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Sample records for clarias gariepinus fed

  1. clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    100% cassava leaves to replace equal weight of maize meal. All the four treatment diets were fed to catfish (Clarias ... examine the growth performance and nutrient utilization of claria gariepinus fed varying replacement ... powder by using hammer mill machine, then individually weighed and properly mixed together with.

  2. Performance of Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of boiled mango seed kernel (MSK) as substitute for maize in diets of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings was investigated using four diets were formulated such that T2 , T3 and T4 contained boiled MSK as replacement for maize at 20%, 40% and 60% inclusion levels respectively, while T1 (control) contained ...

  3. (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ezemonye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Gammalin 20 were investigated in a renewal static bioassay with particular reference to behaviour, survival, and histopathological changes. Early symptoms of gammalin 20 lethal poisoning were, respiratory distress, increased physical activity, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and increased breathing activity. Behavioural response was dose dependent and decreased with decreased concentration. The 96-hour lethal concentration (LC50 value was 30 ppb. Histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestinal tissues of fish treated with sublethal concentration of gammalin 20 for twelve weeks showed gill distortion and fusion of adjacent secondary lamella as a result of hyperplasia and excessive mucus accumulation. The liver showed swelling of hepatocytes with mild necrosis, pyknosis, and vacuolation, while the intestine showed yellow bodies of the lamina propria at the tip of the mucosal fold.

  4. clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    level in the formulation of practical diets for the improve growth of Clarias ... least development sectors of aquaculture particularly in Africa ... water holding capacity of 50 liters (49x33.5x33.5cm) ... bags (Nylon bags) and kept in freezer until use.

  5. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Ataguba, Gabriel Arome; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly ( p meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  6. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Thillart, van den G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four

  7. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  8. Effects of exercise on l-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary l-carnitine and lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two l-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected,

  9. AND THE BARBEL (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an extensive programme concerning the physiology of local fish, various blood parameters ofthe yellowfish (Barbus holubi) and barbel (Clarias gariepinus), were investigated. No detailed observations concerning the haemoglobin concentrations, haematocrit and erythrocyte counts of these fish are available, and ...

  10. Hormonal and haematological responses of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed hormonal and haematological responses of Clarias gariepinus to ammonia toxicity. Laboratory study of haematological responses of adult C. gariepinus to sub-lethal level of ammonia (2.2 g/l) at different exposure hours (0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 h) were carried out. Blood samples of C. gariepinus were ...

  11. FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH AFRICAN MUDFISH (Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Clarias gariepinus (African mudfish) and 144 fish holding water samples were collected from ... Finding these fungi in the fish holding water might have occurred through the use ... This increased .... microbial profile of some fish ponds in the.

  12. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. the haematological response of clarias gariepinus to changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different acclimation temperatures on physiological parameters of. Clarias gariepinus ... distribution and normal metabolism of fish, failure to adapt to ... collapse in osmoregulatory functions .... to changes in oxygen level, salinity or.

  14. The Growth of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) with Aquaponic System

    OpenAIRE

    Ridho, Ari; Tang, Usman M; Putra, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted in May 2013 at the Fish Hatchery and Breeding Laboratory Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty, Riau University. The aim of the research to know the productivity of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with aquaponic system. The experimental methode with two treatments was applied in the research namely aquaponic and non-aquaponic. The result indicated that aquaponic have differential on growth of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The best result was achieved by non-aquaponic. T...

  15. Smoking Impact on the Microbial Load of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different smoking methods on microbial load on freshly collected freshwater mud fish, Clarias gariepinus samples from Oyo State Fisheries Department, Ibadan in South-Western Nigeria was carried out. Seventy-two C. gariepinus (505 ± 0.45g and 25.5 ± 1.30cm) were collected and sorted into 4 groups. 10 fish ...

  16. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-Weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia Zillii were studiedin lake Alau and Monguno hatchery, both in Borno State of Nigeria, for a period of two weeks. A total of 98 C. gariepinus and 140. T. zillii were measured. The length-weight regression coefficient (b) for both fishes in lake Alau ...

  17. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  18. Induction of Triploidy in Clarias Gariepinus by Heat Shock of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs and milt were collected from female and male Clarias gariepinus respectively. Fertilized eggs were given heat-shock at 40 and 41oC for 4.5 minutes duration. The eggs were shocked at different post fertilization periods viz: immediately after fertilization, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mins after fertilization. Percentage hatchability for ...

  19. Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) were purchased from Eleiyele Lake and Zartech fish farm in Ibadan. Water samples were also collected in February (dry season) and June (rainy season), 2002. Gill, bone, intestine, muscle and water samples were analyzed for five metals: manganese, copper, zinc, iron, and ...

  20. Fresh fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) marketing system in major towns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate marketing system, market channel, nature of costs, market margins and the factors determining the marketing profit of fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) in major towns in Ibarapa Zone, Oyo state. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire administered to the fish traders.

  1. Haematological changes in the blood of cultured Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the artifactual changes in the haematological values of Clarias gariepinus blood stored at room (32oC) and refrigerator (4oC) temperatures. Blood samples were collected from 12 apparently healthy fish weighing between 0.8 and 1kg. Samples were divided into two parts immediately after collection ...

  2. Microbial flora of Clarias Gariepinus in the early stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the microbial flora in farmed Clarias gariepinus hatchery systems. Enumeration of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, total coliforms, Salmonella spp. Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas hydrophila from eggs (fertilized and unfertilized), larvae, fry, fry feed and tank water showed that ...

  3. Field protocol for induction of triploidy in Clarias gariepinus | Nwafili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple field protocol for induction of triploidy in Clarias gariepinus using cold shock was developed. The quantity of ice needed to bring temperature of water down to desired temperature was first calculated. Fertilized eggs were then exposed to 5 ºC or 10 ºC at different times. Percentage hatchability for 5 ºC fertilized ...

  4. Food and feeding habits of Clarias gariepinus (burchell 1822) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other food items found in the stomach include insects, zooplankton, arthropod parts, detritus and crustaceans which were of secondary importance. Clarias gariepinus in Egbe Reservoir is an omnivore and females had more empty stomachs (55.60%) than the males (44.40%). This gender bias could be due to intra-specific ...

  5. Plasma and organ biochemistry Clarias gariepinus exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of toluene on enzymes; Aspatate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the plasma, organs (gills, kidney, liver) and muscle of Clarias gariepinus was assessed. The activity of AST in the gill was variable among the treated group and between the treated groups and ...

  6. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  7. Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.; Roques, J.; Heul, van der J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Flik, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing

  8. Inhibition of hatchability of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To diagnose the impact of rainfall and temperature range on hatchability of Clarias gariepinus eggs incubated in hapas and in outdoor basins, some incubating ... Measures to ensure that on-farm incubation systems are free from turbidity, wide temperature fluctuations and anoxia, were thus highlighted as prerequired for ...

  9. PERFORMA REPRODUKSI IKAN LELE MUTIARA (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan salah satu strain ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus yang memiliki keunggulan performa pertumbuhan, efisiensi pakan, keseragaman ukuran, serta ketahanan terhadap penyakit dan lingkungan. Pengggunaan benih ikan lele Mutiara dalam kegiatan budidaya dapat menghasilkan produktivitas yang lebih tinggi, sehingga permintaan benihnya semakin meningkat. Jumlah dan kualitas benih yang dihasilkan ditentukan oleh karakteristik reproduksi induknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi performa reproduksi ikan lele Mutiara, antara lain umur awal matang gonad, indeks gonadosomatik dan ovisomatik, fekunditas, derajat fertilisasi, derajat penetasan, dan waktu rematurasi. Penentuan umur awal matang gonad dilakukan melalui pembedahan calon induk ikan lele Mutiara sejak berumur empat bulan. Pengamatan indeks gonadosomatik dan ovisomatik, fekunditas, derajat fertilisasi, derajat penetasan, dan waktu rematurasi dilakukan terhadap induk ikan lele Mutiara berumur 10 bulan yang digunakan dalam proses pemijahan alami dan buatan. Calon induk dan induk ikan lele Mutiara yang digunakan pada penelitian ini dipelihara dalam kolam tanah dan diberi pakan buatan komersial dengan kadar protein 30% untuk calon induk dan 35% untuk induk. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele Mutiara mulai matang gonad pada umur lima bulan. Induk jantan ikan lele Mutiara yang matang gonad memiliki indeks gonadosomatik sebesar 0,22%-1,47%; sedangkan indeks ovisomatik induk betina berkisar 10,30%-21,33%; dengan fekunditas berkisar 72.700-165.900 butir/kg bobot induk (rata-rata 102.400 ± 25.000 butir/kg bobot induk. Pemijahan buatan induk ikan lele Mutiara menghasilkan derajat fertilisasi berkisar 76,53%-99,22% (rata-rata 91,48 ± 5,38% dan derajat penetasan berkisar 64,93%-91,96% (rata-rata 80,45 ± 6,28%. Waktu rematurasi induk jantan ikan lele Mutiara sekitar dua minggu, sedangkan pada induk betina selama 1,5 bulan. Mutiara is one of several strains

  10. Technique de production intensive du poisson chat africain, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducarme, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive Production of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, is well appreciated in Africa and reaches high prices on the town markets (2 - 3 Euro/kg. Although it is raised since 1974 and its production is increasing in Europe, Asia and Latin America, the African production is on standby. The intensive production systems (biomass: 10 - 400 kg/m3, production: 1 - 4 kg/m3/j in recirculated systems recently developed in Europe (family farms: 200 - 250 t/year are profitable when the selling price on the farm reach 1,2 Euro/kg. This kind of model could be adapted by the African fish farmers to their local conditions and finally contributed to an important development of fish culture in Africa.

  11. Haemogram of adult Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 850 ± 60 g) mean length, 38.75 ± 6.7 cm) were exposed individually to four concentrations of Roundup, containing 360g/l glyphosate in the form of 480g/l isopropylamine salt (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) and a control (0 mg/l), five replicates per concentration for 70 days in static renewal ...

  12. Growth of Clarias gariepinus in Lake Sibaya,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sources of food' in rural areas although their aquaculture potential has only recently been ... investigation of the habitat preferences, breeding and trophic ecology of C. ... gariepinus (Van der Waal & Schoonbee 1975). Pectoral spines, otoliths ...

  13. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  14. Assessment of Clarias gariepinus as a biological control agent against mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Buze; Erko, Berhanu; Animut, Abebe; Degarege, Abraham; Petros, Beyene

    2016-05-31

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistant mosquitoes renewed interest in investigating the use of larvivorous fish as a biological control agent. The potential of Clarias gariepinus fish in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and culicine larvae was assessed under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Small size (15-20 cm) C. gariepinus fish consumed greater number of mosquito larvae than the large size fish (25-40 cm) in the multivariate regression model (β = 13.36, 95 % CI = 4.57, 22.15). The Anopheles larvae consumed was greater in number than the culicines larvae consumed by the fish (β = 12.10, 95 % CI = 3.31, 20.89). The number of larvae consumed was greater during the night hours than during the light hours (β = 30.06, 95 % CI = 21.27, 38.85). Amount of supplementary fish food did not cause significant differences in the number of mosquito larvae consumed by the fish among different groups. C. gariepinus was observed to feed on mosquito larvae under laboratory and semi-field conditions. C. gariepinus fed on the larvae of An. arabiensis and culicines readily. Hence, it can be used as an alternative mosquito control agent in Ethiopia where the breeding habitats are small and localized.

  15. Isoenergetic Replacement of Fat by Starch in Diets for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Effect on Water Fluxes in the Gastro Intestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harter, T.S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed a starch (SD) or fat (FD) diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after

  16. growth performance in clarias gariepinus burchell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    bridge the gap between demand and supply of fish from capture fisheries. High cost ..... Table 4: Growth response and nutrient utilization* of the cultured fish fed different experimental diets ..... Netherlands, ISBN-13: 9789076998411,. Pp: 304.

  17. Histopathological Effects of Gammalin 20 on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezemonye, L.; Ogbomida, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Gammalin 20 were investigated in a renewal static bioassay with particular reference to behaviour, survival, and histopathological changes. Early symptoms of gammalin 20 lethal poisoning were, respiratory distress, increased physical activity, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and increased breathing activity. Behavioural response was dose dependent and decreased with decreased concentration. The 96-hour lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was 30 ppb. Histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestinal tissues of fish treated with sublethal concentration of gammalin 20 for twelve weeks showed gill distortion and fusion of adjacent secondary lamella as a result of hyperplasia and excessive mucus accumulation. The liver showed swelling of hepatocytes with mild necrosis, pyknosis, and vacuolation, while the intestine showed yellow bodies of the lamina propria at the tip of the mucosal fold. environmental monitoring hazardous substances like heavy metals, pesticides

  18. ABNORMALITAS MORFOLOGIS BENIH IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus STRAIN MUTIARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan strain baru ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus hasil pemuliaan yang memiliki keunggulan-keunggulan karakteristik budidaya, terutama pertumbuhan. Selain karakteristik budidayanya, karakteristik morfologis ikan lele Mutiara juga perlu dieksplorasi. Salah satu aspek morfologi yang perlu dieksplorasi tersebut adalah abnormalitas morfologis benihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui abnormalitas morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara dibandingkan dengan benih strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia, yakni ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Karakteristik yang diamati adalah abnormalitas bentuk morfologis (deformitas dan fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada dan sirip perut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat deformitas (4,00% dan fluktuasi asimetri (sirip dada 0,14 dan sirip perut 0,02 benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih rendah daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo (deformitas berkisar 6,00-42,00%, fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada berkisar 0,30-0,68 dan sirip perut berkisar 0,12-0,62. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa bentuk morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih normal daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa mutu dan keragaman genetis ikan lele Mutiara lebih tinggi daripada strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia tersebut.

  19. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822. Thematic bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on certain issues of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus biology and cultivation in Ukraine and abroad, as well as concerning the effects of rearing conditions on physiological, biochemical and fish-breeding characteristics of clariids. Methods. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core have been formed with the publications in Ukrainian, Russian and English from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine. Results. There was composed the thematic list of publications with a total quantity of 112 sources covering the time interval from 1978 to 2017, as well as an article from the "Aquaculture" journal, dated 2018, and including the fish-biological characteristics of African catfish as representative of Siluriformes order, Clariidae family. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “ Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40, as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of cultivation and study of the biological features of African catfish.

  20. Nutritional Transition Period in Early Larvae Clarias Gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ing, N.S.; Chew, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional transition period of Clarias gariepinus were described based on the early development from hatching to 120 hours after hatching (hAH) reared at 27.5 - 28.6 degree Celsius. Newly hatched larvae had a large greenish yolk sac volume (0.99 ± 0.31 mm"3) located below a straight undeveloped digestive tract, mouth not opened, eyes unpigmented and the larvae lie on the bottom of rearing tank. During endogenous feeding period, the larval feeding system has developed rapidly with development oesophagus. Yolk sac were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (36 hAH, 0.19 ± 0.11 mm"3), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 68 hAH when yolk was completely exhausted. Yolk sac volume was significantly different by time at hatching, 6, 12 and 18 to 36 hAH (ANOVA, P<0.05). At 36 hAH, the larvae commenced feeding once morphologically developed with opened anus, functional jaw and intestine, and demonstrated horizontally swimming. The rudimentary chemoreceptors like olfactory organs and taste buds that were found on the barbels and oral cavity assisted in food detection and commenced feeding without vision. Due to the cannibalistic behaviour at early stage, feed are suggested to be provided during 36 hAH and avoided delay feeding in the larval rearing. (author)

  1. heavy metal contamination of clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) were purchased from Eleiyele Lake and Zartech fish farm in Ibadan. Water samples were also collected in February (dry season) and. June (rainy season), 2002. Gill, bone, intestine, muscle and water samples were analyzed for five metals: manganese, copper, zinc, iron, and ...

  2. Responses of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... environment by pesticides results in a decrease in fish productivity and may elevate concentrations of undesirable chemicals in edible fish tissues. The effects of long-term exposure of Clarias gariepinus juveniles to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat, two commonly used herbicides, for eight weeks were ...

  3. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  4. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The

  5. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnhoorn, IEJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine...

  6. Complete replacement of fish meal by other animal protein sources on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld S. M. Djissou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To completely replace the fish meal by a mixture of earthworm and maggot meals, experimental diets were tested during 42 days on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isoproteic and isoenergetic diets (40 % crude protein and 17.9 ± 0.3 kJ g−1 including the control diet (D1 based on fish meal, were formulated. All these diets satisfied the essential amino acids requirements of C. gariepinus fingerlings. These diets were tested on triplicate groups of 50 fishes (initial body weight: 3 ± 0.1 g bred in tank (0.5 m3. The approximate ratios 2:5; 1:4; 1:12 and 0:1 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal were used, respectively, to formulate four diets D2, D3, D4 and D5 without fish meal. After the feeding period, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed on growth, feed utilization between control diet (D1 and test diets (D2–D5. Fish fed earthworm- and maggot-based diets were grown better than those fed the control diet. Survival and feed utilization were not significantly affected by the ratio between earthworm meal and maggot meal in the test diets. Lipid content was higher in carcass and fillet of fishes fed earthworm- and maggot meals-based diets than that of those fed fish meal-based diet. This study indicates that when the ratio 2:5 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal is used to entirely replace fish meal and the ratio lysine/arginine of the diet is inferior to 1, the growth performances and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings are improved.

  7. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  8. Screening of selenium containing proteins in the Tris-buffer soluble fraction of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets by laser ablation-ICP-MS after SDS-PAGE and electroblotting onto membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrero, Z.; Madrid, Y.; Camara, C.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Feldmann, I.; Waentig, L.; Hayen, H.; Jakubowski, N.

    2009-01-01

    The anti-carcinogenic properties of selenium against certain types of cancer when present in organic forms justify the increasing interest in development of selenium fortified food. In this particular study, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed with a Se-enriched diet in order to enhance

  9. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Prakash Kumar Mallick; Pradipta Paul

    2018-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10%...

  10. Stress and Welfare of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in a Coupled Aquaponic System

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Baßmann; Matthias Brenner; Harry W. Palm

    2017-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were investigated for physiological stress parameters to assess the influence of different cultivation techniques on fish welfare. The fish were reared in two conceptually identical recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) constructed in a greenhouse. One system was combined with a floating raft hydroponic unit to culture cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) only using the process water. The second system remained without the plant cultivation unit and functioned as...

  11. Utilization of fish offal meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effect of replacing fish meal (FM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% with fish offal meal (FOM) in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. At the start of experiment, ten glass aquaria of size 70 cm x 45 cm x 40 cm/each, filled with well water up to 70 L of its volume were stocked with 100 ...

  12. Preliminary use of cashew kernel oil in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings diet: comparison with fish oil and palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was performed to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO, palm oil (PO, and cashew kernel oil (CKO as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, tissues fatty acids composition and economical profitability in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Three isonitrogenous (49.32%, isolipidic (15.18%, and isoenergetic (21 kJ/g diets were formulated, differed only to the added lipid source and coded accordingly as D1 (fish oil, D2 (palm oil, and D3 (cashew kernel oil. Catfish fingerlings (initial body weight = 2.43 ± 0.04 g were stocked at 1 fish/L and fed to trial diets at 5.6%. At the end of 8 weeks, C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with D1 and D3 had significantly identical growth and feed utilization efficiency. Those fed with D2 exhibited significantly and numerically low growth performance compared, respectively, to D1 and D3. Contrary to whole-body composition of fish, the muscle lipids fatty acids composition was influenced by the fatty acids profile of the dietary lipid sources. High net profit value (NPV of 24.59$, high investment cost analysis (ICA of 10.14$ and low benefit: cost ratio (BCR of 2.42 were observed in fish fed with D1 while those fed with D3 allowed to have high NPV (23.15$, low ICA (7.86$ and high BCR (2.95. Like others vegetable oils, cashew kernel oil can replace expensive fish oil in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without negatively affecting its growth performances.

  13. Chlorella vulgaris as Protein Source in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu D. Enyidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced for African catfish Clarias gariepinus with an initial average weight of 1.09 ± 0.05 g. The diets were labeled Feed 1 (F1 to feed 4 (F4. The treatment diets were included 25% (F1, 15% (F2, 5% (F3 and 0% (F4 green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the feed were corn (maize included as F1, 40%, F2, 43%, F3, 53% and F4, 43%; and millet meal, which varied in F1 as 23%, F2, 30%, F3, 30% and F4, 30%. The ingredients were preconditioned at 110 °C and pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish fed with 25% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 ± 0% day−1, and worst at 6.77 ± 0.07% day−1 for the control group F4, 0% algal meal. The food conversion ratio (FCR was lowest (1.88 ± 0.02 for 25% algal meal diet (F1 and highest (2.98 ± 0.01 for the 0% algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average weight gain of 121.02 ± 0.04 g for those fed with F1 compared to 62.50 ± 0.0 g for those fed with 0% algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the F1-fed fish (2.46 ± 0.22 and lowest for those fed with F4 (2.02 ± 0.09. The hepatosomatic index was lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 ± 0.01 and highest for catfish fed with F4 (2.50 ± 0.59. Based on the results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the catfish diets.

