone, [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone, [3H]17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, [3H]androstenedione, [14C]11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and [3H]testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin

  13. Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpi, Gabriel; Offem, Benedict

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland), mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver (C, rainforest) along 200 km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7 g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8 x 10(3) cfu/g), while the least counts (1.2 x 103 cfu/g) were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7 x 10(2) cfu/mL) co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended.

  14. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  15. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER ACTING SINGLY OR IN JOINT-RATIOS ON CLARIAS GARIEPINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Olubukola Adeogun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems were the most vulnerable to pollution due to their easy accessibility for disposal of wastewaters leading to deterioration of water quality. Ona river, Ibadan, Nigeria is part of a dense network of inland watercourses emptying into the Lagos lagoon and receives industrial effluents from a food and beverage industry. The single and joint-action toxicity of effluents from these industries mixed in predetermined ratios of 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75% (v/v (food:beverage; 100% (food and 100% (beverage respectively were tested against Clarias gariepinus fingerlings in a series of static bioassay to determine the pollution implications of interacting components of effluents and their effect on fish survival. Physico-chemical parameters of exposure concentrations and effluent samples were analyzed using standard methods. Effluent samples were further analyzed for heavy metals and interactions of composite mixtures were evaluated with models such as the Synergistic Ratio (SR, concentration-addition Relative Toxic Units (RTU and isobologram (pictorial isobole for joint-action evaluations. The 96 h LC50 values were 23.00, 31.00, 71.79 and 33.50% (food while no LC50 value was derived for the 100% beverage effluent. Toxicity evaluation of effluent mixtures revealed decreasing toxicity in the order 75:25% (food: beverage; 50:50% (food: beverage; 100% (food and 25:75% (food: beverage. Effluent samples and exposure concentrations were characterized by acidic pH and low DO (except for control exposures while other effluent physico-chemical analysis revealed that Pb, Cr and Fe concentrations exceeded NESREA and WHO permissible limit for surface waters and protection of the aquatic ecosystem. The SR and isobologram models both depicted the food-beverage mixture of 75:25 and 50:50% as synergistic and the 25:75% mixture as antagonistic. The concentration-addition model depicted all mixture ratios as synergistic. The observed antagonistic

  16. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Harvested from two lakes and artificial ponds in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joy Cecilia Atawodi; Armayau Hamisu Bichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) harvested from two lakes and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.Methods:Catfish samples (n=200) from two lakes and (n=200) from two private fish ponds were collected and their gills and gastrointestinal tract samples were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was used, followed by microscopy. Results: Oocysts of Cryptosporidium species were found in all the sampling sites with an overall positivity rate of 49.75%. A comparison between the lakes and ponds as sampling sites revealed a statistically significant (P<0.05) higher percentage of occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocyst from the lakes (39.25%) than from the ponds (10.50%). Conclusions: These findings document for the first time the natural occurrence ofCryptosporidium sp. in catfish intended for human consumption and therefore, underlines the need for public enlightenment to guard against any possible zoonotic transmission.

  17. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) leaf and onion (Allium cepa) bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    OS Bello; BO Emikpe; AK Olaifa; FE Olaifa

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL) and onion bulb (OB) residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m) for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%), OB2 (0.5%), OB3 (1.0%), OB4 (1.5%), OB5 (2.0%), WL6 (0.5%), WL7 (1.0%), WL8 (1.5%) and WL9 (2.0%). Fish (mean weight of 1kg) were fe...

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Polygonum minus leaf on the immunity and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravichandran Veerasamy; Lim Shu Min; Mohanraj; Rita Pauline; Shalini Sivadasan; Christapher Varghese; Harish Rajak; Kasi Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish immunomodulatory potential of aqueous extract of Polygonum minus (P. minus) leaves, the haematological effects and lysozyme activity of aqueous extract of P. minus leaf on Clarias gariepinus was studied. Methods:The fish were grouped and administered with the P. minus aqueous leaf extract intraperitoneally. Blood and serum samples were collected from each group and examined for various blood parameters. The turbidimetric assay for lysozyme activity using M. luteus and the survival rate of fish against A. hydrophila was carried out. Results:There was no significant impact (P>0.05) on white blood cell count, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and lysozyme activity was significantly (P Conclusions: From this study, it is considered that the aqueous extract of P. minus can be used as an immunostimulant in African catfish, but continuous administration may require maintaining the protection.

  19. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in fresh water African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E O; Ajimoko, Y R; Adelowo, O A

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (Pbutachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  20. Morphology of the oropharyngeak cavity and oesophagus of the farmed adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Ikpegbu, E.; Ezeasor, D N; Nlebedum, U. C.; Nwogu, C.; Nnadozie, O.; Agbakwuru, I. O.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of the adult farmed African catfish -Clarias gariepinus a prominent omnivorous cultivable species in Nigeria was investigated. It revealed cornified horny plates lining the buccal surfaces of the lips. The tongue was not free moving, and the oesophagus was a narrow tube connecting the oropharyngeal cavity to the stomach with no valve or constriction separating it from the later. Histologically, the cavity wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium containing eosinophilic ...

  1. Bioaccumulation Pattern of Cadmium and Lead in the Head Capsule and Body Muscle of Clarias gariepinus [Burchell, 1822] Exposed to Paint Emulsion Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    S. O. Dahunsi; S.U. Oranusi; R.O. Ishola

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Sub-lethal concentrations of effluents from a paint emulsion industry were investigated on African catfish Clarias gariepinus in order to determine the bioaccumulation pattern of two heavy metals i.e., Lead and Cadmium in the Head capsule and Body muscle using a renewable static bioassay. The trend of bioconcentration of metals in the head capsule and muscle of the test organisms differs significantly (phead capsule. In the muscle, the highest bioaccumulation of lead was 0.468...

  2. Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of crude oil to the early life stages of the african catfish (clarias gariepinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend), was conducted to evaluate the toxicity on the early life stages of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) under static bioassay conditions. Five concentrations of water soluble fraction (WSF) of the crude oil (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) were constituted in glass aquaria (25 cm 24 cm 10 cm). Twenty laboratory-reared frys were introduced in triplicate in each of the test aquaria and exposure conducted for 96 h. The median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) and the 95% confidence interval was estimated using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. The physicochemical characteristic of the test media was also evaluated. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) at 95% confidence interval was estimated to give 2.84% (upper and lower confidence interval of 3.83% and 2.10%) of the water soluble fraction. There was no marked change in pH of the test media compared to the control. However, the dissolved oxygen content and the conductivity showed a concentration dependent decline in the test media when compared to the control. The frys were observed to be weak and swimming activities were reduced. It can be concluded from the study that the water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend) is toxic to early life stages of C. gariepinus. (author)

  3. Occurrence of Tetracampos ciliotheca and Proteocephalus glanduligerus in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 collected from the Vaal Dam, South Africa

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    Grace Madanire-Moyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are parasitic flatworms that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the liver, muscle, haemocoel, mesentery and brain of various animals as larval stages. To identify the cestodes infecting Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 (sharptooth catfish in the Vaal Dam, a total of 45 host specimens were collected with the aid of gill nets between October 2011, January and April 2012. The fish were sacrificed and examined for cestode parasites. Two adult cestodes, Tetracampos ciliotheca Wedl, 1861 (prevalence 86.7%, mean intensity = 15, n = 45 and Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928 (prevalence 51.1%, mean intensity = 5, n = 45 were found in the intestines of the catfish. Both T. ciliotheca and P. glanduligerus are new locality records. There were statistically insignificant differences in the infection of the male and female C. gariepinu. Fish with standard length ranging from 40 cm – 54 cm (≥ 3 years had the highest prevalence and mean intensity while those ranging from 10 cm – 24 cm (< 1 year had the lowest prevalence and mean intensity for both cestodes. The study highlights the importance of changing feeding habits of C. gariepinus with age on the prevalence and mean intensity of the two gastrointestinal cestode parasites.

  4. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  5. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E. O.; Adelowo, O. A.; Ajimoko, Y. R.

    2007-01-01

    Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25–8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69– 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10–19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95–20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44%) was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001). On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001) whereas there was a significant decrease (41%) in the gills (P<0.05) compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  6. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus from Nigeria Ogun River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Ajimoko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione (GSH concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25-8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44% was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001. On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001 whereas there was a significant decrease (41% in the gills (P<0.05 compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  7. Evaluation of Response Patterns in Somatic and Otolith Features of Laboratory- Reared and Wild Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina O. Adeogun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the responses of somatic and otolith features in Clarias gariepinus under chronic exposure conditions to industrial effluents in the laboratory for 60 days and in the wild for 6 months. Fish were collected upstream and downstream bi-monthly from a river receiving composite mixtures of industrial effluent while laboratory-rearedC. gariepinus were exposed to the same effluent mixtures in 60 days static renewal/bioassay using concentrations of 6.11, 3.05 and 2.23%, respectively and control series. A total of 21 variables representing saggital otolith and somatic data from both wild and laboratory fish were subjected to factor analysis. For laboratory reared fish, PC 1 indexed as ‘otolith factor’, PC 2 indexed as ‘condition factor’ and PC 3 indexed as ‘paired fin factor’ accounted for 26.15, 19.01 and 12.55% of the total variance, respectively. For wild fish, otolith factor (PC 1 and condition factor (PC 2 accounted for 38.24 and 22.69% of the variance respectively. The first 3 components and the first 2 components for laboratory and wild fish accounted for more than 50% of total variance in data. Reliability index (Cronbach’s alpha (&alpha>0.70 showed that the ‘otolith factor’ had strong internal consistency and is reliable as a primary and viable index of stress for both laboratory and wild fish. The complementary role of condition factor in stress detection was also highlighted. The emergence of paired features (otolith, pectoral and pelvic fins as sensitive parameters in toxicity responses may be an indication of the onset of asymmetry in these structures.

  8. The regulation of gonadotropin release by neurohormones and gonadal steroids in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R. de; Goos, H.J.Th.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropic hormone (GTH) from the pituitary of teleosts is considered to be regulated by neuropeptides and neuroamines of cerebral origin and steroid hormones from the gonads. This paper reviews our studies concerning the control of GTH release in the African catfish, Clarias gari

  9. Acute phenanthrene toxicity to juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Romano, Nicholas; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Simpson, Stuart L; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-05-01

    Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures. PMID:26845363

  10. Some novel features of glutathione transferase from juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus exposed to lindane-contaminated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetunde Adedolapo Ojopagogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Catfish are hardy in nature and it is not known whether the presence of efficient detoxication enzymes is partly responsible for this trait. To investigate this, we have assessed induction of glutathione transferase (GST in 10-week-old juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus exposed to graded concentrations of lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, and characterised the purified enzyme from groups having the highest and statistically significant induction. Some of the unique properties observed for the purified enzyme are a high Km (1.72±0.21 mM for the electrophilic model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB and a very low catalytic rate (Vmax=0.130±0.010 units/mg protein. The kcat/Km being 55.4±0.2 M−1 s−1. The enzyme is present in high concentration in the organism, the main isoform accounts for about 5.6% of the total soluble protein, probably to compensate for the observed kinetic imperfection. Since these properties are generally not known for a detoxication enzyme, we suggest that they may form part of the organism׳s own adaptation to its polluted environment.

  11. Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Farombi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (P<0.05 in the liver but decreased in the kidneys, gills and heart when fishes were exposed to the three concentrations of butachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  12. Effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on histopathology of gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hmoud Fares Alkahem Al-Balawi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on the histopathology of the gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus. Results showed that lead accumulation in the tissues of C. gariepinus was dependent on the exposure period and lead concentration. Gills and liver were the predominant storage tissue and the order of accumulation in tissues was gill > liver > kidney > muscle. Some structural changes were observed in different organs, especially in the gills of the fishes exposed to lead acetate. Epithelial hypertrophy and epithelial lifting were apparent in the gills of exposed fishes. The degeneration of cytoplasm and secondary lamellae was also observed. Necrosis of hepatocytes was apparent. Glomerular expansion and gaps between the muscular bundles were found in the fishes exposed to lead acetate.

  13. Concentration of electrolyte reserves of the juvenile african catfish clarias gariepinus (burchell, 1822) exposed to sublethal concentrations of portland cement powder in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (39.10, 19.55, 9.87 and 0.00 mg/l) of Portland cement powder in solution on the electrolyte reserves (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and inorganic phosphorus) in the serum, liver and kidney of the juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus after a 15 day exposure period. The basic function of the determined electrolyte reserves in the body lies in controlling fluid distribution, intra and extra cellular acidobasic equilibrium, maintaining osmotic pressure of body fluid and normal neuro-muscular irritability. The result revealed significant (P0.05) changes in inorganic phosphorus. Sodium, calcium, chloride and inorganic phosphorus and potassium were significantly (P0.05) different in liver and kidney, respectively. Ipso-facto, the effector organs viz: liver and kidney of teleost species - Clarias gariepinus which are primarily responsible for regulating water and ionic movement between external and internal milieu of fishes are susceptible to deleterious effects of Portland cement powder thus sublethal concentration (39.10 mg/l) of Portland cement powder in solution after a 15 day exposure has been most toxic and debilitating to the test fish. (author)

  14. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of fushi tarazu factor 1 in the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

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    Parikipandla Sridevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1 encodes an orphan nuclear receptor belonging to the nuclear receptor family 5A (NR5A which includes adrenal 4-binding protein or steroidogenic factor-1 (Ad4BP/SF-1 and liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1 and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of aromatases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Present study was aimed to understand the importance of FTZ-F1 in relation to brain aromatase (cyp19a1b during development, recrudescence and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG induction. Initially, we cloned FTZ-F1 from the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus through degenerate primer RT-PCR and RACE. Its sequence analysis revealed high homology with other NR5A1 group members Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1, and also analogous to the spatial expression pattern of the latter. In order to draw functional correlation of cyp19a1b and FTZ-F1, we analyzed the expression pattern of the latter in brain during gonadal ontogeny, which revealed early expression during gonadal differentiation. The tissue distribution both at transcript and protein levels revealed its prominent expression in brain along with liver, kidney and testis. The expression pattern of brain FTZ-F1 during reproductive cycle and after hCG induction, in vivo was analogous to that of cyp19a1b shown in our earlier study indicating its involvement in recrudescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our previous results on cyp19a1b and the present data, it is plausible to implicate potential roles for brain FTZ-F1 in ovarian differentiation and recrudescence process probably through regulation of cyp19a1b in teleosts. Nevertheless, these interactions would require primary coordinated response from ovarian aromatase and its related transcription factors.

  15. Assessment of some heavy metals in the tissues (gills, liver and muscle) of Clarias gariepinus from Calabar River, Cross River State, South-eastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akaninyene Paul Joseph; Victor Oscar Eyo; Andem BasseyAndem; Joseph Udo Idung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pollution status of Calabar River in relation to the levels of heavy metal in the tissue of the African catfish [Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus)]. Methods: A total of 45 samples of C. gariepinus were purchased from fishermen on landing at Nsidung beach along Calabar River within three months (15 samples monthly) from June to August, 2014. The samples were then put into a cold box containing ice blocks immediately after buying from the fishermen. The fish samples were transported immediately to the Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar for digestion and heavy metal analysis. Portions of the muscle, gills and liver were removed from the fresh samples and oven dried at temperature of 120 °C to constant weight and digested using standard methods. The digested tissue portions were analyzed for lead, iron, manganese, cobalt, chromium and cadmium concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Mercury was not detected at all in the muscle, liver and gills of C. gariepinus. The mean ± SD of metals in liver of C. gariepinus were: (0.080 ± 0.014), (0.110 ± 0.014), (6.480 ± 1.279) and (0.295 ± 0.021) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the gills, heavy metals values were: (0.065 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.035), (5.843 ± 0.558), and (0.345 ± 0.007) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the muscles, heavy metals values were (0.045 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.353), (5.150 ± 1.075), and (0.187 ± 0.045) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. The general trend of metals accumulation in tissues of C. gariepinus showed a decreasing trend of Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd. Also, the metal accumulation in the three tissues showed a decreasing trend of liver > gills > muscle. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in the muscle, gills and liver of C. gariepinus were all below the World Health Organization acceptable range, and as such fishery resources from Calabar River are safe for consumption.

  16. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat [Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)]. E-mail: krsuneer@kmitl.ac.th; Wongrat, Ladda [Faculty of Fishery, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2006-06-10

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l{sup -1}, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l{sup -1} Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 {mu}g l{sup -1}, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 {mu}g l{sup -1}). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 194 {+-} 1.80 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 {+-} 20.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 {+-} 2.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 {+-} 3.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 {+-} 0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and

  17. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l-1, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l-1 Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 μg l-1, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 μg l-1). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 194 ± 1.80 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 ± 20.06 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 ± 2.23 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 ± 3.23 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 ± 0.02 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 ± 0.06 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and experimental group 2 (10.00 g). The results showed that the measurement of Cd concentration in water does not necessarily give

  18. Effects of storage conditions on quality characteristics of commercial aquafeeds and growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Shola Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of storage conditions on the quality of feed and the aftermath effect of feeding fish with such feeds. Three commercial diets used for this study included Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vital feed®. Feed was stored either by opening the bag to the atmosphere (WO, the bag opened with neck tied using a rubber ring to prevent exposure to the atmosphere (OT or sealed (SC until the start of the feeding trials. The feed was stored under these conditions for six months. Nutrient analyses revealed significant changes in feeds held under the WO condition when compared with other storage conditions. Nutritive changes also varied with commercial feed type. Mould infestation of the feed was noticeable more in the WO condition of storage compared to the SC condition. After feeding C. gariepinus for fifty-six days, lesions were observed on fish fed mouldy feed held under the WO condition, which led to mass mortalities. Growth performance was higher in all fish fed SC stored feed, and for those fed Coppens® and Multifeed® under OT storage conditions. It is advised that storage of fish feeds up to six months should be undertaken with considerable care and attention.

  19. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  20. Effect of photoperiod on some biological parameters of Clarias gariepinus juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon S. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod effect on Growth parameters and cannibalism of Clarias gariepinushave been well documented in resent past, but little is known about the response of other biological parameters such as, Condition factor, Shooters composition, Body colouration and Blood glucose of this important tropical fish species to different photoperiods, therefore the present study was designed to evaluate these responses of the African catfish to 24 hours of light (00D:24L, 24 hours of darkness (24D: 00L and 12 hour light / 12 hours darkness (12D: 12L. The six weeks experiment observed significant differences (P0.05 at the end of the experiment and were Significantly lower than value obtained at the start of the experiment, Shooters composition was highest in 00D:24L (41.5% i.e. 27 of 65 leading to high mortality (13.33% due to cannibalism compared to 12D: 12L (Shooters =15.27% i.e. 11 of 72, Mortality= 4% and 24D: 00L (Shooters=5.33% i.e. 4 of 75, Mortality= 0% photoperiod. More so, 93.33% (70 of 75 of fish in the dark phase (24D: 00Lexhibited Deep shiny black body colouration, while 6.67% (5 of 75 was observed of Normal fish colouration. However the fishes in the 00D: 24L photoperiod were observed to be predominantly Lighter skin colouration, (80% i.e. 52 of 65= lighter colouration, 18.46% i.e. 12 of 65= Normal skin coloration and 1.53 i.e. 1 of 65= Deep black body colouration while 12D: 12L were of Normal skin colouration (100% Normal skin colouration, also blood glucose was observed to increase as the light hours increased (P<0.05 with 24D: 00L photoperiod having the highest blood glucose level of 5.7+0.5, while those in 12D: 12L had 4.4+0.3 and 24D: 00L had the least value of 3.9+0.1. This study therefore establishes the fact that photoperiod may have no effect on the condition factor of African catfish, while higher shooters composition is highlighted as one of the causes of increased mortality and could be reduced to a large extent with reduced light

  1. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus: differences between day and night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, R; Boerrigter, J G J; Cloosterman, M; Gorissen, M; Flik, G; van den Bos, R; van de Vis, H

    2016-06-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1 lx) or 12L:12D (350-0 lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a stressor (given in the light or dark phase). Results showed that (1) baseline plasma cortisol levels were not different between photoperiods, (2) the number of baseline skin lesions was highest for C. gariepinus housed under continuous dim light, (3) stressor-induced peak levels of plasma cortisol were highest in the light phase and (4) the number of skin lesions following a stressor was highest in the dark phase. The higher number of stressor-related skin lesions in the dark (active) phase suggests increased stressor-induced aggression while in the active phase. In addition, the data suggest that housing under continuous dim light does not result in higher stress-axis activity, as measured by baseline levels of cortisol, but does result in more stressor-induced aggression, as measured by the higher number of skin lesions. The latter may be related to the fact that the continuous dim light photoperiod has twice the number of dark-phase (active) hours in which stressor-induced aggression is stronger compared to the 12L:12D photoperiod, which has a light phase in which stressor-induced aggression is lower. PMID:27125325

  2. Steatitis in wild sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Olifants and lower Letaba Rivers in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Govender, D; Pienaar, D J; Deacon, A R

    2011-07-01

    Large numbers of adult Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti), died from pansteatitis during autumn and winter 2008 in the lower Letaba and Olifants River gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Consequently, the health status of fish from these waters was investigated. The study presents the pathological findings in fish inhabiting these rivers within the boundaries of the Park. Changes typical of steatitis were diagnosed in many of the larger specimens of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), caught within the Olifants River gorge. These fish carried large amounts of mesenteric fat with characteristic small brown granulomata within the adipose tissue. Necrosis and inflammation of the adipose tissues, with characteristic ceroid accumulation within the resultant granulomata and the associated aggregation of ceroid-containing macrophages, were demonstrated histologically and were typical of steatitis. Other changes included mild thickening and pallor of the gill tissues and swollen, orange, fatty livers. Focal hepatic lipidosis was demonstrated histologically, and special stains revealed storage of large amounts of iron in the livers. Blood smears revealed chromatin clumping in erythrocyte nuclei and nuclear and cell membrane irregularities. This is the first record of steatitis in wild-caught C. gariepinus.

  3. Effects of glucocorticoids on plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and testicular activity in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of annual breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchiang, P; Varkey, S; Gupta, B B P

    2012-06-01

    Effects of short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol on plasma levels of thyroid hormones, gonado-somatic index and testicular histology have been reported in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of its breeding cycle. Corticosterone administration had no significant effect on plasma levels of T4, T3 and T3/T4 ratio, irrespective of doses and phases of breeding cycle. However, 5 microg dose of cortisol significantly increased plasma levels of T3 and the T3/T4 ratio during quiescent and regressive phases, while it significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 during progressive phase. During breeding phase, 2 microg and 5 microg doses of cortisol significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 and T3, respectively, while 5 microg dose of cortisol alone reduced T3/T4 ratio. Irrespective of phases of annual breeding cycle and doses, short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol had no significant effect either on GSI or testicular histology. These findings suggest that corticosterone is ineffective in stimulating plasma levels of thyroid hormones, while cortisol, depending on dose and phase/season, may differentially increase, decrease or have no effect on plasma levels of thyroid hormones in C. gariepinus.

  4. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

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    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  5. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the histopathological impact of Macrogyrodactylus clarii (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on the gills of catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mohammed Mohammed; Cable, Joanne; Zaky Arafa, Safaa; El-Abbassy, Samir Ahmed; Kearn, Graham C

    2016-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the histopathological effects of the monogenean Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev, 1961 on the gills of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Suction generated during attachment created 'footprints' on host surfaces in which the host tissues were elevated above the general gill surface. 'Footprints' were bordered by four clefts caused by the muscular flaps on the anterior, lateral and posterior margins of the haptor. The hamuli points penetrate the gill tissue but no evidence was found for the insertion of the marginal hooklets. At the site of attachment, host cells adjacent to the lateral flaps often appeared compressed and widely spaced with large intercellular spaces. Desquamation of these surface epithelia was also apparent and some of the widely spaced epithelial cells had pseudopodium-like processes. Cells within the upper surface epithelial layer of the host were vacuolated and necrotic. Ruptured blood capillaries (blood spaces) in the secondary gill lamellae contained atypical compressed erythrocytes, agranular and granular leucocytes and evidence of haemorrhaging. Cells with fibrotic cytoplasm, putative phagocytes and host mucous cells were evidence of a host response at the site of parasite attachment. The possible role of these cells is discussed in relation to host resistance against infection. PMID:27311695

  6. Effect of some pulverised plant materials on the developmental stages of fish beetle, Dermestes maculatus Degeer in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasakin, E A; Aberejo, B A

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of pulverised plant materials; Tithonium diversifolia, Afromomum melegueta, Nicotiana tabacum, Monodora myristica and Piper guineense as ovicidal, larvicidal and adult deterents of fish beetle (Dermestes maculatus) in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage were evaluated. Leaves of T. diversifolia, N. tabacum and seeds of A. melegueta, M. myristica and P. guineese were dried and pulverised into powder. Adults and larvae of third generation (F3) of D. maculatus were introduced into Kilner jars containing disinfested fish samples. Pulverised plant materials were applied to the surface of the fish samples at 10% (w/w) and monitored for 40 days, while egg hatchability of the insects was monitored for seven days. The result showed that all the plant materials had varying degree of insecticidal activities. Pulverised powder of P. guineense and A. melegueta were the most effective and significantly (P 0.05) affected by the plant materials. The percentage weight loss in fish treated with P. guineense and A. melegueta were minimal compared with the untreated fish sample. The result of this study showed that pulverised plant materials obtained from P. guineense and A. melegueta could be used to deter egg hatchability and adult emergence of D. maculatus in smoked catfish during storage. This could also reduce percentage losses due to insect infestation on smoked fish during storage. PMID:12227542

  7. Bioaccumulation Pattern of Cadmium and Lead in the Head Capsule and Body Muscle of Clarias gariepinus [Burchell, 1822] Exposed to Paint Emulsion Effluent

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    S.O. Dahunsi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Sub-lethal concentrations of effluents from a paint emulsion industry were investigated on African catfish Clarias gariepinus in order to determine the bioaccumulation pattern of two heavy metals i.e., Lead and Cadmium in the Head capsule and Body muscle using a renewable static bioassay. The trend of bioconcentration of metals in the head capsule and muscle of the test organisms differs significantly (phead capsule. In the muscle, the highest bioaccumulation of lead was 0.4680 mg/L while the least was 0.0660 mg/L. Cadmium bioaccumulation in the head had the highest value to be 2.0424 mg/L while the lowest value was 0.0101 mg/L. In the head capsule on the other hand, the highest accumulation of lead was found to be 0.3918 mg/L while its lowest value was 0.1677 mg/L. The highest value for cadmium in the head capsule was 2.0249 mg/L while its lowest was 0.0058 mg/L. It was revealed in the study that fish can bioaccumulate heavy metals from a polluted environment, which often result in reduction or impairment of natural population size and could be a veritable source of these metals to man. Therefore corrective measures should be taken to avoid pollution of this sort in the environment.

  8. Sewage impact on metal accumulation in sediments and fish (Clarias gariepinus from the University of Cape Coast community and its environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfo D.K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to measure the concentration levels of the heavy metals As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Hg upon samples of mudfish(Clarias gariepinus and sediments in wastewater discharge from the University of Cape Coast community and environs. This measurement was done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The average concentration of elements (in mg/kg in the fish samples, in decreasing order of magnitude were: Fe (130.63 > Cu (3.77 > Cr(0.16 > Co(0.04 and Fe(209.67 > Cu(2.74 > Cr(0.57 > Co(0.09 from piont A and point B respectively. Arsenic and Hg concentrations were below detection limits of INAA in samples from both point A and point B. The chronic daily intake (CDI obtained for each of the metals in the fish sample shows that the population is not prone to adverse health effects (i.e CDI>>1 due to the concentrations of the metals. From the sediments, Fe recorded the highest concentration of 9808 mg/kg whilst Hg was below the detection limits of INAA. The metals As, Cu, Cr and Co recorded concentrations in mg/kg of 2.04, 4.82, 0.21 and 3.73 respectively in the sediments.

  9. Protective potency of clove oil and its transcriptional down-regulation of Aeromonas sobria virulence genes in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hamid, M I; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Ali, H A

    2016-01-01

    Disease episodes of fish caused by Aeromonas species are moved to the top list of limiting problems worldwide. The present study was planned to verify the in vitro antibacterial activities as well as the in vivo potential values of clove oil and ciprofloxacin against Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The in vitro phenotypic virulence activities and the successful amplification of aerolysin and hemolysin genes in the precisely identified A. sobria strain were predictive for its virulence. In the in vivo assay, virulence of A. sobria strain was fully demonstrated based on constituent mRNA expression profile of tested virulence genes and typical septicemia associated with high mortalities of infected fish. Apparent lower mortality rates were correlated well with both decrescent bacterial burden and significant down-regulated transcripts of representative genes in the treated groups with clove oil, followed by ciprofloxacin as a prophylactic use for 15 days (P oil apart from ciprofloxacin significantly enhanced different hematological parameters (P plants-derived essential oils provide a virtually safer alternative to chemotherapeutics on fish, consumers and ecosystems. PMID:27609474

  10. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  11. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  12. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  13. Shesher and Welala Floodplain Wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia: Are They Important Breeding Habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the Migratory Labeobarbus Fish Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Anteneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010. Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands were temporally segregated.