  14. a survey of ectoparasites of clarias gariepinus caught from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (120) C. gariepinus examined, 40 (33.3%) were infested and were observed to harbour forty three (43) ectoparasites. Pisciola ... them of public health importance (Ukoli,. 1984). However, in instances where hosts are overcrowded such as in aquaria and fish farms, parasitic diseases can spread very rapidly causing gross ...

  15. Nasal cavity of the farmed african catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nasal cavity microanatomy of farmed fingerlings of African catfish, Clarias gariepunus was investigated to fill existing knowledge gap on its histology from available literatures. This becomes very important as no gustatory cell was reported from previous researches on the fingerling digestive tract. A slice of nasal cavity of ...

  16. Toxicity of Buprofezin on the Survival of Embryo and Larvae of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch)

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu, Kasi; Muthu, Narmataa; Xavier, Rathinam; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Rahman, M. Aminur; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-01-01

    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatme...

  17. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  18. Early development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), focusing on the ontogeny of selected organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Wuertz, S.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development of Clarias gariepinus was studied from oocyte activation to the end of endogenous feeding (164 h post-fertilization, 164 h-PF). The ontogeny of the eyes, the ear, the heart, the digestive tract and the notochord were described histologically: (i) eyes were not pigmented at

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish (tilapia zilli and clarias gariepinus) organs from river Benue, North - Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eneji, I.S.; Ato, R.S.; Annune, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were determined in fish organs of Tilapia zilli and Clarias gariepinus from River Benue along Makurdi metropolis sing atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicated that Tilapia zilli gills contained the highest concentration (52.2%) of all the detected heavy metals, followed by the intestine (26.3%), while the muscle tissues appeared to be the least preferred site for the bioaccumulation of metals as the lowest metal concentration (21.5%) were detected in this tissue. Similarly, the Clarias gariepinus gills contained the highest concentration (40.3%) of all the detected heavy metals, followed by the intestine (31.6%), while the muscle tissue (28.1%) was the lowest. The trend of heavy metals concentration can be represented as: Cr > Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd > Pb for Tilapia zilli, while that of Clarias gariepinus was Cr > Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn > Cd > Pb. Tilapia zilli showed high bioaccumulation factors of 244, 229 and 178 for Cr, Zn and Cu, respectively. Claria gariepinus showed 232, 226 and 151 for Cr, Zn and Fe, respectively. This suggests that the fish samples could be used to monitor Cr and Zn pollution levels in the River Benue. (author)

  20. The introduction of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 into Brazilian inland waters: a growing threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecely Rodrigues Alves Rocha

    Full Text Available The biology of the introduced species Clarias gariepinus in lagoa Encantada (Ilhéus, Bahia State was studied. Samples were obtained with gillnets between May 2002 and February 2004. All individuals caught exceeded the average length at first maturity cited in literature. Males and females in maturation stages indicate that the species is already established in the lake.

  1. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Cloosterman, M.; Gorissen, M.; Flik, G.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de H.

    2016-01-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1lx) or 12L:12D (350-0lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a

  2. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to determine their effect on the growth performance of the fish. Two formulations were tested: Diet A - Formula 1 MARDI and Diet B - Formula 2 MARDI, which were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous with 32 % digestible protein and energy value of 14 MJ/kg. A commercial diet (Diet C was included as a control. At 15 wk of culture, fish fed diet C showed the highest growth performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR and specific growth rate (SGR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 found among diets for weight gain and feed intake. However, FCR and SGR of Diet C were significantly better (P<0.05 compared to the experimental diets. The best FCR was recorded in Diet C at 1.17, followed by Diet A (1.42 and Diet B (1.46. Diet C also had the highest SGR with 1.99%/day followed by Diet B (1.70 and Diet A (1.67. Cost of both diets, A and B, was RM 2.50/kg compared to RM 3.50/kg for Diet C. Although the FCR of the commercial feed was lower than the experimental diets, the production cost of fish was RM4.11/kg for the commercial feed compared to RM 3.54-3.65/kg for the experimental diets. It is concluded that local feed ingredients can be used in formulating diets for catfish and they have no detrimental effect on the growth of African catfish.

  3. Lower than expected mercury concentration in piscivorous African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desta, Zerihun; Borgstrom, Reidar; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav; Dadebo, Elias

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg), stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ 15 N) and carbon (δ 13 C), and the diet of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in Lake Awassa, Ethiopia, were studied from January 2003 to February 2004. Values of the δ 15 N were used as an index of trophic position in four length groups and compared to actual stomach contents. The diet of C. gariepinus within the length range of 201-600 mm L T mainly consisted of the small barb Barbus paludinosus, aquatic insects, and mollusks. The proportion of fish prey in the diet was 60% by volume, irrespective of fish size. The differences in δ 15 N values of individuals within and between length classes were less than 3 per mille , and were not significantly related to total length, showing the similarity in trophic niche of the different sizes, which corresponded to recorded stomach contents. Mercury concentrations were in the range of 0.002-0.154 mg kg -1 ww, and had no significant relationship to total length. Hence, even large specimens of C. gariepinus have Hg values below the WHO threshold of 0.2 mg kg -1 ww. The slope of the regression line between log [Hg] and δ 15 N was small, 0.06, indicating the absence of trophic shifts and biomagnification of Hg in larger specimens in our samples. The low Hg concentrations in C. gariepinus compared to the Hg concentrations in other piscivorous fish species in Lake Awassa, such as Barbus intermedius and B. paludinosus, may be due to its dependence on invertebrate preys at small size, diet switching towards low Hg prey fish at larger size, and growth biodilution owing to higher growth rate

  4. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  5. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  6. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  7. 'Cand. Actinochlamydia clariae' gen. nov., sp. nov., a unique intracellular bacterium causing epitheliocystis in catfish (Clarias gariepinus in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steigen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epitheliocystis, caused by bacteria infecting gill epithelial cells in fish, is common among a large range of fish species in both fresh- and seawater. The aquaculture industry considers epitheliocystis an important problem. It affects the welfare of the fish and the resulting gill disease may lead to mortalities. In a culture facility in Kampala, Uganda, juveniles of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus was observed swimming in the surface, sometimes belly up, showing signs of respiratory problems. Histological examination of gill tissues from this fish revealed large amounts of epitheliocysts, and also presence of a few Ichthyobodo sp. and Trichodina sp. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing of the epitheliocystis bacterium 16S rRNA gene shows 86.3% similarity with Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis causing epitheliocystis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the developmental stages of the bacterium is similar to that of members of the family Chlamydiaceae. The similarity of the bacterium rRNA gene sequences compared with other chlamydia-like bacteria ranged between 80.5% and 86.3%. Inclusions containing this new bacterium have tubules/channels (termed actinae that are radiating from the inclusion membrane and opening on the cell surface or in neighbouring cells. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation of tubules/channels (actinae from the inclusion membrane has never been described in any of the other members of Chlamydiales. It seems to be a completely new character and an apomorphy. We propose the name Candidatus Actinochlamydia clariae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Actinochlamydiaceae fam. nov., order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae for this new agent causing epitheliocystis in African sharptooth catfish.

  8. Lactase from Clarias Gariepinus and its Application in Development of Lactose Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K. SHARMA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A natural source of lactase enzyme was reported for the first time from an omnivorous cat fish, Clarias gariepinus. The lactase enzyme has been partially purified from catfish intestine using FPLC. The enzyme had specific activity 6.75 units mg-1 with an overall recovery of 80%. The enzyme was characterized and kinetic properties such as Km(4.8mM,Vmax (11.66 μmoles min-1mg-1, optimum pH(7.2 – 7.5 and thermal inactivation have been studied. The enzyme was stable on storage at 4 oC with only 5% loss in enzyme activity in 120 days. The energy of activation for thermal inactivation of catfish lactase was 23 K cal mol-1. The partially purified enzyme was used for the fabrication of lactose biosensor.

  9. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  10. A first insight into the barcodes for African diplostomids (Digenea: Diplostomidae): Brain parasites in Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chibwana, F.D.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Georgieva, Simona; Hosea, K.M.; Nkwengulila, G.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, JUL 2013 (2013), s. 62-70 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 252124 - PARAPOPGENE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tylodelphys spp. * Diplostomum spp. * Clarias gariepinus * Synodontis nigrita * Tanzania * Africa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  11. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al.

  12. Ionoregulatory Impairment in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Combined Stressors of Lead and Cypermethrin

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    Omowumi O ADEWALE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of aquatic ecosystem with heavy metals and pesticides has increased dramatically over the years, and this has generated a lot of attention by environmental experts. There are reports on impacts of different single toxicants on aquatic organisms but not much has been done to investigate the impacts of mixtures of toxicants on aquatic life. In this study we investigated the effects of multiple stressors of Pb and cypermethrin on ionoregulation in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Adults C. gariepinus were exposed to either borehole water (control, 2 mg/L Pb, 0.5 μg/L cypermetrin or a mixture of 2 mg/L Pb and 0.5 μg/L cypermethrin for 96 h, after which the levels of plasma Na+, Cl- and K+ were determined as a measure of branchial ionoregulatory disturbance. The exposure of C. gariepinus to 0.5 μg/L cypermethrin resulted in a significant reduction in plasma Na+ (43% decrease and Cl- (31% decrease but a 2-fold increase in plasma K+ concentrations. Exposure to a mixture of cypermethrin and Pb resulted in 53% decrease in plasma Na+, 40% decrease in plasma Cl- and a 3- fold increase in plasma K+. There was no significant difference between the control and those exposed to just only 2 mg/L Pb for all the parameters measured. The results of this study indicated that exposure of aquatic organisms to combined stressors of heavy metals pollution as well as pesticide contamination could have a serious effect on the physiology especially on ionic regulation in the exposed fish.

  13. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

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    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10% mortalities, despite the use of antibiotics. Acclimatization of seeds was practiced by the majority of farmers before stocking. Different feeds including slaughter-house wastes and dead poultry were supplied. Multiple stocking and harvesting were a common practice. Major problems identified were insufficient feed, disease, transport, poor seed quality and lack of financial support. The survival percentage was poor, as 88% of the farmers recorded <40–50% survival at harvest. Dropsy was the most common disease and had a significant impact on economy. Antibiotics or other aquadrugs were frequently used for treatment, although the success varied. In general, the C. gariepinus farming has helped to recycle the wastes generated in and around metropolitan Kolkata and adjacent municipalities into wealth, but it suffers from management issues and huge economic losses. This calls for immediate attention from researchers, administrators and extension personals.

  14. Clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2Department of Animal Health and Production, Box 3298, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Eungu State, .... conditions. ... placed in ice-cold 0.25 M sucrose (Oluah et al., 2005). ..... total protein levels in muscle tissue of an edible estauring fish.

  15. clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    selected for use in fish hatchery operation in Nigeria. There was no ... fish in the world also grow, in spite of high preference for fish and ..... Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth performance of ... Nutrition and Reproductive.

  16. clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Baba Usman

    drying. In most markets in Lapai Local Government Area, and in. Nigeria, fish is sold to consumers as either ... The traditional or conventional methods can be improved, and ... and Oceanography Research (NIOMR) smoking kiln and oven. It.

  17. Growth and Survival of Catfish ( Clarias anguillaris ) Juveniles Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juveniles of catfish, Clarias anguillaris (mean weight, 119.8g) were fed unconventional diets for ten weeks in outdoor hapas (net cages, 1m3 dimension) and the growth responses and feed utilization by the juveniles were compared. The experimental diets were (i) live maggots, (ii) live tilapia fry, (iii) commercial catfish feed ...

  18. Stress and Welfare of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 in a Coupled Aquaponic System

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    Björn Baßmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were investigated for physiological stress parameters to assess the influence of different cultivation techniques on fish welfare. The fish were reared in two conceptually identical recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS constructed in a greenhouse. One system was combined with a floating raft hydroponic unit to culture cucumbers (Cucumis sativus only using the process water. The second system remained without the plant cultivation unit and functioned as the control. Water quality was monitored regularly by measuring dissolved nutrients and physical water parameters. During 87 days, a total of 71 fish from each system (n = 142 were studied, with a final sampling of all fish (n = 107 at the end of the experiment. Blood from the caudal vein was analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol and the glucose concentration. In addition, fish were investigated for external injuries on their skin, fins and barbels. The results demonstrate that the system design had no influence on fish mortalities and growth rates. Furthermore, cortisol and blood glucose levels did not differ significantly between the two systems. However, the number of external injuries was significantly lower in the aquaponics, providing evidence that co-cultivation of fish and plants might offer benefits to the welfare of the fish.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822 STRAINS INTRODUCED TO INDONESIA

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    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 has become a great important species in Indonesian aquaculture. Several strains of the African catfish have been introduced to Indonesia for aquaculture purposes, initiated by Dumbo strain from Taiwan in 1985, followed by Paiton strain from Thailand in 1998, then Egypt strain from Egypt in 2007, Masamo strain from Thailand in 2010 and later Kenya strain from Kenya in 2011. Since its introductions, there were no reports yet on their characterization studies. The present study was conducted to morphologically characterize the strains of African catfish introduced to Indonesia, i.e. Dumbo, Paiton, Egypt, Masamo, and Kenya strains. Morphometric and meristic data obtained were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis. Results of the morphometric characterization in the present study revealed that Dumbo, Paiton, Masamo, and Kenya strains were indistinguishable, while morphometric characteristic of Egypt strain was more or less different from those of the other strains. On the other hand, results of the meristic characterization suggested that meristic characteristics of all strains of the introduced African catfish were not different from each other. Therefore, to keep the genetic purity of those introduced strains, they should be properly maintained in isolated places.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGIS DAN GENETIS IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 STRAIN MUTIARA

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    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan strain baru ikan lele Afrika Clarias gariepinus hasil pemuliaan yang memiliki keunggulan karakteristik budidaya. Selain karakteristik budidayanya, karakteristik morfologis dan genetis ikan lele Mutiara juga perlu dibandingkan dengan strain yang lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis karakteristik morfologis ikan lele Mutiara (melalui uji morfometrik dan meristik, serta karakteristik genetis menggunakan marka DNA mikrosatelit dibandingkan dengan ikan lele Mesir, Paiton, Sangkuriang, dan Dumbo yang merupakan induk-induk pembentuknya. Karakterisasi morfometrik dilakukan melalui pengukuran terhadap 20 karakter, sedangkan karakterisasi meristik dilakukan melalui penghitungan terhadap lima karakter sesuai metode standar karakterisasi biometrik-morfologis ikan lele. Data karakteristik morfometrik dan meristik dievaluasi dengan menggunakan analisis komponen utama. Hasil karakterisasi morfologis menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik morfometrik dan meristik ikan lele Mutiara tidak dapat dibedakan dari ikan lele Mesir, Paiton, Sangkuriang, dan Dumbo. Karakterisasi secara genetis dengan menggunakan empat primer DNA mikrosatelit untuk ikan lele Afrika (Cga01, Cga02, Cga05, dan Cga09 menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele Mutiara memiliki keragaman genetis (jumlah alel dan heterozigositas yang relatif lebih tinggi daripada ikan lele Mesir, Paiton, Sangkuriang, dan Dumbo.

  1. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  2. Toxicity of buprofezin on the survival of embryo and larvae of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasi Marimuthu

    Full Text Available Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (p0.05 in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.

  3. Estudo de carcaça do bagre africano (Clarias gariepinus em diferentes categorias de peso Study of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus carcass in different weight categories

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    Adriana Aparecida Pinto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar carcaças de Clarias gariepinus, em três categorias de peso (P1=inferior a 1kg; P2=de 1 a 2kg e P3=superior a 2kg, para analisar o rendimento de carcaça com cabeça (RCC, sem cabeça (RCS, filé (RFI, músculos abdominais (RMA, partes comestíveis (RPC, tronco limpo (RTL, porcentagem de pele (PPE, cabeça (PCA, vísceras (PVI, resíduos totais (PRE e determinar a composição proximal do filé (proteína bruta, umidade, gordura e cinza. Foram utilizados 60 bagres, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 3 tratamentos com 20 repetições, em nível de significância de 5%. O rendimento de filé foi maior para P2 (38,61% que para P1 e P3. O rendimento das partes comestíveis e tronco limpo foram superiores para P2 (RPC=46,27% e RTL=56,67%, mas sem diferirem do P3. O rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça foi maior para P3, não diferindo de P2. O P2 foi inferior para PPE (4,64%, PCA (23,62% e PRE (53,73%, sem diferir de P3, para porcentagem de cabeça e de resíduos totais. Não houve diferença significativa para rendimentos dos músculos abdominais, carcaça com cabeça e vísceras. P2 (2,25% e 77,49% não diferiu do P1 (1,51% e 77,78% e P3 (3,03% e 76,39%, para gordura e umidade, respectivamente, enquanto, para proteína bruta, não houve diferença significativa. Conclui-se que P2 apresentou melhores rendimentos de filetagem, ao passo que a composição proximal do filé, nas três categorias de peso, foi relativamente similar, com aumento de deposição de gordura nos peixes acima de 1kg de peso vivo.The aim of this experiment was to study Clarias gariepinus carcass in three weight categories (P1=below 1kg; P2= 1 to 2kg and P3=over 2kg to analyze yield of carcass with head (YCH, without head (YCW, fillet (YF, abdominal muscles (YAM, eatable parts (YEP, dressed out (YDO and percentages of skin (PSK, head (PHE, viscera (PVI, total residues (PTR; and to determine the proximate composition of fillet (crude

  4. Formulasi bubur bayi MPASI yang diperkaya hidrolisat protein ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus

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    Veriani Aprilia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Malnutrition become the problem in Indonesia. Complementary feeding has the role in solving it. Most of commercial complementary feeding are enriched by vegetable protein, whereas animal protein has more complete amino acid and better digestibility. Unfortunately, consuming animal proteinoften raises concern because of its allergenicity. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus can be used as a source of high animal protein in the diet that may solve the nutritional problem after reduction of its allergen.Objectives: To develope formulate of complementary feeding porridge enriched with hydrolized protein from catfish muscle.Methods: This was experimental study. HPIL and HPIK was enzymatic hydrolized products of catfish using crude and commercial papain, respectively. Overall and partial hedonic test used 23 mothers as panelists, then selected formula were tested its acceptance by 9 babies using face scale. Nutrient content of porridge were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, fat, protein, and water.Results: Hydrolysis of catfish using papain made the changes in color, taste, and aroma. The bitter taste limited the uses, maximum amount was 25%. Porridge with the addition of HPIK were chosen by mothers and babies panelists, whereas HPIL did not. Protein content of formulated product were lower than commercial product, but carbohydrate and fat content were higher.Conclusions: Porridge formula with addition of 25% HPIK my be developed as alternative product of complementary feeding.KEYWORDS: protein, papain, catfish, protein hydrolisate, complementary feedingABSTRAKLatar belakang: Kekurangan gizi masih menjadi masalah di Indonesia. MPASI memiliki peran penting dalam mengatasi masalah tersebut. MPASI pada umumnya diperkaya oleh protein nabati, padahal protein hewani mengandung asam amino dan daya cerna yang lebih baik. Namun demikian, protein hewanimeningkatkan risiko alergi pada bayi. Lele (Clarias gariepinus dapat dijadikan

  5. Performance of broodstock and hybrid juvenile of Egyptian and sangkuriang Clarias gariepinus strains

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    Putri Zulfania

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate reproduction of broodstock and intraspecific hybrid juvenile performance of Egyptian (M and sangkuriang (S strain African catfish Clarias gariepinus at nursery phase. Intraspecific hybridization of African catfish was carried out reciprocally (SM and MS and purebreed (SS and MM, each was with three replicates. Fish spawning was conducted by artificial fertilization, and larvae were reared at 1st, 2nd and 3rd nursery phases, subsequently. The results showed that broodstock performance (male and female of both strains were not significantly different (P>0.05 on all reproduction traits, except female’s gonadosomatic index. Fertilization and hatching rates of all hybrids were not significantly different (P>0.05. MM juvenile had higher growth performances than other juvenile hybrids. Heterosis of total length, standard length, and body weight were varied, whereas the survival showed positive heterosis. SM juvenile showed positive growth heterosis in 3rd nursery phase (total length, standard length, and body weight were 2.61%; 2.16%, and 4.79% respectively. Survival heterosis of MS juvenile (24.20% for total length; 103.13% for standard length and 11.62% body weight was higher than SM juvenile (6.86%; 48.57%, and 3.09% on all nursery phases Keywords: African catfish, intraspecific hybridization, growth, survival, heterosis  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji performa reproduksi induk dan benih hasil hibridisasi intraspesifik ikan lele Afrika Clarias gariepinus strain Sangkuriang (S dan Mesir (M pada fase pendederan. Hibridisasi intraspesifik ikan lele Afrika dilakukan secara resiprokal (SM dan MS dan galur murni (SS dan MM masing-masing dengan tiga ulangan. Pemijahan dilakukan secara buatan dan larva yang dihasilkan dipelihara pada fase pendederan pertama, kedua, dan ketiga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa performa induk ikan lele jantan dan betina pada kedua strain tidak berbeda

  6. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

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    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  7. Morphological studies on the Gaseous Chambers of the African-Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Eman A. Eshra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the morpho-functional correlations of supra-branchial gaseous chambers (SC and gas bladder (GB in Clarias gariepinus. Gross, and Histological observations were made on ten different ontogenetic stages ranged from 10 mm SL (Standard length to 100 mm SL, and mature fish 330 mm-333 mm SL. Computed tomography (CT was performed on five mature fishes at 130 K Volt and 80 Ma, different CT windows were adjusted as follows: Soft tissue (WL: 40, WW: 300, Bone (2000: 400, and Air-chambers (-600:1200. Each SC lodged mid-constricted membranous sac, communicated to gill cavity via single opening. The GB was an oval sac surrounded by incomplete bony capsule, it touched the skin laterally, otic capsule medially and SC anteriorly. The SC membrane was three layered with a gill like mucosa (respiratory mucosa; GB has an inner layer of simple squamous epithelium and an outer layer of dense irregular connective tissue. Collectively, the larval stages were adult like, but differ in proportions; in stages from 10 to 26 mm, SC adventitia was ill defined or absent and SC musculosa was well developed relatively to the total thickness of the membrane. In CT images, there was a clear communication between the otic capsule and GB at the level of anterior-medial fissures of complex vertebra; disc–shaped fat pads appeared as hypodense bilateral areas dorso-medial to GB and caudo-posterior to SC. Results Concluded that GB and SC had an accessory auditory role related to their anatomical structure, position and communications.

  8. MICROSATELLITE GENETIC VARIATION IN CULTURED POPULATIONS OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus IN INDONESIA

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    Imron Imron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, is one of economically important farmed species in Indonesia. To support the development of aquaculture industry, high genetic quality of both broodstock and seeds is required and breeding program is considered as viable option. Information on genetic variation of the populations being considered to form a base population may give insight toward the appropriate strategy to be implemented in breeding program. This study was aimed to assess genetic variation in farmed populations of catfish in Indonesia using microsatellite markers with special emphasis on their use to develop breeding program. Three populations of farmed catfish, namely Dumbo, Paiton, and Sangkuriang were collected. Fifteen individuals representing each population were screened for microsatellite variability using seven primer sets (cga01, cga02, cga03, cga05, cga06, cga09, cga10. Results found that with exception of two loci (cga01 and cg02 which had a slight increase, the other four loci showed reduction in the number of alleles ranging from 35% to 80% depending on loci. Farmed populations also showed heterozygote deficient and inbreeding level, being the highest was found in Sangkuriang and the least was observed in Dumbo population. Individuals within populations contributed most (95% while interpopulation variation accounted for only 5% of the total genetic variation. Populations of Dumbo and Sangkuriang were genetically similar while populations of Paiton were genetically different from both Dumbo and Sangkuriang. Viewed from genetic perspective, by combining all information emerging from this study, the best possible strategy to establish a base population with broad genetic base and less inbreeding would be to combine all the populations into a synthetic base population.

  9. Toxicity of buprofezin on the survival of embryo and larvae of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kasi; Muthu, Narmataa; Xavier, Rathinam; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Rahman, M Aminur; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-01-01

    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (pbuprofezin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using probit analysis. The 24 h LC50 value (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for embryos was estimated to be 6.725 (3.167-15.017) mg/L. The hatching of fish embryos was recorded as 68.8, 68.9, 66.9, 66.4, 26.9, 25.1 and 0.12% in response to 7 different concentrations of buprofezin, respectively. The mortality rate of larvae significantly (pbuprofezin concentrations exposed to 24-48 h. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for the larvae was estimated to be 5.702 (3.198-8.898) and 4.642 (3.264-6.287) mg/L respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L) of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.

  10. 6-Desaturase-Like Encoding Gene Introduction in Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Anny Hary Ayu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus is one of the economically valuable aquaculture fish species in Indonesia. This research was aimed to produce F0 transgenic catfish carrying masou salmon Δ6-desaturase-like (OmΔ6FAD gene. The Δ6-desaturase enzyme is involved in highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Transgenic catfish was produced by sperm-mediated gene transfer using electroporation method. In this study, as the first step, sperms were electroporated with three different OmΔ6FAD concentration (25, 50, and 100 µg mL-1 to have the highest sperm viability after electroporation (125 V/cm, pulse frequency 5 times, pulse length 30 millisecond, pulse interval 0.1 second. The highest sperm viability and sperm carrying OmΔ6FAD were obtain at 100 µg mL-1. This concentration was then used to produce F0 transgenic catfish in the second step. Sperm motility, sperm viability, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and larval survival at 14 days after hatching were the same as the controls (p>0.05. Genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin and then used as template to identify transgenic F0 by PCR method using specific primer for OmΔ6FAD gene. The PCR result showed that 53.84% of F0 carried OmΔ6FAD gene. The result of fatty acid analysis showed that EPA and DHA contents of F0 transgenic fish and non-transgenic fish were similar.   Keywords: catfish, Δ6-desaturase-like gene, fatty acids, electroporation

  11. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

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    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  12. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cally

    formulated to contain 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% cassava leaves to replace equal weight of maize meal. Internationally made fish feed (coppens) ... The results revealed that optimum requirement of cassava leaves level in the .... feeds were ground to a fine powder by using hammer mill machine. One kilogram of the feed was ...

  13. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cally

    0.31 cm mean total ... control groups (L0 and Ac) were stocked with eight fingerlings per square meter, respectively. ... with cassava root and cassava leaf in fish diet. ... Protein. 21.628. Carbohydrate. 50.923. Table 2. Percentage composition of ...

  14. EFEKTIVITAS KOMBINASI PROBIOTIK MIKROENKAPSULASI MELALUI PAKAN UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONADS SEPTICEMIA PADA IKAN LELE, Clarias gariepinus

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    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas kombinasi probiotik mikroenkapsulasi melalui pakan dalam pengendalian penyakit pada ikan lele, Clarias gariepinus. Penelitian dilakukan mulai dari penyiapan kombinasi probiotik Bacillus cereus ND2 dan Staphylococcus lentus L1K, mikroenkapsulasi probiotik, uji probiotik mikroenkapsulasi, serta uji dosis secara in vivo. Proses mikroenkapsulasi menggunakan BUCHI mini spray dryer dengan suhu inlet 131°C-133°C dan suhu outlet 65°C-70°C. Pakan yang digunakan adalah pakan buatan dengan kadar protein 38% yang dicampur dengan probiotik mikroenkapsulasi sesuai dengan dosis perlakuan dan diberi putih telur 2% sebagai binder. Perlakuan yang dilakukan adalah membandingkan secara in vivo probiotik mikroenkapsulasi (PM dan probiotik non-mikroenkapsulasi (PNM, dan dilanjutkan pengujian dosis melalui pakan untuk memperoleh dosis terbaik dari aplikasi probiotik mikroenkapsulasi. Parameter pengamatan berupa tingkat sintasan, biomassa, kadar hematokrit, hemoglobin, respiratory burst activity, dan total bacterial count. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi kombinasi probiotik mikroenkapsulasi Bacillus cereus ND2 dan Staphylococcus lentus L1K pada pakan lebih efektif, dan dengan dosis 2% menunjukkan hasil yang lebih baik dalam meningkatkan sintasan hingga 97,33%, biomassa dan respons imun (NBT assay, hematocrit, hemoglobin ikan lele terhadap A. hydrophila. This study was aimed to know the effectivity of microencapsulated probiotic combinations administered through diet to control motile aeromonads septicemia disease in catfish (Clarias gariepinus. The research stages consisted of preparation probiotics, microencapsulation of probiotics and probiotic microencapsulation testing in vivo. BUCHI mini spray dryer was used in the microencapsulation process with inlet temperature ranged between 131°C-133°C and outlet temperature ranged between 65°C-70°C. The diets used in the research were pelleted

  15. Essais d'adaptation de production massive de juvéniles de Clarias gariepinus en conditions rurales

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    Micha, JC.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Trials for Intensive Clarias gariepinus fingerling to Rural Conditions. Artificial reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 have been tested under less controlled conditions to adapt the intensive technology used by Aquafarm (Tihange, Belgium to rural conditions present in developing countries. The main aim was to compare the efficiency of ovaprim a synthesised hormone with catfish pituitary extracts. Fecundity and quality of eggs (egg weight were not significantly different. Incubation results on water hyacinth and on mosquito mesh frames were compared to those obtained in Zoug jars; the latter showed a higher hatching rate (67% than water hyacinth (39% and mosquito mesh frames (44%. Larvae were stocked at different stocking rates in ponds (T1: 800 larvae.m-3 and T2: 1600 larvae. m-3 and in tanks (T3: 3200 larvae.m-3 et T4: 6400 larvae.m-3. After a 50-day nursing period, no significant difference (P> 0.05 was observed for specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate, but better SGR were observed in ponds (18.34%.d-1 than in tanks (16.81%.d-1. In general, production was slightly higher in tanks than in ponds being related to a higher stocking density. Significantly higher harvests were obtained from tanks with higher stocking densities but the sizes of the larvae were very heterogeneous. In such case, it is recommended to grade the larvae at 6 or 7 days intervals using different mesh sizes (from 3 to 5 mm. These less intensive rearing conditions gave nevertheless good fingerling productions.

  16. Phenotypic Diversities of Four Populations of Clarias Gariepinus (Siluriformes, Clariidae Obtained from Ogun and Ondo State Waterbodies in South-Western Nigeria

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    Ola-Oladimeji F. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the variation in the morphological and meristic features among four populations of Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 obtained from Owena Dam and River Oluwa in Ondo State and Rivers Omo and Ogbere in Ogun State, both in Nigeria. A total of ninety five (95 and one hundred and twenty (120 fish specimens collected from Ondo and Ogun states respectively were measured using standard procedures and the results were analysed using Analysis of variance and multivariate analyses. The results obtained from the ANOVA and Principal Component Analyses of Clarias gariepinus from the four populations revealed heterogeneity for most of their characters. Therefore, the morphological differences between the wild African catfish found in Ondo and Ogun state populations could be linked to genetic differences or environmental factors or a combination of both factors. Hence, this study concluded that the populations are different which could imply high genetic diversity if molecular marker techniques are employed in further studies.

  17. Embryonic and larvae development of reciprocal crosses between Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878 and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

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    V.T. Okomoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The egg and larval development of reciprocal crosses of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878 and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 were studied under laboratory conditions. Crosses between ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus (Clariothalmus and ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus (Pangapinus had embryonic stages similar to those of the pure sib, however, unequal cell cleavages were notable in the early development of both crosses, hence, leading to different forms of deformities. The critical stage where highest mortality occurred during the embryogenesis was the somite (21.68% and hatching (48.1% stages (respectively for the Clariothalmus and Pangapinus. However, both crosses produced viable larvae (60.21 vs 13.20% hatchability respectively, which survived (30.3 vs 2.1% respectively until the end of the study (2 weeks. The external morphological features of the larvae were completely formed by the 14th day after hatching. The body forms of the crosses at this time were either phenotypic intermediary of the parent species (92% of Clariothalmus or indistinguishable from the female parent (all Pangapinus and 8% of the Clariothalmus. This study thus laid the groundwork for further comparative studies on hybrid performance and characterization.

  18. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

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    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  19. Histopathological Alterations of Hybrid Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus in Acute and Subacute Cadmium Exposure

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    Nuntiya Pantung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations occur in the gills, livers and kidneys of 3-month old hybrid walking catsfich (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinos after acute and subacute cadmium exposure in water, and after intraperitoneal injection.The 96-h LC50 for cadmium in recirculation open systems was 13.6 mg/l, and the 96-h LD50 1.6 mg/kg of fish. Light microscopic studies were carried out in gills, livers and kidneys. Gill alterations included an increased number of chloride cells, breakdown of the pillar cells and edema of the epithelial cells. In the liver there was blood conjestion in sinusoids and swelling of hepatocytes. The kidneys showed vacuolation and necrosis of proximal tubular cells.

  20. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus from Nigeria Ogun River

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    Y. R. Ajimoko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione (GSH concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25-8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44% was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001. On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001 whereas there was a significant decrease (41% in the gills (P<0.05 compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  1. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E. O.; Adelowo, O. A.; Ajimoko, Y. R.

    2007-01-01

    Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25–8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69– 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10–19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95–20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44%) was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (PCAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (Pfish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of Clarias gariepinus were significantly (Pfish farm. Overall, the results demonstrate that alteration in the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione system and induction of lipid peroxidation

  2. THE PREVALENCE OF Salmonella sp., Listeria sp. AND Aeromonas spp. IN CATFISH (CLARIAS (Clarias gariepinus AND TILAPIA (Tilapia mossambica BY PELLETING METHOD

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    Titik Budiati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to modify the isolation methods of Aeromonas sp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria sp. in catfish (Clarias gariepinus and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica obtained from wet markets and ponds in Malaysia by pelleting the sample. A total of 108 samples (32 catfish intestines, 32 tilapia intestines, and 44 water samples were obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds. The modified method was employed by pelleting the samples and followed by either implementing pre-enrichment or without pre-enrichment on the isolation of Salmonella and Listeria spp. The modified method (by pelleting the sample in combination with pre-enrichment was the most efficient for Salmonella and Listeria isolation. The sensitivity of the modified Salmonella isolation method was 0.53 and 0.73 for fish and water samples, respectively. The sensitivity of the modified Listeria method was 1 and 0.92 for fish and water samples, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the method by pelleting the sample was similar to those of non-pelleting the sample on Aeromonas isolation. Five species of Aeromonas spp., seven serovars of Salmonella sp., and four species of Listeria sp. were observed in catfish, tilapia and water samples. Overall, by pelleting the sample offered the beneficial to isolate Aeromonas spp., Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp. in catfish, tilapia and water.

  3. DNA barcoding of Clarias gariepinus, Coptodon zillii and Sarotherodon melanotheron from Southwestern Nigeria [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Mofolusho O. Falade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has been adopted as a gold standard rapid, precise and unifying identification system for animal species and provides a database of genetic sequences that can be used as a tool for universal species identification. In this study, we employed mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI for the identification of some Nigerian freshwater catfish and Tilapia species. Approximately 655 bp were amplified from the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI gene whereas 570 bp were amplified for the 16S rRNA gene. Nucleotide divergences among sequences were estimated based on Kimura 2-parameter distances and the genetic relationships were assessed by constructing phylogenetic trees using the neighbour-joining (NJ and maximum likelihood (ML methods. Analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species, and alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (99% similarity on average, which could be compared with deposited sequences in public databases. The nucleotide distance between species belonging to different genera based on COI ranged from 0.17% between Sarotherodon melanotheron and Coptodon zillii to 0.49% between Clarias gariepinus and C. zillii, indicating that S. melanotheron and C. zillii are closely related. Based on the data obtained, the utility of COI gene was confirmed in accurate identification of three fish species from Southwest Nigeria.

  4. Effect of Cooking Method on the Proximate, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus

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    Omolara Olusola Oluwaniyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The proximate, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the fillet and oil from Clarias gariepinus (Catfish and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia were determined. The moisture content ranged from 76.27 % for catfish to 79.97 % for tilapia while the oil content ranged from 7.80 % for tilapia and 11.00 % for catfish. Ash content was in the range 8.03 – 9.16 % and the protein content was 15.83 - 18.48 %. Cooking – boiling, roasting or frying – resulted in a variation in the nutrient composition but with no significant effect on the amino acid composition except for the samples fried with palm oil which resulted in significantly reduced essential amino acids contents. All the fish samples – both fresh and processed – have amino acid scores less than 100, with lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids being among the limiting amino acids. Both fish samples contain more unsaturated than saturated fatty acids.

  5. A new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) infecting farmed Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Fernando Lucas Prats; Pérez, Mercedes Martínez

    2017-11-01

    A new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 collected from the skin and fins of farmed North African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fingerlings, is described. The new species can be distinguished from other trichodinids by the characteristics of the adhesive disc, especially by the great number of denticles. Trichodina merciae n. sp. is morphologically similar to T. renicola (Mueller, 1931) and T. marplatensis Martorelli, Marcotegui & Alda, 2008, in the number of denticles, but differs in the morphometric data, denticle morphology, environment and location. Trichodina merciae n. sp. has broad sickle-shaped blades and thin, straight rays, while T. marplatensis has broad club-shaped blades and wide S-shaped rays. Besides, denticle length, blade length, ray length, width of central part and denticle span of the new species are greater than T. marplatensis. However, the diameter of denticle ring and the diameter of the central area in T. marplatensis is larger than the ones in T. merciae n. sp. This is the first record of freshwater ectoparasite trichodinid with an average number of denticles greater than 50.

  6. Metallothionein from Wild Populations of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus: From Sequence, Protein Expression and Metal Binding Properties to Transcriptional Biomarker of Metal Pollution

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    Ethel M’kandawire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals is an on-going concern throughout the world, and methods to monitor release and impact of heavy metals are of high importance. With a view to probe its suitability as molecular biomarker of metal pollution, this study has determined a coding sequence for metallothionein of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus. The gene product was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in presence of Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu, and characterised by Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry and elemental analysis. C. gariepinus MT displays typical features of fish MTs, including 20 conserved cysteines, and seven bound divalent cations (Zn(II or Cd(II when saturated. Livers from wild C. gariepinus fish collected in all three seasons from four different sites on the Kafue River of Zambia were analysed for their metal contents and for MT expression levels by quantitative PCR. Significant correlations were found between Zn and Cu levels and MT expression in livers, with MT expression clearly highest at the most polluted site, Chililabombwe, which is situated in the Copperbelt region. Based on our findings, hepatic expression of MT from C. gariepinus may be further developed as a major molecular biomarker of heavy metal pollution resulting from mining activities in this region.

  7. Metallothionein from Wild Populations of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus: From Sequence, Protein Expression and Metal Binding Properties to Transcriptional Biomarker of Metal Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'kandawire, Ethel; Mierek-Adamska, Agnieszka; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Choongo, Kennedy; Yabe, John; Mwase, Maxwell; Saasa, Ngonda; Blindauer, Claudia A

    2017-07-18

    Anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals is an on-going concern throughout the world, and methods to monitor release and impact of heavy metals are of high importance. With a view to probe its suitability as molecular biomarker of metal pollution, this study has determined a coding sequence for metallothionein of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus . The gene product was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli in presence of Zn(II), Cd(II), or Cu, and characterised by Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry and elemental analysis. C. gariepinus MT displays typical features of fish MTs, including 20 conserved cysteines, and seven bound divalent cations (Zn(II) or Cd(II)) when saturated. Livers from wild C. gariepinus fish collected in all three seasons from four different sites on the Kafue River of Zambia were analysed for their metal contents and for MT expression levels by quantitative PCR. Significant correlations were found between Zn and Cu levels and MT expression in livers, with MT expression clearly highest at the most polluted site, Chililabombwe, which is situated in the Copperbelt region. Based on our findings, hepatic expression of MT from C. gariepinus may be further developed as a major molecular biomarker of heavy metal pollution resulting from mining activities in this region.

  8. Parasitic diseases and heavy metal analysis in Parachanna obscura (Gunther 1861 and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1901 from Epe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinsanya Bamidele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Parachanna obscura (P. obscura and Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus and the use of their parasites as accumulation indicators from Lekki Lagoon. Methods: Samples of fish were procured from Oluwo market, a landing site of fish of artisanal fishermen in Epe. Metal accumulation, and intestinal parasites and protozoan of P. obscura and C. gariepinus were investigated. Sediment and water samples were examined for selected heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Fe while nematode parasite from infected fish were also analysed for heavy metal content. Results: Absolute morphometric parameters had low correlation with single independent morphometric index (total length and standard length but increased when correlated with combined indices. The prevalence of parasitic infections in P. obscura and C. gariepinus were 35% and 36% respectively. The metal concentrations accumulated in the fish’s liver were more than that found in the water and sediment. There was strong correlation in metal accumulated in the parasites relative to the water medium (r = 0.968 - 1.000, P < 0.01. Procamallanus spp., a nematode accumulated 2 times more Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Fe than Wenyonia sp. There was higher heavy metal level observed in intestinal nematode Procamallanus sp. than wenyonia sp. in the infected fish in this study. Conclusions: This suggests that Procamallanus sp. may be used as a potential sink of metal pollution in an aquatic environment and also a good sentinel in the environment.

  9. Starch-Glycerol Based Edible Film and Effect of Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn Extract and Surimi Dumbo Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Addition on Its Mechanical Properties

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    Endaruji Sedyadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn Extract and Surimi Dumbo catfish (Clarias gariepinus addition on Starch-Based Edible Film-Glycerol Mechanical Properties has been done. The purpose of this study is to create an active environment-friendly packaging material. Surimi additions are intended to improve the mechanical properties of bioplastics and additions of Rosella extract intended as a bio-indicator of acidity. The method used was Solvent Casting. An amount of surimi and rosella extract varied to obtain the best mechanical properties. The results shows that the addition of surimi and rosella flower extract significantly effect the elongation of Edible films produced up to 27%.