  14. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larvae of this species. In a second experiment, the gut contents of the fish larvae fed were calculated as they changed during development. In a third experiment, the gut evacuation rate of fish larvae ...

  15. FORMULASI BISKUIT DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus DAN ISOLAT PROTEIN KEDELAI (Glycine max SEBAGAI MAKANAN POTENSIAL UNTUK ANAK BALITA GIZI KURANG [Biscuit Formulation with Catfish Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus Flour and Soy (Glycine max Protein Isolates as a Potential Food for Undernourished Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a protein source important for enhancing nutritional status because it is categorized as high quality food. Fish flour is one of the fish product that has not been optimally utilized as food. The objective of this research was to produce biscuit formulated with Dumbo catfish (Clarias gariepinus flour and soy protein isolate, as a high protein food for undernourished under-five years old children. The purpose of soy protein isolate substitution was also to produce better biscuit texture. Fish flour was made separately from body and head part, and then was analyzed for its physical and chemical properties. Biscuits were formulated by substitution of fish flour and soy protein isolate with trial and error method. A selected formula was determined based on semi trained panelists preference. Acceptance of the biscuit made with the selected formula was examined by children and children’s mothers using hedonic test. The contribution of protein contained in biscuit on daily allowance was calculated for under-five year old children. Biscuits made by substitution of 3.5% of body fish flour, 1.5% of head fish flour, and 10% of soy protein isolate was the preferred formula. The chemical properties for biscuit of the accepted formula (F4 were as follows: 3.96% (wb of water content, 2.52% (db of ash content, 19.55% (db of protein content, 21.99% (db of fat content and 55.94% (db of carbohydrate content (by different. The biscuit contains 480 Kcals energy per 100 grams. The protein digestibility of the biscuit measured by enzymatic method was 89.34%. The formula fulfills 20% of children’s protein needed per day from four pieces of biscuit or equals to 50 grams of biscuit.

  16. Scanning electron microscope observations on the monogenean parasite Paraquadriacanthus nasalis from the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt with a note on some surface features of its microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Safaa Zaky

    2012-05-01

    Surface features of the monogenean Paraquadriacanthus nasalis Ergens, 1988 (quoted by Kritsky, 1990) inhabiting the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus were studied for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The anterior adhesive areas possess two slit-like openings. Many small openings were detected on the tegument covering the anterior-most region of the head. Some considerably large openings were also found in the median region between the two slit-like openings of the adhesive sacs. A transverse slit-like mouth opening with two lip-like structures was detected on the ventral surface of the body. Three types of presumed sensory structures were found associated with the tegument of the anterior adhesive area and anterior region of the body. These are surface ciliary sensilla, dome-shaped structures, and many spherical structures. The possible functions of these presumed sensory structures were discussed. The tegument covering the anterior adhesive area lacks microvilli, while the tegument covering the haptor is associated with microvilli. The haptoral sclerites were found in two different positions. Some surface features of the nasal cavities of C. gariepinus (microhabitat of P. nasalis) were also studied using scanning electron microscopy. Many lamellae-like and spine-like structures were recognized. The epithelium lining in some regions of the nasal cavities has small and large openings and covered with mucus. The possible roles of some haptoral sclerites in the attachment of the parasite to the host tissues were discussed. PMID:22015385

  17. Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D

    2013-11-01

    Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed.

  18. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  19. Post-prandial protease activity in the digestive tract of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.; Segner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The alkaline proteolytic activity in the gut of African catfish larvae was studied during short time ranges from 30 min to 4 h after ingestion of decapsulated Artemia cysts. The variation in total protease and trypsin activities during the day was monitored during starvation, after one single meal i

  20. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet. PMID:26886132

  1. In vitro effects of steroid hormones on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal of fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanthan, L; Gupta, B B P

    2007-08-01

    In vitro effects of gonadal hormones (testosterone, 17beta-estradiol estriol and estrone) and corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) were studied on arylalklyamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during quiescent, progressive, breeding and regressive phases of its annual breeding cycle. The pineals were collected under dim red light, maintained in organ culture for 7 hr and incubated with three concentrations (10(-6), 10(-5) and 10(-4) M) of hormones for 6 hr. The treatments with gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones inhibited pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases of the breeding cycle. AA-NAT activity was comparatively more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the gonadal hormones during the regressive phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. Further, the enzyme activity was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) during the breeding phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. These findings seem to suggest that gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones have direct inhibitory influence on AA-NAT activity and, hence melatonin synthesis in the photoreceptive pineal organ of C. gariepinus.

  2. Rearing of catfish (Clarias batrachus Lin.) larvae with live and prepared feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin, A.; Mollah, M.F.A; Haylor, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    Provision or live feed (Tubificid worms) attributed significantly better weight gain in the five days old Clarias batrachus larvae when reared for another 28 days compared to those fed mixed feed (live and artificial) and artificial feed only. Larvae fed mixed feed showed significantly better weight gain compared to those fed only artificial feed and the survival rate was similar to those fed only live feed. Both the weight gain and survival rate were the lowest for the larvae reared only on ...

  3. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  4. Monoclonal antibody to serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus and its application in immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Singh, Akhilesh; Rathore, Gaurav

    2012-12-15

    Serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus (Cb-Ig) were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. Under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, Cb-Ig was composed of a heavy (H) chain (68.7 kDa) and two light (L) chains (27.4 and 26.3 kDa). Purified Cb-Ig was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated E4 MAb that belonged to IgG1 subclass. In Western blotting, this MAb showed binding to H chain of purified Cb-Ig and putative H chains in reduced sera of C. batrachus, Clarias gariepinus and Heteropneustes fossilis. However, no binding was observed with serum protein of Labeo rohita and Channa striata. Cross-reactivity of anti-Cb-Ig MAb was observed with serum of C. batrachus, C. gariepinus and H. fossilis in competitive ELISA. In immunoblotting of non-reduced Cb-Ig with E4 MAb, four bands assumed to be tetrameric, trimeric, dimeric and monomeric form were observed. In flow cytometric analysis of the gated lymphocytes, the number of surface Ig-positive (Ig+) cells in blood, spleen, kidney and thymus of C. batrachus was determined to be 50.1 ± 3.1, 55.1 ± 3.36, 42.4 ± 4.81 and 5.1 ± 0.89%, respectively, using E4 MAb. Ig+ cells were also demonstrated in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of spleen, kidney, thymus and smears of blood mononuclear cells in indirect immunoperoxidase test. The developed MAb was employed to detect pathogen-specific immunoglobulins in the sera of C. batrachus immunized with killed Edwardsiella tarda, by an indirect ELISA. This monoclonal antibody can be useful tool in immunological research and assays. PMID:23000018

  5. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  6. SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG KEPALA IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias Gariepinus sp UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KANDUNGAN KALSIUM CRACKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herviana Ferazuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The using of fish by-products has not been optimally developed in food processing. The objective of this research was to study the using of catfish's head flour as a part of material in formulating crackers to increase its calsium content. The method for making this flour was based on thermal process using drum dryer. The physical and chemical properties were analysed. Crackers was formulated by using catfish's head flour with trial and error method. The formulations were then F0 (0:100, F1 (7,5:92,5, F2 (12,5:87,5, F3 (17,5:82,5, and F4 (22,5:77,5. F1 and F2 crackers were chosen formulations based on organoleptic test. The result of chemical analysis were respectively: moisture 2,4-3,3% (wb, ash 3,7-4,97% (wb, protein 9,9-11,4% (wb, lipid 19,2-20,5% (wb, carbohydrate 63,9-69,6% (wb, and energy 480-484 kkal (wb. F1 crackers contained 0,3634% of calcium (wb while F2 crackers contained 0,3147% of calcium (wb. The phospor's content in F1 and F2 crackers were respectively: 0,2362% (wb and 0,3147% (wb. The contribution of calcium content in crackers were calculated based on RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance for children, adolescents, and adults. F1 crackers fulfilled calcium’s RDA respectively : 25,8% for children; 15,5% for adolescents, and 19,3% for  adults. F2 crackers fulfilled calcium’s RDA respectively: 39,9% for children; 23,9% for adolescents, and 29,9% for adults. The amount of crackers that should be consumed was at least as much 44 gram/day. Key words: catfish's head flour, crackers, calcium content

  7. Pharmacokinetics of streptomycin sulfate in Staphylococcus aureus-infected Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Oladele

    2014-01-01

    Possible systemic therapeutic value is suggested, depending on increased distribution of streptomycin and levels of streptomycin in kidneys of diseased fish at corresponding times being higher than in sera.

  8. Individual variation in growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus: a search for explanatory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.

    2005-01-01

    Among farmed animals, fish exhibit the largest individual variation in growth, yet most of the studies reporting data on growth do not take individual variation into account. Usually a mean value is considered and although the variation around the mean is also mentioned, it is generally viewed as a

  9. Dietary L-carnitine and energy and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.

    2001-01-01

    As the lipid content of the diet increases so does the requirement for certain components involved in lipid metabolism. Carnitine is a normal constituent of animal tissues and plasma, which is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to the site of oxidation. To avoid accumulation of lipids, supplementation of dietary carnitine may be used to stimulate fatty acid oxidation and to regulate lipolysis. Previous studies have demonstrated that responses to carnitine administrat...

  10. Deteksi Penyebaran Bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophilla Pada Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus) Di Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan

    OpenAIRE

    hidayat, rahmad

    2015-01-01

    Catfish has several advantages, some of them are the rapid growth, the ability to adapt in high environmental, and the nutritional content is high. Nowdays, most of the African catfish aquaculture activities conducted using intensive farming systems. One of significant factor for the success of catfish farming is pests and diseases that exist in catfish farming. Disease problems are usually a major obstacle because it can harm the cultivation such as total mortality, a decrease in production ...

  11. Preliminary study on the natural extenders for artificial breeding of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nor Siti-Azizah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the most suitable extender and theirrespective dilution ratios for African catfish sperm for artificial induced breeding and cryopreservationpurposes. Three natural extenders were tested i.e. coconut water, sugarcane water and soybeansolutions, at three different levels of sperm to extender dilutions of 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. While Ringersolution was used as a control Diluted sperm were fertilized with ready isolated eggs to assess thefertility and hatching rate at 0, 6 and 12 hour intervals. The results showed that the eggs hatchedapproximately 19 to 27 hours after fertilization. In general, the fertilization and hatching rates decreasedwith increasing dilution ratio. With respect to natural extenders, the coconut water showed the highestfertility and hatching rates at 1:20 dilution ratio. Therefore, coconut water at 1:20 dilution ratio was theoptimal condition for African catfish spermatozoa among the natural extenders investigated.

  12. Morpho-histochemistry of the distal intestines and rectum of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpegbu Ekele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the farmed African catfish distal intestines and rectum was investigated. The samples were dissected out and the tissue slices were passed through graded ethanol, cleared in xylene, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned and stained for light microscopy. Grossly, the intestine was subdivided into proximal, middle, distal and rectal regions based on palpable thickness and diameter of the regions. No intestino-rectal valve was observed; hence the rectum was not well defined. The histology revealed the presence of tunica mucosa of simple columnar cells, lamina propria of collagen fibres and muscularis mucosae of smooth muscle fibres; submucosa of loose connective tissues and blood vessels; tunica muscularis of smooth muscles in an inner circular and outer longitudinal arrangement; and a serosa in all regions except the rectum and anus that presented tunica adventitia. The mucosal folds were fingerlike to orange leaf shaped ingrowths into the lumen on a transverse section. They decreased in complexity and height but increased in width towards the rectum. The lining epithelium of the intestinal tract was comprised of the absorptive simple columnar cells containing goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Some rectal simple columnar epithelium contained supranuclear vacuoles while others contained non-vacuolated cytoplasm. The goblet cells contained neutral and acid mucins, and increased in number progressively towards the rectum. The anal tunica muscularis contained mostly skeletal muscles.

  13. Dietary L-carnitine and energy and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.

    2001-01-01

    As the lipid content of the diet increases so does the requirement for certain components involved in lipid metabolism. Carnitine is a normal constituent of animal tissues and plasma, which is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to the site of oxidation. To avoid accu

  14. Inherent variation in growth efficiency of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the major causes of growth variation is crucial for the success of fish farming since its reduction contributes to maximize production efficiency, reduce food waste and improve water quality. The growth variation observed in aquaculture has been associated with the establishment of soc

  15. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  16. Pertumbuhan dan konsumsi pakan ikan lele (Clarias sp.) yang diberi pakan berbahan baku lokal

    OpenAIRE

    Zaenal Abidin; Muhammad Junaidi; Paryono .; Nunik Cokrowati; Salnida Yuniarti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Fish meal, corn, and rice bran are feed ingredient which easily obtained. Different of quality and amount of each ingredients in fish feed result a various respons on fish.  The aim of this study were to determine respon of growth and feed consumption of walking cat fish (Clarias sp.) which fed feed made of fish meal, rice bran, and corn. The experimental diets containing fish meal, corn meal, and rice bran meal, respectively A. 70;10:19,5.; B. 60;25;14,5 C=60,19,75:19,75; D=60:9,5:...

  17. Effects of phytase on enhancement of phosphorus utilization from plant materials in bybrid catfish [Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther x Clarias gariepinus (Burchell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong,W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid catfish of initial weight 5.57-5.72g were studied in 235-1 glass tanks filled with 1801 water and closed-recirculation system with 0.8 l/m flow rate was attached. Complete randomized design was employed in which there were three replications (20 fingerlings each in each of nine treatments. The experimental period was 10 weeks. Formula 1 feed was the control in which fishmeal and soybean meal were used as protein source and was nutritionally suitable for catfish. In formulae 2-6 Feeds, only plant materials were used as feed components and sprayed phytase was aplied at 0,250,500,750 and 1,000 unit/kg feed. For formula 7-9 feeds, phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (DCP at 0.1,0.2 and 0.3% was supplemented. The results showed that the supplementation of 500 unit/kg feed as well as of 0.2% phosphorus were the most effective in improving the weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency (FCR, PER and ANPU. The supplementation of phytase as well as of DCP elevated the bone as well as in the whole body while the blood parameters were not markedly affected.

  18. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-06-01

    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (p<0.05) accompanied by irregular disturbance of (Na(+), K(+)) ions in the presence of 4-nonylphenol. On the other hand, these enzymes, ions, and apoptotic cells decreased normally and significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of latex. Total phenol content, total capacity antioxidant, reducing power decrease significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of 4-nonylphenol and increase normally in the presence of latex. Latex was used for the first time to protect catfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol. PMID:26946283

  19. Live food mediated vitamin C transfer to Dicentrarchus labraxand Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Dhert, Ph.; Pector, R.; Mai Soni, A.F.; Nelis, H.; Ollevier, F.P.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    Live food enrichment techniques, using formulated diets and emulsions for improving the nutritional quality of Brachionus and Artemia , were studied as a tool for transferring ascorbic acid (AA) to fish larvae. Artemia nauplii enriched for 24h with an experimental emulsion containing 20% HUFA and 0%, 10% and 20% ascorbyl palmitate (AP) were administered to catfish larvae in a 20-day feeding trial. Survival was not affected by the dietary AA, but from day 7 onwards a significantly positive eff...

  20. Histological observations on the dendretic organ of the farmed adult African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus from eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpegbu Ekele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology of the accessory respiratory organ of the African catfish - dendretic organ was investigated to reveal its microanatomy. The data obtained will provide baseline data for further investigative research and assist fish pathologists. The histology showed that the tubular shaped dendretic organ was covered by stratified squamous epithelium containing periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB positive mucous cells. On most surfaces, the epithelial cells were organized into columns with mucous cells placed in-between the epithelial cell columns. At the tip of the surface, capillaries were lined by endothelium at the surface epithelium/air contact area. The subepithelial layer was of loose connective tissue containing adipose tissue and occasional blood vessels. The core of the dendretic organ contained elastic cartilage surrounded by a dense layer of perichondrium. Elastic fibres were observed the territorial and inter-territorial spaces.

  1. The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Sheng Wu, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each trea

  2. Retention of health beneficial components during hot- and cold-smoking of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Elvevoll, E.O.; Bandarra, N.M.; Cordiero, A.R.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in content of selenium and taurine, and the alteration of fatty acid profile have been studied in African catfish fillets subjected to a commercial cold- or hot smoking process. Selenium content and the fatty acid profile did not change significantly during neither of the smoking procedures.

  3. Treatment of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus wastewater utilizing phytoremediation of microalgae, Chlorella sp. with Aspergillus niger bio-harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nurfarahana Mohd; Bakar, Nur Syuhada Abu; Lananan, Fathurrahman; Abdul Hamid, Siti Hajar; Lam, Su Shiung; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of the performance of Chlorella sp. in removing nutrient in aquaculture wastewater and its correlation with the kinetic growth of Chlorella sp. The treatment was applied with various Chlorella sp. inoculation dosage ranging from 0% to 60% (v/v) of wastewater. The optimum inoculation dosage was recorded at 30% (v/v) with effluent concentration of ammonia and orthophosphate recording at 0.012mgL(-1) and 0.647mgL(-1), respectively on Day 11. The optimum dosage for bio-flocculation process was obtained at 30mgL(-1) of Aspergillus niger with a harvesting efficiency of 97%. This type of development of phytoremediation with continuous bio-harvesting could promote the use of sustainable green technology for effective wastewater treatment.

  4. Seasonal changes in steroid metabolism in the male reproductive organ-system of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, J.W.; Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Steroid and steroid glucuronide synthesis in feral male African catfish was investigated in vitro by incubating testes with [3H]-pregnenolone and seminal vesicles with [3H]-androstenedione. In testes, the capacity to form progestins, androgens, especially 11-oxygenated ones, and steroid glucuronides

  5. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and 5β-pre

  6. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER ACTING SINGLY OR IN JOINT-RATIOS ON CLARIAS GARIEPINUS

    OpenAIRE

    Aina Olubukola Adeogun; Azubuike Victor Chukwuka

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems were the most vulnerable to pollution due to their easy accessibility for disposal of wastewaters leading to deterioration of water quality. Ona river, Ibadan, Nigeria is part of a dense network of inland watercourses emptying into the Lagos lagoon and receives industrial effluents from a food and beverage industry. The single and joint-action toxicity of effluents from these industries mixed in predetermined ratios of 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75% (v/v) (food:beverage); 100% ...

  7. A brief note on the relationship between residual feed intake and aggression behaviour in juveniles of African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Hillen, B.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in maintenance levels have been related with energetically expensive processes such as aggression. This relationship is not fully understood as on one hand individuals with higher maintenance requirements seem to be more aggressive but on the other hand have smaller metabolic

  8. Effects of density, PVC-tubes and feeding time on growth, stress and aggression in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de J.W.; Spanings, T.; Flik, G.

    2016-01-01

    Successive exposure to aquaculture-related stressors may compromise the allostatic capacity of African catfish and lead to allostatic overload and poor welfare. Therefore, we tested the effect of (i) feeding during the light or dark phase, (ii) density (51 fish per 140 L versus 51 fish per 43 L) and

  9. Comparative acute toxicity of local detergents (Omo and Ariel on fingerlings of the Clarias gariepinus♀ x Heterobranchus longifilis♂ hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Ndome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of local detergents - Omo detergent (Unilever Nigeria Plc. and Arieldetergent (Procter & Gamble Nigeria Limited - were compared using fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus ♀ xHeterobranchus longifilis ♂ hybrid (Heteroclarias, in a 96 hour bioassay. After a series of range findingtests, the fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0.00 ppm, 20 ppm, 30ppm, 40 ppm, 45 ppm and 50ppm of each detergent for 96 hours. The Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50 values for the detergentsranged between 33.03–35.19 ppm and 37.43–39.79 ppm for Omo and Ariel, respectively. Manifestationtimes decreased from 62–14 and 70–14 hours; overturning times decreased from 80–16 and 92–20hours, while survival times decreased from 96–17 and 96–23 hours for Omo and Ariel, respectively, withincreasing concentrations of the toxicants. Respiratory disturbances, loss of righting balance, lethargyand sudden fish death were observed in the exposed fishes. There was a strong concentration-mortalityrelationship for toxicants, yielding a strong positive correlation co-efficient, r2, of 0.9925 and 0.9882,respectively for Omo and Ariel detergents. The t-test analysis showed significant difference (p 0.05 recorded in other concentrations. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05in overturning and survival times of Omo and Ariel detergents in all the concentrations. The presentstudy shows that Omo detergent with a lesser mean LC50 value of 34.11 ± 1.08 could be more toxic thanAriel with a mean LC50 value of 36.66 ± 1.1. Although there was no statistically significant deferencebetween their LC50s (p > 0.05, it was concluded that effluents containing these detergents must not bedischarged indiscriminately into water bodies in order to avoid harm to fish and other aquatic life.

  10. Pertumbuhan dan konsumsi pakan ikan lele (Clarias sp. yang diberi pakan berbahan baku lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fish meal, corn, and rice bran are feed ingredient which easily obtained. Different of quality and amount of each ingredients in fish feed result a various respons on fish.  The aim of this study were to determine respon of growth and feed consumption of walking cat fish (Clarias sp. which fed feed made of fish meal, rice bran, and corn. The experimental diets containing fish meal, corn meal, and rice bran meal, respectively A. 70;10:19,5.; B. 60;25;14,5 C=60,19,75:19,75; D=60:9,5:30, and the other diets, E and F, were commersial diets. Daily growth rate, feed consumption, feed eficiency, and feed conversion ratio showed significant differences (p>0,05 among the treatments. In general, feed consumption rate, daily growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate were best obtained on commercial feed, while feed made from local ingredients showed lower performance than commercial feed. The low quality of feed local ingredients were caused by used low quality of local ingredients which caused the level minimum of fibre and ash were high in 17,9% and 23,5%, respectively. The utilization of Local fish meal 60-70%, corn meal 9,5-19,75%, and rice bran meal 14,5-30% in fish diet did not result better growth performance than commercial diet, however the best formulation for local ingredients of fish meal, corn meal, rice bran meal were 60%; 19,75%; 19,75% and 60%; 9,5%;30 % respectively Keywords : Corn meal; diets; feed consumption; fish meal; growth; rice bran; walking catfish (Clarias sp. Abstrak.  Tepung ikan, jagung dan dedak padi adalah merupakan bahan baku yang mudah diperoleh dan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan, meskipun demikian perbedaan kualitas setiap jenis bahan baku dan jumlah pengggunaan setiap bahan baku dalam pakan dapat menghasilkan respon yang berbeda terhadap ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan dan konsumsi pakan ikan lele (Clarias sp. yang diberikan pakan berbahan tepung

  11. Effects of lead nitrate on the activity of metabolic enzymes during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) are key metabolic enzymes. G6PDH has been used as a biomarker of pollution-induced carcinogenesis in fish. LDH has been used as marker of lesions in toxicology and clinical chemistry, and PK catalyses the

  12. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vancoillie, C.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal gro

  13. The effect of nearly closed RAS on the feed intake and growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, V.C.; Limbu, P.; Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges that Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) are still facing is the risk that in RAS fish grow less than in flow-through systems due to the accumulation of substances originating from feed, fish or bacteria associated with the water re-use. The present study investigated wheth

  14. Super-chilling (-0.7°C) with high-CO2 packaging inhibits biochemical changes of microbial origin in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) muscle during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingchun; Ma, Lizhen; Yang, Hua; Xiao, Yan; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-09-01

    Controlled freezing-point storage (CFPS) is an emerging preservative technique desirable for fish. In the present study, catfish fillets were stored at -0.7°C under different packaging atmospheres: air (AP), vacuum (VP), and 60% CO2/40% N2 (MAP). Chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were performed during storage. Results showed the following descending order of chemical changes (degradation of nucleotides, conversion of protein to volatile-based nitrogen and biogenic amines, and production of trimethylamine nitrogen), as well as loss of sensory properties: 4°C AP>-0.7°C AP≈4°C VP>-0.7°C VP≈4°C MAP>-0.7°C MAP. The chemical changes were well-correlated with microbial growth suggesting the microbiological pathways. Hence, CFPS at -0.7°C in combination with high-CO2 MAP can effectively maintain the quality of fresh catfish meat compared to traditional preservation methods. PMID:27041314

  15. Effect of steaming process on new formulation and physical properties of earthworm-based fish pellets for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam, Kulaab; Zakaria, Zarina; Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Ishak, Mohd Azlan Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Fish feed has been recognized as one of main part/unit in aquaculture industry. However, current fish feed faces few challenges in terms of health aspects and cost issues. Alternatively, new nutritional and economical/low cost formulation of fish pellets was designed by combination of earthworm powder and other economical ingredients such as fishmeal, soybean waste, rice bran and tapioca flour. The formulation was calculated using Pearson's square and optimized by One-Factor-At-Time (OFAT) method. The effect of steaming processing on the water stability, soaking experiment, protein leaching test and breaking force of the earthworm-based fish pellets was investigated. Results indicate steam pellet at 80 degrees C for 40 min has higher water stability, less protein leaching and more durable than unsteam pellets. Introduction of this new formulation of fish meal is expected to provide essential nutrient, energy and improved the quality of pellets to fuel the growth of aquaculture industry. PMID:26031027

  16. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Koeypudsa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day and long-term (30 days exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C.Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs, high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s, low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs, and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s.Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWsand decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs to natural situation(HtW/s. This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

  17. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl) on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther)

    OpenAIRE

    Weena Koeypudsa; Malinee Jongjareanjai

    2011-01-01

    This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day) and long-term (30 days) exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C) and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C).Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs), high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s), low tempe...

  18. Monitoring of DNA breakage in embryonic stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) after exposure to lead nitrate using alkaline comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wuertz, S.; Kloas, W.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Increasing lead contamination in Egyptian ecosystems and high lead concentrations in food items have raised concern for human health and stimulated studies on monitoring ecotoxicological impact of lead-caused genotoxicity. In this work, the alkaline comet assay was modified for monitoring DNA strand

  19. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  20. Isolation and immunohistochemical identification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from the tissue of catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vinay; Prasad, Yogendra

    2014-03-01

    This study deals with the identification of bacteria in paraffin embedded tissue of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus experimentally infected with F. psychrophilum to ascertain it's precise role in the occurrence and state of carrier stage of coldwater disease in asymptomatic fishes. Significant (P fish pathogenic bacteria in carrier fish where mortality occurs without explicit clinical signs of disease. PMID:24665767

  1. 胡子鲇脑型芳香化酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达%Molecular cloning and expression of Cyp19a1b cDNA in Clarias fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 李广丽; 朱春华; 吴天利; 邓思平

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding Cypl9alb was derived from Clarius fuscus using RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA was 2 347 bp with a 219 bp 51JTR, a 596 bp 3UTR (excluding poly (A)), and a 1 503 bp ORF, which encoded 500 amino acids and had a predicted mol wt of 56.388 kD. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the C. fuscus Cypl9alb shared 95.6% sequence identity with clarias gariepinus and >75% identity with Silurus merid-ionalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Danio rerio, Ictalurus punctatus, Cyprtnus carpio, Carassius auratus, Gobio-cypris rarus, and Epinephelus akaara. In contrast, there was low sequence identity (<62%) with Cypl9ala for these species. Therefore, the gene was classified into the Cypl9alb subfamily. This is consistent with the classification based on traditional morphology and biochemistry. Cypl9alb mRNA was expressed primarily in the fore-brain, hypothalamus, and pituitary, and to a lesser extent in the liver, testis and ovary. We observed differences in the level of expression in brain between males and females (P<0.05). Cypl9alb was expressed prior to sex differentiation in C. Juscus, but there was no difference in the level of expression between prior and post to sex differentiation (12-30 d after hatching). Our results suggest that Cypl9alb is not directly involved in mediating sex differentiation in C. fuscus, but may play an indirect role by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.%采用RT-PCR和RACE法,克隆了胡子鲇(Clarias fuscus)脑型芳香化酶基因Cyp19a1b,应用荧光实时定量PCR检测其在前脑、下丘脑、脑垂体、肝、精巢和卵巢6种组织,以及性腺分化前后(出膜后12~30d)全鱼中的mRNA表达.结果表明,Cyp19a1b cDNA全长2 347 bp,5’端非编码区219 bp,3’端[不包括poly(A)]596 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1 503 bp,编码500个氨基酸,推测其编码蛋白质分子量为56.388 kD.序列分析及分子系统进化树结果表明,胡子鲇Cyp19a1b氨基酸序列与非洲鲇(Clarias gariepinus)Cyp19

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp., and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species. Averages of total length, standard length (cm and gross body weight (gm were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 for Clarias spp. It was noticed that clarias spp. has the highest edible meat percentage 46.75% followed by Labeo niloticus 38.82% and Oreochromis niloticus 33.39%, and there were significant differences (P < 0.05 among the three species. Chemical analysis for the samples was done to determine (protein, fat, ash and moisture contents. The results of protein contents examined were 62%, 61.5% and 61.5% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Fat contents were 7.41%, 8.27% and 7.32% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Moisture contents were 6.7%, 7.5% and 7.5% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Ash contents were 5.90%, 6.05% and 6.85% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively.