  10. PRODUKTIVITAS DAN PROFITABILITAS BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE (Clarias gariepinus HASIL SELEKSI DAN NON-SELEKSI PADA PEMELIHARAAN DI KOLAM TANAH

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    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus merupakan salah satu komoditas budidaya air tawar yang populer di Indonesia. Berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas ikan lele di antaranya melalui perbaikan kualitas genetik. Upaya peningkatan kualitas genetik ikan lele untuk mempercepat pertumbuhan dilakukan melalui proses seleksi. Pengujian performa ikan lele hasil seleksi (strain Mutiara pada skala komersial dilakukan dengan membandingkannya dengan strain non-seleksi (strain Paiton. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk membandingkan produktivitas dan profitabilitas budidaya ikan lele hasil seleksi dan non-seleksi yang dibesarkan di kolam tanah pada skala komersial. Ikan lele ukuran sekitar 2,5 g dipelihara di kolam tanah berukuran 50 m2 dengan kepadatan 200 ekor/m2. Pemeliharaan dilakukan sampai ikan mencapai ukuran panen (sekitar 100 g. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan hasil seleksi memiliki laju pertumbuhan spesifik lebih tinggi (5,75 ± 1,25 g/hari, konversi pakan lebih rendah (0,90 ± 0,08, dan periode pemeliharaan lebih singkat (68 ± 13 hari dibandingkan ikan non-seleksi (4,33 ± 0,70 g/hari; 1,09 ± 0,01; 90 ± 12 hari. Berdasarkan analisis bioekonomi, budidaya pembesaran ikan lele hasil seleksi mampu menekan biaya produksi hingga Rp2.365,00/kg dan mendatangkan rasio keuntungan (61,09 ± 5,17% hampir dua kali lipat lebih tinggi dibandingkan non-seleksi (32,54 ± 4,12%. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus is one of the freshwater aquaculture commodity that are popular in Indonesia. Various attempts had been conducted to increase its productivity including through genetic quality improvement. Efforts to improve the genetic quality of African catfish on growth trait was conducted by selection method. Evaluation the performance of improved strain of African catfish (Mutiara strain on a commercial scale was done by comparing with local (non-improved strain (Paiton strain. The purpose of this study was to compare the productivity and

  11. Concentration of electrolyte reserves of the juvenile african catfish clarias gariepinus (burchell, 1822) exposed to sublethal concentrations of portland cement powder in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamu, M.K.; Francis, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (39.10, 19.55, 9.87 and 0.00 mg/l) of Portland cement powder in solution on the electrolyte reserves (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and inorganic phosphorus) in the serum, liver and kidney of the juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus after a 15 day exposure period. The basic function of the determined electrolyte reserves in the body lies in controlling fluid distribution, intra and extra cellular acidobasic equilibrium, maintaining osmotic pressure of body fluid and normal neuro-muscular irritability. The result revealed significant (P 0.05) changes in inorganic phosphorus. Sodium, calcium, chloride and inorganic phosphorus and potassium were significantly (P 0.05) different in liver and kidney, respectively. Ipso-facto, the effector organs viz: liver and kidney of teleost species - Clarias gariepinus which are primarily responsible for regulating water and ionic movement between external and internal milieu of fishes are susceptible to deleterious effects of Portland cement powder thus sublethal concentration (39.10 mg/l) of Portland cement powder in solution after a 15 day exposure has been most toxic and debilitating to the test fish. (author)

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of fushi tarazu factor 1 in the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

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    Parikipandla Sridevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1 encodes an orphan nuclear receptor belonging to the nuclear receptor family 5A (NR5A which includes adrenal 4-binding protein or steroidogenic factor-1 (Ad4BP/SF-1 and liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1 and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of aromatases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Present study was aimed to understand the importance of FTZ-F1 in relation to brain aromatase (cyp19a1b during development, recrudescence and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG induction. Initially, we cloned FTZ-F1 from the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus through degenerate primer RT-PCR and RACE. Its sequence analysis revealed high homology with other NR5A1 group members Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1, and also analogous to the spatial expression pattern of the latter. In order to draw functional correlation of cyp19a1b and FTZ-F1, we analyzed the expression pattern of the latter in brain during gonadal ontogeny, which revealed early expression during gonadal differentiation. The tissue distribution both at transcript and protein levels revealed its prominent expression in brain along with liver, kidney and testis. The expression pattern of brain FTZ-F1 during reproductive cycle and after hCG induction, in vivo was analogous to that of cyp19a1b shown in our earlier study indicating its involvement in recrudescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our previous results on cyp19a1b and the present data, it is plausible to implicate potential roles for brain FTZ-F1 in ovarian differentiation and recrudescence process probably through regulation of cyp19a1b in teleosts. Nevertheless, these interactions would require primary coordinated response from ovarian aromatase and its related transcription factors.

  13. Cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), an air-breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belão, T C; Leite, C A C; Florindo, L H; Kalinin, A L; Rantin, F T

    2011-10-01

    The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, possesses a pair of suprabranchial chambers located in the dorsal-posterior part of the branchial cavity having extensions from the upper parts of the second and fourth gill arches, forming the arborescent organs. This structure is an air-breathing organ (ABO) and allows aerial breathing (AB). We evaluated its cardiorespiratory responses to aquatic hypoxia. To determine the mode of air-breathing (obligate or accessory), fish had the respiratory frequency (f (R)) monitored and were subjected to normoxic water (PwO(2) = 140 mmHg) without becoming hyperactive for 30 h. During this period, all fish survived without displaying evidences of hyperactivity and maintained unchanged f (R), confirming that this species is a facultative air-breather. Its aquatic O(2) uptake ([Formula: see text]) was maintained constant down to a critical PO(2) (PcO(2)) of 60 mmHg, below which [Formula: see text] declined linearly with further reductions of inspired O(2) tension (PiO(2)). Just above the PcO(2) the ventilatory tidal volume (V (T)) increased significantly along with gill ventilation ([Formula: see text]), while f (R) changed little. Consequently, the water convection requirement [Formula: see text] increased steeply. This threshold applied to a cardiac response that included reflex bradycardia. AB was initiated at PiO(2) = 140 mmHg (normoxia) and air-breathing episodes increased linearly with more severe hypoxia, being significantly higher at PiO(2) tensions below the PcO(2). Air-breathing episodes were accompanied by bradycardia pre air-breath, to tachycardia post air-breath.

  14. Age, growth and mortality of Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae in the Mid-Cross River-Floodplain ecosystem, Nigeria

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    Okechukwu Idumah Okogwu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is a threatened highly prized species used for some elite ceremonies by the local communities. Artisanal fishers take advantage of this species annual breeding migration from the lower Cross River to the floodplain lakes in Mid-Cross River during the rainy season, and some migrant stocks are not able to spawn. Since there is a lack of information on this species population dynamics in the Mid-Cross area, this study aimed to evaluate the age, growth and mortality to support the development of effective management plans. For this, monthly overnight gill net catches (from 6 to 72mm mesh sizes were developed between March 2005 and February 2007. Growth parameters were determined using the FiSAT II length-frequency distribution. A total of 1 421 fish were collected during the survey. The asymptotic growth (L∞ was 80.24cm, growth rate (K was 0.49/year while the longevity was 6.12years. The annual instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z was 2.54/year and the natural mortality (M was 0.88. Fishing mortality (1.66/year was higher than the biological reference points (Fopt=0.83 and Flimit=1.11 and the exploitation rate (0.66 was higher than the predicted value (Emax=0.64 indicating that C. gariepinus was over exploited in the Mid-Cross River-Floodplain ecosystem. Some recommended immediate management actions are to strengthen the ban of ichthyocide fishing, closure of the floodplain lakes for most of the year, restricted access to the migratory path of the fish during the flood period and vocational training to the fishers. In order to recover and maintain a sustainable harvest, I suggest that a multi-sector stakeholder group should be formed with governmental agents, community leaders, fishers, fisheries scientists and non-governmental organizations. These short and long term measures, if carefully applied, will facilitate recovery of the fishery. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1707-1716. Epub 2011 December 01.Clarias gariepinus es una

  15. Morphological re-description and new geographical records for three digenean parasites infecting African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Pisces: Clariidae) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Sakarn, Thabet; El-Shahawi, Gamal; El-Fayoumi, Hoda; Mohammed, Rana

    2016-11-01

    Sixty specimens of African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae) were collected during the period of March 2014-February 2015 from boat landing sites and fishermen of the River Nile at Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt, and examined for the presence of digenean parasites. The morphology of these parasites was studied by using light microscopy to describe morphological and morphometrically measurements for different body parts. Three digenean species belonging to three different genera were collected from various organs within the examined fish species. A certain degree of site specificity was also observed, with Thaparotrema botswanensis being found only in the gall bladder of C. gariepinus, while both Pseudoholorchis clarii and Glossidium pedatum were found only in the intestine and thus seem to occupy a certain niche within their host. This study represent as the first record of T. botswanensis and G. pedatum from C. gariepinus, as well as the first report of the genera from the River Nile in Egypt. In addition, re-description of P. clarii clarifies measurements for some body parts.

  16. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat; Wongrat, Ladda

    2006-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l -1 , referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l -1 Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 μg l -1 , lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 μg l -1 ). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g -1 (dry wt) in the control group, 194 ± 1.80 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 ± 20.06 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g -1 (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 ± 2.23 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 ± 3.23 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g -1 (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 ± 0.02 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 ± 0.06 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and experimental group 2 (10.00 g). The results showed that the measurement of Cd concentration in water does not

  17. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat [Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)]. E-mail: krsuneer@kmitl.ac.th; Wongrat, Ladda [Faculty of Fishery, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2006-06-10

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l{sup -1}, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l{sup -1} Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 {mu}g l{sup -1}, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 {mu}g l{sup -1}). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 194 {+-} 1.80 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 {+-} 20.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 {+-} 2.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 {+-} 3.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 {+-} 0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and

  18. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  19. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  20. Occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of fish bacteria isolated from Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish in Uganda

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    S. P. Wamala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intention of this study was to identify the bacterial pathogens infecting Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish, and to establish the antibiotic susceptibility of fish bacteria in Uganda. A total of 288 fish samples from 40 fish farms (ponds, cages, and tanks and 8 wild water sites were aseptically collected and bacteria isolated from the head kidney, liver, brain and spleen. The isolates were identified by their morphological characteristics, conventional biochemical tests and Analytical Profile Index test kits. Antibiotic susceptibility of selected bacteria was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The following well-known fish pathogens were identified at a farm prevalence of; Aeromonas hydrophila (43.8%, Aeromonas sobria (20.8%, Edwardsiella tarda (8.3%, Flavobacterium spp. (4.2% and Streptococcus spp. (6.3%. Other bacteria with varying significance as fish pathogens were also identified including Plesiomonas shigelloides (25.0%, Chryseobacterium indoligenes (12.5%, Pseudomonas fluorescens (10.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.2%, Pseudomonas stutzeri (2.1%, Vibrio cholerae (10.4%, Proteus spp. (6.3%, Citrobacter spp. (4.2%, Klebsiella spp. (4.2% Serratia marcescens (4.2%, Burkholderia cepacia (2.1%, Comamonas testosteroni (8.3% and Ralstonia picketti (2.1%. Aeromonas spp., Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus spp. were commonly isolated from diseased fish. Aeromonas spp. (n = 82 and Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 73 were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates tested were susceptible to at-least ten (10 of the fourteen antibiotics evaluated. High levels of resistance were however expressed by all isolates to penicillin, oxacillin and ampicillin. This observed resistance is most probably intrinsic to those bacteria, suggesting minimal levels of acquired antibiotic resistance in fish bacteria from the study area. To our knowledge, this is the first study to

  1. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  2. Control of cardiorespiratory function in response to hypoxia in an air-breathing fish, the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belão, T C; Zeraik, V M; Florindo, L H; Kalinin, A L; Leite, C A C; Rantin, F T

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the role of the first pair of gill arches in the control of cardiorespiratory responses to normoxia and hypoxia in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. An intact group (IG) and an experimental group (EG, bilateral excision of first gill arch) were submitted to graded hypoxia, with and without access to air. The first pair of gill arches ablations reduced respiratory surface area and removed innervation by cranial nerve IX. In graded hypoxia without access to air, both groups displayed bradycardia and increased ventilatory stroke volume (VT), and the IG showed a significant increase in breathing frequency (fR). The EG exhibited very high fR in normoxia that did not increase further in hypoxia, this was linked to reduced O2 extraction from the ventilatory current (EO2) and a significantly higher critical O2 tension (PcO2) than the IG. In hypoxia with access to air, only the IG showed increased air-breathing, indicating that the first pair of gill arches excision severely attenuated air-breathing responses. Both groups exhibited bradycardia before and tachycardia after air-breaths. The fH and gill ventilation amplitude (VAMP) in the EG were overall higher than the IG. External and internal NaCN injections revealed that O2 chemoreceptors mediating ventilatory hypoxic responses (fR and VT) are internally oriented. The NaCN injections indicated that fR responses were mediated by receptors predominantly in the first pair of gill arches but VT responses by receptors on all gill arches. Receptors eliciting cardiac responses were both internally and externally oriented and distributed on all gill arches or extra-branchially. Air-breathing responses were predominantly mediated by receptors in the first pair of gill arches. In conclusion, the role of the first pair of gill arches is related to: (a) an elevated EO2 providing an adequate O2 uptake to maintain the aerobic metabolism during normoxia; (b) a significant bradycardia and increased fAB elicited

  3. Effect of photoperiod on some biological parameters of Clarias gariepinus juvenile

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    Solomon S. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod effect on Growth parameters and cannibalism of Clarias gariepinushave been well documented in resent past, but little is known about the response of other biological parameters such as, Condition factor, Shooters composition, Body colouration and Blood glucose of this important tropical fish species to different photoperiods, therefore the present study was designed to evaluate these responses of the African catfish to 24 hours of light (00D:24L, 24 hours of darkness (24D: 00L and 12 hour light / 12 hours darkness (12D: 12L. The six weeks experiment observed significant differences (P0.05 at the end of the experiment and were Significantly lower than value obtained at the start of the experiment, Shooters composition was highest in 00D:24L (41.5% i.e. 27 of 65 leading to high mortality (13.33% due to cannibalism compared to 12D: 12L (Shooters =15.27% i.e. 11 of 72, Mortality= 4% and 24D: 00L (Shooters=5.33% i.e. 4 of 75, Mortality= 0% photoperiod. More so, 93.33% (70 of 75 of fish in the dark phase (24D: 00Lexhibited Deep shiny black body colouration, while 6.67% (5 of 75 was observed of Normal fish colouration. However the fishes in the 00D: 24L photoperiod were observed to be predominantly Lighter skin colouration, (80% i.e. 52 of 65= lighter colouration, 18.46% i.e. 12 of 65= Normal skin coloration and 1.53 i.e. 1 of 65= Deep black body colouration while 12D: 12L were of Normal skin colouration (100% Normal skin colouration, also blood glucose was observed to increase as the light hours increased (P<0.05 with 24D: 00L photoperiod having the highest blood glucose level of 5.7+0.5, while those in 12D: 12L had 4.4+0.3 and 24D: 00L had the least value of 3.9+0.1. This study therefore establishes the fact that photoperiod may have no effect on the condition factor of African catfish, while higher shooters composition is highlighted as one of the causes of increased mortality and could be reduced to a large extent with reduced light

  4. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola G; Okomoda, Victor T; Oguche, Obekpa

    2018-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal ( Canavalia ensiformis ) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C .  ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soybeans meal (at 58.8% inclusion) with C .  ensiformis in the diet of Clarias gariepinus . The result obtained after 56 days revealed that fingerlings could tolerate up to 20% replacement without significant effect on growth and nutrient utilization. Beyond this, growth was significantly reduced. Survivals of the fish also follow a similar trend as stated above. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of raw C .  ensiform meal should not be beyond 11% (or 20% replacement for soybeans meal included at 58.8%) in the diet of C .  gariepinus .

  5. A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeji, S.; Solomon, S. G.; Idoga, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment) over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue) and cultured (pond) environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of fishes in the wild. Among the body parts of the sampled fishes from the pond, the gills had the highest parasite load (38.86%). Also, the gills had the highest parasite load (40.54%) among the body parts of the fishes sampled from the wild. Fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the pond constituted 36.70% of the total fish sampled. On the other hand, fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the wild constituted 31.65% of the total fish sampled. Female fishes had more protozoan parasites than the male fishes. Bigger fishes of total length (25–48 cm) had more parasite load than the smaller ones (19–24 cm). Also, fishes between 150–750 g had more parasite load than the smaller ones of less than 150 g. Protozoan parasite load of fish from the cultured environment (pond) did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from those from River Benue (wild). PMID:22028952

  6. A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Omeji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue and cultured (pond environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of fishes in the wild. Among the body parts of the sampled fishes from the pond, the gills had the highest parasite load (38.86%. Also, the gills had the highest parasite load (40.54% among the body parts of the fishes sampled from the wild. Fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the pond constituted 36.70% of the total fish sampled. On the other hand, fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the wild constituted 31.65% of the total fish sampled. Female fishes had more protozoan parasites than the male fishes. Bigger fishes of total length (25–48 cm had more parasite load than the smaller ones (19–24 cm. Also, fishes between 150–750 g had more parasite load than the smaller ones of less than 150 g. Protozoan parasite load of fish from the cultured environment (pond did not differ significantly (P<0.05 from those from River Benue (wild.

  7. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Farahiyah, I. J.; Zainal, A.A.R.; Ahmad, A.; Mardhati, M..; Thayalini, K.; Yong, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenil...

  8. 150 ACUTE TOXICITY OF GLYPHOSATE ON CLARIAS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of glyphosate on mortality rate and behavioural responses of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings were investigated under laboratory conditions for 96 hours exposure period. The lethal concentration (LC50) value of glyphosate on fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was 0.0018 ml/l for 96 hours of exposure.

  9. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

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    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  10. and clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... fish species constitute a high source of protein and low fatty acids, as well ... highly susceptible to various factors such as the time of year and the type of feed ... Since fish lipids are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega -3 fatty ..... which enable the body to carry out certain functions such as ...

  11. Manganese, nickel and strontium bioaccumulation in the tissues of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the Olifants River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Avenant-Oldewage

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The gills, liver, muscle and skin were collected from Clarias gariepinus, during four surveys (February, May, June and November in 1994 from two sites on the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park. With the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, metal concentrations of manganese, nickel and strontium bioaccumulated in these tissues were determined. This information was then used to differentiate between the concentrations found at the two locations and between the four survey periods. The con- centration of the metals were found to be highest in the gills, followed by the liver. This suggests the gills to be the primary uptake tissue for these metals following their intimate blood-water contact. The concentration of manganese and strontium, with particular reference to the gills, showed highest bioaccumulation at Mamba. Very little differences in the nickel concentrations were found at both Mamba and Balule. Water bioconcentration factors for manganese and nickel were much higher than that noted for sediment, suggesting a much lower bioavailability of these metals from the sediment. On the other hand, sediment bioconcentration factors for strontium were generally higher than that for water, which could imply higher bioavailability and concentration from the sediment.

  12. Effect of some pulverised plant materials on the developmental stages of fish beetle, Dermestes maculatus Degeer in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasakin, E A; Aberejo, B A

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of pulverised plant materials; Tithonium diversifolia, Afromomum melegueta, Nicotiana tabacum, Monodora myristica and Piper guineense as ovicidal, larvicidal and adult deterents of fish beetle (Dermestes maculatus) in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage were evaluated. Leaves of T. diversifolia, N. tabacum and seeds of A. melegueta, M. myristica and P. guineese were dried and pulverised into powder. Adults and larvae of third generation (F3) of D. maculatus were introduced into Kilner jars containing disinfested fish samples. Pulverised plant materials were applied to the surface of the fish samples at 10% (w/w) and monitored for 40 days, while egg hatchability of the insects was monitored for seven days. The result showed that all the plant materials had varying degree of insecticidal activities. Pulverised powder of P. guineense and A. melegueta were the most effective and significantly (P 0.05) affected by the plant materials. The percentage weight loss in fish treated with P. guineense and A. melegueta were minimal compared with the untreated fish sample. The result of this study showed that pulverised plant materials obtained from P. guineense and A. melegueta could be used to deter egg hatchability and adult emergence of D. maculatus in smoked catfish during storage. This could also reduce percentage losses due to insect infestation on smoked fish during storage.

  13. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, Rahayu; Kismiyati; Sudarno; Kurniawan, Hendi; Teguh Prayogi, Yudha

    2017-02-01

    Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of the familiar freshwater fish cultured in Indonesia farmer. One of the reason is the high mortality of the catfish infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) is a common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which affects freshwater fish. In Southeast Asia, the outbreak of this disease was firstly reported from West Java in 1980, when a total of 82.5 tons a month of catfish were lost, while in Central Java in 1984, the total loss was 1.6 tons. Saprolegniosis can cause economic loss due to high mortality from its case reaching 10% to 50%. This research aimed to identify and determine the percentage of A. hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. the catfish farmed in bozem Moro Krembangan, Surabaya, East Java. Meanwhile, a supporting parameter in this research is the value of water quality parameter including pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen that were measured during sampling. The results showed that of the 20 samples taken from the two cages, 19 fish were positively infected by A. drophila. percentage of infections of A. hydrophila that infect umbo catfish in Moro Krembangan, was 95%, while the percentage Saprolegnia sp. was 90%.