  3. Lead nitrate induced changes in the thyroid physiology of the catfish Clarias batrachus (L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure of Clarias batrachus to sublethal dose of 5 ppm lead nitrate for a period of 150 days impaired thyroid function. Histological observations revealed hypertrophy, increased cell height, vacuolation, and reduction of colloid. The thyrotrophs of the pituitary also exhibited hypertrophy. Radioiodine (131I) uptake was significantly lowered. Fish exposed to 5, 10, and 25 ppm of lead nitrate for 7 days also exhibited significant reduction in 131I uptake which was dose dependent. These findings suggest that lead nitrate impairs thyroid function involving the hypothalamohypophysiothyroid axis

  4. Food and feeding habits of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Balasaheb Sakhare; Ashvini Dnayndeo Chalak

    2014-01-01

    The food analysis of 150 specimens of Clarias batrachus revealed that the food consisted of insect larvae, small fish, shrimps and organic debris. Small fish and insect larvae were preferred as the primary food item in all the seasons. On average for all months of the study period, small fish dominated the list with a percentage of 30.27.The other food items in descending order are insect larvae (27.66%), worms (20.27%), shrimps (14.3%) and organic debris (7.05%).The feeding intensity in matu...

  5. MICRONUCLEI PROFILE: AN INDEX OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN FRESHWATER FISHES (SYNODONTIS CLARIAS AND TILAPIA NILOTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. OKONKWO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of chromosomal aberrations in Synodontis clarias and Tilapia nilotica (Linnaeus 1757 were measured using the conventional micronucleus assay in fish erythrocytes. The species showed varying degree of micronuclei frequencies in their respective genomes of sampled gill and kidney blood. Cytological examinations showed bi-nucleated cells, deformed nuclei including the main aberrations, micronucleus formations in various genomes of the fish from different locations considered in this study. Comparison of the micronucleus rates in peripheral and kidney blood of the two species revealed no statistical difference (P> 0.05. On species occurrence of the measured chromosomal aberrations, averages of micronucleus frequencies recorded in Synodontis clarias showed visible variation and to be 2.2 folds higher than the values obtained in the corresponding Tilapia sp. but there was no statistical difference (P>0.01 among the two breeds. The work recommends that micronuclei tests in fish erythrocytes be carried out at various times, thus making it possible to follow-up the changing micronuclei frequencies and concludes that gills and kidney erythrocytes can be used in studies concerning chromosomal aberrations since the sampling of the peripheral blood is appropriate as it allows collecting several samples from the same individuals, without having to sacrifice it.

  6. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2012-31 July 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Ashoktaru; Bravo, S P; Chandra, Suresh; Corrêa, A S; Giombini, M I; Guedes, R N C; Huailei, Ma; Lal, Kuldeep K; Liang, Lu; Matura, Rakesh; Mohindra, Vindhya; Oliveira, L O; Patangia, Ruchi; Qiyong, Liu; Sah, Rama Shankar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Birender Kumar; Singh, Rajeev K; Tosto, D S; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Vinson, C C

    2012-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 96 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Clarias batrachus, Marmota himalayana, Schizothorax richardsonii, Sitophilus zeamais and Syagrus romanzoffiana. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Clarias dussumeri, Clarias gariepinus, Heteropneustus fossilis, Sitophilus granarius and Sitophilus oryzae.

  7. Effects of Main Soybean Antigens on Nutritional Components of Muscle in Clarias leather%大豆主要抗原蛋白对埃及胡子鲇肌肉营养成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉芳; 邹瑞兴; 王申; 王洪鹤; 孙泽威; 秦贵信

    2009-01-01

    A 6-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of main soybean antigens on nutritional components of muscle in Clarias leather with the initial weight of(15.14±0.05) g at controlled temperature in single recirculating system. One control diet and two treatment diets containing purified (3-conglycinin (40 mg/g) or glycinin (60 mg/g) were formulated by fish oil, corn oil, Alsace gum (as three energy sources), fish meal (as animal protein source) and cellulose (as plant packing material) on the base of isonitrogenous (40%) and isoenergetic (15.8 MJ/kg) . The results showed that the crude protein content in muscle of Clarias leather fed with β-conglycinin or glycinin significantly declined( P 0.05 ) . Contents of total amino acids, total essential amino acids and total flavor amino acids decreased in muscles of the fish, but there was no significant difference between the treated groups and the control group( P > 0.05) . Soybean antigens had significant effects on the nutritional components in muscle of Clarias leather, when the content of β-conglycinin or glycinin was over 40 mg/g or 60 mg/g in the juvenile fish diets, respectively.%在室内单循环控温养殖系统中,给初始体质量为(15.14±0.05)g的健康埃及胡子鲇(Clarias lazera)投喂以鱼粉为动物蛋白源,鱼油、玉米油、糊精为能源,纤维素为填充物配制的3种等氮(粗蛋白质量分数为40%)、等能(15.8MJ/kg)的半精制饲料(其中β-伴大豆球蛋白的添加量为40 mg/g,大豆球蛋白的添加量为60 mg/g),研究了大豆中主要抗原蛋白对埃及胡子鲇肌肉营养成分的影响.饲喂6周后的调查数据表明:在本试验条件下,β伴大豆球蛋白和大豆球蛋白使埃及胡子鲇肌肉中粗蛋白含量极显著下降(P005);使肌肉中氨基酸总量、必需氨基酸总量和鲜味氨基酸总量下降,但与对照组差异不显著(P>005).因此,在埃及胡子鲇幼鱼的配合饲料中,β伴大豆球蛋白的含量超过40 mg

  8. Assessment of metal bioaccumulation in Clarias batrachus and exposure evaluation in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted for heavy metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb quantification in the river Ganga water and their bioaccumulation in vital organ tissues of Clarias batrachus. Heavy metal characterization in vital organ tissues (gills, liver and muscle and comparison with FAO permissible guidelines revealed that Cd and Pb were hyper-accumulated which may lead to metal toxicity in fish and its consumers. High metal pollution index (MPI was recorded for organ tissues of exposed samples (liver 6.05; gills 22.95; muscle 44.48 as compared to unexposed samples (liver 4.5; gills 18.8; muscle 36.76. Effective ingestive dose (EID was calculated to assess the exposure threat to the human which may occur through dietary inputs. Results revealed that EID for Cr, Co, Cd and Pb was found significantly higher than the dose concentration prescribed by USEPA.

  9. Evaluation of sodium chloride (NaCl) for potential prophylactic treatment and its short-term toxicity to African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) yolk-sac and swim-up fry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magondu, E.W.; Rasowo, J.; Oyoo-Okoth, E.; Charo-Karisa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Disease and parasite outbreaks cause mortality of fish, affecting mostly early stages of fish cycle. The outbreaks are usually prevented using a number of chemicals including salt (NaCl) for which protocols are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NaCl as a potential p

  10. INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan, Smitha Thomas, Aruna Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the peel. The banana is nourishing, doesn’t contain fat, and can be eaten at every hour of the day because of its digestive properties. The banana contains magnesium, selenium, iron, a lot of vitamins and is recommended for salt free diet because of its low content in sodium chloride. Generally, the peel is being thrown once the pulp is eaten. These peels are eaten by animals or sometimes degraded by nature. Our aim is to extract few vital substances. The protein content of the peel was estimated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extract was injected into Clarias batrachus and its immune cells were counted. The result shows the wasted peel has both lower and higher molecular weights and has an immunological response as it showed an increase in the immune cells and there were very less cellular distortions when histopathological observations was done.

  11. Development and characterization of genic SSR markers from low depth genome sequence of Clarias batrachus (magur)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHREYA SRIVASTAVA; BASDEO KUSHWAHA; JYOTI PRAKASH; RAVINDRA KUMAR; N. S. NAGPURE; SUYASH AGARWAL; MANMOHAN PANDEY; P. DAS; C.G. JOSHI; J. K. JENA

    2016-09-01

    Indian magur (Clarias batrachus) is an important freshwater catfish, which is listed as endangered under A3cde+ 4acde ver. 3.1 categories by the IUCN (2015) due to decreasing population trend. Microsatellites or short sequence repeats (SSRs) tagged to genes have been utilized as gene marker. In the present study, 31,814 SSRs of C. batrachus (magur) were identified using microsatellite identification tool programme from the next generation sequencing data generated on Roche 454 and Ion Torrent platforms. A bioinformatics pipeline, with stringent criteria resulted in selection of 1672 microsatellite loci falling in the genic region. Initially, a total of 30 loci were selected for primer development; and of these 14 were successfully amplified and five were found to be polymorphic in 30 individuals of C. batrachus(magur). The observed as well as expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.038 to 0.526 and 0.434 to 0.784, respectively, and the number of observed alleles ranged from three to five. The study reported the application of next generation sequencing technologies for rapid development of microsatellite loci in Indian catfish species,C. batrachus (magur)

  12. Malathion exposure induces the endocrine disruption and growth retardation in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Bechan; Sarang, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj

    2013-01-15

    Many hormones are known for their role in the regulation of metabolic activities and somatic growth in fishes. The present study deals with the effects of malathion (an organophosphorous pesticide) on the levels of metabolic hormones that are responsible for promotion of somatic and ovarian growth of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Malathion treatment for thirty days drastically reduced the food intake and body weight of fish. These fish also exhibited a great avoidance to food. Exposure of catfish to malathion reduced the levels of thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E(2)) in a dose dependent manner during all the studied reproductive phases, in general, except that malathion increased the level of GH during the quiescence phase. Significant reduction in muscle and hepatic protein content also occurred in the malathion-treated fish. Malathion exposure induced lipolysis too in the liver and muscle. The results thus support that malathion treatment disrupts the endocrine functions and the olfactory sensation responsible for food intake and gustatory feeding behavior, which ultimately leads to retardation of fish growth. PMID:23174696

  13. Cell volume changes affect gluconeogenesis in the perfused liver of the catfish Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Shritapa Datta; Kuheli Biswas; Nirmalendu Saha

    2004-09-01

    In addition to lactate and pyruvate, some amino acids were found to serve as potential gluconeogenic substrates in the perfused liver of Clarias batrachus. Glutamate was found to be the most effective substrate, followed by lactate, pyruvate, serine, ornithine, proline, glutamine, glycine, and aspartate. Four gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) could be detected mainly in liver and kidney, suggesting that the latter are the two major organs responsible for gluconeogenic activity in this fish. Hypo-osmotically induced cell swelling caused a significant decrease of gluconeogenic efflux accompanied with significant decrease of activities of PEPCK, FBPase and G6Pase enzymes in the perfused liver. Opposing effects were seen in response to hyper-osmotically induced cell shrinkage. These changes were partly blocked in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that the aniso-osmotic regulations of gluconeogenesis possibly occurs through an inverse regulation of enzyme proteins and/or a regulatory protein synthesis in this catfish. In conclusion, gluconeogenesis appears to play a vital role in C. batrachus in maintaining glucose homeostasis, which is influenced by cell volume changes possibly for proper energy supply under osmotic stress.

  14. Genetic structure of populations and conservation issues relating to an endangered catfish, Clarias batrachus, in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D; A, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), is a highly valued species endemic to India that is currently in drastic decline in most of its natural habitat. The present study was undertaken to document the genetic structure of populations of this species using mitochondrial DNA markers, specifically from the cytochrome B and D-loop regions. Specimens from eight wild populations were collected and analyzed from different regions in India. The genetic variation within and among populations was evaluated using a range of descriptive statistics. The analysis described here provides a broad and consistent view of population structure and demographic history of populations of C. batrachus. Although there was some genetic structuring consistent with regional differences, all eight populations examined here showed relatively low levels of genetic variation in terms of both haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the different analyses used. However, a number of private haplotypes were discovered, and this may provide valuable information for future selective breeding program and conservation management. The results may aid in the design and implementation of strategies for the future management of this endangered catfish C. batrachus in India.

  15. Genetic structure of populations and conservation issues relating to an endangered catfish, Clarias batrachus, in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D; A, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), is a highly valued species endemic to India that is currently in drastic decline in most of its natural habitat. The present study was undertaken to document the genetic structure of populations of this species using mitochondrial DNA markers, specifically from the cytochrome B and D-loop regions. Specimens from eight wild populations were collected and analyzed from different regions in India. The genetic variation within and among populations was evaluated using a range of descriptive statistics. The analysis described here provides a broad and consistent view of population structure and demographic history of populations of C. batrachus. Although there was some genetic structuring consistent with regional differences, all eight populations examined here showed relatively low levels of genetic variation in terms of both haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the different analyses used. However, a number of private haplotypes were discovered, and this may provide valuable information for future selective breeding program and conservation management. The results may aid in the design and implementation of strategies for the future management of this endangered catfish C. batrachus in India. PMID:25103426

  16. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  17. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of catfish (Clarias magur) haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on Clarias magur haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is an interesting physiologically significant protein composed of specific functional prosthetic haem and globin moieties. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of fish haemoglobins (Hbs). Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on Clarias magur Hb. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 and NaCl as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic system P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.35, b = 56.63, c = 112.88 Å, β = 100.22°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The Matthews coefficient of 2.42 Å3 Da−1 for the crystal indicated the presence of two α2β2 tetramers in the asymmetric unit

  18. Sub-acute Toxicity of Carbofuran on Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Freshwater Catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity has been widely used as a biomarker in an animal exposed to the pesticides. However, the interaction of extensively used organocarbamate insecticide, carbofuran, with the nervous system of the aquatic organisms is not properly studied. AChE is a key enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junctions, and thus regulates the neurotransmission system. In the present study, we have evaluated the impact of sub-acute concentrations (0.01 and 0.02 mg/L i.e. 1/20th and 1/10th of LC50) of carbofuran on the activity of acetylcholinesterase,from different tissues of Clarias batrachus, a fresh water teleost, after 96 hr and 15 days exposure periods in vivo. The carbofuran significantly reduced the activity of AChE in different tissues of C. batrachus at both concentrations and periods of exposure. The greater inhibition of AChE activities were recorded in fish tissues at higher carbofuran concentration (0.02 mg/L) after longer (15days) treatment period. The inhibition of AChE activity in all fish tissues tested was dependent on pesticide concentration and the duration of treatment. AChE from the tissues of C. batrachus was found to be a true cholinesterase as it was completely inhibited by the small concentration (nM) of eserine as tested in vitro. It was found that carbofuran at very low concentration exerted significant inhibitory effect on AChE activity in fish tissues.

  19. Changes in brain monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, during chronic treatments with mercurials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mammals, the central nervous system is the primary target for CH3Hg poisoning which is clinically known as Minamata disease. Hg is a widely recognized neurotoxin and has been reported to impair brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. Reports on effects of Hg on brain monoamine activity in fishes are scarce. In the present study, therefore, changes in the brain monoamine levels and the degradation enzyme, monoamine oxidase (MAO), are described in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl2-inorganic Hg), methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl-organic Hg), and a commercial mercurial fungicide formulation, emisan 6 (methoxyethyl Hg-organic Hg) for 45, 90 and 180 d during gonadal recrudescence. These intervals correspond to late preparatory, prespawning and spawning phases, respectively, of the annual reproductive cycle of the catfish

  20. Study of sodium arsenite induced biochemical changes on certain biomolecules of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic impact of sublethal concentration (1 mg/L; 5% of 96h LC50 value of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 on certain biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and glycogen of five tissue components (muscles, liver, brain, skin, and gills of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus was analysed. The important toxic manifestations include marked decrease in the concentration of proteins (21.72-45.42% in muscles; 3.42-53.94% in liver; 15.39-45.42% in brain; 15.40-4.00% in skin and 11.35-64.13% in gills, DNA (0.55-22.95% in muscles; 8.33-14.06% in liver; 5.30-18.40% in brain; 13.57-52.80% in skin; and 12.38-31.01% in gills, RNA (42.68-76.16% in muscles; 10.68-39.75% in liver; 5.66-29.05% in brain; 7.72-27.93% in skin and 21.47-44.38% in gills and glycogen (24.00-51.72% in muscles; 49.11-72.45% in liver; 11.49-26.03% in brain; 26.13-38.05% in skin and 17.80-37.97% in gills. Excepting liver where the lipid content increases (15.82-24.13%, the fat content also showed depletion in their concentration (10.40-29.83% in muscles; 8.30-34.45% in brain; 8.94-31.47% in skin and 12.75-28.86% in gills, in the rest of the organ systems.Foi analisado o impacto tóxico da concentração subletal (1 mg/L; 5% do valor de LC50 de 96h do arsenito de sódio (NaAsO2 sobre certas biomoléculas (proteinas, ácidos nucleicos, lipídios e glicogênio de cinco tecidos (músculos, fígado, cérebro, pele e brânquias do bagre Clarias batrachus. As manifestações tóxicas importantes incluiram o decréscimo acentuado na concentração de proteinas (21,72-45,42% nos músculos; 3,42-53,94% no fígado; 15,39-45,42% no cérebro; 15,40-4,00% na pele e 11,35-64,13% nas brânquias, DNA (0,55-22,95% nos músculos; 8,33-14,06% no fígado; 5,30-18,40% no cérebro; 13,57-52,80% na pele e 12,38-31,01% nas brânquias, RNA (42,68-76,16% nos músculos; 10,68-39,75% no fígado; 5,66-29,05% no cérebro; 7,72-27,93% na pele e 21,47-44,38% nas brânquias e glicogênio (24,00-51,72% nos músculos; 49

  1. Subtitusi Tepung Pisang Awak (Musa Paradisiaca Var Awak) dan Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias Garipinus) Dalam Pembuatan Biskuit Serta Uji Daya Terimanya

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rini Puspa

    2015-01-01

    Banana ‘awak’ ripe flour (Musa paradisiaca var. Awak) and dumbo catfish (Clarias Garapinus) can be processed into biscuit. Biscuit is one of additional food that can full fill the needs of toddler nutrient. Biscuits had sweet taste and interesting shape. This research purpose to determine the acceptability test and nutritional content of biscuits substitution banana ‘awak’ flour and dumbo catfish. The type of research was an experiment conducted by completely randomized design using two fa...

  2. ICRF heating of FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both 1-D slab and cylindrical models are used to examine second and third harmonic ICRF heating of FED. The slab model, which divides the plasma into 1500 thin uniform slabs, uses a full-wave treatment to examine the effects of mode conversion. The RF power profile and the amount of energy absorbed per radial pass are also calculated. The 1-D cylindrical model uses WKB theory and is incorporated into a 1-D cylindrical multispecies time-dependent fluid code to examine the temporal behavior of ICRF and to estimate the RF power needed to heat FED. Both models use the full 3 x 3 hot plasma dispersion tensor. We find that heating at the second harmonic of deuterium, (f = 55 MHz) with k/sub parallel/ = 0.1 cm-1 appears to be the most attractive scenario. Over 90% of the RF power is damped within one radial pass. Most of the power is deposited at the center in the ions. From the space-time results we find that 40 MW of RF power supplied for 500 ms will heat FED to operating temperatures assuming Alcator-type scaling

  3. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. ► Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. ► Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. ► Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. ► Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 μg/L) and flutamide (33 μg/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100 dph) to perform testicular germ cell count (histology), measurements of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) by

  4. Endosulfan-mediated Biochemical Changes in the Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. TRIPATHI AND PRIYANKA VERMA

    2004-01-01

    Objective Endosulfan is an extremely toxic organochlorine pesticide to aquatic organisms which might be hampering fish health through impairment of metabolism sometimes leading to death.So an experimental protocol was designed to look at endosulfan effects on a number of selected biochemical endpoints as well as to develop a mechanistic understanding of biochemical effects of endosulfan in freshwater fish. Methods The adult freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus were collected and acclimatized to laboratory condition for two weeks prior to experimentation. The toxicity bioassay test of commercial grade endosulfan (35% EC) was conducted for 21 days to determine its initial lethal concentration. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of endosulfan (0.06 mg/L) for 21 days. Pesticide - withdrawal experiments were also performed to study recovery. Protein synthesis inhibitors were injected to know the possible mechanism of recovery. The specimens of C. batrachus were sacrificed and brain, liver and caudal white skeletal muscle were removed. Tissues were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activities of citrate synthase (CS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) and lactate dehydrogease (LDH) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Similarly, DNA, RNA and protein content were measured as per standard procedure. Results The exposure of sublethal concentration of endosulfan decreased the activity of citrate synthase (CS) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) in the brain, liver and skeletal muscle of the freshwater catfish, C. batrachus. The brain lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was also reduced in response to endosulfan toxicity. The maximum reduction in activities of these enzyme was 34%-43%. Withdrawal of endosulfan restored the enzyme activity to control level in all the three tissues. The recovery in enzyme activity appears to be due to dissociation of endosulfan or its metabolite(s) from the enzyme

  5. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  6. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2006-01-01

    Growth and nutrition during infancy are being viewed with renewed interest because of the possibility that they may be linked to cardiovascular and metabolic health in later life. Of particular interest are differences between breast- and formula-fed infants with regard to nutrient intake and growth because breastfeeding has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of obesity in later life. During the first 6-8 weeks of life there is little difference in growth (gain in weight and length) between breast- and formula-fed infants. However, from about 2 months of age to the end of the first year of life formula-fed infants gain weight and length more rapidly than breast-fed infants. There are no consistent differences in adiposity during the first 4-5 months of life, but during the later part of the first year of life the preponderance of the evidence suggests that breast-fed infants are leaner than formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants at 4-5 months of age show higher plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin and certain amino acids than breast-fed infants. Whereas the protein intake of breast-fed infants decreases with age and closely matches the requirements for protein during the early months of life, the protein intake of formula-fed infants exceeds requirements after the first 1-2 months of life. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in protein intake are mainly responsible for differences in growth between breast- and formula-fed infants. Differences in energy intake probably are responsible for differences in adiposity observed in older infants.

  7. RELACIONES TALLA-PESO DEL BARBUL (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785 EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO SINU,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Santos-Sanes,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer las relaciones de talla y peso del barbul (Pimelodus clarias en la cuenca del río Sinú. Materiales y Métodos. Se estimaron las relaciones talla-peso de 4324 individuos de Barbul (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785 colectados entre enero 2000 y diciembre 2002. Resultados. La longitud total (LT osciló entre 13.0-30.0 cm, promedio de 19.5 (±1.6 cm y el peso total (WT entre 20.0 y 248.1 g, promedio de 65.8 (±23.2 g. Las relaciones lineales estimadas fueron: LT = 1.92 (�� 0.16 + 1.20 (± 0.01 LS, r = 0.96; LT = 1.21 (± 0.16 + 1.15 (± 0.01 LH; r = 0.97 y LH = 0.91 (± 0.10 + 1.02 (± 0.01 LS, r = 0.97; con diferencias significativas entre las pendientes de la relación longitud estándar (LS-longitud horquilla (LH. La relación longitud-peso fue: WT = 0.005 (± 0.09 LT 3.16 (± 0.07, n = 4324, r = 0.81, con diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los diferentes coeficientes de crecimiento y factores de condición. Se encontró correlación entre el factor de condición, los niveles del Río Sinú y la época de desove del Barbul, la cual se extiende de marzo a octubre. Conclusión. Los resultados alcanzados en este estudio sugieren que las nuevas condiciones del río no han afectado la dinámica poblacional de la especie en lo que al crecimiento en talla y peso se refiere, y que el Barbul se ha adaptado a estas nuevas condiciones.

  8. The Fed's Year of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  9. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health.

  10. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 μM) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge

  11. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of [1(-14C] linoleic acid and [1(14C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  12. Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air-breathing Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ratnesh Kumar Tripathi; Vindhya Mohindra; Akanksha Singh; Rajesh Kumar; Rahasya Mani Mishra; Joy Krushna Jena

    2013-06-01

    With an aim to study the mechanism of adaptation to acute hypoxic periods by hypoxia-tolerant catfish, Clarias batrachus, the mass-specific metabolic rate (VO2) along with its hematological parameters, metabolic response and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. During progressive hypoxia, C. batrachus was found to be an oxyconformer and showed a steady decline in its aquatic oxygen consumption rate. When C. batrachus was exposed for different periods at experimental hypoxia level (0.98±0.1 mg/L, DO), hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance oxygen transport capacity. Significant increase in serum glucose and lactate concentration as well as lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed. Antioxidant enzymes were found to operate independently of one another, while total glutathione concentration was unaffected in any of the tissues across treatments. These observations suggested that hypoxia resulted in the development of oxidative stress and C. batrachus was able to respond through increase in the oxygen carrying capacity, metabolic depression and efficient antioxidant defense system to survive periods of acute hypoxia.

  13. RECOVERY OF DAMAGES IN THE SKIN OF ARSENIC EXPOSED CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN. FOLLOWING WITHDRAWAL OF THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh ، T. K. Banerjee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The bottom dwelling air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn. also respires via its skin (an accessory water-breathing organ. Prolonged (90 days exposure to disodium arsenate heptahydrate has caused massive damage (e.g. wear and tear of various cellular components including club cells, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the goblet mucous cells, altered staining and the slimy secretion to the epidermis of its skin. The present study investigated the recovery in architecture of the damaged epidermis following return of the 90 days disodium arsenate heptahydrate exposed fish to clean water. The significant regeneration of its different cellular components (epithelial cells, Club cells, Mucous cells took place after 24 h of withdrawal when sloughing; wear and tear and other damages of the epidermis of the skin got substantially reduced. The histopathological alterations which still continued included squeezing out of contents of the Club cells that formed a thin layer on the body surface. Regeneration of the Club cells continued throughout the epidermis even though the newly formed Club cells still showed massive sign of degeneration. Altered staining behaviour and hyperactivity of the Mucous cells continues even after prolonged withdrawal of the stress of the arsenic salt. Similarly the glycoproteins of the slime secreted by the mucous cells retained their sulphate moieties. This indicates that disodium arsenate heptahydrate induces certain permanent non-reversible damages including altered mucogenic activity in the epidermis of the skin of C. batrachus.

  14. Induction of micronuclei and erythrocyte alterations in the catfish Clarias batrachus by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and butachlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Abul farah, M; Niamat Ali, M; Ahmad, Waseem

    2002-07-25

    The micronucleus test (MNT) in fish erythrocytes has increasingly been used to detect the genotoxic effects of environmental mutagens and its frequency is considered to reflect the genotoxic damage to cells, mainly the chromosomes. Besides, morphologically altered erythrocyte is taken as an index of cytotoxicity. Both parameters were used in the present study by two herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, in 25, 50 and 75ppm concentrations) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (butachlor, in 1, 2 and 2.5ppm concentrations) for genotoxic and cytotoxic endpoints. The study was carried out by an in vivo method on peripheral erythrocytes of catfish Clarias batrachus using multiple sampling times (48, 72 and 96h). Cytogenetic preparations were made by haematoxylin-eosin staining technique. Pycnotic and granular micronuclei (MN) were consistently observed irrespective of chemical tested. A wide range of altered cells was also observed. Echinocytes accompanied by altered nuclei and vacuoles were prominent feature of 2,4-D, whereas, anisochromasia and anisocytosis of erythrocytes were characteristic of butachlor. Increase in MN as well as altered cells frequencies were significant. A positive dose-response relationship in all exposures and sampling times was observed. Herbicides used were found to be genotoxic as well as cytotoxic in this fish. The suitability of the adopted parameters for the screening of the aquatic genotoxicants is discussed.

  15. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  16. 性类固醇激素对胡子鲇性分化的影响%EFFECTS OF SEX STEROID HORMONES ON SEX DIFFERENTIATION OF CLARIAS FUSCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广丽; 邓思平; 王文达; 孙晶; 吴天利; 师尚丽; 朱春华

    2013-01-01

    Clarias fuscus, a common freshwater fish in China, was selected as our experiment material. Two-day juve-nile C. fuscus was divided into two groups. They were immersed in different doses of 17α-methyltestosterone (50, 100, and 200 μg/L 17α-MT) or fed with 17β-estradiol (100, 200, and 300 μg/g 17β-E2) for 30 days. Effects of 17α-MT and 17β-E2 on survival rate, sex ratio, gonad histology, and Foxl2 and Cyp19a1b expressions were examined by mor-phologic observation, histology and Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR during its period of sex differentiation (2-30d after hatching). The results showed that 17α-MT and 17β-E2 had no influence on survival rate but affected sex ratio and the time of gonadal differentiation. Doses of 17α-MT at 100 and 200μg/L produced more males (70%and 76%, respectively) than 50μg/L 17α-MT (54%) did (P<0.05), but no significant difference in sex ratio was observed between the 50 μg/L 17α-MT treated group and the control group (56%). In addition, the former accelerated the occurrence of primary spermocytes for three and five days, but deferred that of ovarian cavity for four and six days, and primary oo-cytes for eight and nine days, respectively. In contrast, doses of 17β-E2 at 200 and 300μg/g produced more males (74%and 78%, respectively) than the control group (P<0.05), but no significant difference in sex ratio was observed between the 100μg/g 17β-E2 treated group (66%) and the control group (56%). Dose of 17β-E2 at 200 and 300μg/g accelerated the occurrence of ovarian cavity for two and three days, and primary oocytes for one and three days, respectively, but deferred that of primary spermatocytes for three and seven days. The expressions of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1b showed that dose of 200μg/L 17α-MT increased the expression of Cyp19a1b but inhibited that of Foxl2. However, dose of 300μg/g 17β-E2 increased the expression both of Cyp19a1b and Foxl2. The results suggested that Foxl2 but not Cyp19a1b in-volved in

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM; Ahmed Mohamed MUSA AHMED; Abdelwahab M ADAM IBRAHIM; Fathi MIRGHANI YOUSIF

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp.), and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species). Averages of total length, standard length (cm) and gross body weight (gm) were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 f...

  18. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a novel cystatin-like gene in a hypoxia-tolerant Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus [Linnaeus, 1758].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Balvinder

    2013-02-01

    A novel member of Cystatin superfamily was identified from Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus, in response to oxidation stress induced by environmental hypoxia. Integrated genomic approaches, expression profiling and computational techniques showed that CbCystatin had putative cystatin/monelin like domain and might be a transmembrane and/or intermediate protein in signaling pathways. CbCystatin was found to be clustered into family 2 Cystatins. At transcriptional level, its expression was significantly up-regulated in response to short as well as long periods (more than 20 fold) of hypoxia, suggesting its positive association with oxygen concentrations lower than physiological concentrations.

  19. Assembly and variation analyses of Clarias batrachus mitogenome retrieved from WGS data and its phylogenetic relationship with other catfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basdeo Kushwaha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing (WGS using next generation sequencing technologies paves the way to sequence the mitochondrial genomes with greater ease and lesser time. Here, we used the WGS data of Clarias batrachus, generated from Roche 454 and Ion Torrent sequencing platforms, to assemble the complete mitogenome using both de novo and reference based approaches. Both the methods yielded almost similar results and the best assembled mitogenome was of 16,510 bp size (GenBank Acc. No. KM259918. The mitogenome annotation resulted in 13 coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region, and the gene order was found to be identical with other catfishes. Variation analyses between assembled and the reference (GenBank Acc. No. NC_023923 mitogenome revealed 51 variations. The phylogenetic analysis of coding DNA sequences and tRNA supports the monophyly of catfishes. Two SSRs were identified in C. batrachus mitogenome, out of which one was unique to this species. Based on the relative rate of gene evolution, protein coding mitochondrial genes were found to evolve at a much faster pace than the d-loop, which in turn are followed by the rRNAs; the tRNAs showed wide variability in the rate of sequence evolution, and on average evolve the slowest. Among the coding genes, ND2 evolves most rapidly. The variations present in the coding regions of the mitogenome and their comparative analyses with other catfish species may be useful in species conservation and management programs.

  20. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 ± 4 cm and weight of 86 ± 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl2.H2O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and taurine have potential to reduce

  1. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  2. Study on the Skeletal System of Clarias leather%革胡子鲶骨骼系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成勋; 孙金辉; 马倩倩; 粱超; 孙敬锋

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究革胡子鲶骨骼系统的组成及形态学特征.[方法]常规煮沸剥离方法得到完整骨骼标本和单个骨骼标本,对标本进行摄影与分析,并总结出相应的骨骼特征.[结果]革胡子鲶的骨骼系统具有单个犁骨,鳃盖边缘有棘,无眶蝶骨,腰带简单,有韧带与肩带相连.无骨鳞,无肌间骨,无续骨、硕骨,第3、4椎骨彼此固结.胸鳍具有1枚强大且坚硬的骨质棘,具有14对腹肋.共有骨骼426块,其中脑颅区域25块,咽颅区域71块,附肢骨骼234块,躯干部分96块.[结论]革胡子鲶骨骼系统具有一般硬骨鱼类的基本特征,同时此种鱼类的骨骼结构也具有鲶形目的特点.%[Objective] The research aimed to study the organization and morphological characteristics of the skeletal system of Clarias leather. [ Method] The integrated and single skeletal specimens were obtained by using the conventional boiling-stripping method. The specimens were photographed and analyzed. And the relevant skeletal characteristics were summarized. [Result] The skeletal system contained only one vomer but no orbitosphenoid. There were brambles at both of the edges of operculum. The structure of pelvic girdle, which was connected with shoulder girdle, was simple. It contained no bone scales, intermascular bone, symplectic bone, or parietal bone. The third and fourth vertebrae connected firmly each other. Pectoral fin contained a strong spine and 14 pairs of ventral rib. The skeletal system was composed of 426 bones, including 25 bones in the district of neurocranium, 71 bones in the district of splanchnocranium, 234 appendicular skeleton and 96 bones in the trunk. [Conclusion] The skeletal system had the basic characteristics of common teleostean fish and it also fit in with that of the fish in Siluriformes.

  3. 木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶的研究%Study on the Condition of Hydrolysis of Clarias fuscus By Papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕芳

    2013-01-01

      Adore the papain to hydrolyze the protein of Clarias fuscus and study the process condition of enzymolysis. Analyse the influence of dosage of papain, concentration of substrate, temperature of enzymolysis, pH value etc. On the protein hydrolysis of Clarias fuscus Experimental results show that the best condition of the enzymolysis as follow: the concentration of papain at 1.8 %, the concentration of substrate at 3.5 %, the temperature of enzymolysis at 55℃, pH 7.0, time of hydrolysis at 6 h, in which the hydrolysis will be 30.65%achieved.%  采用木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶鱼蛋白,并对酶水解的工艺条件进行研究,分析了酶用量、底物浓度、酶水解温度、酶水解时间、pH等因素对胡子鲶蛋白水解的影响。实验结果表明,木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶的最佳条件为:酶浓度1.8%,底物浓度3.5%,酶水解温度55℃, pH 7.0,反应时间6 h ,在此条件下胡子鲶水解程度可达到30.65%。

  4. Testování produkční účinnosti speciálních krmiv pro sumce u tržního keříčkovce červenolemého (Clarias gariepinus) v recirkulačním systému

    OpenAIRE

    ČTRNÁCT, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this diploma thesis is compare the production efficiency of special types of feed for African catfish in experimental conditions in a recirculating system with biological treatment of water. It was tested four different types of floating feed, differing in the proportion of main components, the chemical composition and determining - for catfish (CatCo GROWER - 12 EF, CatCo SELECT - 13 EF and CatCo GROWER - 13 EF), respectively salmonid fish species (Dibaq Trout Evolution...

  5. Chemical composition of Clarias Lazera (cuv and val., 1840) as an indicator of fish raising in treated sewage effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is one of the pioneer studies dealing with the possibility of growing fish in treated sewage water in Sudan. Khartoum sewage treatment plant - Green Belt area - was the main study site for this work, where fish was some how introduced to the canal which receives water from the last stage of treatment. Fish have reached large sizes and numbers, they are highly consumed by people of the area and widely marketed in the nearby localities. So this study aimed to discuss the potential health associated with the utilization of such fish for food, throwing light, on the advantages and disadvantages of fish culture in treated sewage effluent. The research was directed towards the study of the chemical composition of Clarias lazera (Cuv. and Val., 1840) (Garmout fish) being the only fish species in the area during the course of this study . Fish samples were collected from the Green Belt and the White Nile at the vicinity of Jebel Aulia reservoir which was taken as a control area for (April 1995 - April 1996). Basic biology was studies for each specimen, the concentrations of some of the hazardous and potentially hazardous heavy metals were investigated in the flesh of 30, randomly selected fish samples from both study sites, beside the major chemical body constituents : fats, proteins, moisture and ash in all specimens, to determine the quality of the flesh> Data obtained was analyzed, trying to correlate fish chemical composition to the surrounding environment. Treated sewage-fish showed higher weights and lengths than natural water-fish from the White Nile. Most of the hazardous metals investigated in the muscle tissues of treated sewage-fish were found to be of insignificant variation from that of natural water-fish (Mercury and Lead). They were found to be at lower levels than what is recommended by the International Agencies human consumption. The essential micronutrients for fish like Copper, Ferric (Iron) and Zinc showed significantly higher levels

  6. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  7. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  8. Role of ureogenesis in tackling problems of ammonia toxicity during exposure to higher ambient ammonia in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmalendu Saha; Shritapa Datta; Kuheli Biswas; Zaiba Y Kharbuli

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, the possible role of ureogenesis to avoid the accumulation of toxic ammonia to a lethal level under hyper-ammonia stress was tested in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus by exposing the fish at 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Excretion of ammonia by the NH4Cl-exposed fish was totally suppressed, which was accompanied by significant accumulation of ammonia in different body tissues. The walking catfish, which is otherwise predominantly ammoniotelic, turned totally towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism with a 5- to 6-fold increase of urea-N excretion during exposure to higher ambient ammonia. Stimulation of ureogenesis was accompanied with significant increase of some of the key urea cycle enzymes such as carbamyl phosphate synthetase (urea cycle-related), argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase both in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. Due to this unique physiological strategy of turning towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism via the induced urea cycle, this air-breathing catfish is able to survive in very high ambient ammonia, which they face in certain seasons of the year in the natural habitat.

  9. Detection of DNA damage by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid- and butachlor-exposed erythrocytes of Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Abul Farah, M; Ahmad, Waseem

    2005-11-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis, also known as comet assay, is a rapid, simple and sensitive technique for measuring DNA strand breaks in individual cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of two widely used herbicides; 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (butachlor) in erythrocytes of freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Fish were exposed by medium treatment with three sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D (25, 50, and 75ppm) and butachlor (1, 2, and 2.5ppm) and alkaline comet assay was performed on nucleated erythrocytes after 48, 72, and 96h. The amount of DNA damage in cells was estimated from comet tail length as the extent of migration of the genetic material. A significant increase in comet tail length indicating DNA damage was observed at all concentrations of both the herbicides compared with control (Pbutachlor (9.28microm). This study confirmed that the comet assay applied on the fish erythrocyte is a useful tool in determining potential genotoxicity of water pollutants and might be appropriate as a part of a monitoring program.

  10. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untrea

  11. Simulation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) culture in ponds, through individual-based modelling, using a population dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.J.; Dekker, P.J.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    A simulation model for the production of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) for mixed- or mono-sex culture and for poly-culture with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) or African snakehead (Parachanna obscura Günther 1861) is presented. The model is based on an

  12. 1981 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe waters

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, B.E.; Mandisodza, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 statistics of the open water fishery (sardine, Limnothrissa miodon , and tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus) and inshore fishery (cichlids, labeoa, mainly L. altivelis , distichoclids, mainly Distichodus schenga , tigerfish, H. vittatus , mormyrids, mainly Mormyrus longirostris and M. deliciosus , and catfish, Clarias gariepinus) in Lake Kariba are presented.

  13. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behaviou

  14. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Rutherford, P. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Attenberger, S. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Holmes, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Borowski, S. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brown, T. G. [Grumman Aerospace; Carreras, B. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ehst, D. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Haines, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hively, L. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Iida, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI); Lee, V. D. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace; Lynch, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Reid, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rothe, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Strickler, Dennis J [ORNL; Stewart, L. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    1983-08-01

    This document is one of four describing studies performed in FY 1982 within the context of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) Program for the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. The documents are: 1. FED Baseline Engineering Studies (ORNL/FEDC-82/2), 2. FED-A, An Advanced Performance FED Based on Low Safety Factor and Current Drive (this document), 3. FED-R, A Fusion Device Utilizing Resistive Magnets (ORNL/FEDC-82/1), and 4. Technology Demonstration Facility TDF. These studies extend the FED Baseline concept of FY 1981 and develop innovative and alternative concepts for the FED. The FED-A study project was carried out as part of the Innovative and Alternative Tokamak FED studies, under the direction of P. H. Rutherford, which were part of the national FED program during FY 1982. The studies were performed jointly by senior scientists in the magnetic fusion community and the staff of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Y-K. M. Peng of the FEDC, on assignment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, served as the design manager.

  15. Evidence of apoptotic effects of 2,4-D and butachlor on walking catfish, Clarias batrachus, by transmission electron microscopy and DNA degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Farah, M Abul; Ahmad, Waseem

    2006-01-25

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, fragmentation of the nucleus and cytoplasm, and consequently formation of apoptotic bodies. It has also been best characterized by the cleavage of DNA into nucleosomal size fragments of 180-200 bp or multiples of the same. Contrary to this, under extreme conditions, the cells were found to show adaptive response to apoptosis and unable to regulate their own death; necrosis is therefore predominantly observed. In the present study, we showed induction of apoptosis in Clarias batrachus due to sublethal concentration of 2,4-D and butachlor at multiple exposure time. The first phase of the study involved light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for ultrastructural abnormalities of the germinal tissues. While, in the second phase of the study, DNA degradation of blood and hepatic tissue was resolved on agarose gel electrophoresis. In histopathological studies, large numbers of stage II oocytes were noted for nuclear blebbing irrespective of the test chemical. Some of the butachlor-exposed oocytes showed vacuolation and electron dense cytoplasm along with thickened nuclear envelope, having close association with the lysosomes on the cytoplasmic side. Some oocytes undergo nuclear blebbing having inner dense core and translucent cytoplasm. Leydig cells were slightly hypertrophied and few appeared pycnotic, a process involving necrotic changes in which the cell nuclei were characterized by rounding up and condensation resulting in hyperchromatic staining or pycnosis. In testicular tissue, spermatogonial nuclei had irregular large clumps of heterochromatin adjoining the nuclear membrane indicating initial stage of apoptotic cell death. Electrophoretic separation resulted in a ladder pattern of blood DNA and smear like pattern of hepatic DNA. These results indicate that the above herbicides are able to induce apoptosis both at molecular as

  16. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost.

  17. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost. PMID:26759744

  18. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m2; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  19. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahdat Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cm×30 cm×60 cm where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results: The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20 d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  20. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Shahdat Hossain; Md Rajib Sharker; Syed Ariful Haque; Md Shaheed Reza; Md Anwar Hossain Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods:The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cmí30 cmí60 cm) where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g) by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results:The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions:The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  1. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  2. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment.

  3. Winter survival of blood-fed and nonblood-fed Culex pipiens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C L; Faran, M E; Gargan, T P; Hayes, D E

    1982-09-01

    Comparisons were made between groups of Culex pipiens L. with different physiologic histories to test their ability to sucessfully overwinter under field conditions. On 14 December 1978, each group of mosquitoes was marked with a distinctive fluorescent dust and released inside an abandoned ammunition bunker at Fort Washington, Maryland. To insure that dead mosquitoes could be dissected and information obtained on their ovarian development, a sample of females from each group was also released into a plexiglass cage that was attached to the inside wall of the room. The physiologic histories of each group of mosquitoes were as follows: (a) "wild caught", those which had entered the bunker prior to the release date, (b) "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," (c) "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed nongravid, " (d)"lab-reared diapausing blood-fed gravid," (e) "lab-reared nondiapausing nonblood-fed," and (f) "lab-reared nondiapausing blood-fed." By 8 March 1979, all of the lab-reared nondiapausing groups, of mosquitoes released in the room had died, whereas 15.7, 22.4 and 24.7% were recovered from the "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed" (gravid and nongravid) and "wild caught" mosquitoes, respectively. For the mosquitoes in the cage, only 0, 2.1 and 7.0% of the "lab-reared nondiapausing blood-fed," "lab-reared nondiapausing nonblood-fed" and "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed gravid," respectively, survived. This compared to 45.4, 56.8 and 58.0%, respectively, for the "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed nongravid" and the "wild caught" groups. These data provide evidence to support the theory that a significant number of diapausing Cx. pipiens which have taken a prehibernation (possibly viremic) blood meal do not develop eggs and can survive the winter at rates comparable to diapausing nonblood-fed mosquitoes. PMID:6289686

  4. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: Roles of inorganic ions and taurine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Nirmalendu Saha

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (–80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures, respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25–30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 ± 0.54 mol/g liver) due to activation of Ba2+- and quinidine-sensitive K+ channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl¯ (4.35 ± 0.25 mol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68 ± 0.37 mol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride- and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78 ± 0.65 mol/g liver), and also Cl¯ (3.72 ± 0.25 mol/g liver). The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine, an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 ± 0.38 mol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 ± 0.45 mol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4′-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures, thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  5. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  6. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  7. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...

  8. FedEX Sponsors China's Badminton Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reigning world champion team joins hands with the express delivery service to greet the coming Olympics Starting this year, Olympic badminton champion Zhang Ning and world badminton champion Lin Dan will be wearing clothing with the FedEx logo on it.

  9. A further investigation into the bioaccumulation of lead and zinc in the organs and tissues of the African sharptooth catfish, Glorias gariepinus from two localities in the Olifants River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Marx

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioaccumulation of lead and zinc in the gills, liver, muscle and skin of Glorias gariepinus from two locations, Mamba and Balule, on the Olifants River within the Kruger National Park is reported here. Over a one year period (1994, four surveys (February, May, July and November were undertaken. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentrations of both metals in the tissues. The gills were the major route of uptake, with the liver accumulating high lead and zinc concentrations. The concentration of metals in the fish found at Mamba and Balule were found to be significantly different from each other. However, it could not be established at which location the greatest amount of bioaccumulation had taken place. The influences of temperature, alkalinity, salinity and pH on metal toxicity, bioavailability and bioaccumulation rates are discussed in detail. It is imperative that pollution levels in the Olifants River and its effect on fish is continually monitored and captured, so as to main- tain and conserve this river and the biota dependant on it.

  10. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  11. A Study of End-Fed Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kondylis, Konstantinos; Zimourtopoulos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a general analysis of end-fed space arrays with application to self-standing linear arrays of parallel dipoles. A number of test array models were simulated, constructed and their radiation pattern was then measured. The experimental and computational results were found to be in good agreement. The developed software applications are available through the Internet as FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software.

  12. Revising the Atlanta Fed dollar index

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Acree

    1999-01-01

    For more than a decade the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta's trade-weighted dollar index has served as a summary statistic for foreign exchange movements of the dollar. Recent revisions acknowledging significant changes in the worldwide economy ensure that the index will continue to contribute valuable information into the future. ; One significant revision to the Atlanta Fed index is to include all eleven countries that adopted the euro on January 4, 1999. Other revisions take into account t...

  13. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

  14. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m2, with 0.5 MW/m2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  15. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  16. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  17. Monogènes de Clarias (Siluriformes, Clariidae au Cameroun : II. description de trois nouvelles espèces du genre Birgiellus n. gen. (Dactylogyridea, Ancyrocephalidae dans le Bassin du Nyong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilong Bilong C.F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des monogènes parasites branchiaux de trois espèces de poissons du genre Clarias Scopoli, 1777 (Clariidae : C. pachynema, C. jaensis et C. camerunensis, pêchés dans le bassin du Nyong (Cameroun a permis de récolter trois nouvelles espèces placées dans le nouveau genre Birgiellus, respectivement Birgiellus mutatus n. sp. chez Clarias pachynema, B. calaris n. sp. chez C. jaensis et B. kellensis n. sp. chez C. camerunensis. Le genre Birgiellus, voisin du genre Quadriacanthus, s’en distingue par la morphologie de la barre transversale ventrale formée d’une pièce unique (deux bras distincts chez Quadriacanthus et par les uncinuli IV peu différents des autres (plus grands chez les Quadriacanthus. Birgiellus calaris diffère de B. mutatus par les anchors ventraux plus longs et plus épais, la morphologie de la barre transversale ventrale, la taille des pièces sclérifiées des appareils copulateurs mâle et femelle, avec la pièce accessoire mâle munie d’un talon, un manche trapézoïdal plus long et un crochet plus épais. Birgiellus kellensis, proche de B. calaris, s’en écarte par la taille plus faible des anchors dorsaux et ventraux, des barres transversales, du pénis, et de la pièce accessoire male, sans talon, mais avec une lame mince supplémentaire. En référence à l’article 8.5.2 du Code international de nomenclature zoologique (1999, le genre Birgiellus et les espèces B. mutatus et B. calaris remplacent respectivement le genre Claridectes et les espèces C. clarisa et C. alacris, initialement décrits par Birgi (1987, mais dont les spécimens n’ont jamais été déposés dans un musée. L’étude de la spécificité parasitaire de ces trois espèces montre qu’elle est du type oïoxène.

  18. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P < 0.01) and in both CO and SO-fed mice (P < 0.05) in response to CLA on d14. Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P < 0.01) but not in SO-fed mice on day 7 and 10, but on day 14 CLA increased lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P < 0.001). Expression and activation level of proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Sterol regulatory binding protein 1c was decreased by CLA in CO-fed mice and increased in SO-fed mice (P < 0.05). Malic enzyme expression was increased by CLA (P < 0.001) and CO (P < 0.01). Therefore, CLA-induced lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  19. Effects of dietary vitamin C on fish and crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary needs for ascorbic acid (AA) at startfeeding, the AA content in the various live diets currently applied in aquaculture (algae, rotifers, Artemia ) was studied. Application of boosting techniques using ascorbyl palmitate (AP) as the vitamin C source enabled the transfer of elevated levels of bioactive vitamin C (up to 2500µg AA.g DW-1) via the live food chain into larvae of fish (Clarias gariepinus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Scophthalmus maximus), shrimp (Pennaeus v...

  20. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. samples of serunding were prepared with 3 different sizes (30-40cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm) of African catfish and control was prepared using round scad fish ('ikan selayang') with same amount of fish flesh...

  1. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  2. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwegiessen, van de, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 2) how age mediates the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 3) the potential effects of chemical ...

  3. Athugun á möguleikum fiskeldis til að bæta lífskjör kenískra bænda við Viktoríuvatn : mat á áhrifum opinbers stuðnings

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi, Nora

    2013-01-01

    In Kenya, East Africa, fish-demand is constantly growing. Fish supply, however, lags behind owing to declining natural fish stocks. Aquaculture production in Kenya is still insignificant on a global scale, not following the sector’s worldwide rapid growth. However, Kenya shows great potential for aquaculture activities that are not yet fully explored. In 2009 development and commercialization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) aquaculture became p...

  4. A Comparative Economic Evaluation of Farming of three Important Aquaculture Species in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbugua, Henry Mwangi

    2007-01-01

    Information on the economic viability of aquaculture is crucial for investors when assessing the feasibility of an aquaculture investment. Unfortunately, such information has been scarce in Kenya. This paper evaluates the viability of commercial culture of three aquaculture species in Kenya under four culture practices. These are: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), mainly produced using mono- or polyculture under semi intensive systems; and rainbow ...

  5. INDIRECT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF ECTODERMAL MERCURY EXPOSURE BY TRADITIONAL MEDICAL FORMULATIONS ON FRESHWATER CAT FISH CLARIAS BATRACHUS USING MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY AND ALKALINE SINGLE-CELL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (COMET ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prem Rajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and its salts are the major constituents of Ayurvedic, Chinese and Tibetan traditional formulations. The mercury is extensively reported to accumulate in food chain and cause many neurological disorders in environment. The safety assessment of mercury on the ectodermal application on animal model is rarely reported. The void in the scientific study on external exposure of mercury and its genotoxic inside the body lead to the necessity for the present study. The freshwater cat fish Clarias batrachus was used for broad specificity genotoxic indicators micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. The fish was exposed to 0.03 ppm of mercuric chloride for a period of 7, 14, 28 and 35 days ectodermally. The blood sample was assayed for the genotoxicity. The results revealed undoubted DNA damage through the micronuclei and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. Hence it is concluded the usage of traditional medicines containing the mercury may be toxic at genetic level in prolonged usage.

  6. Expression analysis and localization of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 in the testis of catfish, Clarias batrachus: Impact of wt1-esiRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugananthkumar, Raju; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2016-08-15

    In teleosts, a comprehensive role or interaction of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 genes in relation to gonadal development and/or recrudescence was never attempted. Present study aimed to identify the involvement of these genes during testicular development of catfish, Clarias batrachus. Dominant expression of wt1 and gata4 was observed in developing and adult testis, while ad4bp/sf-1 showed steady expression. Localization of these genes in adult testis revealed their presence in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and interstitial/Leydig cells. Significant high expression during pre-spawning and spawning phases, and upregulated levels of these genes after hCG induction authenticated gonadotropic regulation. Transient silencing of wt1-esiRNA displayed decrease in wt1 expression, which further downregulated the expression of ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4, and certain steroidogenic enzyme genes related to androgen production. These results suggest that wt1 might target ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 expression, and also have regulatory influence either indirectly or directly on the steroidogenic enzyme genes of catfish. PMID:27173028

  7. An Assessment of the Heavy Metal Content of Cat Fish (Clarias Lazera) obtained from the Lower Niger Basin at Idah, Kogi State using Energy Dispersive X- ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five catfish (Clarias lazera) samples obtained from the Lower Niger River Basin at Idah were subjected to elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive X - ray Fluorescence (EDXR) technique. A voltage of 30KV and current of 1mA was applied to produce a 17.441KeV molybdenum X-ray which was used to irradiate the samples for ten minutes. The analysis was performed using the mini pal 4 version PW 4030 X -ray spectrometer at the Center for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The elemental composition and concentration of seven major and trace elements: Ca, Cr, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, and V were detected in the samples. The major elements are Ca,K and Fe while the trace elements are Cr,Cu, V and Mn. The concentration of Calcium which is the highest range fro 0.370% to 3.110% while the concentration of Copper which is the least range from 46.030pm to 99.859pm. The result shows the presence of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and V which are heavy metals the concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe and Mn in the sample were below World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization(FAO) maximum permissible limit of intake of the various minerals respectively. However the concentration of V found in the sample is above the WHO and FAO maximum limit for Vanadium.

  8. Expression analysis and localization of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 in the testis of catfish, Clarias batrachus: Impact of wt1-esiRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugananthkumar, Raju; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2016-08-15

    In teleosts, a comprehensive role or interaction of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 genes in relation to gonadal development and/or recrudescence was never attempted. Present study aimed to identify the involvement of these genes during testicular development of catfish, Clarias batrachus. Dominant expression of wt1 and gata4 was observed in developing and adult testis, while ad4bp/sf-1 showed steady expression. Localization of these genes in adult testis revealed their presence in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and interstitial/Leydig cells. Significant high expression during pre-spawning and spawning phases, and upregulated levels of these genes after hCG induction authenticated gonadotropic regulation. Transient silencing of wt1-esiRNA displayed decrease in wt1 expression, which further downregulated the expression of ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4, and certain steroidogenic enzyme genes related to androgen production. These results suggest that wt1 might target ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 expression, and also have regulatory influence either indirectly or directly on the steroidogenic enzyme genes of catfish.

  9. Hypoxia influences expression profile of Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 in Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): A new candidate gene for hypoxia tolerance in fish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vindhya Mohindra; Ratnesh K Tripathi; Prabhaker Yadav; Rajeev K Singh; Kuldeep K Lal

    2014-06-01

    Several physiologically important genes were found to be regulated by hypoxia at the transcriptional level. The Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) gene was previously identified as an imprinted gene. The present study was aimed to determine the structure of complete cDNA and the deduced protein of PHLDA2 along with analysing the changes in its mRNA expression in Clarias batrachus tissues under hypoxic conditions. The complete cDNA of CbPHLDA2 gene consisted of 1009 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 417 nucleotides. The deduced CbPHLDA2 protein of 139 amino acids shared high homology with PHLD2A of other fishes as well as that of vertebrates. Importantly, a single amino acid (asparagine/lysine) insertion was identified in the PH domain of CbPHLDA2 and other fishes, which was absent in other vertebrates studied. Furthermore, under normoxic conditions, CbPHLDA2 was constitutively expressed with varying levels in analysed tissues. Short- and long-term hypoxia exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of CbPHLDA2 in liver, spleen, head kidney, brain and muscle in a time-dependent manner. The results suggested that CbPHLDA2 might play an important role for adaptive significance under hypoxia.

  10. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  11. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; WeisglasKuperus, N; deRidder, MAJ; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanStaveren, WA; vanderPaauw, CG; Sauer, PJJ

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. Methods. Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82 were formula-fed in infancy. Results. Medi

  12. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Glenn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (C18:2 isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA (C18:1 t11, a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3 FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0, and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0 and palmitic (C16:0 FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A. It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.