  15. Growth performance of African catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile fed on the diets containing various chromium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aryansyah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary chromium level on the growth performance of catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile. Five experimental diets contain different chromium level, namely diet A (as a control diet 0.01; B 1.30; C 2.60; D 3.90 and E 5.20 mg/kg diet were used in this experiment. Fish with body weight of  5.57 ± 0.01 g/ind, fed on the experimental diet, twice a day, at satiation. Feeding trial was conducted for 60 days. Based on the evaluation of protein level of the whole body, protein and lipid retention, daily growth rate and feed efficiency, it was concluded that the optimum dietary chromium level for catfish  juvenile was 2.60 mg/kg diet. Keywords: chromium, growth, Clarias sp.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian kromium dengan level berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan ikan lele (Clarias sp. juvenil.  Lima jenis pakan yang mengandung kromium berbeda, yaitu pakan A  (kontrol 0,01; B 1,30; C 2,60; D 3,90 dan pakan E 5,20 mg/kg digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Ikan dengan bobot 5,57 ± 0,01 g/ind., diberi pakan 2 kali sehari secara satiasi.  Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 60 hari.  Berdasarkan analisa retensi protein, kandungan protein dan retensi lemak dalam tubuh ikan lele, disimpulkan bahwa kadar kromium yang optimum untuk juvenil ikan lele adalah 2,60 mg/kg pakan. Kata kunci: kromium, pertumbuhan, Clarias sp.

  16. Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. CI Ayo-Olalusi, AAA Ugwumba. Abstract. Investigations were carried out on the growth performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus using four different feeding frequencies. Two hundred and forty juveniles (8.6 +0.0 g) were stocked in eight aquaria ...

  17. Assessment of the nutritional quality of smoked catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nutritional quality of smoked Catfish Clarias gariepinus obtained in three different markets in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria for a period of three months. Proximate compositions of smoked Clarias gariepinus were determined. The highest protein content (49.27 ± 2.59) was recorded in smoked fish ...

  18. Commercial African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: Assessment of Element and Energy Pathways with Special Focus on the Phosphorus Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Marcus Strauch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of effluent waters and sediments from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus recirculation aquaculture systems requires a deeper understanding of the nutrient and energy flows and material pathways. Three semi-commercial systems, differing in stocking density, were sampled for nutritive and pollutant elements of the input- (tap water, feed and output pathways (fillet, carcass, process water, sediments by ICP-OES/MS and calorimetry. Highly water-soluble elements, e.g., potassium, accumulated in the water, whereas iron, copper, chromium and uranium where found in the solids. Feed derived phosphorous was accounted for, 58.3–64.2% inside the fish, 9.7–19.3% in sediments, and small amounts 9.6–15.5% in the process waters. A total of 7.1–9.9% of the feed accumulated as dry matter in the sediments, comprising 5.5–8.7% total organic carbon and 3.7–5.2% nitrogen. A total of 44.5–47.1% of the feed energy was found in the fish and 5.7–7.7% in the sediments. For reuse of water and nutrients in hydroponics, the macro-nutrients potassium, nitrate, phosphorus and the micro-nutrient iron were deficient when compared with generalized recommendations for plant nutrition. Low energy contents and C/N-ratio restrict the solely use of African catfish solids for biogas production or vermiculture. Using the outputs both for biogas supplement and general fertilizer in aquaponics farming (s.l. (combined with additional nutrients appears possible.

  19. Monitoring of DNA breakage in embryonic stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) after exposure to lead nitrate using alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alaa G M; Mekkawy, Imam A; Verreth, Johan; Wuertz, Sven; Kloas, Werner; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Increasing lead contamination in Egyptian ecosystems and high lead concentrations in food items have raised concern for human health and stimulated studies on monitoring ecotoxicological impact of lead-caused genotoxicity. In this work, the alkaline comet assay was modified for monitoring DNA strand breakage in sensitive early life stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Following exposure to 100, 300, and 500 microg/L lead nitrate, DNA strand breakage was quantified in embryos at 30, 48, 96, 144, and 168 h post-fertilization (PFS). For quantitative analysis, four commonly used parameters (tail % DNA, %TDNA; head % DNA, %HDNA; tail length, TL; tail moment, TM) were analyzed in 96 nuclei (in triplicates) at each sampling point. The parameter %TDNA revealed highest resolution and lowest variation. A strong correlation between lead concentration, time of exposure, and DNA strand breakage was observed. Here, genotoxicity detected by comet assay preceded the manifested malformations assessed with conventional histology. Qualitative evaluation was carried out using five categories are as follows: undamaged (%TDNA 75%) nuclei confirming a dose and time-dependent shift towards increased frequencies of highly and extremely damaged nuclei. A protective capacity provided by a hardened chorion is a an interesting finding in this study as DNA damage in the prehatching stages 30 h-PFS and 48 h-PFS was low in all treatments (qualitative and quantitative analyses). These results clearly show that the comet assay is a sensitive tool for the detection of genotoxicity in vulnerable early life stages of the African catfish and is a method more sensitive than histological parameters for monitoring genotoxic effects. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cloning, localization and differential expression of Neuropeptide-Y during early brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Anitha, Arumugam; Murugananthkumar, Raju; Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar; Bhasker, Dharavath; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2017-09-15

    Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) has diverse physiological functions which are extensively studied in vertebrates. However, regulatory role of NPY in relation to brain ontogeny and recrudescence with reference to reproduction is less understood in fish. Present report for the first time evaluated the significance of NPY by transient esiRNA silencing and also analyzed its expression during brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus. As a first step, full-length cDNA of NPY was cloned from adult catfish brain, which shared high homology with its counterparts from other teleosts upon phylogenetic analysis. Tissue distribution revealed dominant expression of NPY in brain and testis. NPY expression increased during brain development wherein the levels were higher in 100 and 150days post hatch females than the respective age-matched males. Seasonal cycle analysis showed high expression of NPY in brain during pre-spawning phase in comparison with other reproductive phases. Localization studies exhibited the presence of NPY, abundantly, in the regions of preoptic area, hypothalamus and pituitary. Transient silencing of NPY-esiRNA directly into the brain significantly decreased NPY expression in both the male and female brain of catfish which further resulted in significant decrease of transcripts of tryptophan hydroxylase 2, catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH), tyrosine hydroxylase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in brain and luteinizing hormone-β/gonadotropin-II (lh-β/GTH-II) in pituitary exhibiting its influence on gonadal axis. In addition, significant decrease of several ovary-related transcripts was observed in NPY-esiRNA silenced female catfish, indicating the plausible role of NPY in ovary through cfGnRH-GTH axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determining the safety and suitability of fluorescein dye for characterization of skin ulcerations in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify the presence of lesions in fish skin as soon as they erupt. Fish skin lesions are either macroscopic (can be visualized by the naked eye or microscopic (difficult to detect with the naked eye. Skin wounds resulting in loss of the epithelium (superficial or deep ulcers are serious as they may interfere with osmoregulation and open portals for opportunistic pathogens. Herein, we report on the use of a fluorescein dye for the detection of skin ulcers that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Due to their importance in aquaculture endeavors in Egypt, this study focused on two indigenous species, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the scale-less African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Fluorescein dye was tested for safety to fish without interfering with microbiological analysis. Parallel to the use of the flourescein dye, the detected ulcers were examined for the presence of bacteria or tissue alterations. Further, we experimentally induced the formation of skin ulcers in O. niloticus physically or by injecting Aeromons hydrophila, and then assessed the utility of fluorescein dye in detecting the induced skin lesions. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that fluorescein dye application is harmless to Nile tilapia at concentrations up to 0.5 mg fluorescein/ml water for up to 15 min. Indeed, a low dose of fluorescein (0.10 mg/ml for 5 min could identify very minute skin abrasions. We highly recommend the use of fluorescein dye for the evaluation of skin health in farmed fish species and the visualization of minute skin abrasions.

  2. Dynamics of Hexavalent Chromium in Four Types of Aquaculture Ponds and Its Effects on the Morphology and Behavior of Cultured Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood Keke

    2017-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a bio accumulative toxic metal in water and fish. It enters aquaculture ponds mainly through anthropogenic sources. Hexavalent chromium concentrations and its effects on the morphology and behavior of Clarias gariepinus were investigated from four aquaculture ponds for 12 weeks. Chromium was measured using diphenyl carbohdrazide method; alkalinity and hardness were measured using colometric method and analyzed with Bench Photometer. Temperature and pH were measured using pH/EC/TDS/Temp combined tester. Temporal and spatial replications of samples were done with triplicates morphological and behavioural effects of the metal on fish were observed visually. Chromium ranged from no detection to 0.05 mg/L, alkalinity 105 to 245 mg/L, hardness 80 to 165 mg/L, pH 6.35 to 8.03 and temperature 29.1 to 35.9°C. Trend in the chromium concentrations in the ponds is natural > earthen > concrete > collapsible. There was a significant difference ( P temperature among the four ponds. Significant positive correlation also existed between alkalinity, water hardness, pH, with chromium. Morphological and behavioural changes observed in the fish include irregular swimming, frequent coming to the surface, dark body colouration, mucous secretion on the body, erosion of gill epithelium, fin disintegration, abdominal distension and lethargy. High chromium concentration in natural pond was due to anthropogenic run-off of materials in to the pond. Acidic pH, low alkalinity, low water hardness also contributed to the high chromium concentration. Morphological and behavioural changes observed were attributed to the high concentrations, toxicity and bio accumulative effect of the metal. Toxicity of chromium to fish in aquaculture could threaten food security. Watershed best management practices and remediation could be adopted to reduce the effects of toxicity of chromium on pond water quality, fish flesh quality and fish welfare.

  3. HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WATER SOLUBLE FRACTION (WSF OF BONNY LIGHT CRUDE OIL (BLCO TO THE AFRICAN FRESHWATER CATFISH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred and sixty (360 juveniles of Clarias gariepinus were collected from Luis Fish Farm Warri, Delta State and transported to the Departmental Laboratory of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki (latitude 60, 20\\' 49\\'\\'N, longitude 80 06\\' 11\\'\\'E, Nigeria. The experimental fish were exposed to 6 treatment concentrations (20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.00 ml/l of WSF of BLCO in triplicate replications of 60 fish per treatment for 10 weeks. Mean cell count of red blood cell (RBC reduced significantly (P and lt;0.05 from 2.09 and plusmn;0.06 x 106 /mm3 in the control group to 1.4971 and plusmn;0.06x106 /mm3 in the highest concentration exposed group (20ml/L. Similarly, significant reduction in packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin content of RBC resulted to anaemic conditions in exposed fish. PCV decreased from 24.33 and plusmn;0.26% to 16.50 and plusmn;0.89% while haemoglobin decreased to 7.73 and plusmn;0.29g/dl from 12.05 and plusmn;0.11g/dl. Total white blood cell (WBC count suffered significant reduction than control and in the amount of its lymphocytes but increased significantly than control in the number of neutrophils. WBC reduced from 51.44 and plusmn;0.47x103 /mm3 to 43.48 and plusmn;1.09x103 /mm3 , and lymphocytes from 91.55 and plusmn;2.24% to 78.0 and plusmn;0.5% while neutrophil increased to 11.52 and plusmn;1.3% from 3.58 and plusmn;0.27%. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV, MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC did not differ significantly (P and gt;0.05 with control group.

  4. Digesta characteristiscs and performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed cereal grains that differ in viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Veld, ter M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusion of cereal grains in fish diets may induce changes in digesta characteristics with possible consequences for fish performance. Especially viscosity characteristics of the dietary ingredients may induce these changes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary cereal grains

  5. Mode d'exploitation et durabilité de la pêche de Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 et Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 dans le lac de barrage du Sourou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dialla, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mode of Operation and Sustainability of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 and Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 Fisheries in the Sourou Dam Lake (Burkina Faso. This research on fishery exploitation in the Sourou dam raises the issue of sustainable management of common property. The central hypothesis is that the effectiveness of co-management for sustainable fishing practices is related to the level of ownership of that management and actors' games by fishing communities. In analysing co-management induced effects on fishing practices and exploitation of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus species, related to its implementation in Sourou fishery, a research methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative methods is used. Socio-economic surveys were conducted with 30 fishermen in three villages bordering the fishery. Biological surveys were also conducted with catches of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus of these fishermen,. The results indicate a weak ownership of the co-management model by fishermen and the strategies of actors that consist to minimize the costs of the sustainable management of fisheries resources at individual level. Indeed, even when informed of fisheries regulations, fishermen use prohibited fishing equipment (54.1% of the catches of studied species, and fishi illegally (43.3% of the fishermen. Furthermore, significant proportions of each studied species are captured before their first maturity sizes (52.2% of C. gariepinus, 15.8% of G. niloticus and 14.3% of O. niloticus. So, the central hypothesis is verified because the weak ownership of co-management by fishing communities and the actors' strategies do not encourage them to develop a responsible behavior for sustainable fishing.

  6. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  7. Shesher and Welala Floodplain Wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia: Are They Important Breeding Habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the Migratory Labeobarbus Fish Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Anteneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010. Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands were temporally segregated.

  8. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the

  9. Heterobranchus longifilis x Clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2005-08-12

    Aug 12, 2005 ... were determined with a haemocytometer with improved Neubauer counting chamber as described by Blaxhall and Diasley (1973). Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration estimates were determined as described by Wedemeyer and Yasutake (1977). The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and.

  10. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... Body cavity of fish were dissected using a pair of scissors and different portion of the gut (Oesophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum) were isolated and kept in .... Arme, C. and Wakey, M. (1970): The physiology of fishes.

  11. (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... DMSO and glycerol provided hatching at least 50% of catfish eggs. ... However, sperm cryopreserved with glycerol had the lowest motility rate in the 2 trials (p < 0.05). The use ..... the top were screened from insect contamination of eggs by covering ..... Successful handstripping of hatchery breeding reared.

  12. Season-dependent effects of photoperiod and temperature on circadian rhythm of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase2 gene expression in pineal organ of an air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kshetrimayum Manisana; Saha, Saurav; Gupta, Braj Bansh Prasad

    2017-08-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity, aanat gene expression and melatonin production have been reported to exhibit prominent circadian rhythm in the pineal organ of most species of fish. Three types of aanat genes are expressed in fish, but the fish pineal organ predominantly expresses aanat2 gene. Increase and decrease in daylength is invariably associated with increase and decrease in temperature, respectively. But so far no attempt has been made to delineate the role of photoperiod and temperature in regulation of the circadian rhythm of aanat2 gene expression in the pineal organ of any fish with special reference to seasons. Therefore, we studied effects of various lighting regimes (12L-12D, 16L-8D, 8L-16D, LL and DD) at a constant temperature (25°C) and effects of different temperatures (15°, 25° and 35°C) under a common photoperiod 12L-12D on circadian rhythm of aanat2 gene expression in the pineal organ of Clarias gariepinus during summer and winter seasons. Aanat2 gene expression in fish pineal organ was studied by measuring aanat2 mRNA levels using Real-Time PCR. Our findings indicate that the pineal organ of C. gariepinus exhibits a prominent circadian rhythm of aanat2 gene expression irrespective of photoperiods, temperatures and seasons, and the circadian rhythm of aanat2 gene expression responds differently to different photoperiods and temperatures in a season-dependent manner. Existence of circadian rhythm of aanat2 gene expression in pineal organs maintained in vitro under 12L-12D and DD conditions as well as a free running rhythm of the gene expression in pineal organ of the fish maintained under LL and DD conditions suggest that the fish pineal organ possesses an endogenous circadian oscillator, which is entrained by light-dark cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of dried Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of dried Clarias gariepinus vended in some ... Journal of Aquatic Sciences ... Results revealed that fish samples from okpokpo market contained highest number (10) of fungal isolates while samples from Afaha ... Key Words: Mycoflora, isolation, fungi, Fusarium, C. gariepinus ...

  14. In vitro effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan, indoleamines and leptin on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in pineal organ of the fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B B P; Yanthan, L; Singh, Ksh Manisana

    2010-08-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin biosynthetic pathway. In vitro effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and indoleamines (serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin) were studied on AA-NAT activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during different phases of its annual breeding cycle. Further, in vitro effects of leptin on AA-NAT activity in the pineal organ were studied in fed and fasted fishes during summer and winter seasons. Treatments with 5-HTP and indoleamines invariably stimulated pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases. However, leptin increased AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner only in the pineal organ of the fed fishes, but not of the fasted fishes irrespective of the seasons.

  15. Determination of some heavy metals in oreochromis niloticus, clarias gariepinus and synodontis spp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaolu, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Some heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Mn, and Cr) were determined in Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias graiepinus and Synodontis spp obtained from the coastal water of Ondo State. All metals examined and detected in all fish samples. Iron, manganese and cadmium were found to be the most abundant metals in the fish samples with an average values of 35.8, 31.3, and 12.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Except for manganese, iron and cadmium, Syndrontis spp has the highest concentration for virtually all the metals under examination. (author)

  16. Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, lysine and lipid supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, E.O.A.; Uktolseja, J.L.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22?7 g/fish),

  17. Effect of herbicide (primextra) on tissue cholesterol level in Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (0.04, 0.06 and 0.10μg/L) of primextra for 21 days in a static renewal bioassay system. The changes in the tissue cholesterol concentrations were determined every seven days. The result showed that primextra had adverse effect on the tissue ...

  18. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural and serum liver enzyme responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were evaluated for 72 hours. Thirty-six (36) healthy fishes with standard weight, 20 ± 1.52 g and standard length, 18.25 ± 0.50 cm were used for the experiment in non-renewable bioassay system. The test fish exhibited stressful ...

  19. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  20. Zinc effects on the embryos and larvae of the sharptooth catfish, Claias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of early life stages of Sharp tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), to determine which stage to use during effluent assessment. The target water quality of zinc was used ranging from 0...

  1. Toxicity of roundup (a glyphosate product) to fingerlings of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute static renewal bioassays were conducted on fingerling and adult of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 1.22 ± 0.6g; mean total length, 5.25 ± 1.25 cm) using the herbicide, Roundup (glyphosate). In the acute study, fingerlings were exposed in triplicate to 0.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, 20.0 22.0, and 24.0 mg/l of the herbicide for ...

  2. Aspects of the reproductive biology of hatchery-raised Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fecundity of four batch weights (10 samples each) of gravid Clarias gariepinus weighing 60 ± 0.17159 g 125 ± 0.15092 g 250 ±0.20683 g and 500 ± 0.15670 g raised from the hatchery was investigated The paired ovary of each fish was dissected out, weighed (g) and its length measured(mm). Each paired ovary was ...

  3. The use of trilene- as anesthesia and triquilizer for catfish Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus is developing fast that more easier way of handling bigger fish is required both in the transportation and hypophysation/breeding. Such inputs like tranquilizer/anesthesia would help to reduce handling stress thereby reduce injury and death after operation. Trilene ...

  4. Growth response of juveniles of Clarias bidorsalis to imported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Growth response of Clarias bidorsalis juveniles weighing between 5 - 10 g that were fed with extruded. (floating) imported ... and showed that daily food consumption and weight gain of fish that were ... mental period. The feed ...

  5. Growth changes associated with feeding Clarias gariepinus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v3i3.36395 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  6. Acute Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos (Dursban®) to Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v22i1.4545 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  7. effect of stocking density on production of clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Three hundred (300) fish with a total weight of 1.8Kg were stocked at 25, ... Northern part of Nigeria as compared to the Southern ..... North. American Journal of. Aquaculture 63: 201-207. Eroudo, E. S., Nnubai, C. ... functioning of freshwater.

  8. Acute toxicity of diazinon to the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... The effect of diazinon (LC50) 6.6 ppm was further studied to determine the effect on behavioural ... 95% confidence limits (lower and upper limits). ... movements, rolling movements, swimming on the back at ... fell into pain and died in a short time. ... tenths to several tens of mg l -1 (Tsuda et al., 1997). In.

  9. response of clarias gariepinus to dietary castor seeds processed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Processing methods other than boiling improved performance and other measured ... feeding represents high cost of fish farming because the .... polythene bag and placed in an air-tight container to ..... Asia and the Pacific Bangkok, Thailand.

  10. Determinants of African cat fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) farmers in Obio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. A total of thirty respondents were randomly selected from three clans of the study area. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and personal interview. Descriptive statistics and ...

  11. Fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) marketing system in major towns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    The study showed that women (85%) formed the highest number of fish traders in Ibarapa zone, women of age ... Marketing system is one of the main .... study area that marketing is a business activity ... important factor in the performance and.

  12. Tissue analysis of Clarias gariepinus juveniles injected with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The starch value (SV) and unsaponification values (USPV) were not affected, the saponification value (SPV) only increased between 25.00 and 0.0 μlg-1 and declined at 75 μlg-1. The decrease in values of SPV in treated fish tissues has implication on energy metabolism. Of the four tissues values (PV, SV, SPV and USPV) ...

  13. Metal concentrations in Clarias gariepinus and Labeo umbratus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper catchment of the Olifants River, from its origin near Bethal to its confluence with the Wilge River, north of Witbank, and its tributaries are being subjected to increasing afforestation, mining, power generation, irrigation, domestic and industrial activities. These activities have a profound effect on the water quality.

  14. Culture of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecht, T

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the proceedings of a two-day workshop held on the sharptooth catfish farm “Moirah” of Mr W Uys in the Eastern Transvaal in late January 1988. The overall aim of the workshop was to synthesize the available information...

  15. Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... It is known to be a contaminant of fresh water and marine ecosystem. Therefore .... and 150 μg/L) corresponding to the treatments were made. Water ...... herbicide (atrazine) in Juvenile grey mullet Liza ramada: An ultra-.