  13. Effects of anisotonicity on pentose-phosphate pathway, oxidized glutathione release and t-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in the perfused liver of air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmalendu Saha; Carina Goswami

    2004-06-01

    Both hypotonic exposure (185 mOsmol/l) and infusion of glutamine plus glycine (2 mmol/l each) along with the isotonic medium caused a significant increase of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose by 110 and 70%, respectively, from the basal level of 18.4 ± 1.2 nmol/g liver/min from the perfused liver of Clarias batrachus. Conversely, hypertonic exposure (345 mOsmol/l) caused significant decrease of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose by 34%. 14CO2 production from [6-14C]glucose was largely unaffected by anisotonicity. The steady-state release of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into bile was 1.18 ± 0.09 nmol/g liver/min, which was reduced significantly by 36% and 34%, respectively, during hypotonic exposure and amino acid-induced cell swelling, and increased by 34% during hypertonic exposure. The effects of anisotonicity on 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and biliary GSSG release were also observed in the presence of t-butylhydroperoxide (50 mol/l). The oxidative stress-induced cell injury, caused due to infusion of t-butylhydroperoxide, was measured as the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the effluent from the perfused liver; this was found to be affected by anisotonicity. Hypotonic exposure caused significant decrease of LDH release and hypertonic exposure caused significant increase of LDH release from the perfused liver. The data suggest that hypotonically-induced as well as amino acid-induced cell swelling stimulates flux through the pentose-phosphate pathway and decreases loss of GSSG under condition of mild oxidative stress; hypotonically swollen cells are less prone to hydroperoxide-induced LDH release than hypertonically shrunken cells, thus suggesting that cell swelling may exert beneficial effects during early stages of oxidative cell injury probably due to swelling-induced alterations in hepatic metabolism.

  14. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  15. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, Surface Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: Station Information and Surface Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June...

  16. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, CTD Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: CTD Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June every year since 1983. In...

  17. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  18. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  19. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  20. Growth and Reproduction of Artificially Fed Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian; LI Chuan-ming; YANG Ya-jun; QI Jian-hang; ZHENG Xu-song; Hu Rong-li; LU Zhong-xian; LIU Qin

    2012-01-01

    The growth and reproduction of rice leaffolder,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis,fed on an artificial diet were studied.The results showed that the larvae were able to grow and pupate on the artificial diet.The durations of larvae and pupas of C.medinalis on the artificial diet were 28.1 d and 10.1 d,postponed 4.9 d and 1.7 d respectively,compared with those reared with rice leaves.The number of ovipositions was 41.6 per female,26.2% higher than that fed on rice leaves.Survival rate curve of larvae was a descent function of mortality-age,with no significant differences from the curve of larvae fed on rice leaves.The net reproductive rate (Ro),intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and finite rate of increase (λ) of the population fed on diet were 17.6928,0.0884 and 1.0924,respectively,and the mean generation time (T) and double time (td) were prolonged 4.9 d and 1.3 d in comparison with the treatment of rice leaves.Population trend index (Ⅰ) was 3.26,indicating a growing number of the population of C.medinalis fed on artificial diet.

  1. Fecundity of two dominant fish species in Ado reservoir, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Oso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the fecundity and sex ratio of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as the dominant species in Ado Reservoir, in Ekiti State, South West Nigeria between November 2011 and March 2012. The major fishing methods employed for collecting the fish specimens were cast netting and set netting. Biometric data such as total length, standard length and body weight measurements were recorded in the laboratory. Out of 40 C. gariepinus analyzed, 18 were males while 22 were females showing male to female sex ratio of 5:6. O. niloticus showed male to female sex ratio of 3:2 from 36 males and 24 females analyzed. Both C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed high significant correlation between fecundity and gonad weight for C. gariepinus and for O. niloticus. Fecundity of O. niloticus ranged from 600eggs to 800eggs with a mean of 700eggs while C. gariepinus ranged from 4,000eggs to 7,200eggs with a mean of 5,588eggs. Most species of O. niloticus were not carrying eggs at the time of study. The study concluded that fecundity in the two species examined was low. This calls for an investigation into some prevailing conditions in the reservoir vis-à-vis availability and quality of food, the physical and chemical constituents of the water as well as the activities of fishermen operating in reservoir area.

  2. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  3. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  4. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

    1983-04-01

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

  5. Analysis of Capacitive Parasitism in PWM Inverter-Fed Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of parasitic capacitance in induction motor system are unnoticed when it is fed from the AC line. but they are obvious when supplied directly from a PWM inverter. Consequently. many parasitic problems occur, such as motor-to-earth leakage current, bearing current, incoming line current distortion and uneven distribution of electrical stresses along the winding. On the ba sis of the uniform transmission line principle, a complete equivalent circuit of the PWM inverter-fed motor system is presented, based on which all the capacitive parasitic problems mentioned above are analyzed and simulated by means of PSPICE. All the results are consistent with the existing ones.

  6. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required

  7. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  8. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the ability of a gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis model to predict the performance of two lipid formulations and a conventional tablet containing a poorly soluble drug, cinnarizine, in dogs, both in the fasted and fed state. A self-nano-emulsifying drug...

  9. NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN BUFFALO BULLS FED CROP RESIDUE BASED RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VENKATESWARLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 4 x 4 LSD, four graded Murrah buffalo bulls (6 yrs; 353 ± 8.26 kg were fed four iso-nitrogenous complete rations comprising of jowar stover (CR1, maize stover (CR2, red gram straw (CR3 and black gram straw (CR4 as roughage source and concentrate mixture in 60:40 proportion, to study the effect of feeding complete rations on nutrient utilization. The DM intake (kg/d was similar in all the groups. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, Cellulose and Hemi-cellulose were significantly (P<0.01 higher in buffalo bulls fed CR2 while NFE digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CR3 when compared to those fed other complete rations. All the animals were in positive N, Ca and P balances. Further, the % DCP and % TDN were significantly higher (P<0.01 in buffalo bulls fed CR2. It could be concluded that maize stover compared to other crop residues could be a superior roughage source for inclusion in complete rations for feeding buffalo bulls.

  10. Wideband Coaxial Fed Rotated Stacked Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ujwala; A. Gnandeep Reddy

    2014-01-01

    A novel circularly polarized coaxial fed rotated stacked patch antenna is proposed and its performance characteristics are presented in the current work. The antenna consisting of four parasitic patch, each one being rotated by 300 relative to its adjacent patches. The proposed antenna is giving return loss less than -10 dB with VSWR

  11. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Doubly Fed Induction Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. Nguyen; Scherer, Carsten W.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Müller, Volkmar

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of a self-scheduled current controller for doubly fed induction machines. The design is based on the framework of linear parameter-varying systems where the mechanical angular speed is considered to be a measurable time-varying parameter. The objective is to o

  12. Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters; 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1; 3 - Probiotic (Pool based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, Streptococcus lactis and faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Aspergillus oryzae (Pro 2; 4 - Prebiotic based on Phosphorylated Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and Organic Acidifier (OA (Pre 1; 5 - MOS-based prebiotic (Pre 2; 6 - Pro 1 + Pre 1; 7 - Pro 1 + Pre 2; 8 - Pro 2 + Pre 1; 9 - Pro 2 + Pre 2. Higher villus height (VH (p<0.01 were seen in the duodenum of birds fed diets without prebiotics, whereas birds fed Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic and birds fed prebiotic based on MOS and OA showed higher VH (p<0.01 in jejunum and ileum. Greater crypt depths (CD (p<0.01 were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of birds receiving B. subtilis, and in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed diets without prebiotics. Significant interaction (p<0.01 between the evaluated factors was seen for both, VH and CD, in the three intestinal portions. Greater VH was obtained in duodenum, jejunum and ileum with the use of probiotics and prebiotics and greater CD with the use of probiotics, in relation to the control group. There was no difference in villus density (VD between birds fed diets without additives or diets containing probiotics and prebiotics. Nevertheless, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05 between the evaluated factors for VD in the duodenum. Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age.

  13. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

  14. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid induces lipolysis in adipose tissue of coconut oil-fed mice but not soy oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Hadenfeldt, T J; Miner, J L; Hargrave-Barnes, K M

    2011-09-01

    Mice fed diets containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are leaner than mice not fed CLA. This anti-obesity effect is amplified in mice fed coconut oil-containing or fat free diets, compared to soy oil diets. The present objective was to determine if CLA alters lipolysis in mice fed different base oils. Mice were fed diets containing soy oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), or fat free (FF) for 6 weeks, followed by 10 or 12 days of CLA or no CLA supplementation. Body fat, tissue weights, and ex vivo lipolysis were determined. Relative protein abundance and activation of perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) were determined by western blotting. CLA feeding caused mice to have less (P oil source, P oil source interaction on lipolysis as CO + CLA and FF + CLA-fed mice had increased (P < 0.05) rates of lipolysis but SO + CLA-fed mice did not. However, after 12 days of CLA consumption, activated perilipin was increased (P < 0.05) only in SO + CLA-fed mice and total HSL and ATGL were decreased (P < 0.05) in CO + CLA-fed mice. Therefore, the enhanced CLA-induced body fat loss in CO and FF-fed mice appears to involve increased lipolysis but this effect may be decreasing by 12 days of CLA consumption.

  15. Cross Federal Workgroup on Telehealth (FedTel) Inventory of Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is a collection of the submitted activities and projects from member of the Cross Federal Workgroup on Telehealth (FedTel). The FedTel's membership...

  16. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O;

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  17. SIMULATION OF CYCLOCONVERTER FED SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Pratap Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase induction motors are widely used in many applications. Improvements in its performance mean a great saving in electrical energy consumption. A cycloconverter fed variable frequency motor is a typical example of such improvement. In this regard, the paper presents an analysis of the performance and speed control of the split phase induction motor when it is fed with cycloconverter. Dynamic models and analysis of the motor behavior during transient and steady state phases are presented. A speed controller based oncycloconverter is proposed. The controlled motor exhibited better performance at staring state. A cycloconverter is a device that converts AC, power at one frequency into AC power of an adjustable but lower frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in between. It can also be considered as a static frequency changer andtypically contains silicon-controlled rectifiers.

  18. [Hypertonic dehydration in "silent" malnutrition of breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, P A; Toet, M C; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, J A; Renardel de Lavalette, P A; de Jonge, G A

    1998-05-01

    Two firstborn, breast-fed infants (delivery at home) were admitted to the hospital in a critical state of hypernatraemic dehydration. Case 1, a boy aged 13 days, had suffered 1220 g loss of weight since birth (31%), his serum sodium concentration was 180 mmol/l. Case 2, a girl aged 7 days, had lost 610 g since birth (18%); her serum sodium level was 159 mmol/l. In both cases poor professional support of lactation and lack of weight control had resulted in unnoticed severe malnutrition. After slow rehydration recovery was uneventful. Closer monitoring of babies' weight, e.g. twice a week, is advocated especially for breast-fed firstborns in the early weeks of life.

  19. A space-fed phased array for surveillance from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Charles H.; Wong, Sam H.; Perkons, Alfred R.; Igwe, Christian I.

    1991-05-01

    A space-fed radar antenna called a venetian blind is proposed for all-weather wide-area surveillance from space. Radar requirements for tasked and untasked operation are discussed, and the process of selecting the venetian blind concept, which can support both, is described. In its untasked form (essentially a space-fed passive lens), it achieves off-axis squint angles of many beamwidths with negligible performance degradation. It is inherently insensitive to mechanical distortion and is a first step in the evolution to the more complex tasked system antenna. The antenna lens consists of easily manufactured slats with microstrip dipole radiating elements and matching networks on a dielectric substrate. Phase control is achieved with low-loss delay lines in the passive lens or active transmit/receive modules if electronic scan is desired.

  20. Meat characteristics of buffaloes fed with different roughage: concentrate ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sanghuayprai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Meat characteristics of mature swamp buffalo fed with two different ratios of roughage and concentrate feed was studied. Twelve draught buffaloes with an average weight of 350 kg were randomly divided into two treatments and kept individually in pens. The concentrate:roughage ratio (based on dry matter was 50:50 (T1 or 30:70 (T2, respectively. All buffaloes were slaughtered at a body weight of 500 kg (± 25 and M. longissimus dorsi was removed in order to study meat quality. The meat quality in terms of color, pH and conductivity values were not significantly different between the groups. Meat color in terms of L* (lightness showed that LD of T2 group was significantly lighter when compared with T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, meat characteristic traits of buffalo fed concentrate to roughage in ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 were similar.

  1. SELF CONTROL OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FED BY MATRIX CONVERTER

    OpenAIRE

    CALISKAN, ABUZER; Orhan, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study self control of synchronous motor fed by matrix converter was examined by developing a Matlab/simulink model. Self control of synchronous motor was performed by fixing frequency of stator voltage to rotor speed. Thus, the probable danger of asynchronism of the motor during transient operation in open loop control is removed. In the developed model, simplified Venturini modulation algorithm was used. This algorithm provides unity fundamental displacement factor at the input regar...

  2. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  3. Improved Energy Conversion for Doubly Fed Wind Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A. C.; Todd, R.; Barnes, M; Tavner, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently significant interest in offshore wind turbines up to 5 MW. One of the preferred options is doubly fed slip-ring generators. Turbine manufacturers have proposed an operating scheme for low speeds that is claimed to improve the overall energy extraction from the wind. This paper aims to examine the performance benefits for this new operational mode on a small experimental rig, confirmed by simulation, and to provide a fundamental understanding of the differences in the genera...

  4. Microstrip-fed Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; McEvoy, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A wideband circularly-polarized printed antenna is proposed, which employs an asymmetrical dipole and a slit in the ground plane which are fed by an L-shaped microstrip feedline using a via. The proposed antenna geometry is arranged so that the orthogonal surface currents, which are generated in the dipole, feedline and ground plane, have the appropriate phase to provide circular polarization. A parametric study of the key parameters is made and the mechanism for circular polarization is desc...

  5. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Behera; D. R. Poddar; Mishra, R K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array...

  6. A New Asymmetrical Current-fed Converter with Voltage Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Delshad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter with high voltage gain. In this converter all switches (main and auxiliary) turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. Furthermore, the voltage spike across the main switch due to leakage inductance of forward transformer is absorbed. The flyback transformer which is connected to the output in series causes to high voltage gain and less voltage s...

  7. Corner-Fed Microstrip Antenna Analysis for Dual Polarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates a corner-fed microstrip patch antenna by means of the cavity model with proposedfeed modeling. The input impedance and radiation patterns for a corner feed are calculated. The mutual coupling be-tween two corner feeds is investigated. An improvement in mutual coupling has been found for corner feeds relativeto edge feeds, which is helpful for the design of dual-polarized antenna arrays in wireless communication and radarapplications

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococci Isolated from Turkey Flocks Fed Virginiamycin

    OpenAIRE

    Welton, L. A.; Thal, L A; Perri, M B; Donabedian, S; McMahon, J.; Chow, J. W.; Zervos, M J

    1998-01-01

    From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE types of E. faecalis and 7 PFGE types of E...

  9. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  10. CPW-Fed Slot Antenna for Wideband Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmuganantham, T.; K. Balamanikandan; Raghavan, S

    2008-01-01

    A new coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed wideband printed slot antenna is presented, and the impedance characteristics of this antenna with different sizes of tapers are discussed. The effect of tapering angle with the resonant frequency is also observed. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as bandwidth, return loss, gain, radiation pattern, and polarization are obtained. All meets the acceptable antenna standards. The measured input impedance bandwidth (return loss < −10 dB) of the pro...

  11. Electromagnetic effects on the FED/INTOR limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic effects were among the critical issues of the impurity control system examined in the 1982 FED/INTOR design study. During a plasma disruption, the decaying plasma current induces voltages and currents in the first wall and limiter systems which can produce arcing between limiter segments and large forces and torques on the limiter. The effects of first wall time constant, limiter electrical resistance, and limiter segmentation on the voltages, forces, and torques were studied

  12. A compact wideband monopole antenna fed by coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guoping; Zhao, Wenhua; Zhou, Jiang; Su, Yan; Li, Qifu

    2016-02-01

    A compact wideband printed antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) is presented in this paper. The wideband characteristic is achieved by coupling three monopole resonant modes of the proposed antenna. The proposed antenna is built and simulated to verify the design strategy. A wide impedance bandwidth of 100.5% (1.7866-5.3953 GHz) with S11antenna has stable performance, including bi-directional radiation pattern and gain. It also shows the merits of low cost and simple structure.

  13. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  14. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.-M.; Schaller, K.-H.; Angerer, J

    2004-08-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 {mu}g/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 {mu}g/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; {sigma}PCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 {mu}g/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 {mu}g/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any

  15. Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

  16. Crowbar system in doubly fed induction wind generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, M. B. C.; Cardoso, J. R. [Laboratory of Applied Electromagnetism-LMAG, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines-IEM, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Grilo, A. P. [Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Science Center-Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil); Rahmann, C. [Institute of Power Systems and Power Economics-IAEW, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). According to new grid code requirements, wind turbines must remain connected to the grid during grid disturbances. Moreover, they must also contribute to voltage support during and after grid faults. The crowbar system is essential to avoid the disconnection of the doubly fed induction wind generators from the network during faults. The insertion of the crowbar in the rotor circuits for a short period of time enables a more efficient terminal voltage control. As a general rule, the activation and the deactivation of the crowbar system is based only on the DC-link voltage level of the back-to-back converters. In this context, the authors discuss the critical rotor speed to analyze the instability of doubly fed induction generators during grid faults. (author)

  17. Crowbar System in Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício B. C. Salles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT. According to new grid code requirements, wind turbines must remain connected to the grid during grid disturbances. Moreover, they must also contribute to voltage support during and after grid faults. The crowbar system is essential to avoid the disconnection of the doubly fed induction wind generators from the network during faults. The insertion of the crowbar in the rotor circuits for a short period of time enables a more efficient terminal voltage control. As a general rule, the activation and the deactivation of the crowbar system is based only on the DC-link voltage level of the back-to-back converters. In this context, the authors discuss the critical rotor speed to analyze the instability of doubly fed induction generators during grid faults.

  18. Genetic identification and phylogenetic relationships of Indian clariids based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Aneesha; Kumar, Raj; Shajitha, P P; John, Reshma; Padmakumar, K G; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mathew, Linu

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) sequence variation among the clariid fishes of India (Clarias magur, C. dussumieri and C. gariepinus) and their relationship with other representative clariids was studied in this work. Three species were sampled and together with 23 COI sequences from GenBank were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in the family Clariidae. The study revealed two clades: one consisting of the African species with C. dussumieri, and the other of Asian species suggesting the prevalence of intra-continental diversification of catfishes. This study further revealed that the genus Clarias is monophyletic. For the COI gene, the interspecies genetic divergence ranged from 0.056 to 0.182. The mean genetic difference between C. dussumieri and other selected African species in this study is 12.1%. It was also observed that the morphological similarity of C. dussumieri and C. magur was not replicated in the genetic level. Clarias dussumieri was more close to African catfish C. gariepinus thus indicating the utility of COI phylogeny to identify the well-known African-Asian relationships within catfishes. The results also showed that C. magur and C. batrachus are genetically distinct from each other. PMID:26358817

  19. Abundance and diversity of rumen protozoa in lambs fed Gliricidia sepium silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martinele

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal protozoa in lambs after partial replacement of feed concentrates in their diets with Gliricidia sepium silage. Twenty-four male Santa Ines lambs with an average initial weight of 14.5 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replications. Treatments (given as a percentage of dry matter were as follows: control - corn silage (600 g kg-1 as fed + concentrate (400 g kg-1 as fed; GS133 - corn silage (600 g kg-1 as fed + G. sepium silage (133 g kg-1 as fed + concentrate (267 g kg-1 as fed; GS267 - corn silage (600 g kg-1 as fed + G. sepium silage (267g kg-1 as fed + concentrate (133 g kg-1 as fed; and GS400 - corn silage (600 g kg-1 as fed + G. sepium silage (400 g kg-1 as fed. Samples of rumen contents were obtained at slaughter, and analysis revealed the presence of nine genera of rumen protozoa that were present in all animals, with the exception of Enoploplastron and Eremoplastron. There were no significant differences in the average total numbers of rumen ciliates or in the composition of species between lambs. Inclusion of up to 400 g kg-1 (as fed G. sepium silage in the diet of lambs does not affect the diversity or density of rumen protozoa.

  20. Urotensin II promotes atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li

    Full Text Available Urotensin II (UII is a vasoactive peptide composed of 11 amino acids that has been implicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether UII affects the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. UII was infused for 16 weeks through an osmotic mini-pump into male Japanese White rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions along with cellular components, collagen fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 were examined. Moreover, vulnerability index of atherosclerotic plaques was evaluated. UII infusion significantly increased atherosclerotic lesions within the entire aorta by 21% over the control (P = 0.013. Atherosclerotic lesions were increased by 24% in the aortic arch (P = 0.005, 11% in the thoracic aorta (P = 0.054 and 18% in the abdominal aorta (P = 0.035. These increases occurred without changes in plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides or body weight. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly enhanced by 2.2-fold and 1.6-fold in UII group. In vitro studies demonstrated that UII up-regulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by the UII receptor antagonist urantide. In conclusion, our results showed that UII promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  1. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W. [TECO-Westinghouse Motor Co., Round Rock, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Adjustable speed drives (ASD) are commonly used in power electronics and control systems. It is estimated that more than 15 per cent of medium voltage motors are currently fed by such drives worldwide. A research project was conducted to examine the influence of medium voltage pulse width modulated (PWM) ASD on motor stator insulation systems. The findings, based on accelerated laboratory tests, have helped designers to improve the capabilities of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors. Repetitive, high magnitude voltage spikes with fast rise time create significant stress on insulation systems. Gradual deterioration and premature failure of the motor insulation can result from surge voltages which generate surface discharges between phase windings/end windings, or partial discharges between stator turns. However, there is no industrial standard to evaluate motor insulation life under ASD-cable-motor conditions. Several material manufacturers have developed their own version of corona resistant material. However, the insulation life of ASD-fed motors does not depend solely on the raw materials. Rather, it depends on the complete insulation system, including the stator manufacturing process. In order to address this problem, TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company has developed special design criteria and manufacturing practices in order to reduce winding insulation temperature and to compensate for the additional heat generated by high frequency contents in the PWM voltage waveform. A patent pending new cooling system should reduce winding temperature by 15 to 20 degrees C. This paper presented design considerations for turn insulation, groundwall insulation, and a voltage stress grading system. A new thermal class H insulation system was also described. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  3. Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhlouf Laakam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a grid connected wind power generation scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied. The aims of this paper are: The modelling and simulation of the operating in two quadrants (torque-speed of a DFIG, the analysis employs a stator flux vector control algorithm to control rotor current using the PI regulator. The simulation calculations were achieved using MATLAB®-SIMULINK® package. The obtained results are presented, illustrating the good control performances of the system

  4. Wind Generator Stabilization with Doubly-Fed Asynchronous Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li; WANG Zhi-xin

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the function of doubly-fed asynchronous machine(DASM) with emphasis placed on its ability to the stabilization of the power system including wind generators. P(active power) and Q(reactive power) compensation from DASM can be regulated independently through secondary-excitation controlling. Simulation results by power system computer aided design(PSCAD) show that DASM can restore the wind-generator system to a normal operating condition rapidly even following severe transmission-line failures. Comparison studies have also been performed between wind turbine pitch control and proposed method.

  5. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP) operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstr...

  6. Wideband Coaxial Fed Rotated Stacked Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ujwala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel circularly polarized coaxial fed rotated stacked patch antenna is proposed and its performance characteristics are presented in the current work. The antenna consisting of four parasitic patch, each one being rotated by 300 relative to its adjacent patches. The proposed antenna is giving return loss less than -10 dB with VSWR<2 and bandwidth 700 MHz (5.8 to 6.5 GHz with axial ratio less than 3dB. The analysis of the antenna is explained through parametric study and HFSS simulation results are presented in the current work.

  7. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha; Meenakshi saini

    2014-01-01

    A single-fed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02) substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42%...

  8. NCI at Frederick Contributes to Feds Feed Families | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once again, NCI at Frederick participated in the annual Feds Feed Families event, which challenges federal workers to help knock out hunger with a food drive. This year, NIH collected 26,315 pounds of non-perishable goods, beating its goal of collecting 20,000 pounds. This includes over four tons of food that was collected at satellite locations, including NCI at Frederick. The food collected at NCI at Frederick was donated locally to the Frederick Rescue Mission. These donations help feed local families in need through the holiday season.

  9. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  10. Exploring New Clustering Algorithms for the CMS Tracker FED

    CERN Document Server

    Gamboa Alvarado, Jose Leandro

    2013-01-01

    In the current Front End (FE) firmware clusters of hits within the APV frames are found using a simple threshold comparison (which is made between the data and a 3 or 5 sigma strip noise cut) on reordered pedestal and Common Mode (CM) noise subtracted data. In addition the CM noise subtraction requires the baseline of each APV frame to be approximately uniform. Therefore, the current algorithm will fail if the APV baseline exhibits large-scale non-uniform behavior. Under very high luminosity conditions the assumption of a uniform APV baseline breaks down and the FED is unable to maintain a high efficiency of cluster finding. \

  11. Electric Vehicle IM Controller Based on Voltage-Fed Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 张承宁; 袁学; 谭建

    2004-01-01

    A novel electric vehicle (EV) induction motor (IM) controller based on voltage-fed inverter is presented. It is shown that the proposed adaptive control algorithm effectively both simplifies the structure and expands the capacity of controller. The relationship between stator's voltage and that of current under rotor's flux-oriented-coordinates is first introduced, and then the structure of vector control is analyzed, in which voltage compensation is inducted as the core feedback procedure. Experiments prove that, together with a facility for realization, a smooth transition, a prompt torque response and small concussion are gained. Extensive research conducted by varying parameters that result in practical ripple is proposed in conclusion.

  12. CPW-Fed Slot Antenna for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shanmuganantham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coplanar waveguide (CPW-fed wideband printed slot antenna is presented, and the impedance characteristics of this antenna with different sizes of tapers are discussed. The effect of tapering angle with the resonant frequency is also observed. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as bandwidth, return loss, gain, radiation pattern, and polarization are obtained. All meets the acceptable antenna standards. The measured input impedance bandwidth (return loss < −10 dB of the prototype antenna is 52% (4.27–7.58 GHz. The radiation patterns are bidirectional in both planes. This antenna can be part of various wireless communication systems.

  13. Active CPW-fed slot antennas for power combining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanyos, Brian K.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    We have combined integrated circuit antenna technology with microwave oscillator design to build an active slot-oscillator. The design is planar, does not require via holes and is compatible with monolithic transistor technology. The CPW-fed antenna impedance is calculated using a full-wave analysis technique. Slot-oscillators were built at 7, 13, and 22 GHz, and the predicted oscillation frequencies agree well with experiments. The design is easily scaled to millimeter-wave frequencies and can be extended to power combining arrays.

  14. Commercial enzyme influence on broilers fed different levels of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Seifi S.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multienzyme supplement (Natuzyme®) in diets containing wheat on the broilers performance. A total of one hundred twenty day old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with a 2 3 factorial arrangement (0, 150 and 300 gram per kilogram wheat and 0 and 0.025 gram per kilogram enzyme). Chickens were fed with starter, grower and finisher diets during 1-21, 22- 35, 36-49 day...

  15. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John;

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  16. Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, HJM; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Raangs, GC; Wagendorp, AA; Klijn, N; Bindels, JG; Welling, GW

    2000-01-01

    Background: An obvious difference between breast-fed and formula-fed newborn infants is the development of the intestinal flora, considered to be of importance for protection against harmful micro-organisms and for the maturation of the intestinal immune system. In this study, novel molecular identi

  17. Biodiversity under threat in glacier-fed river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Milner, Alexander M.; Brown, Lee E.; Dangles, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is under threat across the globe, with climate change being a significant contributor. One impact of climate change is the rapid shrinking of glaciers, resulting in a reduction in glacial meltwater contribution to river flow in many glacierized catchments. These changes potentially affect the biodiversity of specialized glacier-fed river communities. Perhaps surprisingly then, although freshwater biodiversity is a major conservation priority, the effects of shrinkage and disappearance of glaciers on river biodiversity have hitherto been poorly quantified. Here we focus on macroinvertebrates (mainly insect larvae) and demonstrate that local (α) and regional (γ) diversity, as well as turnover among reaches (β-diversity), will be consistently reduced by the shrinkage of glaciers. We show that 11-38% of the regional species pools, including endemics, can be expected to be lost following complete disappearance of glaciers in a catchment, and steady shrinkage is likely to reduce taxon turnover in proglacial river systems and local richness at downstream reaches where glacial cover in the catchment is less than 5-30%. Our analysis demonstrates not only the vulnerability of local biodiversity hotspots but also that extinction will probably greatly exceed the few known endemic species in glacier-fed rivers.

  18. Transitioning the child fed by gastrostomy into school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J S; Davis, B D; La Montagne, M J

    1990-07-01

    Young children dependent on gastrostomy feeding are examples of special-needs children now eligible for expanded nutrition services in schools through Public Law 99-457. With the implementation of this law, nutritionists have an opportunity to expand their roles as consultants to special education teachers. A team approach involving nutrition, nursing, and special education was used to prepare a gastrostomy-fed preschool child and his family for school. The family of the multihandicapped child had been isolated by the child's feeding problems and viewed the problems as barriers to his entering school. Components of a nutrition care plan for an interdisciplinary team included oral feeding readiness, nutritional adequacy and timing of meals, and mechanical aspects of gastrostomy feeding in the classroom. Nutrition interventions were adjusted for the classroom from those used in the home or clinical setting. The major activity in the transition program was behavioral management of the child's rumination, which affected nutritional status and feeding. The major outcome of the transition program was enrollment of the child in school, with gastrostomy feeding as a routine activity. A transition program for a gastrostomy-fed child is an appropriate mechanism for expanding the role of the nutritionist into the classroom. PMID:2114432

  19. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  20. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  1. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  2. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) larger for the 25-ppm-dieldrin group. Pituitary glands were smaller and thyroids were larger in dieldrin-fed deer. Weight gains of fawns were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2 of 3 years in dieldrin-treated groups. Placental transfer of dieldrin occurred. Whole milk from does fed 25 ppm dieldrin contained residues of 17 ppm. Residue levels in brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27

  3. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  4. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den, L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and 50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan con...

  5. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

  6. Six-Phase Matrix Converter Fed Double Star Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendiabdellah Azeddine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available two different control strategies applied to a direct AC-AC six-phase matrixconverter are investigated in the present paper. The first strategy is derived from theVenturini method, and the second approach is practically an extension of the scalarstrategy control. Both strategies were originally applied to the three-phase matrixconverter.The current investigation deals with a comparative performance study of a double starinduction motor fed from a six-phase matrix converter using the two above controlstrategies.After a theoretical introduction of the six-phase matrix converter, a detailed description ofthe strategies implementation is presented followed by a discussion of results obtained fromsimulation results.

  7. A New Asymmetrical Current-fed Converter with Voltage Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELSHAD, M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter with high voltage gain. In this converter all switches (main and auxiliary turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. Furthermore, the voltage spike across the main switch due to leakage inductance of forward transformer is absorbed. The flyback transformer which is connected to the output in series causes to high voltage gain and less voltage stress on the power devices. Considering high efficiency and voltage gain of this converter, it is suitable for green generated systems such as fuel cells or photovoltaic systems. The presented experimental results verify the integrity of the proposed converter.

  8. A multipurpose fiber-fed VPHG spectrograph for LAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongtian; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhang, Qingfeng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jianing

    2006-06-01

    A multipurpose fiber-fed double-beam Schmidt spectrograph using VPHG (volume phase holographic gratings) is under construction for LAMOST (The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope). There are 16 such spectrographs (hereafter referred to as LRSs) for the project. The spectrographs are designed with wavelength coverage from 370 to 900 nm, with spectral resolutions of 1000-10000, and with multi-object capability over a 5 degrees field of view. Each spectrograph will be accommodating 250 fibers of 320 microns diameter (corresponding 3.3 arcsecs). The 200 mm diameter collimated beam is split into two separate channels. The blue channel is optimized for 370nm-590nm, and the red channel for 570nm-900nm. The LRS can work in several varied resolution modes. The optical design and performance is described. The spectrograph is of simple design with moderate image quality and good throughput. Progress on the construction of LRS is reported as well.

  9. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.

  10. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-fed circularly polarized (CP patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02 substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42% and Axial Ratio Bandwidth by 4% by this design. The other Parameters of antenna like return loss and radiation pattern are also analyzed using HFSS software.

  11. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstrip array antenna achieves a wide 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of more than 10%. Simulated data are also provided to confirm the measured results.

  12. Cross polarization in beam waveguide-fed Cassegrain reflector antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Bijan

    1991-02-01

    The sensitivity of the cross-polarization level to a deviation from the geometrical condition derived by Mizusawa and Kitsuregawa (1973) for different geometrical configurations is studied. This condition restricts the number of possible beam waveguide configurations for beam waveguide-fed Cassegrain reflector (BFCR) antennas. For a symmetrical feed, this condition results in a symmetrical aperture distribution with no cross-polarized component. By examining a number of beam waveguide configurations satisfying the condition, it was observed that for linearly polarized feed, the cross-polarization level is very sensitive to a deviation from this condition. For circularly polarized feed, deviation from this condition does not increase the cross-polarization level; however, it results in the squinting of the beam for BFCRs.

  13. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  14. [Neural network detection of abnormalities in fed-batch fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Feng; Yuan, Jing-Qi

    2005-01-01

    During fermentation, it is often difficult to detect the abnormalities, for example, caused by contamination on-line. Instead, the faults were detected usually by off-line laboratory analysis or other ways, which in most cases, is too late to remedy the situation. In this paper, a simple three-layers BP network was used for the early prediction of the amount of product, based on the difference in prediction errors between normal and abnormal charges and other accessorial information, such as profit function and pH value. In addition, three indications characteristic to abnormal charge are incorporated in practical operation. The prediction for Cephalosporin C Fed-batch Fermentation in a Chinese pharmaceutical factory was studied in details as an example and the result shows the abnormal charge can be discovered early successfully using the method. PMID:15859337

  15. Analysis of Variable Speed PFC Chopper Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jeya Selvan Renius

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the detailed analysis of the DC-DC chopper fed Brushless DC motor drive used for low-power applications. The various methods used to improve the power quality at the ac mains with lesser number of components are discussed. The most effective method of power quality improvement is also simulated using MATLAB Simulink. Improved method of speed control by controlling the dc link voltage of Voltage Source Inverter is also discussed with reduced switching losses. The continuous and discontinuous modes of operation of the converters are also discussed based on the improvement in power quality. The performance of the most effective solution is simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment and the obtained results are presented.

  16. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  17. Fusion Engineering Device (FED) first wall/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The torus of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is comprised of the bulk shield and its associated spool lstructure and support system, the first wall water-cooled panel and armor systems, and the pumped limiter. The bulk shielding is provided by ten shield sectors that are installed in the spool structure in such a way as to permit extraction of the sectors through the openings between adjacent toroidal field coils with a direct radial movement. The first wall armor is installed on the inboard and top interior walls of these sectors, and the water-cooled panels are installed on the outboard interior walls and the pumped limiter in the bottom of the sectors. The overall design of the first wall and shield system is described in this paper

  18. Robust Adaptive Reactive Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reactive power control for mains-side inverter (MSI in doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied in this paper. To accommodate the modelling nonlinearities and inherent uncertainties, a novel robust adaptive control algorithm for MSI is proposed by utilizing Lyapunov theory that ensures asymptotic stability of the system under unpredictable external disturbances and significant parametric uncertainties. The distinguishing benefit of the aforementioned scheme consists in its capabilities to maintain satisfactory performance under varying operation conditions without the need for manually redesigning or reprogramming the control gains in contrast to the commonly used PI/PID control. Simulations are also built to confirm the correctness and benefits of the control scheme.

  19. Hopf bifurcation in doubly fed induction generator under vector control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first presents the Hopf bifurcation phenomena of a vector-controlled doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) which is a competitive choice in wind power industry. Using three-phase back-to-back pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converters, DFIG can keep stator frequency constant under variable rotor speed and provide independent control of active and reactive power output. Main results are illustrated by 'exact' cycle-by-cycle simulations. The detailed mathematical model of the closed-loop system is derived and used to analyze the observed bifurcation phenomena. The loci of the Jacobian's eigenvalues are computed and the analysis shows that the system loses stability via a Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, the boundaries of Hopf bifurcation are also given to facilitate the selection of practical parameters for guaranteeing stable operation.

  20. Pump Fed Propulsion for Mars Ascent and Other Challenging Maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    Returning Mars geology samples to Earth within science mission budgets requires a miniature launch vehicle (100-200 kg) for ascending from Mars to an orbital rendezvous. A Mars Ascent Vehicle must deliver a velocity change exceeding 4 km/s within minutes, entirely outside the capabilities of satellite propulsion. A possible solution is to scale down liquid launch vehicle principles to achieve stage propellant mass fractions near 90 percent. Feeding a high-pressure engine from thin-walled low pressure tanks permits stage hardware to be sufficiently lightweight and compact, if very high performance pumps can be made available. NASA's Mars Technology Program has funded refinement and testing of a miniature piston pump, powered by reacted propellant. A pump-fed bipropellant rocket stage remains to be developed. The technology could also benefit other future lunar and planetary science programs.

  1. Wireless Sensor Networking for Rain-fed Farming Decision Support

    CERN Document Server

    Panchard, J; Sheshshayee, M S; Papadimitratos, P; Kumar, S; Hubaux, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be a valuable decision-support tool for farmers. This motivated our deployment of a WSN system to support rain-fed agriculture in India. We defined promising use cases and resolved technical challenges throughout a two-year deployment of our COMMON-Sense Net system, which provided farmers with environment data. However, the direct use of this technology in the field did not foster the expected participation of the population. This made it difficult to develop the intended decision-support system. Based on this experience, we take the following position in this paper: currently, the deployment of WSN technology in developing regions is more likely to be effective if it targets scientists and technical personnel as users, rather than the farmers themselves. We base this claim on the lessons learned from the COMMON-Sense system deployment and the results of an extensive user experiment with agriculture scientists, which we describe in this paper.

  2. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    the reactive power operation of the converters, in steadystate, within a maximum band of 10 %. It is clear that an on-load tap changer system will help to keep the stator voltage close to its nominal value, but the action of the mechanically switched capacitors is badly influencing the on-load tap changer line......In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... it offers very fast system response to grid disturbances and lower sensitivity to the grid impedance, and moreover, this control structure releases the central control of having grid impedance estimation techniques or adaptive control methods. The difference between the required reactive power and the one...

  3. Growth rate of sheep fed high fat ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating high amount of fats into the ration for ruminants will affect the rumen microbes adversely and will reducefiber digestion potential. To correct such negative effects, the free fatty acids used for feed should be bond with Ca++, so it canpassing through the rumen savely (rumen by-pass fat. To test the Ca-fat utilization biologically, 20 growing male Garut shee pwere used and fed with 4 type of isocaloric-isoprotein concentrate feed which were allotted based on a randomized block desig nwith 5 replications. The concentrate (C-A was a positive control diet, while C-B was substituted with 10% free fatty acids (negative control, C-C was substituted with 10% Ca-fat, and C-D with 15% Ca-fat. The concentrate feed was fed at 500 g/d, while forage (King grass was 4 kg/d. Results of the experiment showed that the negative effect of free fatty acids can be corrected if it was given in the form of Ca-fat. Growth rate curve indicating a good growing pattern, with average daily gain was 100.18, 87.68, 112.86, and 115.00 g/d (P0.05. Carcass production was relatively good, where for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D were 14.84, 14.68, 16.34, and 15.72 kg (P<0.05 respectively, with final live weights of 34.00, 31.74, 34.58, and 34.30 kg (P<0.05. It can be concluded that Ca-fat (rumen by-pass fat can be used as an energy source component for growing sheep diet, and give the best result at 10% substitution rate in concentrate feed.

  4. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream. PMID:26775961

  5. Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (138, 153, 180) in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K; Hille, A; Ende, M; Helge, H

    1994-01-01

    Intake and fecal excretion of PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB and PCBs (IUPAC Nos. 138, 153, 180) were measured in a breast-fed and a formula-fed infant at the age of 1 and 5 months. As expected, the intake of these compounds was clearly higher in the breast-fed infant. In this baby an almost complete absorption was observed for lower chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs and also for HCB and PCBs, whereas for hepta- and octachlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs fecal excretion was considerably higher (from 20% up to nearly 100% of the intake). Due to low concentrations in diet and feces of the formula-fed infant an evaluation was possible only for a few compounds at the age of 5 months. These values were in the same range when compared with those of the breast-fed infant. For collection of feces new cotton diapers were used which were pre-extracted in order to reduce the levels of polychlorinated compounds. Unexpectedly, after washing the tissue a much higher contamination was observed which made a calculation of fecal excretion rates in the formula-fed infant at the age of 1 month impossible. PMID:7850375

  6. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  7. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  8. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  9. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  10. A novel LTCC differentially Fed UWB antenna for the 60 GHz band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Valavan, A.S.E.; Buisman, K.; Shoykhetbrod, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel differentially fed Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology to be used in the 60 GHz band for integrated RF front-ends is presented. The antenna is based on the aperture stacked patch fed via H-shaped aperture to achieve more than 10

  11. Development of a Gas-Fed Pulse Detonation Research Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Hutt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In response to the growing need for empirical data on pulse detonation engine performance and operation, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and placed into operation a low-cost gas-fed pulse detonation research engine. The guiding design strategy was to achieve a simple and flexible research apparatus, which was inexpensive to build and operate. As such, the engine was designed to operate as a heat sink device, and testing was limited to burst-mode operation with run durations of a few seconds. Wherever possible, maximum use was made of standard off-the-shelf industrial or automotive components. The 5-cm diameter primary tube is about 90-cm long and has been outfitted with a multitude of sensor and optical ports. The primary tube is fed by a coaxial injector through an initiator tube, which is inserted directly into the injector head face. Four auxiliary coaxial injectors are also integrated into the injector head assembly. All propellant flow is controlled with industrial solenoid valves. An automotive electronic ignition system was adapted for use, and spark plugs are mounted in both tubes so that a variety of ignition schemes can be examined. A microprocessor-based fiber-optic engine control system was developed to provide precise control over valve and ignition timing. Initial shakedown testing with hydrogen/oxygen mixtures verified the need for Schelkin spirals in both the initiator and primary tubes to ensure rapid development of the detonation wave. Measured pressure wave time-of-flight indicated detonation velocities of 2.4 km/sec and 2.2 km/sec in the initiator and primary tubes, respectively. These values implied a fuel-lean mixture corresponding to an H2 volume fraction near 0.5. The axial distribution for the detonation velocity was found to be essentially constant along the primary tube. Time-resolved thrust profiles were also acquired for both underfilled and overfilled tube conditions. These profiles are consistent with previous time

  12. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH3) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO2) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N2O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH4) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia and bacteria

  13. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  14. Absorption line systems in simulated galaxies fed by cold streams

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel R

    2011-01-01

    Hydro cosmological simulations reveal that massive galaxies at high redshift are fed by long narrow streams of merging galaxies and a smoother component of cold gas. We post-process seven high-resolution simulated galaxies with radiative transfer to study the absorption characteristics of the gas in galaxies and streams, in comparison with the statistics of observed absorption-line systems. We find that much of the stream gas is ionized by UV radiation from background and local stellar sources, but still optically thick (N_HI > 10^17 cm^2) so that the streams appear as Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). At z>3, the fraction of neutral gas in streams becomes non-negligible, giving rise to damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers as well. The gas in the central and incoming galaxies remains mostly neutral, responsible for DLAs. Within one (two) virial radii, the covering factor of optically thick gas is 30% of the observed absorbers in the foreground of quasars, the rest possibly arising from smaller galaxies or the interga...

  15. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  16. AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg A.; Saunders, Will; Bridges, Terry; Churilov, Vladimir; Lankshear, Allan; Dawson, John; Correll, David; Waller, Lew; Haynes, Roger; Frost, Gabriella

    2004-09-01

    The AAOmega project replaces the two 2dF spectrographs, which are mounted on the top end of the Anglo Australian Telescope, with a bench mounted double beam spectrograph covering 370 to 950nm. The 2dF positioner, field plate tumbler mechanism, and fiber retractors will be retained. The new spectrograph will be fed by 392 fibers from either of the two 2dF field plates, or by the 512 fiber Spiral integral field unit, located at the Cassegrain focus. New instrument control electronics has also been designed to drive the spectrograph. Stability will be improved by locating the spectrograph off the telescope, but the 2df fibers must be extended to thirty-eight metres length. Despite this, using fibers with improved characteristics, increased pupil diameter, volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings with articulated cameras, and more efficient coatings on optics we achieve a minimum twofold increase in throughput. We will also fit larger (4k x 2k pixel) detectors. The spectrograph comprises: a F/3.15 Schmidt collimator, incorporating a dichroic beamsplitter; interchangeable VPH gratings; and articulating red and blue F/1.3 Schmidt cameras. The beamsplitter may be exchanged with others which cut off at different wavelengths. A full suite of VPH gratings are provided to cover resolution to 8000.

  17. Mitochondrial myopathy in Senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, M J; Calore, E E; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Weg, R

    1997-07-01

    Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. Histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. Recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with Senna occidentalis. Currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated with seeds of the poisonous plant S. occidentalis were studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. Since birth, the birds were fed ground dried seeds of this plant with a regular chicken ration at a dose of 4% for 11 days. Microscopic examination revealed, besides muscle-fiber atrophy, lipid storage in most fibers and a moderate amount of cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. This picture was characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy. These findings have hitherto remained unnoticed in skeletal muscle of young birds treated with S. occidentalis.

  18. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Behera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array is linearly polarized. Here four elements were considered and 2arranged at the four corners of a square domain. This arrangement shows that each antenna sees its adjacent ones to be radiating from an edge orthogonal to its edge of radiation. Circular polarization is achieved due to this sequential feeding. This array is designed with operating frequency 2.4 GHz. A good axial ratio of 2.4 is obtained at 2.37 GHz frequency. The noise figure is considerably reduced and which is around -19dB.

  19. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Aceituno, J; Grupp, F; Lillo, J; Hernan-Obispo, M; Benitez, D; Montoya, L M; Thiele, U; Pedraz, S; Barrado, D; Dreizler, S; Bean, J

    2013-01-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alem\\'an (CAHA). CAFE is a single fiber, high-resolution ($R\\sim$70000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800\\AA. It was built on the basis of the common design for Echelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to $V\\sim$13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of $m s^{-1}$. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, so the wavelentgth coverage; no filter wheel, one slit and so on, with a particular care taken in the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the red...

  20. Hectospec, the MMT's 300 Optical Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Fabricant, D; Roll, J; Hertz, E; Caldwell, N; Gauron, T; Geary, J; McLeod, B; Szentgyorgyi, A H; Fabricant, Daniel; Fata, Robert; Roll, John; Hertz, Edward; Caldwell, Nelson; Gauron, Thomas; Geary, John; Leod, Brian Mc; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The Hectospec is a 300 optical fiber fed spectrograph commissioned at the MMT in the spring of 2004. A pair of high-speed six-axis robots move the 300 fiber buttons between observing configurations within ~300 s and to an accuracy ~25 microns. The optical fibers run for 26 m between the MMT's focal surface and the bench spectrograph operating at R~1000-2000. Another high dispersion bench spectrograph offering R~5,000, Hectochelle, is also available. The system throughput, including all losses in the telescope optics, fibers, and spectrograph peaks at ~10% at the grating blaze in 1" FWHM seeing. Correcting for aperture losses at the 1.5" diameter fiber entrance aperture, the system throughput peaks at $\\sim$17%. Hectospec has proven to be a workhorse instrument at the MMT. Hectospec and Hectochelle together were scheduled for 1/3 of the available nights since its commissioning. Hectospec has returned \\~60,000 reduced spectra for 16 scientific programs during its first year of operation.

  1. Photovoltaic Cell Fed 3-Phase Induction Motor Using MPPT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudimetla Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This Paper emphasizes on proposing a cost effective photovoltaic (PV fed 3 phase Induction motor drive which serves for rural pumping applications. Generally in a standalone system, the PV unit will charge the battery and the battery set up in turn will serve as a source for the inverter. A new single stage battery less power conversion is employed by designing a maximum power point tracker (MPPT embedded boost converter which makes the overall cost of the setup to go down considerably. The realized as a prototype consisting PV array of 500watts, MPPT aided boost converter, three phase inverter and a three phase squirrel cage induction drive of 300 watts. An efficient and low cost micro controller dspic4011 is used a platform to code and implement the prominent perturb and observe MPPT technique .Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM is the  control technique employed for  the three phase  inverter. To validate the experimental results simulation of the whole set up is carried out in matlab /simulink environment. Simulation and hardware results reveal that the system is versatile.

  2. Photosensitization in sheep fed Ammi majus (Bishop's weed) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, D A; Dollahite, J W; Jones, L P

    1978-02-01

    Ammi majus (bishop's weed) grows on the coastal region of southern United States and in other parts of the world. This plant causes severe photosensitization in livestock and probably contributes to the severe photosensitization outbreaks seen in Texas. Sheep were fed finely ground seed of A majus via stomach tube at dose rates of 1, 2, 4, and 8 g/kg of body weight and exposed to sunlight. The single dose of 8 g/kg produced severe clinical signs (in 24 to 48 hours): cloudy cornea, conjunctivokeratitis, photophobia, and edema of the muzzle, ears, and vulva. Daily dosing at 2 and 4 g/kg produced (in 72 to 96 hours) similar signs, whereas the smallest dose (1 g/kg) produced mild irritation of the muzzle. Pathologic changes included (1) corneal edema and marked neutrophilic infiltration of the cornea and corneal/ciliary process, (2) subacute ulcerative and exudative dermatitis of the skin of ears, muzzle, and vulva, and (3) mild focal tubular degeneration (vacuolar type) of the kidney.

  3. Design and construction of CPW fed circular microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Kirti; Singhal, P. K.; Sharma, A. K.; Pal, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present feeding approaches of coplanar waveguide fed (CPW) circular microstrip patch antennas, with and without defected ground structure (DGS)`. The antenna feeding impedance is proposed as 50 ohms, built over FR4, a high dielectric constant substrate to obtain broad impedance bandwidth along with stability of the radiation patterns. The antenna with defected ground structure is designed to have band-notched characteristics at 3.5 GHz (for Wi-MAX band-3.3 to 3.7 GHz), at 8.2 GHz (for ITU band-8.025 GHz to 8.4 GHz) so as to avoid interference from these. The FR4 is used as dielectric with value of dielectric loss tangent constant as 0.002 and relative permittivity with 4.4. After applying DGS in ground of the proposed antenna there were improvements concerning bandwidth, and also a small increase in gain was noticed. These antennas are of small sizes with dimensions; 30 mm X 43 mm X 1.6 mm, cheap, compact and easy to fabricate, and achieve good radiation characteristics with higher return loss. This first antenna can have wide application in a great variety of wireless communication and second can operate well as UWB antenna with band notched characteristics. The performance of two antennas is compared in respect to gain, VSWR, return loss and impedance matching.

  4. XAS Studies of Se Speciation in Selenite-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekley, Claire M.; Aitken, Jade B.; Witting, Paul K.; Harris, Hugh H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological activity of selenium is dependent on its chemical form. Therefore, knowledge of Se chemistry in vivo is required for efficacious use of selenium compounds in disease prevention and treatment. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Se speciation in the kidney, liver, heart, spleen, testis and red blood cells of rats fed control (~0.3 ppm Se) or selenite-supplemented (1 ppm or 5 ppm Se) diets for 3 or 6 weeks, was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of Se–Se and Se–C species in the kidney and liver, and Se–S species in the kidney, but not the liver. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra showed that there was variation in speciation in the liver and kidneys, but Se speciation was much more uniform in the remaining organs. Using principal component analysis (PCA) to interpret the Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectra, we were able to directly compare the speciation of Se in two different models of selenite metabolism – human lung cancer cells and rat tissues. The effects of Se dose, tissue type and duration of diet on selenium speciation in rat tissues were investigated, and a relationship between the duration of the diet (3 weeks versus 6 weeks) and selenium speciation was observed. PMID:25363824

  5. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  6. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment

  7. dc power control for a liquid-fed resistojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    A simple breadboard power controller was designed and demonstrated for a new liquid-fed water resistojet. The 1-piece laboratory model thruster has an integrated vaporizer/superheater using a single heating element. Heater temperature was maintained at or near a preset reference value with the closed loop controller providing pulse width modulated (PWM) dc power into the thruster heater. A combined thruster, temperature readout, PWM transfer function was experimentally determined. This transfer function was used to design a proportional plus integral controller that demonstrated zero steady state error, conservative stability margins and adequate transient response to step changes in propellant flow rate, input voltage and temperature reference. Initial turn-on temperature overshoot from room temperature to a 650 C setpoint was 80 C. In addition, EMI was alleviated by reducing heater dI/dt and dV/dt using a simple diode-inductor-capacitor network. Based on limited initial tests, thruster preheat with no propellant flow was necessary to achieve stable system operation during startup. Breadboard power efficiency was 99 percent at 1 kW, and component mass was 0.4 kg excluding the power loss and mass of an input filter required for spacecraft integration.

  8. The dc power control for a liquid-fed resistojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    A simple breadboard power controller was designed and demonstrated for a new liquid-fed water resistojet. The 1-piece laboratory model thruster has an integrated vaporizer/superheater using a single heating element. Heater temperature was maintained at or near a preset reference value with the closed loop controller providing pulse width modulated (PWM) dc power into the thruster heater. A combined thruster, temperature readout, PWM transfer function was experimentally determined. This transfer function was used to design a proportional plus integral controller that demonstrated zero steady state error, conservative stability margins and adequate transient response to step changes in propellant flow rate, input voltage and temperature reference. Initial turn-on temperature overshoot from room temperature to a 650 C setpoint was 80 C. In addition, EMI was alleviated by reducing heater dI/dt and dV/dt using a simple diode-inductor-capacitor network. Based on limited initial tests, thruster preheat with no propellant flow was necessary to achieve stable system operation during startup. Breadboard power efficiency was 99 percent at 1 kW, and component mass was 0.4 kg excluding the power loss and mass of an input filter required for spacecraft integration.

  9. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  10. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  11. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  12. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity.

  13. Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Meat from Capons Fed Cereals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Díaz; Luisana Rodríguez; Alexandr Torres; Ángel Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat from capons (castrated male cockerels) fed cereals were studied. Three groups of capons were reared. One group was fed ad libitum the same commercial diet until the 4th mon of life. The last month of its life, the capons of this group were fed corn. The second and third group of capons were fed the same diet from caponization. The second group was fed mixture of corn (50%) and wheat (50%). The third group of capons was fed 2/3 corn and 1/3 mixture of corn (50%) and barley (50%). Capons were reared under free-range conditions and slaughtered at 150 d of age. Caponization was performed at 48 d. No signiifcant effects of feeding in chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip and cooking losses and texture of the meat were observed. The meat of the third group (capons fed 83%corn) was more yellow and showed higher content of C18:2 than that of the other capons.

  14. Aerobic fungi in the rumen fluid from dairy cattle fed different sources of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Natalicia Mendes de Almeida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic microbiota of the rumen fluid from Holstein cows and heifers fed different tropical forage in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 30 samples of rumen fluid from cows fed with sorghum silage were collected: 32 from cows fed Brachiaria brizantha, 12 from heifers that received sorghum silage and 11 from calves fed sugar cane foliage. The culture was carried out using the agar Sabouraud medium and the solid C medium, containing microcrystalline cellulose. The isolated mycelial fungi were identified by microculture technique and yeasts by micromorphological and physical-chemical analysis. Specific identification for yeasts was confirmed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The presence of fungal colonies was confirmed on the Sabouraud medium for 100% of the samples. No significant differences were observed comparing the concentrations of mycelia fungi in the rumen fluid from cows fed different forages and for the two categories evaluated, fed sorghum silage. Yeast populations in the rumen fluid from heifers fed sugarcane were higher compared with those receiving sorghum silage. The yeast Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei was the most frequent and among the mycelial fungi, the genus Aspergillus was the most frequently observed, corresponding to 56% of the samples. Future studies should elucidate the variations in the populations of these microorganisms considering the carbohydrate sources in the tropical forages and the animal categories. The ecological or pathogenic role of these microorganisms should also be considered, aiming at improved productivity and health of cattle.

  15. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the development and reproduction of Ceraeochrysa cubana when fed the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi. The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba – Areia/PB. It used a completely randomized design. The study was conducted in climate chambers, regulated to 26 ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% with a 12 h photoperiod. The treatments were as follows: eggs, nymphs of only the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th instars, and nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of A. woglumi, with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella as a control. The 1st instar of C. cubana lasted 5.8 to 10.7 days, the 2nd instar lasted 6.0 to 13.3 days, and the 3rd instar lasted 8.2 to 18.5 days. The larvae of C. cubana did not survive when the food provided was only the eggs of A. woglumi, since the predator could not eat them. C. cubana, when provided nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of the citrus blackfly, had a shorter pre-pupal period and lower longevity than when consuming the eggs of S. cerealella, but the sex ratio and oviposition period were not affected. However, changes occurred in the pre-oviposition period, the total number of eggs, and the number of viable eggs.