  16. Plasma proteins of Barbus holubi and Clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plasma proteins of the teleosts, Barbus holubl and ClariDs gariepllUl3 were investigated by means of cel1u1ose-acetate and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Characteristic patterns were obtained with both methods for each species. It was found that the application of human nomenclature to the patterns obtained in ...

  17. Analysis of Market Performance of Farm-Raised Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the capital cities of the six States in South – Western Nigeria due to their level of catfish consumption by random selection of 80 Catfish ... To evaluate market performance, marketing margins and marketing efficiency were calculated for the wholesalers and retailers.

  18. The culture of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecht, T

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Workshop f o r the opportunity t o prepare t h i s paper, and t o Wynand and Marie-Tinka Uys f o r the i r hosp i t a l i t y during the workshop. Pete Britz and Tom Hecht a r e thanked f o r t h e i r comments on the manuscript. REFERENCES... and Utrecht. Recently, the journal Aquaculture dedicated an e n t i r e i s sue (Volume 63, 1987) t o research papers on Clar ias species. FRY PRODUCTION The most urgent problem encountered during the development of the industry in South Africa...

  19. Age and growth of Clarias gariepinus (Pisces : Qariidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in growth can therefore be interpreted from optically distinct wnes in the .... The section on the slide was then ground on silicon carbide water paper (grit sizes ... A drop of metQyl salicylate. BP was then ...... A note on the properties of the P.K. Ie.

  20. Evaluation of biochemical changes in Clarias gariepinus adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-12-17

    Dec 17, 2010 ... significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing extracts concentrations in fish exposed to ..... organophosphorus insecticide on certain metabolic levels in a fresh- .... Acute lethal and sub-lethal effects of neem leaf extracts on the.

  1. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish,

  2. Response of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus; (Burchell, 1822) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cod-liver Oil. 0.5. 0.5 ... vitamin C and oil were thoroughly mixed. ... Locally fabricated machine ... treatment. It was calculated as follows: 100. ×[(crude protein final fish × biomass final tank .... Removal of undesirable components is essential.

  3. Plasma proteins of Barbus holubi and Clarias gariepinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The supernatant fluids were subsequently examined by gel electrophoresis. Control experiments showed that the 3-hour exposure as such had no effect on the electrophoretogram. Zoo/oglca A!ricana 9(2):185-193 (1974). 185. R ep ro d u ced b y Sa b in et G a tew a. y u n d er licen ce gra n ted b y th e P u b lish er (d a ted.

  4. Acute toxicity of diazinon to the African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides and drugs used in agriculture and veterinary medicine may end up in aquatic environments and bioaccumulate in the food chain, thus posing serious problems for fauna and human health. The lethal concentrations of 50% of sample (LC50) and 25% (LC25) were determined using semi-static method. Eighty-four ...

  5. Lip histology of the adult farmed African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lip histology of the adult farmed African catfish was investigated to fill the knowledge gap in available literature especially those from commercial concrete tanks. This microanatomy is important as the lip is the principal organ involved in prehension. The lip epidermis was lined by stratified squamous epithelium ...

  6. Salinity tolerance of larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus ( ) X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen and twenty one day larvae were exposed to abrupt stepwise change in salinity (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 ppt) for 96 hours to determine mortality, median lethal mortality, MLS and median lethal time, MLT. The fourteen day-old fry that were exposed to 0 – 6 ppt recorded 90%, 87.5% 77.5% and 10% survival at the end of ...

  7. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  8. Response of the african catfish Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822 to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology ... Locally ingredients used are maize, fish meal, groundnut cake, soya bean meal, bone meal, lysine, methionine, premix, vegetable oil, salt but varying fish meal and soya bean meal as follows, treatment 1- (11.38% to 7.5%), treatment 2-(7.5% to 11.38%) respectively. The pelleted feeds were ...

  9. Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african sharptooth catfish ( Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed locally formulated and commercial pelleted diets in tarpaulin tanks.

  10. and Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEX

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... crossing Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) by ... Extensive culture of H. fossilis is prevalent in India, but with less growth, when ..... Kligerman AD, Bloom SE (1977).

  11. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  12. Microbial evaluation and occurrence of antidrug multi-resistant organisms among the indigenous Clarias species in River Oluwa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Ayandiran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish may harbor pathogens on or inside its body when in contaminated environment. Clarias gariepinus and Clarias buthopogon were analyzed to evaluate the likely impact of pollution on the antidrug resistance pattern of their microbial isolates. Different bacterial and fungal counts were observed on the fish organs (skin, muscles and gills. The highest bacterial count was 1,040,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 101 Cfu/mL. The highest fungal count obtained was 344,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 65 Cfu/mL. Bacterial isolates belonging to genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Enterobacter and Corynebacterium were obtained from the organs. Also, fungal isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Monila and Fusarium were isolated. The resistance of isolates from C. gariepinus to drugs was between 50% and 90% with Bacillus species showing the highest resistance. For isolates from C. buthopogon, 40–90% resistance was observed with Alcaligenes faecalis showing highest resistance. Five patterns of multiple drug resistance were observed among the bacterial isolates with antibiotics ranging from 4 to 9. Also, result of fungal isolates showed susceptibility to ketoconazole and resistant to fluconazole and griseofulvin. The public health implications of consuming these fishes are discussed.

  13. Monoclonal antibody to serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus and its application in immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Singh, Akhilesh; Rathore, Gaurav

    2012-12-15

    Serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus (Cb-Ig) were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. Under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, Cb-Ig was composed of a heavy (H) chain (68.7 kDa) and two light (L) chains (27.4 and 26.3 kDa). Purified Cb-Ig was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated E4 MAb that belonged to IgG1 subclass. In Western blotting, this MAb showed binding to H chain of purified Cb-Ig and putative H chains in reduced sera of C. batrachus, Clarias gariepinus and Heteropneustes fossilis. However, no binding was observed with serum protein of Labeo rohita and Channa striata. Cross-reactivity of anti-Cb-Ig MAb was observed with serum of C. batrachus, C. gariepinus and H. fossilis in competitive ELISA. In immunoblotting of non-reduced Cb-Ig with E4 MAb, four bands assumed to be tetrameric, trimeric, dimeric and monomeric form were observed. In flow cytometric analysis of the gated lymphocytes, the number of surface Ig-positive (Ig+) cells in blood, spleen, kidney and thymus of C. batrachus was determined to be 50.1 ± 3.1, 55.1 ± 3.36, 42.4 ± 4.81 and 5.1 ± 0.89%, respectively, using E4 MAb. Ig+ cells were also demonstrated in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of spleen, kidney, thymus and smears of blood mononuclear cells in indirect immunoperoxidase test. The developed MAb was employed to detect pathogen-specific immunoglobulins in the sera of C. batrachus immunized with killed Edwardsiella tarda, by an indirect ELISA. This monoclonal antibody can be useful tool in immunological research and assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 101 ... ... Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South-Western Nigeria: ... Vol 11, No 1-2 (2015), Fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) marketing system .... of Commercial Layers Fed Processed Mango Seed Kernel meal at ...

  15. The effect of day length on induced breeding of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v2i3.36329 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of streptomycin sulfate in Staphylococcus aureus-infected Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Oladele

    2014-01-01

    Possible systemic therapeutic value is suggested, depending on increased distribution of streptomycin and levels of streptomycin in kidneys of diseased fish at corresponding times being higher than in sera.

  17. Dietary L-Carnitine and energy and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ozório, de R.O.

    2001-01-01

    As the lipid content of the diet increases so does the requirement for certain components involved in lipid metabolism. Carnitine is a normal constituent of animal tissues and plasma, which is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to the site of

  18. Growth Performance of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Cultured in High Density on the Biofloc System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Fajar; Yuniarti, Tristiana; Harwanto, Dicky; Susilowati, Titik

    2018-02-01

    Start your The fish farmers and researchers have made efforts to increase catfish production through high levels of dispersal and application of biofloc systems. This system, in addition to increase production, can also predict when the harvest is done, control the quality of water causing death so that the Survival Rate (SR) is high. The purpose of this study is to determine the growth performance and predict the harvest weight and catfish survival rate (SR) that are cultured with different high density on the biofloc system. The research method used is experimental with test fish in the form of catfish seeds weighing of 8 ± 0.2 gram/fish with each density as treatment: P1. Density of 1,100 fish/m3; P2. Density of 1,200 fish/m3 and P3. Density of 1,300 fish/m3. Pond: The pond used is made of 3m in diameter of tarpaulin, equipped with a 6mm diameter of iron frame. Total volume of water in each pond is 3 m3. Catfish seeds have been adapted and put into the pond at random with the length of cultivation period is 4 weeks. Growth performance analysis uses the SPSS regression statistic series 20. The research results showed that the growth performance for 4 weeks showed that P1 generates the regression equation Y1 = 6.46 +7.81 X with r2 = 0.971 means that if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of catfish has reached 100 grams; P2 generates the regression equation Y2 = 6.53 + 6.0 X den r2 = 0.969 means if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 78.53 grams and P3 generates the regression equation Y3 = 6.71 + 5.94 X with r2 = 0.976 means if harvest is done on week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 77.99 grams. Survival rate at P1 = 97.73%; P2 = 95.91% and P3 = 94.55% while the oxygenated water quality is more than 3.5 ppm; pH ranged from 6.7-7 and ammonia content at week 3 is P1 = 0.04 mg/l; P2 = 0.13 mg/l and P3 = 0.27 mg/l.

  19. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qorie Astria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%. Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hydrophila. The observed parameters were a total performance of production, hematological test, and water quality. Immersion of catfish seeds with stem juice was performed at a concentration of 5 mL/L, 13 mL/L, and 21 mL/L for 30 minutes. Each treatment consisted of three replications. A  total of 15 fishes were immersed in 1.5 L water. At day-9 after immersion, fish was infected by A. hydrophila bacteria at a dose of 104 cfu/mL. The results showed that fish treated with banana stem juice at a concentration of 13 mL/L had the survival rate of 53.33±6.67% which is higher than positive control (33.33±6.67%. Based on hematology observations on the 3rd day post-challenge test (H12 with A. hydrophila, total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, total leukocytes, phagocytic activity, differential leukocyte, and lysozyme activity was highest in treatment13 mL/L. Lower feed conversion ratio (1.08±0.04 were also obtained in treatment 13 mL/L. Thus Immersion of seeds in stem juice can boost the immune system against infections A. hydrophila. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, ambon banana stem juice, soaking, catfish, immune system  ABSTRAK Wabah penyakit akibat infeksi Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan lele dapat menyebabkan tingkat kematian yang tinggi (80–100%. Penanggulangan penyakit ikan dapat dilakukan menggunakan fitofarmaka untuk mencegah ataupun mengobati penyakit ikan. Salah satu fitofarmaka yang dapat digunakan dalam upaya pencegahan penyakit ikan adalah batang pisang ambon lumut Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas perendaman benih ikan lele dengan menggunakan air perasan batang pisang ambon sebagai imunostimulan terhadap infeksi bakteri A. hydrophila. Parameter yang diamati selama penelitian adalah kinerja produksi, uji hematologi dan pengukuran kualitas air. Perendaman benih ikan lele dengan air perasan  dilakukan pada konsentrasi 5 mL/L, 13 mL/L, dan 21 mL/L selama 30 menit. Pada hari ke-9 setelah perendaman, ikan diinfeksi bakteri A. hydrophila pada kepadatan 104 cfu/mL. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perendaman ikan dengan air perasan pada konsentrasi 13 mL/L memiliki kelangsungan hidup yakni sebesar 53,33±6,67%, lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan kontrol positif  (33,33±6,67%. Berdasarkan pengamatan pada uji hematologi hari ke-3 pascauji tantang (H12 dengan bakteri A. hydrophila, total eritrosit, hemoglobin, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, dan aktivitas lisozim tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan konsentrasi 13 mL/L. Rasio konversi pakan yang rendah (1,08±0,04 juga terdapat pada perlakuan 13 mL/L. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa perendaman benih ikan lele pada air perasan dapat meningkatkan sistem imun terhadap infeksi bakteri A. hydrophila. Kata kunci: Aeromonas hydrophila, air perasan batang pisang ambon, perendaman, ikan lele, sistem imun

  20. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Qorie Astria; Sri Nuryati; Kukuh Nirmala; Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%). Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hyd...

  1. TRANSMISI GEN PhGH DAN PERFORMA PERTUMBUHAN IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK GENERASI KETIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi transgen PhGH dan performa ikan lele Afrika transgenik generasi ketiga (F3 yang meliputi pertumbuhan, rasio efisiensi konversi pakan, konsentrasi hormon pertumbuhan dan hormon IGF-I. Ikan lele transgenik F3 telah diproduksi dengan meyilangkan ikan lele transgenik F2 dengan non-transgenik. Deteksi transgen (PhGH dilakukan menggunakan metode PCR. Analisis hormon pertumbuhan dan hormon insuline-like growth factor (IGF-I menggunakan sampel serum darah dan metode enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele transgenik F3 yang digunakan pada pengujian ini terdeteksi positif membawa transgen dengan ukuran fragmen gen sebesar 1.500 bp. Transmisi transgen dari induk F2 ke F3 berkisar 0-75%. Pertumbuhan bobot populasi ikan lele transgenik F3 lebih tinggi 51,26% dibandingkan dengan ikan lele non-transgenik (P<0,05. Pertumbuhan bobot populasi ikan transgenik mencapai 484±60,3 g, sedangkan pertumbuhan bobot ikan non-transgenik 319,98±65,3 g. Nilai rasio konversi pakan ikan lele transgenik F3 sebesar 0,89 sedangkan non-transgenik 1,30. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi pakan ikan lele transgenik F3 lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Ikan lele transgenik mempunyai konsentrasi hormon pertumbuhan (5,67±2,65 ng/mL yang lebih tinggi (P<0,05 jika dibandingkan dengan ikan lele non-transgenik (3,00±1,41 ng/mL. Ikan lele transgenik juga memiliki kandungan hormon IGF-I (6,63±0,11 ng/mL lebih tinggi (P<0,05 dibandingkan dengan ikan lele non-transgenik (5,38±0,63 ng/mL. Tingginya konsentrasi hormon pertumbuhan dan hormon IGF-I dapat mewakili performa pertumbuhan dan efisiensi penggunaan pakan pada ikan lele transgenik. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission of a transgene (PhGH and to evaluate the performance of F3 transgenic African catfish, such as body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, growth hormone and IGF-I hormone profile. F3 transgenic were produced by mating F2 transgenic with non-transgenic fish. Detection of transgene was performed using PCR method. Analysis of the growth hormone and the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I hormone were conducted by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method using serum samples. The results showed that the transgenic catfish F3 was positive carrying the transgene 1.500 bp. Transgene transmission from F2 to F3 ranged zero to 75%. The performance of F3 transgenic African catfish was significantly better 51.26% than that the non-transgenic (P<0.05. The body weight of transgenic population (484±255.25 g was higher than that non-transgenic (319.98±165.27 g. FCR of transgenic fish (0.89 was lower than that non-transgenic (1.30. The growth hormone level of transgenic (5.67±2.65 ng/mL was higher than that non-transgenic (3.00±1.41 ng/mL, IGF-I hormone level of F3 transgenic (6.63±0.11 ng/mL was also higher than that non-transgenic (5.38±0.63 ng/mL. High level of growth hormone and IGF-I hormone represented both growth performance and efficiency of feed utilization of transgenic African catfish.

  2. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  3. Temperature dependence of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma in the ventricle of catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sabry Abu-Amra

    2015-10-01

    The sarcolemmal Ca2+ contribution of activator Ca2+ was greater at a test temperature of 30 °C as assessed by verapamil. Whereas the SR-Ca2+ contribution was higher at 20 and 30 °C and a frequency rate of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by caffeine and adrenaline, respectively. Bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF7 which was isolated from jelly fish (Cassiopea andromeda decreased the cardiac force developed at a frequency rate of 0.2 Hz and a temperature of 20 °C, whereas it increased the force developed at frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz at 30 °C. These results indicate that BPF7 may act like verapamil in reducing the cardiac force through blocking the sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels at low temperature and like adrenaline in an increase of the cardiac force developed at warm temperature and the high frequency rate through stimulation of SR-Ca2+ activator. Therefore, this study indicates that the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and the SR-Ca2+ release contributors of activator Ca2+ for cardiac force development in the catfish heart were significantly greater at warm temperature and at the pacing frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by verapamil, adrenaline, caffeine and BPF7. However, the relative contribution of the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx in the development of cardiac force in the catfish heart was greater than that of SR-Ca2+ release.

  4. Assessment of the toxic stress of lead on Clarias gariepinus (African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6; 101 –104 (2003). Original article ... The toxic stress of lead on fish was tested employing a 96-hour bioassay test. The ... This work is therefore aimed at ... Water was changed every other day. .... like Sweden, Japan, Switzerland and.

  5. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mohamed Zaidul Islam; Selamat, Jinap; Habib, Abu Sayem Md. Ahsan; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Mohamed Jahurul Haque; Jaffri, Juliana Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method. PMID:23109854

  6. The effect of group composition on the welfare of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Within fish farming grading, i.e. the process of sorting to approximate size, changes the group composition from heterogeneous to homogeneous. Although this procedure is considered an acute stressor, the long-term consequences of grading on aggression and stress levels have not yet been

  7. Effects of oxytocin on semen release response in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.; Jatzkowski, A.; Komen, J.

    2003-01-01

    In silurid fishes, semen collection is practically impossible, even after hormonal stimulation. Instead, males are killed and testes macerated to obtain sperm. To understand the endocrine control of semen release in catfishes, we investigated the role of smooth muscle contractors in semen release

  8. Pendugaan Umur Simpan Kerupuk Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus Panggang dalam Kemasan Plastik Metalik dan Polipropilen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ikasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan umur simpan kerupuk ikan lele dumbo panggang menggunakan pendekatan model kadar air kritis dengan 2 jenis kemasan yakni plastik metalik dan polipropilen. Kerupuk ikan ditentukan kadar air awal, kadar air kritis, kadar air kesetimbangan beserta nilai aktifitas air untuk dapat dimasukkan dalam persamaan Labuza. Permeabilitas, ketebalan, dan luas kemasan juga dianalisis sebagai variabel pendukung yang digunakan dalam persamaan Labuza. Titik kritis ditentukan berdasarkan hasil uji skor yang dilakukan oleh 21 panelis terlatih terhadap nilai kerenyahan produk kerupuk hingga produk dinyatakan tidak renyah (skor 2. Hasil perhitungan pendugaan umur simpan berdasarkan persamaan Labuza menunjukkan bahwa kerupuk ikan lele dumbo panggang dengan kemasan plastik metalik memiliki umur simpan yang lebih lama (329 hari dibandingkan dengan plastik polipropilen (231 hari.

  9. SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG KEPALA IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias Gariepinus sp UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KANDUNGAN KALSIUM CRACKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herviana Ferazuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The using of fish by-products has not been optimally developed in food processing. The objective of this research was to study the using of catfish's head flour as a part of material in formulating crackers to increase its calsium content. The method for making this flour was based on thermal process using drum dryer. The physical and chemical properties were analysed. Crackers was formulated by using catfish's head flour with trial and error method. The formulations were then F0 (0:100, F1 (7,5:92,5, F2 (12,5:87,5, F3 (17,5:82,5, and F4 (22,5:77,5. F1 and F2 crackers were chosen formulations based on organoleptic test. The result of chemical analysis were respectively: moisture 2,4-3,3% (wb, ash 3,7-4,97% (wb, protein 9,9-11,4% (wb, lipid 19,2-20,5% (wb, carbohydrate 63,9-69,6% (wb, and energy 480-484 kkal (wb. F1 crackers contained 0,3634% of calcium (wb while F2 crackers contained 0,3147% of calcium (wb. The phospor's content in F1 and F2 crackers were respectively: 0,2362% (wb and 0,3147% (wb. The contribution of calcium content in crackers were calculated based on RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance for children, adolescents, and adults. F1 crackers fulfilled calcium’s RDA respectively : 25,8% for children; 15,5% for adolescents, and 19,3% for  adults. F2 crackers fulfilled calcium’s RDA respectively: 39,9% for children; 23,9% for adolescents, and 29,9% for adults. The amount of crackers that should be consumed was at least as much 44 gram/day. Key words: catfish's head flour, crackers, calcium content

  10. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  11. Effects of Photoperiod on the Haematological Parameters of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings Reared in Water Recirculatory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon S.G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Haematological analyses has been routinely used in determining the physiological state of animals and known to be affected by different environmental factors, the present study was therefore designed to assess the effect of 24 hours of light (00D: 24L, 24 hours of darkness (24D: 00L and 12 hour light / 12 hours darkness (12D: 12L photoperiod on the haematological parameters of the African Catfish. At the end of the six weeks experiment, it was observed that some haematological parameters such as Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC, the Mean White Blood Cells (WBC, Mean Red Blood Cells (RBC, Haemoglobin content (HGB, Platelet count (PLT showed significant difference (P0.05. However MCHC and MCH were noticed to increase as the light period increased while the other parameters reduced as the light period increased. The findings indicate that exposure of the African Catfish to continuous light for six weeks duration elicits response in the haematological profile of the fish.

  12. Chemical alarm cues in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell: A potential stressor in aquaculture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.; Zhao, H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of stocking density on the behaviour of African catfish have shown that at low densities, especially directly after restocking of tanks, increased aggression might occur. This aggression may directly affect the welfare of the fish. In addition, the resulting skin

  13. Prevalence of Gills Helminth of Clarias Gariepinus in Baga Side of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    protein worldwide and as much 64% in some. African diet. Most of this is caught by fishermen and women. Beside the importance of fisher men and those who are partly dependent upon fish for food, the fish industry provide gainful employment for many thousands of other people who trade in fish or fishing gear, as well as ...

  14. Inherent variation in growth efficiency of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the major causes of growth variation is crucial for the success of fish farming since its reduction contributes to maximize production efficiency, reduce food waste and improve water quality. The growth variation observed in aquaculture has been associated with the establishment of

  15. The potency of curing fish waste pellet for growth and protein level of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Febiyani, Asti R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish curing in Kenjeran, Surabaya produces waste such as fish offal, tail and fins which still has some nutrients, especially protein content, so it can be used as fish feed. Fish feed is an important factor in fish growth. Farmers usually use commercial fish pellets, but the price is relatively more expensive. Curing fish waste which is less expensive can be used as materials for pellets. The purpose of this study is to utilize curing fish waste as a material fish pellets for growth African catfish. Experimental design of this research is Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 1 factorial. The pellets varieties were of K.0, K.1, K.2, K.3, and K.4. The pellets were given to the fish for 30 days. Data of growth rate, survival rate and FCR and protein level data of the pellet and the fish flesh were analyzed by one-way ANOVA statistical method. The analysis shows that the K.4 treatment has a best result of relatively growth of length (72.64%)and relatively growth of weight (488,97%). Protein level of fish flesh is 20.97%. The survival rate of 98%, FCR most efficient pellets exist is K.4.

  16. Head-only electrical stunning and bleeding of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): assessment of loss of consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the welfare implications of electrical stunning prior to gill-cutting of farmed African catfish as an alternative to live chilling in combination with gutting. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings, in combination with observation of

  17. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  18. Analysis of growth performance and benefits of a high density catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell culture in biofloc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, F.; Yuniarti, T.; Harwanto, D.; Susilowati, T.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the growth performance and calculation of business profit of catfish in various densities using biofloc system. Catfish fingerlings, 8±0.2 g each, were used in this research. There were three treatments in various densities, i.e. P1: 1,100; P2: 1,200 and P3: 1,300 fingerlings/m3. After 4 months observation, the results showed that growth performance regression from P1, P2, and P3 was Y (P1) = 7.66 + 30.7 X (r2 = 0.971); Y (P2) = 7.45 + 23.6 X (r2 = 0.996) and Y (P3) = 6.5 + 23.63 X (r2 = 0.996), respectively. The P1 harvest time was achieved within 3 months; while P2 and P3 were 4 months. Total yield/tank in P1, P2 and P3 were 297.00, 295.29 and 309.52 kg, respectively. The calculation of business profit per tank per month of P1, P2 and P3 were 626,784.17; 399,058.77 and 351,793.65 IDR (Indonesian Rupiah), respectively. Meanwhile, result of R/C ratio of P1, P2 and P3 were 1.60, 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. Since the calculation of R/C ratios were ≥ 1, this culture method is considered feasible as a business.

  19. Seasonal changes in steroid metabolism in the male reproductive organ-system of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, J.W.; Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Steroid and steroid glucuronide synthesis in feral male African catfish was investigated in vitro by incubating testes with [3H]-pregnenolone and seminal vesicles with [3H]-androstenedione. In testes, the capacity to form progestins, androgens, especially 11-oxygenated ones, and steroid glucuronides

  20. In vivo activity of native GnRHs and their analogues on ovulation in the American catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, T.; Radics, F.; Barth, Tomislav; Horváth, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2007), s. 140-146 ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3028; GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : GnRH * ovulation * African catfish Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2007

  1. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECEPTOR FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN THE PITUITARY OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS-GARIEPINUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; Conn, P. M.; van't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were characterized using a radioligand prepared from a superactive analog of salmon GnRH (sGnRH), D-Arg(6)-Pro(9)-sGnRH-NEt (sGnRHa). Binding of(125)I-sGnRHa to catfish pituitary membrane fractions reached equilibrium after 2 h incubation at 4°C.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 130 ... Vol 13 (2015), Feed utilization and growth performance of cockerels fed with soldier ants (Dorylus spp Fabricius) as protein source, Abstract ... Vol 7 (2009), Growth performance and survival of hybrid African catfish larvae (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus bidorsalis) fed on different diets, Abstract.

  4. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  5. Induced spawning, survival and growth of an African catfish hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced spawning, survival and growth of an African catfish hybrid (female Clarias gariepinus and male Clarias anguillaris ) fingerlings relative to their parental species in the mount Cameroon region.

  6. Anaemia in the freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus (Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological changes were studied in freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus exposed for 20 days to 25%, 50% and 100% concentrations of brewery wastewater prepared by dilution using tap water. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte counts in fish exposed to wastewater were significantly lower than in a ...

  7. Digestive enzymes in the alimentary canal of Clarias anguillaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of digestive enzymes were observed in the alimentary canals of the fingerlings and adults of Clarias anguillaris. The enzymes were carbohydrases including amylase, sucrase, lactase and maltase, proteases including peptase, tryptase and peptidase, and lipase. The activities of the protease were found to be ...

  8. Effects of intramuscular administration of tamoxifen ® on gravid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These experimental fish were acclimatized for two to three days in the experimental tanks and were fed with organ meat and supplied with good quality water that was changed every 48 hours. They were starved on the fourth ... Keywords: Artificial spawning, hormone, broodstock, ovulation, spermiation, Clarias gariepinus ...

  9. West African Journal of Applied Ecology - Vol 25, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth Performance and Innate Immune Response of Clarias gariepinus Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila fed diets fortified with Curcuma longa leaf · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I. Adeshina, Y.A. Adewale, L.O. Tiamiyu, 87-99 ...

  10. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  11. Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient studies was carried out on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles of mean weight 7.00-8.00g stocked into rectangular plastic aquarium tanks 30cm x 15cm for 120 days fed with differently processed soya bean meal. There were eight treatments labeled as diet T1-T8, diet T1 (control diet; contains no soybean meal ...

  12. An evaluation of mixture of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed graded levels of a mixture of Moringa oleifera leaf and kernel meal (1:1) as partial replacement for fishmeal. Triplicates groups of fish (average weight, 8.83±0.04 g) were allotted to four ...

  13. Effect of different commercial feeds on growth and survival of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with mean weight 10.63±0.25 g were fed five different commercial diets for eight weeks to determine the most suitable and efficient feed for growth and survival under controlled environmental conditions. The diets used were Multi feed, Ajanla feed, Vital feed, Coppens feed and ARAC feed.

  14. Response of endemic Clarias species' life-history biometrics to land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mpologoma River wetland is highly negatively impacted by rice growing and yet it provides habitat to endemic Clarias species that are important to the wetland fishery. Variations in life-history biometrics of small Clarias species at various wetland sites in relation to land-use changes within the wetland were studied in ...

  15. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  16. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vancoillie, C.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal

  17. Monitoring of DNA breakage in embryonic stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) after exposure to lead nitrate using alkaline comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wuertz, S.; Kloas, W.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Increasing lead contamination in Egyptian ecosystems and high lead concentrations in food items have raised concern for human health and stimulated studies on monitoring ecotoxicological impact of lead-caused genotoxicity. In this work, the alkaline comet assay was modified for monitoring DNA strand

  18. Pemberian Pakan Yang Difermentasikan Dengan Probiotik Untuk Pemeliharaan Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias Gariepinus) Pada Teknologi Bioflok Feed Fermented Using Probiotic for African Catfish in Biofloc Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianingrum, Triwahyu; Pamukas, Niken Ayu; Putra, Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of feeding fermented with probiotic on, absolute body weight, absolute body length, specific growth rate, survival, feed efficiency and feed conversion rate of African catfish preserved biofloc techniques. The treatment in this study was the dose used for the fermentation of feed are 2 ml / kg (P1), 4 ml / kg (P2), 6 ml / kg (P3), and control (feed without fermented). Each treatment was repeated 3 times. 4-5 cm catfish were kept in the plastic tank wit...

  19. Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the

  20. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Shola G.; Okomoda, Victor T.; Oguche, Obekpa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal (Canavalia ensiformis) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C. ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soyb...

  1. Beta-adrenergic control of plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels in the air-breathing African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, JCF; Vianen, GJ; van den Thillart, GEEJM; Zaagsma, J

    In several water-breathing fish species, P-adrenergic receptor stimulation by noradrenaline leads to a decrease in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, as opposed to an increase in air-breathing mammals. We hypothesised that this change in adrenergic control is related to the mode of breathing.

  2. Effects of lead nitrate on the activity of metabolic enzymes during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) are key metabolic enzymes. G6PDH has been used as a biomarker of pollution-induced carcinogenesis in fish. LDH has been used as marker of lesions in toxicology and clinical chemistry, and PK catalyses the

  3. Assessment of electrical stunning in fresh water of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and chilling in ice water for loss of consciousness and sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate loss of consciousness and sensibility after electrical stunning in fresh water and live chilling in ice water for slaughter of African catfish using measurement of electrical brain and heart activity. To provoke immediate loss of consciousness and

  4. Discrepancy between molecular structure and ligand selectivity of a testicular follicle-stimulating hormone receptor of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, J.; Blomenröhr, M.; Andersson, E.; van der Putten, H.; Tensen, C.P.; Vischer, H F; Granneman, Joke C M; Janssen-Dommerholt, C; Goos, H.J.; Schulz, Rüdiger W

    A putative FSH receptor (FSH-R) cDNA was cloned from African catfish testis. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with other (putative) glycoprotein hormone receptors and analysis of the African catfish gene indicated that the cloned receptor belonged to the FSH receptor subfamily. Catfish

  5. Dietary beta-1,3 glucan potentiates innate immunity and disease resistance of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, J; Sahoo, P K

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of short and prolonged administration of a yeast beta-glucan on non-specific immune parameters, growth rate and the disease resistance of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus. Fish fed with a basal diet (control) and test diet (basal diet supplemented with 0.1% glucan) for 1, 2 and 3 weeks were assayed for superoxide production, serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) content, natural haemagglutinin level, complement and lysozyme activities. Fish were weighed at weekly intervals and specific growth rate (SGR, % increase in body weight per day) was determined. After each week, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila to measure the level of protection. Results showed that glucan administration at 0.1% in feed, significantly (Pcomplement activity and SGR were not affected by the dietary supplementation of yeast glucan. As glucan feeding at 0.1% for 1 week is able to enhance the non-specific immunity and disease resistance of catfish efficiently, short-term feeding might be used in farmed catfish diets to enhance disease resistance.

  6. The effects of brood stock size on the economy of catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty nine ripe female brooders of the catfish, Clarias anguillaris (Body weight. range: 150 1,200 g) were induced to spawn by hormone (Ovaprim®) induced natural spawning technique over a period of 10 weeks. Matching ripe males were used for pairing the females at the ratio of two males to a female. Six ranges of ...

  7. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock.

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria . Department of ... Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, spawn, shooters frequency, fry production. ABSTRACT ..... Saharan Africa: a handbook FAO Fish.

  9. The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and their reciprocal hybrids (Pisces: Clariidae) reared under ambient environmental conditions.

  10. Evaluation of the Biochemical Responses of Catfish (Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in MDA formation in fish fed olive oil ... cost-effective, non- conventional and terrestrial alternative ingredients .... vegetable oils as energy sources in fish diets yielded positive growth ...

  11. Étude des lésions anatomo-pathologiques des Tilapia et Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 déc. 2014 ... marchés de Lubumbashi témoignent de la mauvaise qualité du produit consommé à cause du danger présenté pour l'homme (toxi- ... Mots- clés: Poisson, Tilapia, Clarias, lésions anatomo-pathologiques, marché, Lubumbashi. ABSTRACT ... sequestration of fishing products that pose a danger to the public.

  12. A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF PROTEOCEPHALIDEAN (CESTODA), FROM CLARIAS CATFISHES (SILURIFORMES: CLARIIDAE) IN AFRICA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Beletew, M.; Mariaux, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2009), s. 160-168 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : CESTODA * CLARIAS * AFRICA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  13. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( Padditive on formulations feed.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tachia, MU. Vol 2, No 2 (2010) - Articles Acute Toxicity of Glyphosate on Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 2 (2012) - Articles A survey of ectoparasites of Clarias gariepinus caught from theUniversity of Agriculture Research Fish Farm, Makurdi Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-1778. AJOL African Journals ...

  15. Comparative Study of Commercial Feeds and Farm-made Aqua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to compare the performance of Clarias gariepinus on four commercial catfish feeds and an on-farm aquafeed. The four catfish commercial diets were Coppens, Superindo and Chi manufactured in the Netherland, Indonesia and Nigeria respectively. 10 fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus (0.87 ...

  16. Efficacy of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolated from cultured Clarias gariepinus, an important food fish raised in a concrete tank was carried out to ascertain their remedies on mortalities of the Clarias gariepinus adult fish. Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis were ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the Potential of Indian Almond Tree (Terminalia catappa) Leaf Extracts as Anaesthetic Agent in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Abstract · Vol 29, No 1 (2014) - Articles Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the Blood Parameters of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, ...

  18. Deekae, SN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the Potential of Indian Almond Tree (Terminalia catappa) Leaf Extracts as Anaesthetic Agent in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Abstract · Vol 29, No 1 (2014) - Articles Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the Blood Parameters of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, ...

  19. Effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal bioassays on Clarias gariepinus were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust on weight gain and haematological indices of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 10.5±0.70g) in glass aquaria with aeration system. The concentrations used during the lethal exposure are: ...

  20. 189-IJBCS-Article-Claudine T TIOGUE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    Bangladesh, des hybrides entre Pangasius hypophthalamus et Clarias gariepinus ont été mis sur le marché (De Graaf et Janssen,. 1996). En Afrique, des hybrides entre Clarias gariepinus et Heterobranchus longifilis ont pu voir le jour (Legendre et al., 1992). Ces auteurs ont rapporté que ces hybrides réciproques étaient ...

  1. Haemoglobin polymorphism in wild and cultured African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemoglobin polymorphism, haemoglobin concentration, blood group and genotypes of wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus were investigated. Blood samples of Clarias gariepinus collected from Lake Alau (wild) and Dalori fish farm (cultured) were subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis to reveal the activities of ...

  2. Lead nitrate induced changes in the thyroid physiology of the catfish Clarias batrachus (L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, S.R.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic exposure of Clarias batrachus to sublethal dose of 5 ppm lead nitrate for a period of 150 days impaired thyroid function. Histological observations revealed hypertrophy, increased cell height, vacuolation, and reduction of colloid. The thyrotrophs of the pituitary also exhibited hypertrophy. Radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake was significantly lowered. Fish exposed to 5, 10, and 25 ppm of lead nitrate for 7 days also exhibited significant reduction in 131 I uptake which was dose dependent. These findings suggest that lead nitrate impairs thyroid function involving the hypothalamohypophysiothyroid axis

  3. Selected egg parameters and hatching time of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight, diameter and mean number per gram were determined for fertilized eggs from broodfish of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis and F1, hybrid broodfish (C. gariepinus x H. longifilis). Mean egg weight was least in C. gariepinus (1.30 mg) followed by H. longifilis (1.80 mg) and highest in the F1 hybrid ...

  4. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of the proteocephalidean cestode Barsonella lafoni de Chambrier et al., 2009, a parasite of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Siluriformes, Clariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marigo, A. M.; Levron, Céline; Bâ, Ch. T.; Miquel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 2 (2012), s. 147-159 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Spermiogenesis * Spermatozoon * Ultrastructure * Barsonella lafoni * Proteocephalinae * Proteocephalidae * Proteocephalidea * Cestoda Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.400, year: 2012

  5. EXPRESSION OF GROWTH HORMONE (PhGH GENE AND ANALYSIS OF INSULINE-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I (IGF-I PRODUCTION IN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIC F-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously produced F-1 transgenic of African catfish from crosses between founder transgenic female and non transgenic male. The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and expression PhGH growth hormone gene transgenic African catfish organs and to measure the concentration of IGF-I in plasma. Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, gill, and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR. Plasma samples were analyzed for Insuline-like Growth Factor (IGF-I using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish (F-1. Liver exhibited the highest level of PhGH mRNA (23 x 106 copies. The plasma IGF-I levels in transgenic individuals were not significant than non transgenic. The higher level of exogenous PhGH gene expression may not represent the production of IGF-1.

  6. Effect injection of Ginger Extract on Development and Nucleus position of “Sangkuriang” Catfish Clarias sp. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairin Junior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One of methods could be applied to continuously meet the need of fish fry including catfish (Clarias sp. is artificial propagation by inducing ovulation and spawning.   As an alternative of existing method, in this study, ginger extract was intramuscularly injected to induce development of catfish eggs.  Ginger is known as an important regulator of the balance of arachidonat cycle.  The dose of ginger extract injected was 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg broodstock.  The results of study showed that injection 100% of ginger extracts in all doses was insignificantly inducing development of egg diameter and its nucleus position of catfish.  Other chemicals exist in ginger extract might be functions as an obstacle for egg development of catfish. Keywords: catfish, Clarias sp., ginger, ovulation, egg   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk memenuhi kebutuhan benih ikan termasuk lele (Clarias sp. secara kontinyu adalah penggunaan teknologi pembiakan buatan melalui perangsangan ovulasi dan pemijahan. Sebagai alternatif teknik yang sudah ada, dicobakan perangsangan perkembangan telur ikan lele menggunakan bahan ekstrak jahe yang dilakukan melalui penyuntikan secara intramuskular. Jahe telah dikenal sebagai suatu pengatur penting atas keseimbangan siklus arakidonat. Dosis ekstrak jahe yang disuntikkan adalah 0, 0,5, 1 dan 1,5 mL/kg induk. Penyuntikan 100% ekstrak jahe pada semua dosis perlakuan belum dapat merangsang perkembangan diameter dan posisi inti sel telur ikan lele sangkuriang. Adanya bahan lain yang terdapat pada jahe diduga sebagai penghambat bagi perkembangan telur ikan lele. Kata kunci: Ikan lele, Clarias sp., jahe, ovulasi,  sel telur

  7. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava and Piper betle as Prevention on Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia Infection in African Catfish (Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An effort to prevent Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia (MAS disease in African catfish (Clarias sp. performed using antibiotic was less safety and expensive ways.  An herbal medicine may be able to be a safety and cheap way to prevent of the MAS disease.  This study was conducted to determine efficacy of herbal medicine combination of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu (Psidium guajava and daun sirih (Piper betle. Herbal medicines were mixed to diet and fish were fed on the diet containing the herbal medicine for 7 days of rearing.  The dosage of herbal medicine per 100 gram of diet was PI (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.75 g daun jambu and 0.25 g daun sirih, PII (1.0 g sambiloto,  0.50 g daun jambu,  0.50 g daun sirih, and PIII (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.25 g daun jambu, and 0.75 g daun sirih.  On 8th day, fish were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of Aeromonas hydrophila (105 cfu/ml every 1 kg of fish.  Clinical symptom, feed response, fish weight, number of fish survive and visually changing of internal organs.  The results of study indicated that administration of herbal medicine A. paniculata, P. guajava and P. betle mixed into the diet effectively prevented A. hydrophila infection.  Combination of 1.0 gram A. paniculata, 0.75 gram P. guajava and 0.25 gram P. betle gave higher efficacy against A. hydrophila infection. Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava, Piper betle, Motile Aeromonad septicaemia, African catfish   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan penyakit MAS (Motil Aeromonad Septicaemia pada ikan lele dumbo (Clarias sp. yang dilakukan menggunakan antibiotik cenderung kurang aman dan mahal. Pencegahan menggunakan obat herbal diharapkan dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut secara aman dan murah.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas obat herbal kombinasi sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava dan sirih (Piper betle dengan dosis berbeda yang diberikan melalui pakan selama 7 hari.