  16. Food web structure in a harsh glacier-fed river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie R Clitherow

    Full Text Available Glacier retreat is occurring across the world, and associated river ecosystems are expected to respond more rapidly than those in flowing waters in other regions. The river environment directly downstream of a glacier snout is characterised by extreme low water temperature and unstable channel sediments but these habitats may become rarer with widespread glacier retreat. In these extreme environments food web dynamics have been little studied, yet they could offer opportunities to test food web theories using highly resolved food webs owing to their low taxonomic richness. This study examined the interactions of macroinvertebrate and diatom taxa in the Ödenwinkelkees river, Austrian central Alps between 2006 and 2011. The webs were characterised by low taxon richness (13-22, highly connected individuals (directed connectance up to 0.19 and short mean food chain length (2.00-2.36. The dominant macroinvertebrates were members of the Chironomidae genus Diamesa and had an omnivorous diet rich in detritus and diatoms as well as other Chironomidae. Simuliidae (typically detritivorous filterers had a diet rich in diatoms but also showed evidence of predation on Chironomidae larvae. Food webs showed strong species-averaged and individual size structuring but mass-abundance scaling coefficients were larger than those predicted by metabolic theory, perhaps due to a combination of spatial averaging effects of patchily distributed consumers and resources, and/or consumers deriving unquantified resources from microorganisms attached to the large amounts of ingested rock fragments. Comparison of food web structural metrics with those from 62 published river webs suggest these glacier-fed river food web properties were extreme but in line with general food web scaling predictions, a finding which could prove useful to forecast the effects of anticipated future glacier retreat on the structure of aquatic food webs.

  17. An Analysis of Perceived Important Challenges Currently Facing the U.S. Grass-fed Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sitienei, Isaac; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine U.S. grass-fed beef producer perceptions of important challenges facing the industry. The most important challenges facing grass-fed beef producers were shortage of processors, lack of a clear marketing system, pasture management problems, and the long period of time required to get animals to the desired market weight. Key words: Grass-fed beef, grain-fed beef, challenge, industry

  18. A Broadband Circularly Polarized Stacked Probe-Fed Patch Antenna for UHF RFID Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Leong Chung; Xianming Qing; Zhi Ning Chen

    2007-01-01

    A broadband circularly polarized stacked probe-fed antenna suitable for UHF RFID applications is presented and studied. The proposed antenna is fed by two probes which are connected to a hybrid coupler. Two parasitic patches are stacked above a primary probe-fed patch to enhance the bandwidth of the antenna. The optimized antenna prototype achieves gain of more than 6.5 dBic, axial ratio of less than 3.0 dB, and return loss of less than −15 dB over the UHF band of 820–980 MH...

  19. Antidiabetic activity of 3-hydroxyflavone analogues in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Yogendra; Venkatachalam, H.; Daroji, Vijay Kumar; Mathew, Geetha; Jayashree, B. S.; Unnikrishnan, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues (JY-1, JY-2, JY-3, JY-4), were tested for antidiabetic activity in high-fructose-diet-fed (66 %, for 6 weeks) insulin-resistant Wistar rats (FD-fed rats). The fasting blood glucose, insulin, creatinine and AGEs were decreased to near normal upon treatment with test compounds. Insulin resistance markers such as HOMA-IR, K-ITT, plasma triglycerides, lipids, endogenous antioxidant defense and glycogen were restored in FD-fed rats after treatment with 3-hydrox...

  20. Antioxidant capacity of meagre (Argyrossomus regius fed different lipid content and source, with and without selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthelio Braga Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Meagre (600 animals were kept in 24 tanks (80 L with constant renovation and aeration and maintained at 20.7 ± 0.7ºC and oxygen 8.8 ± 1.7 mg L-1. Fish were fed twice per day, six days per week, with eight different experimental diets for 60 days. Diets were formulated to have two different oil sources (fish or vegetable blend oils with 45% of linseed, 35% of rapeseed and 20% of soybean oil, two lipid levels (12 and 17% and two selenium supplementation (0 and 1 mg/kg diet. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (TG and catalase (CAT were analyzed in liver of fish. CAT, GPx and GR activities were not significantly altered in fish fed with diets with different oil sources. However, TG in fish fed with fish oil diet was higher than the levels observed in fish fed with vegetable blend oil. Furthermore, fish fed with fish oil diet showed lower lipid peroxidation when compared with fish fed vegetable blend oil diet (Table 1. Concerning the oil level in diet, it was observed that fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids had a higher level of total glutathione when compared to fish fed with a diet of 12% lipids. On the other hand, the fish fed with a diet with 12% lipids showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids. Fish fed with diets supplemented with selenium showed a significantly increased activity of GPx when compared with fish fed without selenium. Three-way ANOVA analysis showed that dietary lipid level and the presence of selenium have a significant interaction on the activities of CAT and GR, as well as, levels of TG and LPO. A significant interaction between the source of oil and the presence of selenium on GR activities was observed. Interaction on source and level was observed to CAT. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of meagre is influenced by the source of oil, the level of lipids and the presence of selenium in their diet.

  1. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L. emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and possible mechanisms behind the difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Sun

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L. on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake, and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.. The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks. The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  2. Protein abundance of urea transporters and aquaporin 2 change differently in nephrotic pair-fed vs. non-pair-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Matar, Raed N.; Malik, Bela; Wang, Xiaonan H.; Martin, Christopher F; Eaton, Douglas C.; Sands, Jeff M.; Klein, Janet D.

    2012-01-01

    Salt and water retention is a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome (NS). In this study, we test for changes in the abundance of urea transporters, aquaporin 2 (AQP2), Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2), and Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), in non-pair-fed and pair-fed nephrotic animals. Doxorubicin-injected male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) were followed in metabolism cages. Urinary excretion of protein, sodium, and urea was measured periodically. Kidney inner medulla (IM), outer medulla, and cortex tissue...

  3. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  4. Regeneratively-Cooled, Pump-Fed Propulsion Technology for Nano / Micro Satellite Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...

  5. Performance analysis of DFIM fed by matrix converter and multi level inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The performances of a DFIM are considered when it is fed by a matrix and a multi level inverter. • We have presented the stategies of contorl of the two considered configurations. • The obtained simulation results are analyzed and discuted. • Time and frequency analyzes show a better performances when the DFIM is fed by a matrix converter. - Abstract: In this paper, we study the performance of a doubly fed induction machine when its stator and rotor are respectively fed by a matrix converter and a multi level inverter. For this, we first present the structures and models of the machine, the multi level inverter and matrix converter. Then, using simulation analysis, we proceed to test the rate of harmonic distortion of the stator currents obtained for the two considered configurations. The obtained simulation results by numerical simulations are shown and analyzed

  6. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  7. Proximity fed gap-coupled half E-shaped microstrip antenna array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit A Deshmukh; K P Ray

    2015-02-01

    Broadband gap-coupled array configuration of proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna with half E-shaped microstrip antennas are proposed. The rectangular slot in half E-shaped patch reduces the orthogonal TM01 mode resonance frequency of equivalent rectangular patch and along with TM10 modes of fed and parasitic rectangular patches, yields broader bandwidth of more than 470 MHz (> 45%). An improvement in radiation pattern and gain characteristics over the bandwidth is obtained by gap-coupling half E-shaped patches along all the edges of proximity fed rectangular patch, which yields bandwidth of nearly 510 MHz (∼49%). Further to enhance the gain, a gap-coupled 3 × 3 array configuration of half E-shaped patches with proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna is proposed. The gap-coupled array configuration yields bandwidth of more than 530 MHz (>50%) with broadside radiation pattern and peak gain of 11 dBi.

  8. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  9. A High-Payload Fraction, Pump-Fed, 2-Stage Nano Launch Vehicle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on-demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...

  10. Growth and intestinal morphology of pigs from sows fed two zinc sources during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R L; Bidner, T D; Fakler, T M; Southern, L L

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of organic (Zn AA complex, ZnAA) and inorganic Zn (ZnSO4) sources on sows and their progeny during gestation and lactation and on the pigs during the nursery period. The dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 ppm Zn from ZnSO4 (control); 2) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnSO4; and 3) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA. Dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. Thirty-one primaparous and multiparous sows were allotted to the treatment diet beginning on d 15 of gestation and continuing through lactation. At weaning (d 17 of age), 202 pigs (63, 55, and 84 pigs for treatments 1 to 3, respectively) were allotted to the same dietary treatment as their dam. The pigs were fed a 3-phase diet regimen during the nursery period: d 0 to 7 (phase I); d 7 to 21 (phase II); and d 21 to 28 (phase III). At weaning and at the end of phase III, 1 gilt per replicate was killed, and the left front foot, liver, pancreas, and entire small intestine were removed. Diet had no effect (P > 0.10) on any response during gestation. During lactation, there was an increase (P pigs (P pigs (P pigs from sows fed ZnSO4 was increased (P 0.10) by diet. Pigs fed ZnSO4 had greater duodenal villus width (P pigs fed ZnSO4 or the control diet had greater ileal villus width (P Pigs fed ZnSO4 or ZnAA had more (P pigs fed ZnSO4, followed by those fed ZnAA, and then by those fed the control diet (P pigs fed ZnSO4 compared with those fed the control diet. These results suggest that 100 ppm Zn in trace mineral premixes provides adequate Zn for optimal growth performance of nursery pigs, but that 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA in sow diets may increase pigs born and weaned per litter.

  11. Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A. D.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, Florin;

    2004-01-01

    The variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine is today the most widely used concept. The paper presents an overall control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind......-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Simulation results are performed and analyzed in different normal operating conditions....

  12. USEFULNESS OF PLACEMENT-WEIGHT DATA IN FORECASTING FED CATTLE MARKETINGS AND PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, the USDA began reporting cattle-on-feed placements in various weight groups, which should provide information regarding expected slaughter timings and improve fed cattle price forecasts and marketing strategies. Private data were collected to obtain the necessary degrees of freedom to test statistical relationships between placement weight distributions, beef supply, and fed cattle prices. Use of placement weights improved beef supply forecasts only at a one-month horizon; it contrib...

  13. Transient voltage distribution in stator winding of electrical machine fed from a frequency converter

    OpenAIRE

    Oyegoke, Bolarin S.

    2000-01-01

    Standard induction motors are exposed to steep-fronted, non-sinusoidal voltages when fed from frequency converters. These wave patterns can be destructive to the insulation. The aim of the present work is to develop methods of predicting the magnitude and distribution of fast voltage within the stator winding of an electric machine fed from a frequency converter. Three methods of predicting the magnitude and distribution of fast voltages within form windings commonly used in medium and hi...

  14. OPTIMAL FEED STRATEGY FOR FED-BATCH GLYCEROL FERMENTATION DETERMINED BY MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1 IntroductionGlycerol fed-batch fermentation is attractive tocommercial application since it can control theglucose concentration by changing the feed rate andget a high glycerol yield, therefore it is essential todevelop an optimal glucose feed strategy. For mostof fed-batch fermentation, optimization of feed ratewas based on Pontryagin's maximum principle [if.Since the term of feed rate appears linearly in theHamiltonian, the optimal feed rate profile usuallyconsists of ba,lg-bang intervals and singular ...

  15. Differences in Prices and Price Risk across Alternative Marketing Arrangements Used in the Fed Cattle Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Mary K.; Liu, Yanyan; Koontz, Stephen R.; Lawrence, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Information on prices and price risk differences across marketing arrangements aids fed cattle producers in making choices about marketing methods. As part of the congressionally mandated Livestock and Meat Marketing Study, we investigated fed cattle price and price risk differences across marketing arrangements. The analysis uses data representing cattle purchased by 29 large beef packing plants from October 2002 through March 2005. Results indicate that marketing agreements offered the best...

  16. Materials and design experience in a slurry-fed electric glass melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.M.; Larson, D.E.

    1981-08-01

    The design of a slurry-fed electric gas melter and an examination of the performance and condition of the construction materials were completed. The joule-heated, ceramic-lined melter was constructed to test the applicability of materials and processes for high-level waste vitrification. The developmental Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) was operated for three years with simulated high-level waste and was subjected to conditions more severe than those expected for a nuclear waste vitrification plant.

  17. Rare but active taxa contribute to community dynamics of benthic biofilms in glacier-fed streams

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Linda; Besemer, Katharina; Fasching, Christina; Urich, Tim; Singer, Gabriel A.; Quince, Christopher; Battin, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers harbour diverse microorganisms, which upon ice melt can be released downstream. In glacier-fed streams microorganisms can attach to stones or sediments to form benthic biofilms. We used 454-pyrosequencing to explore the bulk (16S rDNA) and putatively active (16S rRNA) microbial communities of stone and sediment biofilms across 26 glacier-fed streams. We found differences in community composition between bulk and active communities among streams and a stronger congruence between biofi...

  18. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Çaglar; I Özer; Altugan, F S

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), p...

  19. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Çaglar M.K.; Özer I.; Altugan F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), ...

  20. Growth curves and their implications in hand-fed Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petzinger C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina Petzinger,1,2 J Jill Heatley,3 John E Bauer1,2 1Comparative Animal Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Intercollegiate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, 3Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus were hand-fed over two chick seasons spanning of 2010 to 2011. Information from the growth curve of chicks hand-fed in 2010 was used to develop a feeding protocol for the 2011 season (Protocol-2011. This protocol addressed the problems of delayed followed by excessive growth experienced by parrots hand fed in 2010. Monk parrots that were hand-fed in 2011 following the new protocol experienced delayed growth after 20 days of age. However, some Monk parrots were fed in excess of Protocol-2011 and did not experience a major delay in growth. The energy requirement equations used to construct Protocol-2011 were low when compared to adult Monk parrot maintenance energy requirements. The data suggest that growing birds do not require approximately twice their adult maintenance energy requirements, as is the case for growing dogs. Additionally, there appear to be fluctuations in energy needs as Monk parrots grow. A major increase in energy needs occurred between days 18 and 23 posthatching, which corresponds to feather development and growth in Monk parrot chicks. Thus, multiple equations estimating energy requirements, rather than just one equation, are likely needed from hatching to fledging in order to ensure adequate energy is provided to chicks. More research on the energy requirements of growing Monk parrots, especially around the time of fledging and weaning, is needed to improve hand-fed methods and potentially the adult health of hand-fed birds. Keywords

  1. Materials and design experience in a slurry-fed electric glass melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a slurry-fed electric gas melter and an examination of the performance and condition of the construction materials were completed. The joule-heated, ceramic-lined melter was constructed to test the applicability of materials and processes for high-level waste vitrification. The developmental Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) was operated for three years with simulated high-level waste and was subjected to conditions more severe than those expected for a nuclear waste vitrification plant

  2. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    OpenAIRE

    Russell G. DEATH; José BARQU��N

    2011-01-01

    Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristic...

  3. How the Fed affects the economy: a look at systematic monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dotsey

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, when assessing the economic effects of monetary policy, economists have emphasized the role of unanticipated changes in policy. But are these policy shocks likely to be the most important influence on the economy? Mike Dotsey believes not. It seems more likely that the Fed's systematic behavior plays a bigger part in what happens in the U.S. economy. In "How the Fed Affects the Economy: A Look at Systematic Monetary Policy," Dotsey explains the ways in which systematic policy ...

  4. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  5. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  6. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  7. Determination of Performance of Yearlings Fed with Rations Containing Wheat, Maize and Buckwheat Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as cereal straw, the use of maize straw in ruminant feeding has been increasing as the feed shortage widens. In addition, cultivation of buckwheat with high straw yield potential is becoming widespread. Thus, performance of 15 female Karya yearlings fed with ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws were compared. The yearlings fed either containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws in three total mixed rations (30% straw in dry matter that were consisted of, maize silage, concentrate and cracked maize, formulated to provide 150 g daily live weight gain for 21 d. Total mixed rations was prepared based on the nutritive value of wheat straw. Prior to feeding trial yearlings were acclimatized to their respective feed for a period of 14 d. Straws were included in total mixed rations following the chopping at 1-2 cm. Daily live weight gain and dry matter intake of yearlings fed with mixed ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straw were 88, 85 and 135 g/d (P=0.10 and 954, 931 and 1078 g/d (P=0.09, respectively. However, crude protein intake of yearlings (g/d fed with the ration containing buckwheat straw 14% higher than yearlings fed with the ration containing wheat or maize straw. It was concluded that performance of yearling fed with ration containing buckwheat straws was superior to performance of yearlings fed with ration containing wheat and maize straw, while performance of yearling fed with ration containing wheat or maize straw was similar.

  8. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  9. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p

  10. Performance Analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind turbine under Faulty and RLC Load Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Parashar; Shashikant,

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbine system during different types of grid fault. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine (WT) system provides better power delivery towards the demand. The design and response of the DFIG based wind turbine system during different fault conditions, various load conditions and integrated system consisting of DFIG based WT system have been verified using MATLAB/ Simulink. The simulation re...

  11. Adiposity of calf- and yearling-fed Brangus steers raised to constant-age and constant-body weight endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Chapman, A A; Lunt, D K; Harris, J J; Savell, J W

    2007-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that fatty acid biosynthesis and adipocyte diameter and volume would be greater in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of calf-fed steers than in yearling-fed steers at a constant BW, due to the greater time on feed for the calf-fed steers. Conversely, we predicted that the capacity for s.c. and i.m. preadipocytes to divide, as estimated by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, would be greater in the less mature adipose tissues of calf-fed steers and in yearling-fed steers at 16 mo of age than in yearling-fed steers fed to 18 mo of age. Brangus steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet as calves (calf-fed; n = 9) or yearlings (n = 4) to 16 mo of age (CA yearling-fed); another group of yearlings (n = 5) was fed to a constant-BW end point of 530 kg (CW yearling-fed). Both groups of yearling-fed steers had free access to native pasture until 12 mo of age. At slaughter, the fifth to eighth thoracic rib section of the LM was removed, and fresh s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were removed for in vitro incubations. There were no differences in the number of s.c. adipocytes/g or mean peak volumes of adipocytes across production groups (P > or = 0.14). However, s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers contained greater proportions of smaller adipocytes (<1,500 pL) than calffed or CW yearling-fed steers, and similar results were observed for i.m. adipose tissue. Acetate incorporation into total lipids was greater (P = 0.02) in s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers than in calf-fed or CW yearling-fed steers, and tended to be different (P = 0.10) across production groups in i.m. adipose tissue. The production system x cell fraction interaction was significant (P = 0.03) for s.c. adipose tissue DNA synthesis, which was greatest in adipocytes from CA yearling-fed steers, whereas there were no differences across production system in stromal vascular (SV) DNA synthesis. For i.m. adipose tissue, DNA synthesis was greatest in adipocytes and SV cells

  12. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  13. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-06-01

    The beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of the dietary spice compounds curcumin and capsaicin were evaluated. Curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination were included in the diet of high-(30%)-fat-fed rats for 8 weeks. Dietary high-fat-induced hypertriglyceridemia was countered by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination by 12%-20%. Curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination also produced a slight decrease in serum total cholesterol in these animals. Serum alpha-tocopherol content was increased by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination in high-fat-fed rats. Serum total thiol content in high-fat-fed animals and serum ascorbic acid in normal animals was elevated by the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione was increased by curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination in normal animals. Hepatic glutathione and alpha-tocopherol were increased, whereas lipid peroxide level was reduced by dietary curcumin and combination of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed animals. Serum glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in high-fat-fed rats were generally higher as a result of dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly elevated by dietary spice principles in high-fat-fed animals. The additive effect of the 2 bioactive compounds was generally not evident with respect to hypolipidemic or antioxidant potential. However, the effectiveness of the combination was higher in a few instances.

  14. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  15. Reduction of DMH-induced colon tumors in rats fed psyllium husk or cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Andersen, J; Mehta, T; Wilson, R B

    1987-01-01

    The effect of feeding psyllium husk, a water-soluble fiber, and cellulose, a water-insoluble fiber, against chemically induced colon cancer was investigated in rats. Adult male rats were fed semipurified diets containing 20% fat, no fiber, or 10% psyllium husk or cellulose for 22 weeks. Tumors were induced in one-half of the rats fed each diet by the gastric intubation of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) during Weeks 3-11. In terms of the number of animals with tumors in each group, psyllium strongly reduced the tumorigenicity of DMH and cellulose moderately reduced tumorigenicity, whereas the two fibers did not differ significantly from each other with respect to tumorigenicity. Psyllium-fed rats had the highest fecal aerobic counts, lowest beta-glucuronidase, and highest 7-alpha-dehydroxylase activities. The psyllium diet also resulted in increased fecal output and percent moisture. Rats fed cellulose tended to have greater fecal bulk and lower beta-glucuronidase activity compared with rats fed no fiber and lower 7-alpha-dehydroxylase activity compared with rats fed psyllium husk. PMID:2819829

  16. Descriptions of diplostomid metacercariae (Digenea: Diplostomidae from freshwater fishes in the Tshwane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmey B.E. Moema

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The metacercarial (larval stages of diplostomid digeneans are known to inhabit freshwater fish, causing tissue damage in the process. Due to their widespread diversity, little is known about their life cycle. The classification of these parasitic stages to the species level using only the morphology is very challenging due to the lack of genitalia; they are regarded to be the most important structures in the identification of these organisms. In this study, additional morphological information through light and scanning electron microscopy is given for two different diplostomids found in the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus and the vitreous chambers of Tilapia sparrmanii and Pseudocrenilabrus philander. The diplostomid metacercaria inhabiting the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus was morphologically identified as Diplostomulum (Tylodelphys mashonenseand an unknown metacercaria of the genus Diplostomumwas found in the vitreous chambers of Pseudocrenilabrus philander and Tilapia sparrmanii. Both parasitic species’ 28S recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid genomic regions were successfully amplified using Dig 125/1500R primer pairs. The assay yielded a product of approximately 1300 base pairs as seen on the gel images. There were 14 nucleotide differences over the entire analysed sequences resulting in a 1.1% (14/1273 nucleotide difference. In line with the morphological characteristics of these parasites, there seemed to be a slight difference in their genetic makeup. The application of molecular techniques on digenetic trematodes seems very promising and may yield great potential in future descriptions of morphologically similar parasitic species.

  17. Effect of Addition of Allium hookeri on the Quality of Fermented Sausage with Meat from Sulfur Fed Pigs during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun-Yeong; Pyun, Chang-Won; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity (ABTS(+)), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS(+) values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (psausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS(+), total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry.

  18. Rumen parameters of sheep fed Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Machado Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    .05 in the treatment containing 60% of Arachis and a quadratic effect (P0.01 in the treatment with 100% of legume with reduction at 4 hours after the feeding followed by an increase. Fiber contents of forage is highly correlated with DMI and intake increases occurs until it is no longer limited by the rumen filling (physical regulation and decreases when limited by excess of the metabolic products produced (physiological regulation. This explains the DMI reduction with total replacement of grass hay by the legume, since it presented high CP content, high digestibility and lower fiber content. The rumen concentration of SCFA is related to fermentation conditions in the rumen, and high digestibility diets. The high DMI in animals fed with diets with 60% of Arachis and higher concentration of total SCFA and acetate is due to the animals consuming more organic matter fermentable in the rumen. The results suggest that Arachis hay contains more than soluble proteins than grass hay, because the rate of ammonia production in the rumen reflects the solubility and fermentability of the diet. The legume proved forage with a high quality and excellent behavior ruminal, ensuring the quality of rumen environment. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results and use of this feed for ruminants is as promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals.

  19. Mineral Dynamics of Blood and Milk in Dairy Buffaloes Fed on Calcium and Phosphorus Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Begum, A. Azim, S. Akhter1, M. I. Anjum* and M. Afzal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P on nutrient utilization, milk production, its composition and reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Twelve lactating buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups, with 4 animals in each group, fed diets containing 80, 100 and 120% NRC recommended Ca and P, respectively. Daily feed consumption and milk yield (MY were recorded. Fortnightly collected milk samples were analyzed for total solids (TS, milk protein (MP, milk fat (MF, lactose, Ca and P contents. Calcium and P concentrations were also determined in blood serum. Milk yield was 10%, MF 4% and TS 3.7% higher in buffaloes fed on 120% Ca and P than those fed on 100% Ca and P of NRC recommendation but dry matter intake was similar among all groups. However, MP, lactose and solids not fat were not affected by mineral supplementation. In milk, slightly increased concentrations of Ca and P were noted during the last two weeks of experiment in all groups. Dietary protein digestibility was higher in buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P, crude fibre and dry matter digestibility was higher in 80 and 100% Ca and P supplemented groups respectively however, difference was non-significant among the groups. Serum P concentration was higher but Ca was lower in 120% Ca and P supplemented group compared to other two groups however, these values were within the normal range. Buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P conceived 100% but in buffaloes fed 100 and 80% Ca and P, conception rates were 75 and 50% respectively. Number of services per conception was lower in buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P supplemented diet. It may be concluded that 120% Ca and P supplementation increased milk production and reproductive performance of lactating buffaloes.

  20. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine, while the diet (B contained 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% fish meal. The fish were fed twice a day at affixed feeding rate of 5% body weight of fish per day for 90 days. The total body weight, total length and standard length were measured every 10 days throughout the experimental period. The growth response and performance data of the studied fish (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diet (B containing fishmeal recorded a better growth response than that fish fed poultry by- product meal (diet A. The final weight increment, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER over the experimental period showed lowest value for the group fed the diet with poultry by-product (Diet A compared to those fed with the fishmeal (Diet B. Except the apparent protein utilization (APU was recorded higher for those fed with Diet A (23.31 than Diet B (11.99. The groups fed diet (A attained SGR 0.24, FCR 1.9, PER 0.75, APU 23.31, while it recorded in group (B, SGR 0.34, FCR 1.2, PER 1.06, APU 11.99. Therefore, fish meal is better as compared to poultry by-products for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus nutrition.

  1. Ezetimibe and Simvastatin Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sun Baek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol-fed zebrafish is an emerging animal model to study metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory vascular processes relevant to pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis. Zebrafish fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD develop hypercholesterolemia and are characterized by profound lipoprotein oxidation and vascular lipid accumulation. Using optically translucent zebrafish larvae has the advantage of monitoring vascular pathology and assessing the efficacy of drug candidates in live animals. Thus, we investigated whether simvastatin and ezetimibe, the principal drugs used in management of hypercholesterolemia in humans, would also reduce cholesterol levels in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. We found that ezetimibe was well tolerated by zebrafish and effectively reduced cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. In contrast, simvastatin added to water was poorly tolerated by zebrafish larvae and, when added to food, had little effect on cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. Combination of low doses of ezetimibe and simvastatin had an additive effect in reducing cholesterol levels in zebrafish. These results suggest that ezetimibe exerts in zebrafish a therapeutic effect similar to that in humans and that the hypercholesterolemic zebrafish can be used as a low-cost and informative model for testing new drug candidates and for investigating mechanisms of action for existing drugs targeting dyslipidemia.

  2. Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Mukesh, Reshma K; Ayoob, Shabna K; Ramavarma, Smitha K; Suseela, Indu M; Manalil, Jeksy J; Kuzhivelil, Balu T; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), extracted from fresh coconut kernel possess similar fatty acid composition to that of Copra Oil (CO), a product of dried kernel. Although CO forms the predominant dietary constituent in south India, VCO is being promoted for healthy life due to its constituent antioxidant molecules. High fructose containing CO is an established model for insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in rodents. In this study, replacement of CO with VCO in high fructose diet markedly improved the glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The animals fed VCO diet had only 17 % increase in blood glucose level compared to CO fed animals (46 %). Increased level of GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO fed rats indicate improved hepatic redox status. Reduced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl adducts in VCO fed rats well corroborate with the histopathological findings that hepatic damage and steatosis were comparatively reduced than the CO fed animals. These results suggest that VCO could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications possibly through its antioxidant efficacy.

  3. Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed on genetically modified soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malatesta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the reports on the effects of a genetically modified (GM diet are scanty and heterogeneous; in particular, no direct evidence has so far been reported that GM food may affect human or animal health. Hepatocytes represent a suitable model for monitoring the effects of a GM diet, the liver potentially being a primary target. In a previous study, we demonstrated that some modifications occur in hepatocyte nuclei of mice fed on GM soybean. In order to elucidate whether such modifications can be reversed, in the present study, 3 months old mice fed on GM soybean since their weaning were submitted to a diet containing wild type soybean only, for one month. In parallel, to investigate the influence of GM soybean on adult individuals, mice fed on wild type soybean were changed to a GM diet, for the same time. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrated that a one-month diet reversion can influence some nuclear features in adult mice, restoring typical characteristics of controls in GM-fed animals, and inducing in control mice modifications similar to those observed in animals fed on GM soybean from weaning. This suggests that the modifications related to GM soybean are potentially reversible, but also that some modifications are inducible in adult organisms in a short time.

  4. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  5. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  6. Reproductive, Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy, 1809 and its Hybrid Clariabranchus Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Anetekhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance, growth rate and nutrient utilization capacities of pure breed Heterobranchus bidorsalis (H. bidorsalis ? x H. bidorsalis ? and its hybrid (H. bidorsalis ? x C. gariepinus ? (Clariabranchus induced with synthetic hormone (ovaprim and pituitary of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis. In this study, 3 female Heterobranchus bidorsalis, 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 3 male Clarias gariepinus were used for the experiment. One female H. bidorsalis induced with ovaprim produced eggs which were divided into two equal halves. Each half was fertilized separately by milt from H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus to produce pure breed and hybrid, respectively. A similar crossing was done for the female H. bidorsalis induced with Male Pituitary Extract (MPE and Female Pituitary Extract (FPE. Percentage fertilization and hatching rate of pure breed induced with ovaprim were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the other genetic crosses. The highest values for weight gain (5.461.58 g, average daily growth (0.390.11 g and specific growth rate (1.040.16%/day occurred in pure breed induced with MPE. The lowest values for these growth parameters were obtained in the hybrid induced with FPE. Feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio varied significantly (p<0.05 among the treatments. This study has shown that the pure breeds and hybrids induced with ovaprim and MPE performed better than those induced with FPE. Therefore, they are recommended for commercial aquaculture.

  7. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani;

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  8. Cow milk allergy symptoms are reduced in mice fed dietary synbiotics during oral sensitization with whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Bastiaan; van Esch, Betty C A M; Hofman, Gerard A; van Doorn, Suzan A C M; Knol, Jan; Nauta, Alma J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M; Knippels, Léon M J

    2009-07-01

    Cow milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children. So far, no effective treatment is available to prevent or cure food allergy. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mixture (Immunofortis), a probiotic strain [Bifidobacterium breve M-16V], or a synbiotic diet combining both on the outcome of the allergic response when provided during oral sensitization with whey in mice. Mice were fed diets containing 2% (wt:wt) Immunofortis and/or the B. breve M-16V (n = 6/group). The acute allergic skin response was determined by measuring ear swelling. Antigen-induced anaphylaxis was scored. Furthermore, whey-specific serum immunoglobulins and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were determined. In mice fed the synbiotic mixture, the allergic skin response and the anaphylactic reaction were strongly reduced compared with whey-sensitized mice fed the control diet (P food allergens. PMID:19474160

  9. The growth of juvenile jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense fed diets with different carbohydrate levels (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B Ulloa R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05 . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa values were found with the 18.8% carbohydrate diet. Growth performance, feed utilization parameters and the survival were the lowest with fish fed the highest carbohydrate level (35.6%. Fish body protein increased and body fat decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. The body ash showed a trend similar to the body protein. It is concluded that juvenile C. managuense can grow well when fed 40% protein diets containing up to 26.5% carbohydrate.

  10. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  11. Optimal Feed Rate Control of Escherichia coli Fed-batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an optimal control algorithm for E. coli fed-batch fermentation has been developed. A simple material balance model is used to describe the E. coli fermentation process. The optimal feed rate control of a primary metabolite process is studied and a biomass production is used as an example. An optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process is usually done using the calculus of variations to determine an optimal feed rate profile. In the optimal control literature the problem is formulated as a free final time problem where the control objective is to maximise biomass at the end of the process. The obtained optimal feed rate profile consists of sequences of maximum and minimum feed rates. The obtained results are used for optimization of E. coli fed-batch fermentation and the presented simulations show a good efficiency of the developed optimal feed rate profile.

  12. Ovicidal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1990-07-01

    Ovicidal activity was observed in four adult groups (virgin males; virgin females; newly gravid females; and inseminated, reproducing females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) at the LC50's and LC95's determined from fifth-stage nymphs. All compounds were active only when fed to reproducing females (including the feeding period in which the ootheca is developing). Hexafluron and triflumuron at the LC50 caused 100% inhibition of hatch in reproducing females. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 at the LC50 had similar ovicidal activity (45.8 and 50.0% hatch, respectively). Female German cockroaches fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors before mating and after the ootheca had protruded from the abdomen were not affected. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected, and males did not effectively transfer the compounds to untreated females during mating. PMID:2388230

  13. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  15. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  16. Passive immunity to bovine rotavirus in newborn calves fed colostrum supplements from immunized or nonimmunized cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, L J; Redman, D R; Smith, K L; Theil, K W

    1983-01-01

    Colostrum was collected and pooled from each of five cows in three experimental groups: group I cows received intramuscular and intramammary inoculations of adjuvanted modified live Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center rotavirus vaccine; group II cows were injected intramuscularly with a commercial modified-live rota-coronavirus vaccine; and group III cows were uninoculated controls. Pooled colostrum from group I cows had higher (P less than 0.05) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoglobulin G (IgG1) and virus neutralization (VN) rotavirus antibody titers (ELISA IgG1 = 2,413,682; VN = 360,205) than did colostrum from group II (ELISA IgG1 = 8,192; VN = 4,395) or group III cows (ELISA IgG1 = 5,916; VN = 2,865). The antibody titers of these last two colostrum pools did not differ (P greater than 0.05). Samples of these colostrum pools were fed as daily supplements (percent [vol/vol] in cow's milk infant formula) to 28 newborn, unsuckled, antibody-seronegative, male Holstein calves. Eight calves received no supplemental colostrum. The calves were orally challenged with virulent bovine rotavirus and monitored daily for diarrhea and fecal rotavirus shedding. Diarrhea and rotavirus shedding occurred in the eight calves fed no supplemental colostrum and persisted longest in this group. The pooled colostrum from group I cows protected eight of eight calves from both rotavirus diarrhea and shedding when fed as a 1% supplement. The pooled colostrum from neither group II nor group III cows protected 12 other calves against rotavirus diarrhea or shedding when fed at the same concentration (1%). Six rotavirus-challenged calves fed 0.1% supplemental colostrum from group I cows and two calves fed 10 and 50% supplemental colostrum from control cows displayed partial passive immunity, exemplified by delayed onset and shortened duration of rotavirus-associated diarrhea and virus shedding. PMID:6309660

  17. Raspberry Ketone Protects Rats Fed High-Fat Diets Against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague–Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the r...

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  19. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Britt Tranberg; Hellgren, Lars I; Jens Lykkesfeldt; Kristen Sejrsen; Aymeric Jeamet; Ida Rune; Merete Ellekilde; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Axel Kornerup Hansen

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were ...

  20. SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PID-ANN CONTROLLER FOR CHOPPER FED EMBEDDED PMDC MOTOR

    OpenAIRE

    M. Madheswaran; Muruganandam, M.

    2012-01-01

    The closed loop control of PMDC drive with an inner current controller and an outer PID-ANN (Proportional Integral Derivative – Artificial Neural Network) based speed controller is designed and presented in this paper. Motor is fed by DC / DC buck converter (DC Chopper). The controller is used to change the duty cycle of the converter and thereby, the voltage fed to the PMDC motor to regulate the speed. The PID-ANN controller designed was evaluated by computer simulation and it was implemente...

  1. SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PID-ANN CONTROLLER FOR CHOPPER FED EMBEDDED PMDC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The closed loop control of PMDC drive with an inner current controller and an outer PID-ANN (Proportional Integral Derivative – Artificial Neural Network based speed controller is designed and presented in this paper. Motor is fed by DC / DC buck converter (DC Chopper. The controller is used to change the duty cycle of the converter and thereby, the voltage fed to the PMDC motor to regulate the speed. The PID-ANN controller designed was evaluated by computer simulation and it was implemented using an 8051 based embedded system. This system will operate in forward motoring with variable speed.

  2. New electronic control equipment for doubly fed induction motors of high rating

    CERN Document Server

    Dirr, R; Schluter, W; Waldmann, H

    1972-01-01

    Modern data processing systems and power electronics have made it possible to replace the auxiliary machine used hitherto for controlling doubly fed induction machines by static electronic circuits. A brief outline of the mode of operation of the doubly fed induction machine is followed by a description of the automatic control system chosen and of the direct static frequency convertor used as the final control element in solving the special problem involved by way of example of the motor of the impulsing m.g. set for the new power supply of the CERN magnetics. (6 refs).

  3. Plasma cholesterol-suppressing effect of papain-hydrolyzed pork meat in rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimatsu, F; Ito, M; Budijanto, S; Watanabe, I; Furukawa, Y; Kimura, S

    1996-04-01

    The effects of papain-hydrolyzed pork meat on plasma and liver cholesterol levels were studied in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. In rats fed the low-molecular-weight fraction of papain-hydrolyzed pork meat, the plasma cholesterol concentration, more particularly the VLDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations, were significantly lower (p meat or soybean protein. Feeding with this fraction rather than with untreated pork meat also led to a significantly lower liver cholesterol concentration (p meat itself. This study suggests that peptides produced by papain-hydrolysis of pork meat have a hypocholesterolemic activity through their interference with the steroid absorption process. PMID:8780972

  4. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR; K.M. ELAMIN; A E Amin; H E Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian) fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg) of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control), B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, wa...

  5. Compact optically-fed microwave true-time delay using liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui;

    2009-01-01

    Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz.......Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz....

  6. Eigenvalue-based harmonic stability analysis method in inverter-fed power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an eigenvalue-based harmonic stability analysis method for inverter-fed power systems. A full-order small-signal model for a droop-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of digital control system, inner current and voltage...... control loops, and outer droop-based power control loop. Based on the inverter model, an overall small-signal model of a two-inverter-fed system is then established, and the eigenvalue-based stability analysis is subsequently performed to assess the influence of controller parameters on the harmonic...... harmonic stability analysis method....

  7. Competitiveness of irradiated methyl eugenol fed oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of methyl eugenol feeding in the sexual competitiveness of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was studied. Addition of methyl eugenol concentration up to 0.5 ml per liter diet revealed no significant difference base on different quality control parameters used in the study. Results of mating tests showed high number of mated pairs were collected on flies fed with methyl eugenol both on the larvae and adult stage as compared with the untreated flies. Although no significant difference was observed between the larval and adult methyl eugenol-fed flies, the number of mated pairs slightly increased in the former than the latter in all mating tests conducted. (Author)

  8. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  9. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow’s milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow’s milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes. PMID:25179632

  10. A novel and simple coplanar waveguide-fed planar monopole antenna for ultra-wideband applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel and simple CPW-fed planar monopole antenna is presented for UWB application. The antenna is fabricated on inexpensive FR4 substrate and fed by 50Ω CPW on the same layer. Measured data show that the antenna provides an impedance bandwidth of about 8GHz for the return loss less than 10dB. It is also observed that the radiation patterns are nearly omni-directional over the entire frequency range. Details of the proposed antenna are presented, and simulated results are presented and discussed.

  11. Performance Analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind turbine under Faulty and RLC Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Parashar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbine system during different types of grid fault. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG based wind turbine (WT system provides better power delivery towards the demand. The design and response of the DFIG based wind turbine system during different fault conditions, various load conditions and integrated system consisting of DFIG based WT system have been verified using MATLAB/ Simulink. The simulation results are shown with the model of DFIG based wind energy generation system.

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  13. On-sky tests of sky-subtraction methods for fiber-fed spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Myriam; Hammer, Francois; Royer, Frederic; Evans, C J; Puech, Mathieu; Flores, Hector; Guinouard, Isabelle; Causi, Gianluca Li; Disseau, Karen; Yang, Yanbin

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results on on-sky test of sky subtraction methods for fiber-fed spectrograph. Using dedicated observation with FLAMES/VLT in I-band, we have tested the accuracy of the sky subtraction for 4 sky subtraction methods: mean sky, closest sky, dual stare and cross-beam switching. The cross beam-switching and dual stare method reach accuracy and precision of the sky subtraction under 1%. In contrast to the commonly held view in the literature, this result points out that fiber-fed spectrographs are adapted for the observations of faint targets.

  14. Design of CPW-fed Printed Rectangular Monopole Antenna for Wideband Dual-Frequency Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Agarwal; Singhal, P.K.; Shailendra Singh Ojha; Akhilesh Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A printed rectangular monopole antenna (PRMA) with coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed is designed for wideband dual frequency application. A proposed monopole antenna which has a size of 31.9 x 33 mm2, is fabricated to work on a substrate (FR4 lossy) that has the relative permittivity of 4.4 and a thickness of 1.6 mm with CPW-fed in the frequency range of 6 - 16 GHz. Simulation results such as impedance bandwidth are presented and discussed. Simulation results have been verified with good agreement...

  15. Exploring the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi: comparative analysis of expression profiles of sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van-My

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sandflies, the blood meal is responsible for the induction of several physiologic processes that culminate in egg development and maturation. During blood feeding, infected sandflies are also able to transmit the parasite Leishmania to a suitable host. Many blood-induced molecules play significant roles during Leishmania development in the sandfly midgut, including parasite killing within the endoperitrophic space. In this work, we randomly sequenced transcripts from three distinct high quality full-length female Phlebotomus papatasi midgut-specific cDNA libraries from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies. Furthermore, we compared the transcript expression profiles from the three different cDNA libraries by customized bioinformatics analysis and validated these findings by semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR. Results Transcriptome analysis of 4010 cDNA clones resulted in the identification of the most abundant P. papatasi midgut-specific transcripts. The identified molecules included those with putative roles in digestion and peritrophic matrix formation, among others. Moreover, we identified sandfly midgut transcripts that are expressed only after a blood meal, such as microvilli associated-like protein (PpMVP1, PpMVP2 and PpMVP3, a peritrophin (PpPer1, trypsin 4 (PpTryp4, chymotrypsin PpChym2, and two unknown proteins. Of interest, many of these overabundant transcripts such as PpChym2, PpMVP1, PpMVP2, PpPer1 and PpPer2 were of lower abundance when the sandfly was given a blood meal in the presence of L. major. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides a comprehensive look at the repertoire of transcripts present in the midgut of the sandfly P. papatasi. Furthermore, the customized bioinformatic analysis allowed us to compare and identify the overall transcript abundance from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania-infected sandflies. The suggested upregulation of specific

  16. Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Phiri, Harris; Mwase, Maxwell; Choongo, Kennedy; Van der Waal, Ben; Kanchanakhan, Somkiat; Reantaso, Melba B; Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2012-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area. PMID:21647772

  17. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Thomassen, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD...

  18. Marginality and needs of dietary valine for broilers fed certain all-vegetable diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valine is likely the fourth limiting amino acid in most diets based of corn and soybean meal. However, its exact needs are not well known, and information regarding it is sparse. A series of studies were conducted to validate valine’s limitation in all-vegetable diets fed to broilers, and subseque...

  19. Lysine requirement of the enterally fed term infant in the first month of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Huang; J.E. Hogewind-Schoonenboom; F. de Groof; J.W.R. Twisk; G.J. Voortman; K. Dorst; H. Schierbeek; G. Boehm; Y. Huang; C. Chen; J.B. van Goudoever

    2011-01-01

    Background: Infant nutrition has a major impact on child growth and functional development. Low and high intakes of protein or amino acids could have a detrimental effect. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the lysine requirement of enterally fed term neonates by using the indica

  20. Rotary Calciner - Metallic Melter and Slurry - Fed Ceramic Melter for Treatment of High Level Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotary calciner-metallic melter and slurry-fed ceramic melter are used for treatment of high level liquid waste in the industrial scale. Rotary calciner-metallic melter is operated by induction heating and slurry-fed ceramic melter by Joule heating. Both of melter are compared it’s characteristics of waste-glass composition for process and melter operation, melter materials, life time of melter, treatment of off gas, and power consumption. For melter with Joule heating, electric resistance of waste-glass is 4.8 ohm.cm at temperature 1150 °C. The metal of platinum group is not soluble in the molten waste-glass, so that influence the electric current pass by the molten waste-glass. For melter with induction heating there is not influence of platinum metal group. For melter with Joule heating, the material which contact with waste-glass is monofrax K-3. The outer materials layer i.e MRT-70K, LN-135, AZ-GS, fiber board, and stainless steel 304. The material of melter with induction heating is Inconel-690. The life time of melter with Joule heating is longer than melter with induction heating. From the safety aspect, operation of the both of melter have already successful. Operation cost of slurry-fed ceramic melter is cheaper, but construction and decommissioning cost more expensive than rotary calciner-metallic melter. Based on Indonesia condition, the slurry-fed ceramic melter is more reasonable to be utilized. (author)

  1. Combined age and segregated kinetic model for industrial-scale penicillin fed-batch cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.F.; Lauwerijssen, M.J.C.; Yuan, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a cell age model forPenicillium chrysogenum fed-batch cultivation to supply a qualitative insight into morphology-associated dynamics. The average ages of the segregated cell populations, such as growing cells, non-growing cells and intact productive cells, were estimated by this

  2. Symbolic Solution Approach to Wind Turbine based on Doubly Fed Induction Generator Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cañas–Carretón, M.; Gómez–Lázaro, E.; Martín–Martínez, S.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative approach based on symbolic computations to simulate wind turbines equipped with Doubly–Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The actuator disk theory is used to represent the aerodynamic part, and the one-mass model simulates the mechanical part. The 5th–order induct...

  3. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  4. Severe vitamin D deficiency in 6 Canadian First Nation formula-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rickets was first described in the 17th century and vitamin D deficiency was recognized as the underlying cause in the early 1900s. Despite this long history, vitamin D deficiency remains a significant health concern. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is recommended in Canada for breast fed infants. There are no recommendations for supplementation in formula-fed infants. Objective. The objective of this report is to bring attention to the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency in high risk, formula fed infants. Design. A retrospective chart review was used to create this clinical case series. Results. Severe vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in six formula-fed infants over a two-and-a-half year period. All six infants presented with seizures and they resided in First Nation communities located at latitude 54 in the province of Manitoba. While these infants had several risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, they were all receiving cow's milk based formula supplemented with 400 IU/L of vitamin D. Conclusion. This report suggests that current practice with regards to vitamin D supplementation may be inadequate, especially for high-risk infants. Health care professionals providing service to infants in a similar situation should be aware of this preventable condition. Hopefully this would contribute to its prevention, diagnosis and management.

  5. Mice fed rapamycin have an increase in lifespan associated with major changes in the liver transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson C Fok

    Full Text Available Rapamycin was found to increase (11% to 16% the lifespan of male and female C57BL/6J mice most likely by reducing the increase in the hazard for mortality (i.e., the rate of aging term in the Gompertz mortality analysis. To identify the pathways that could be responsible for rapamycin's longevity effect, we analyzed the transcriptome of liver from 25-month-old male and female mice fed rapamycin starting at 4 months of age. Few changes (4,500 changed significantly in females. Using multidimensional scaling and heatmap analyses, the male mice fed rapamycin were found to segregate into two groups: one group that is almost identical to control males (Rapa-1 and a second group (Rapa-2 that shows a change in gene expression (>4,000 transcripts with more than 60% of the genes shared with female mice fed Rapa. Using ingenuity pathway analysis, 13 pathways were significantly altered in both Rapa-2 males and rapamycin-fed females with mitochondrial function as the most significantly changed pathway. Our findings show that rapamycin has a major effect on the transcriptome and point to several pathways that would likely impact the longevity.

  6. Probe-Fed Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for High-Resolution Polarimetric C-Band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a C-band, dual-linear polarization wideband antenna for use in the next-generation of the Danish high-resolution, airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, EMISAR. The design and performance of a probe-fed, stacked microstrip patch element, operating from 4...

  7. Effects of water supplementation on physiological jaundice in breast-fed babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, M.; Hall, M.; Harvey, D

    1981-01-01

    The effect of water supplementation in normal, term, breast-fed babies with physiological jaundice was studied. Water supplementation was given to 120 babies and 55 received no extra fluids. There was no significant difference between the two groups when peak serum bilirubin levels and incidence of phototherapy were compared.

  8. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  9. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New e

  10. Changes in hematology and serum biochemical profiles in lambs fed sericea lespedeza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a legume rich in condensed tannins (CT) that can be grazed or fed to small ruminants for parasite control. Condensed tannins a secondary plant compound in SL may lead to unintended consequences such as changes in production. In our preliminary research, t...

  11. IQC-based robust stability analysis for LPV control of doubly-fed induction generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. N.; Scherer, C. W.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Parameters of electrical machines are usually varying with time in a smooth way due to changing operating conditions, such as variations in the machine temperature and/or the magnetic saturation. This paper is concerned with robust stability analysis of controlled Doubly-Fed Induction Generators (DF

  12. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with clofibra

  13. Faecal SIgA secretion in infants fed on pre- or probiotic infant formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.; Tol, van E.A.F.; Kroes, H.; Alles, M.S.; Kok, F.J.; Bindels, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important role in the defence of the gastrointestinal tract. The level of faecal SIgA antibody is associated with increased neutralization and clearance of viruses. Formula-fed infants who lack the transfer of protective maternal SIgA from breast milk may b

  14. WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION OF SOY-BASED INK AT A SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) project quantifies and compares wastes generated from the use of soy-based and petroleum-based inks in sheet-fed offset printing. Data were collected in a full-scale print run on a Miller TP104 Plus 6-color press in Ju...

  15. Thermal Behavior of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine System during Balanced Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2014-01-01

    Ride-through capabilities of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) during grid fault have been studied a lot. However, the thermal performance of the power device during this transient period is seldom investigated. In this paper, the dynamic model for the DFIG and the influence of the rotor...

  16. Stress and efficiency studies in edge-defined film-fed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejs, J.

    1986-01-01

    The progress was reviewed for stress and efficiency studies of edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) material. Effort was concentrated on the definition of condiitions that will reduce stress, on quantifying dislocation electrical activity and limits on solar cell efficiency, and on studying the effects of dopants on EFG characteristics.

  17. Individual mineral supplement intake by ewes swath grazing or confinement fed pea-barley forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has reported high variation in intake of self-fed protein and/or energy supplements by individual animals, however little is known about variation in consumption of mineral supplements. Sixty mature range ewes (non-pregnant, non-lactating) were used in a completely randomized desig...

  18. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    B.T.P.Madhav; HABIBULLA KHAN; SARAT K. KOTAMRAJU

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR

  19. FedWeb greatest hits: presenting the new test collection for federated web search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Trieschnigg, Dolf; Zhou, Ke; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents 'FedWeb Greatest Hits', a large new test collection for research in web information retrieval. As a combination and extension of the datasets used in the TREC Federated Web Search Track, this collection opens up new research possibilities on federated web search challenges, as we

  20. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  1. Aggressiveness and brain amines in pigs fed the ß-adrenoreceptor agonist Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the widely used feed additive Ractopamine (RAC), gender and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen/gender) were fed either control or RAC (5 mg/kg/2 w...

  2. Self-scheduled LPV controller synthesis for doubly-fed induction generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Tien, H.; Scherer, C.W.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new current control design for doubly-fed induction generators in wind turbine systems, where the control is implemented on the rotor side. The mechanical angular speed of the rotor is considered as a time-varying parameter. A self-scheduled controller is then designed for the

  3. Leaky-Wave Slot Array Antenna Fed by a Dual Reflector System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maci, S.; Ettorre, M.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.

    2008-01-01

    A leaky-wave slot array antenna fed by a dual offset Gregorian reflector system is realized by pins in a parallel plate waveguide. The radiating part of the antenna is composed by parallel slots etched on one side of the same parallel plate waveguide. The dual offset Gregorian reflector system is fe

  4. Copper metabolism in analbuminaemic rats fed a high-copper diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.; Berg, van den G.J.; Beynen, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    Copper metabolism in male Nagase analbuminaemic (NA) rats was compared with that in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed purified diets containing either 5 or 100 mg Cu/kg diet. Dietary copper loading increased hepatic and kidney copper concentrations in both strains to the same extent, but baseline va

  5. Comparison of Nutrition Compositions of Juvenile Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) Fed with Live Feed and Formula Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Pei-Song; Zhu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Qin; GU, Qian-Hong; XIONG, Bang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Compositions of the amino acid and fatty acid in the muscle of the juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were assessed after being fed with live feed and formula feed for 60 days. The crude fat content of formula feed group was significantly higher than that of live feed group (P

  6. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling;

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  7. Production of Ammonium Lactate by Fed-batch Fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae from Corncob Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Dong-mei; LI Shi-zhong; LIN Fang-qian

    2004-01-01

    L- (+)-Lactic acid production from corncob hydrolysate as a cheap carbohydrate source by fed-batch fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was studied. After 96 h of fermentation in a 5 L fermentor, the final concentration of ammonium L-(+)-lactate, average productivity(based on initial xylose concentration) and max(+)-lactate was 98.8%.

  8. Susceptibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed dietary sodium chloride to nitrite toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 6% NaCl for 10 weeks. Tilapia were exposed to approximately 21 mg/l nitrite-N after five and ten weeks of feeding to determine the effect of dietary NaCl supplementation on resistance to nitrite toxicity. Fish were...

  9. Synchronized PWM Scheme for Dual Inverter-Fed Drives with Zero Common-Mode Voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe;

    2005-01-01

    Abstract - Novel method of direct synchronized pulsewidth modulation is applied for control of a dual inverter-fed opened winding induction motor drive with zero common-mode voltages. New strategy and algorithms of synchronized PWM provide symmetry of the phase voltage of the system during...... with the proposed synchronized PWM scheme....

  10. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed.

  11. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...

  12. Iodine concentrations in milk of dairy cattle fed various amounts of iodine as ethylenediamine dihydroiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J N; Padgitt, D; McCarthy, B

    1988-12-01

    Due to concerns about high I in milk, the dairy industry has proposed a voluntary standard of 500 micrograms of I/L as the maximum allowable I in milk sold for processing and human consumption. This study was undertaken to determine the amount of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide that could be fed to dairy cattle without exceeding this standard. Various amounts (0 to 45 mg/head per d) of the I compound were fed to a commercial dairy herd for 50 wk. Individual and bulk milk samples were analyzed for total iodine. Milk I in herd bulk milk was directly correlated (r = .92) with the amounts fed. However, the correlation of milk I of individual cows was not as high (r = .66), indicating some individual variation in metabolism and secretion of the I into the mammary gland. Milk production and number of lactations did not correlate with I in milk. Regression analysis indicated that 25 to 30 mg of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide per day can be fed to dairy cattle receiving a diet otherwise low in I without exceeding a 500 micrograms concentration in milk.

  13. Iron-contamination-induced performance degradation of an iron-fed fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Tong, Zhong-Hua

    2014-02-01

    The iron-fed fuel cell is an effective technology to recover iron and electricity from acid mine drainage (AMD). However, this technology suffers from the problem of performance degradation which significantly reduces its power output during long-term operation. In this work, the performance degradation of iron-fed fuel cell is comprehensively evaluated with the objective to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a phenomenon. The iron contamination is identified as the main cause responsible for the performance degradation of fuel cell. The iron contaminant is present in the form of α-FeO(OH), which is the main product recovered by the iron-fed fuel cell. Both the electrode and membrane are deteriorated by iron contamination, whereas the membrane deterioration is more significant. Fed-batch experiments demonstrate the performance loss of fuel cell due to contamination of membrane is more than 50% greater than the performance loss due to contamination of electrode. The α-FeO(OH) contaminant not only forms fouling layers on the surfaces of carbon electrode and membrane, but also migrates into the membrane to damage the membrane structure. As a result, both the charge transfer and mass transfer resistances of fuel cell are dramatically increased, which leads to delayed electro-oxidation kinetics of Fe(II).

  14. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  15. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain. PMID:27307576

  16. Higher Education And Economic Growth. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Chicago Fed on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.…

  17. Advanced modelling of doubly fed induction generator wind turbine under network disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seman, S.; Iov, Florin; Niiranen, J.;

    and the drive train model. The Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is represented by an analytical two-axis model with constant lumped parameters and by Finite Element Method (FEM) based model. The model of the DFIG is coupled with the model of the passive crowbar protected and DTC controlled frequency...

  18. Production of clavulanic acid and cephamycin C by Streptomyces clavuligerus under different fed-batch conditions

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    C. Bellão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carbon source and feeding conditions on the production of clavulanic acid (CA and cephamycin C (CephC by Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated. In fed-batch experiments performed with glycerol feeding, production of CA exceeded that of CephC, and reached 1022 mg.L-1. Highest CephC production (566.5 mg.L-1 was obtained in fed-batch cultivation with glycerol feeding. In fed-batch experiments performed with starch feeding, the production of CephC was in general higher than that of CA. A dissociation index (DI was used to identify feeding conditions that favored production of CephC relative to CA. In all cultures with glycerol, DI values were less than unity, indicating higher production of CA compared to CephC. Conversely, in cultures fed with starch, the DI values obtained were greater than unity. However, no carbon source or feeding condition was able to completely dissociate the production of CA from that of CephC.

  19. Broadband matching of dual-linear polarisation stacked probe-fed microstrip patch antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach for impedance matching of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patch antenna elements is demonstrated. The matching structure is compact and enables more than doubling of the operational bandwidth. A circuit model for the feeding probes is developed and its impact on antenna impedance is...

  20. Functional State Metabolism in E. coli Fed-batch Cultivation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Kosev

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a biochemical correspondence to defined functional state based on specific metabolic mechanisms. For E. coli fed-batch cultivation processes a set of functional states is considered. As a result through proposed functional states the changes in metabolic pathways can be described accurately.