  8. Role of various fishmeal ingredients on sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was aimed to evaluate the role of fish meal from different raw materials in improving growth performance of sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. The source of raw materials used were derived from trash fish, salted fish, and head fish eal. Fish reared for 44 days and were given feed test three times per day at 08.00, 12.00, and 16.00. Biomass weight of the experimental fish used were 38.49±1.61 g. The fish reared on the aquarium of 60x50x40 cm3 and by using recirculation system. The results showed that fish meal derived from trash fish provide the best result for feed consumption, daily growth rate, absolute length, biomass, retention of protein, retention of fat, feed efficiency, feed conversion (P>0.05. However, it does not significantly different on the survival of fish (P>0.05. The data showed that the use of trash fish meal resulted on the best growth performance of sangkuriang catfish. It was indicated that the trash-fish meal might be used as the main protein source of sangkuriang catfish feed. Keywords: catfish, growth, at satiation, fish meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pakan uji yang menggunakan sumber tepung ikan dari bahan baku berbeda dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan lele sangkuriang Clarias sp. Sumber tepung ikan yang digunakan berasal dari ikan rucah, ikan asin, dan kepala ikan, yang memiliki umum digunakan sebagai salah satu bahan baku pakan lokal. Ikan diberi pakan at satiation selama 44 hari dengan frekuensi tiga kali sehari, yaitu pada pukul 08.00, 12.00, dan 16.00. Biomassa rata-rata ikan uji yang digunakan adalah 38,49±1,61 g. Ikan dipelihara dalam akuarium berukuran 60x50x40 cm3 dan dengan menerapkan sistem resirkulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tepung ikan yang berasal dari ikan rucah mampu memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan ikan uji. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh nilai kinerja pertumbuhan seperti jumlah konsumsi pakan, laju

  9. Effect of artificial photoperiod on the blood cell indices of the catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srivastava

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to assess the influence of artificial photoperiod on the blood cell indices of an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus(Linn.. Blood samples taken from adult fishes exposed to artificial photoperiod of 24L:0D and 0L:24D for a short period of 24 hrs, were analyzed for total RBC, total WBC, differential leukocyte count (DLC and some physiological variables – glucose and chloride. The total RBC and WBC counts were unaffected by both the artificial photoperiod regimes. However, lymphopenia (p<.05 and neutrophilia (p<.05 were observed under 24L:0D photoperiod. Blood chloride levels were significantly higher (p<.05 in 24L:0D whereas blood glucose levels remained unchanged in both the photoperiod treatments. The 0L:24D photoperiod did not produce any significant change in the blood cell indices neither in the physiological variables. The findings indicate that exposure to continuous light for as short a duration as of 24 hrs elicits stress responses in the leukocyte profile of this nocturnal fish and highlights the role of leukocyte profile as potential stress biomarkers in vertebrates.

  10. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  12. Characterisation of Catfish (Clarias Batrachus) Oil: β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee; Nor Izzatul Adyani Yahya; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Dzulkifly Mat Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Catfish is a cheap source of essential omega-3 fatty acids especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Catfish oil was extracted and clean-up using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) from the viscera of catfish (Clarias batrachus). However, the characteristics of catfish oils are sticky, strong fishy odour and can easily be oxidised with short shelf-life. In this study, catfish oil was converted into powder by formation of inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin. Inclusion complex was prepared by using co-precipitation and kneading methods and compared with physical mixture. The inclusion complex formed were characterised by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FESEM images revealed that inclusion complex using co-precipitation and kneading methods has smaller in crystal sizes and appeared as different morphology compared to physical mixture. DSC proved that co-precipitation method was able to form new solid phase due to shifting of melting point to higher temperature (145.22 degree Celcius). FTIR supported the result by proving strengthening of carbonyl group (C=O). Therefore, co-precipitation method was able to successfully produce inclusion complex of catfish oil, β-cyclodextrin. (author)

  13. Neuropeptide Y in the olfactory system, forebrain and pituitary of the teleost, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Archana; Biju, K C; Saha, Subhash G; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2004-03-01

    Distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity in the forebrain of catfish Clarias batrachus was examined with immunocytochemistry. Conspicuous immunoreactivity was seen in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), their projections in the olfactory nerve, fascicles of the olfactory nerve layer in the periphery of bulb and in the medial olfactory tracts as they extend to the telencephalic lobes. Ablation of the olfactory organ resulted in loss of immunoreactivity in the olfactory nerve layer of the bulb and also in the fascicles of the medial olfactory tracts. This evidence suggests that NPY may serve as a neurotransmitter in the ORNs and convey chemosensory information to the olfactory bulb, and also to the telencephalon over the extrabulbar projections. In addition, network of beaded immunoreactive fibers was noticed throughout the olfactory bulb, which did not respond to ablation experiment. These fibers may represent centrifugal innervation of the bulb. Strong immunoreactivity was encountered in some ganglion cells of nervus terminalis. Immunoreactive fibers and terminal fields were widely distributed in the telencephalon. Several neurons of nucleus entopeduncularis were moderately immunoreactive; and a small population of neurons in nucleus preopticus periventricularis was also labeled. Immunoreactive terminal fields were particularly conspicuous in the preoptic, the tuberal areas, and the periventricular zone around the third ventricle and inferior lobes. NPY immunoreactive cells and fibers were detected in all the lobes of the pituitary gland. Present results describing the localization of NPY in the forebrain of C. batrachus are in concurrence with the pattern of the immunoreactivity encountered in other teleosts. However, NPY in olfactory system of C. batrachus is a novel feature that suggests a role for the peptide in processing of chemosensory information.

  14. Effects of strains on growth performances of triploid bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satid Chatchaiphan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, limited empirical information is available on the effects of parental strains on the performance of triploid aquatic animals, especially of tropical species. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of strains on the growth performance of the triploid bighead catfish (Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864 which was produced using cold shock (7 °C, 25 min shock duration, applied to newly fertilized eggs obtained from all possible crosses between two catfish strains. The fingerlings of each group were reared until they were age 240 d. At age 60 d, the triploid fish had a lower specific growth rate (SGR, absolute growth rate (AGR, body length and body weight than the diploid counterparts. However, at harvest (age 240 d body length and body weight were not different between the two groups while SGR of the cold shock group was higher than the diploid during age 121–240 d. The results revealed that parental strains did not show significant direct effects on the growth performance of triploids, but the interaction between paternal strain × shock was significant for the following traits: body length at age 90 d, body weight at age 90 d and 120 d, AGR for age 61–90 d, and SGR for age 61–90 d and 91–120 d. The interaction between paternal × maternal strain × shock was significant for body length, body weight at age 180 d and AGR for age 121–180 d. These results suggested that the growth performance of triploid C. macrocephalus cannot be enhanced by improving the parental strains; rather, improvement may be accomplished by selecting the parental strains based on triploid performance.

  15. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of Clarias batrachus (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Indomalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Kar, Pradip Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Revision of monozoic cestodes (Caryophyllidea) parasitic in commercially important walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.) in tropical Asia (Indomalayan zoogeographical region) was carried out, based on the evaluation of newly collected material from India, Indonesia, and Thailand, as well as a study of type specimens. Instead of the 59 nominal taxa of 15 genera from 3 caryophyllidean families previously described, only 8 species of the Lytocestidae are considered to be valid: Bovienia indica (Niyogi, Gupta and Agarwal, 1982) n. comb.; Bovienia raipurensis (Satpute and Agarwal, 1980) Mackiewicz, 1994; Bovienia serialis (Bovien, 1926) Fuhrmann, 1931; Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926; Lucknowia microcephala (Bovien, 1926) n. comb.; Lytocestus indicus (Moghe, 1925) Woodland 1926; Pseudocaryophyllaeus ritai Gupta and Singh, 1983; and Pseudocaryophyllaeus tenuicollis (Bovien, 1926) n. comb. All valid species are redescribed and SEM photomicrographs of their scolices and photomicrographs of their eggs are provided for the first time. Crescentovitus Murhar, 1963, Heeradevina Srivastav and Khare, 2005, Pseudobatrachus Pathak and Srivastav, 2005, Pseudobilobulata Srivastav and Lohia, 2002, Pseudoclariasis Pathak, 2002, and Pseudoinverta Pathak, 2002 are invalidated and 50 nominal species are newly synonymized, including 4 species described from other fish hosts. Taxonomic status of the remaining caryophyllidean taxa reported from C. batrachus (at least 6 taxa) could not be clarified because of the unavailability of their original descriptions. A key to identification of caryophyllidean tapeworms parasitic in C. batrachus is provided. To avoid current inflation of descriptions of invalid taxa, researchers are strongly encouraged to work only with well-fixed material; damaged, decomposed, or strongly flattened specimens should not be used for taxonomic studies, and type specimens must always be deposited in internationally recognized collections.

  16. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Toxicity of Glyphosate on Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. RG Okayi, PA Annune, MU Tachia, OJ Oshoke, 150-155 ...

  17. Journal of Aquatic Sciences - Vol 27, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological Studies of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings Exposed to Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BO Mgbenka, CB Ikele, Ns Oluah, 23-28 ...

  18. Oni et al. (2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bacterial and fungal flora were determined on the fish body parts and the culture water. Analyses showed that. 0 ... ever present danger to various degrees in artificial culture systems. ..... the reproduction performance of Clarias gariepinus ...

  19. Evaluation of Flesh and Serum Concentrations of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    determine and compare the bioaccumulation of selected toxic and essential trace metals- ... antimony, manganese and zinc in the body and serum of Clarias gariepinus were above the .... (CRMs) from Le Centre de toxicology du Quebec,.

  20. A comparative assessment of the health status of feral populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative assessment of the health status of feral populations of Clarias gariepinus from three dams in the Limpopo and Olifants river systems, Limpopo province, South Africa, using the fish health assessment index protocol.

  1. 6809 Volume 12 No. 6 October 2012 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ayoola S.O

    2012-10-06

    Clarias gariepinus), pituitary extract and non-piscine; frog (Haplobutrachus occipitalis) pituitary extracts. The study was carried out in the Department of Marine. Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos state Nigeria.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications on red blood cell function, Abstract PDF. B Ekpo. Vol 13, No 1 ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007), Acute toxicity and behavioural effects of lambdacyhalothrin pesticide on juveniles of clarias gariepinus, Abstract PDF. EO Ogueji, J ...

  3. Effect of feeding rate and ammonia build-up on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -up on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles in the Wet Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Completely Randomized Design was used; each treatment was ...

  4. Adesina SA (9)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    component of aquaculture diets (Garza de Yta,. 2012). The formulation and ... principal plant protein source used in animal feeds ..... changes and statistical analysis of indices were used to ..... interactions in African catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

  5. (18) Oyegoke et al (new art)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Growth performance, haematological and biochemical study of. Clarias gariepinus ... 1Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria ... the animal health and possibly way they deal.

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 37 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD) markers in pectoral spine phenotypic sub-groups of Clarias gariepinus · EMAIL ... Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial ...

  7. Induced propagation of African clariid catfish, Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Our present study which compared the effect of synthe- tic (ovaprim) .... was maintained with RESUN LP- 100 low noise air - pump. A sample of ..... reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

  8. EFFECTS OF CULTURE TANK SECTIONS ON GROWTH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. (Mrs) Jenyo-Oni

    sections on production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus juveniles of average weight (10.65 ..... Since total costs incurred remains one of the most important factor in the evaluation of ... Data and Compilation of Projects IEA task VII.

  9. Development and bioefficacy study of plant-based proteins diets for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, lactic acids fermentation, malting, plant protein. INTRODUCTION ..... Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) grow on diets devoid of ... and Fatty Acid Profiles of the Fillets of Channel. Catfish Reared on ...

  10. Adesina et al (7)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    The effects of boiled sunflower seed meal (BSSM) on the haematological parameters and serum biochemical ... Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, sunflower seed meal, soybean meal, haematology, serum biochemistry ...... Bredene, Belgium. pp.

  11. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity from cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Inhibition effect of the plant extracts on the GST was studied by spectrophotometric method. The ... of assuring food security in developing countries like ..... studies on African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) liver glutathione s-.

  12. Changes in brain monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, during chronic treatments with mercurials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    In mammals, the central nervous system is the primary target for CH 3 Hg poisoning which is clinically known as Minamata disease. Hg is a widely recognized neurotoxin and has been reported to impair brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. Reports on effects of Hg on brain monoamine activity in fishes are scarce. In the present study, therefore, changes in the brain monoamine levels and the degradation enzyme, monoamine oxidase (MAO), are described in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 -inorganic Hg), methylmercuric chloride (CH 3 HgCl-organic Hg), and a commercial mercurial fungicide formulation, emisan 6 (methoxyethyl Hg-organic Hg) for 45, 90 and 180 d during gonadal recrudescence. These intervals correspond to late preparatory, prespawning and spawning phases, respectively, of the annual reproductive cycle of the catfish

  13. The Accumulation and Retention of Zine-65 and Cobalt-60 by The Fresh Water Fish CLARIAS LAZERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Badawy, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Some parameters affecting the accumulation and retention of 65 Zn and 60 Co radionuclides by the fresh water fish CLARIAS LAZERA from the contaminated filtered Ismail ia Canal water(FICW) have been investigated. It has been observed that the accumulated activity (KBq/g) increased with increasing exposure time with the contaminated FICW. This kind of bony fish has been shown to accumulate 65 Zn > 60 Co. The increase of the studied radionuclide carrier concentration in the canal water increased the fish uptake of both radionuclides. The increase of ph of the FICW decreased the accumulated activity by the fish. On the other hand, the retention of those radionuclides by this fish was investigated. It was possible from this study to give preliminary data for the calculation of the radiation dose that might be delivered to man eating the contaminated fish

  14. Study of sodium arsenite induced biochemical changes on certain biomolecules of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic impact of sublethal concentration (1 mg/L; 5% of 96h LC50 value of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 on certain biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and glycogen of five tissue components (muscles, liver, brain, skin, and gills of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus was analysed. The important toxic manifestations include marked decrease in the concentration of proteins (21.72-45.42% in muscles; 3.42-53.94% in liver; 15.39-45.42% in brain; 15.40-4.00% in skin and 11.35-64.13% in gills, DNA (0.55-22.95% in muscles; 8.33-14.06% in liver; 5.30-18.40% in brain; 13.57-52.80% in skin; and 12.38-31.01% in gills, RNA (42.68-76.16% in muscles; 10.68-39.75% in liver; 5.66-29.05% in brain; 7.72-27.93% in skin and 21.47-44.38% in gills and glycogen (24.00-51.72% in muscles; 49.11-72.45% in liver; 11.49-26.03% in brain; 26.13-38.05% in skin and 17.80-37.97% in gills. Excepting liver where the lipid content increases (15.82-24.13%, the fat content also showed depletion in their concentration (10.40-29.83% in muscles; 8.30-34.45% in brain; 8.94-31.47% in skin and 12.75-28.86% in gills, in the rest of the organ systems.Foi analisado o impacto tóxico da concentração subletal (1 mg/L; 5% do valor de LC50 de 96h do arsenito de sódio (NaAsO2 sobre certas biomoléculas (proteinas, ácidos nucleicos, lipídios e glicogênio de cinco tecidos (músculos, fígado, cérebro, pele e brânquias do bagre Clarias batrachus. As manifestações tóxicas importantes incluiram o decréscimo acentuado na concentração de proteinas (21,72-45,42% nos músculos; 3,42-53,94% no fígado; 15,39-45,42% no cérebro; 15,40-4,00% na pele e 11,35-64,13% nas brânquias, DNA (0,55-22,95% nos músculos; 8,33-14,06% no fígado; 5,30-18,40% no cérebro; 13,57-52,80% na pele e 12,38-31,01% nas brânquias, RNA (42,68-76,16% nos músculos; 10,68-39,75% no fígado; 5,66-29,05% no cérebro; 7,72-27,93% na pele e 21,47-44,38% nas brânquias e glicogênio (24,00-51,72% nos músculos; 49

  15. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  16. Induction of triploidy and erythrocyte cell size analysis of triploid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, genetic manipulation technique was employed to produce triploid African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Artificial fertilization was carried out using synthetic hormone (Ovaprim®) at 0.5 ml/kg body weight. Eggs numbering 100 ± 10 in quadruplicates from C. gariepinus were fertilized by milt from the male species.

  17. Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on African catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated. C. gariepinus juveniles were assessed in a static renewal bioassay for 96 hours (acute toxicity) and 28 days (chronic toxicity) using varying concentrations (0.0 mg/l 20.0 mg/l, 30.0 mg/l, ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue glucose and haemoglobin levels in the catfish Clarias albopunctatus during anaesthesia with ketamine hydrochloride. Abstract · Vol 8, No 3 (2011) - Articles Histopathological effects of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Abstract. ISSN: 1597-3115. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. 152-IJBCS-Article-Dr Chikou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    Hydroécologie, 10 Chemin de la Justice,. B 4500 Tihange ... L'étude de l'âge et de la croissance chez Clarias gariepinus a été réalisée dans le delta de l'Ouémé par l'analyse des ...... la biologie de reproduction chez Clarias ebriensis. Pellegrin.

  20. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as biological control agents for Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After

  1. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After 15 days, both crayfish and ...

  2. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  3. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  4. Selection of lactic acid bacteria as a probiotic and evaluated its performance on gnotobiotic catfish Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enita Romasni Turnip

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB as a potential probiotic that producing anti‒microbial compounds in order to treat motile aeromonads septicemia diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila on catfish Clarias sp. and evaluated its performance on gnotobiotic catfish. The in vitro assay was done to select several LAB isolates based on antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria. The selected isolate was tested in vivo to observe their ability to improve growth performances of catfish. The study was conducted with five treatments consists of K‒ (normal catfish without addition probiotic, without challenge test, K+ (normal catfish without addition of probiotic, with challenge test, Np (normal catfish with addition of probiotic and challenge test, G (gnoto catfish without addition of probiotic, with challenge test, and Gp (gnoto catfish with addition of probiotic and challenge test. The results showed that the addition of Pediococcus pentosaceus E2211 as selected probiotic could increase survival rate, specific growth rate, and immune response towards infection of A. hydrophila. The best survival rate after challenge test was obtained in Np and Gp treatments (88.46%, followed by G treatment (65.38%, while the K+ was only 53.84%. The conclusion of this study was P. pentosaceus E2211 potentially used as a probiotic candidate for normal and gnotobiotic catfish. The presence of normal microflora with P. pentosaceus E2211 in Np treatment showed the best probiotic performance with daily growth rate 3.28%, feed conversion ratio 1.79, and total intestinal bacteria reached 108 CFU/mL significantly different from other treatments (P<0.05.Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, catfish, LAB, probiotic, screening  ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menyeleksi bakteri asam laktat (BAL sebagai probiotik potensial penghasil senyawa antimikrob guna menanggulangi penyakit motile aeromonad septicemia akibat Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan

  5. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  6. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Datta, Soma; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 μM) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge

  7. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, G.K.; Dutta, J.; Ghosh, S.

    1982-01-01

    The fate of [1(- 14 C] linoleic acid and [1( 14 C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14 C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  8. RECOVERY OF DAMAGES IN THE SKIN OF ARSENIC EXPOSED CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN. FOLLOWING WITHDRAWAL OF THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh ، T. K. Banerjee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The bottom dwelling air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn. also respires via its skin (an accessory water-breathing organ. Prolonged (90 days exposure to disodium arsenate heptahydrate has caused massive damage (e.g. wear and tear of various cellular components including club cells, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the goblet mucous cells, altered staining and the slimy secretion to the epidermis of its skin. The present study investigated the recovery in architecture of the damaged epidermis following return of the 90 days disodium arsenate heptahydrate exposed fish to clean water. The significant regeneration of its different cellular components (epithelial cells, Club cells, Mucous cells took place after 24 h of withdrawal when sloughing; wear and tear and other damages of the epidermis of the skin got substantially reduced. The histopathological alterations which still continued included squeezing out of contents of the Club cells that formed a thin layer on the body surface. Regeneration of the Club cells continued throughout the epidermis even though the newly formed Club cells still showed massive sign of degeneration. Altered staining behaviour and hyperactivity of the Mucous cells continues even after prolonged withdrawal of the stress of the arsenic salt. Similarly the glycoproteins of the slime secreted by the mucous cells retained their sulphate moieties. This indicates that disodium arsenate heptahydrate induces certain permanent non-reversible damages including altered mucogenic activity in the epidermis of the skin of C. batrachus.

  9. The role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation mechanism of catfish (Clarias sp. through Ca2+, PKC and GABA neurotransmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Slamet Wisnu Kusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser puncture exposure at reproduction acupoint is proven to increase cellular activity like Ca2+ in the skin tissues. The aim of the study is to determine the role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation by evaluating Ca2+ stimulation and PKC activity in skin tissue and the release of GABA from GABAergic neurons of the brain tissue of catfish (Clarias sp.. A total of 36 females and 36 males of 8–9-month old of F1 catfish broodstock Sangkuriang (female and Paiton (male. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CDR experimental method. Expression analysis was conducted using immunohistochemical staining with a streptavidinbiotin method with calcineurin kit, PKC kit, and GABA kit. The results showed that laserpuncture can stimulate calcineurin and PKC expression in skin tissue, and GABA expression in the brain tissue on the condition pre-spawn, spawn, and post-spawn (P < .05. It can be concluded that laserpuncture stimulates gonad maturation through Ca2+, PKC, and GABA neurotransmitter.

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and parasitic fauna in Synodontis clarias (Linnaeus, 1758 and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803 from Lekki Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele Akinsanya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals from Synodontis clarias (S. clarias and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (C. nigrodigitatus with their parasitic fauna. Methods: A total of 50 specimens of each fish species (n = 100 were examined. The fishes were subjected to parasitological investigation while 3 g of intestinal tissue of S. clarias and C. nigrodigitatus samples were digested with nitric acid (10 mL. The tissues were then heated until brown fumes disappeared. The samples were allowed to cool and distilled water was added to make up to 50 mL in a standard flask. The filtrate was examined using the atomic absorption spectrometer. The fish hosts were weighed and measured with the aid of digital weighing balance and measuring board, respectively. Results: The Chi-square distribution was significant at 0.01 level (χ2 = 2.16, P Zn > Mn > Fe > Cd (not detected and Mn > Zn > Fe > Pb > Cd (not detected, respectively, while in the nematode, Procamallanus spp. and trematode, Siphodera spp. were Pb > Mn > Fe > Zn > Cd and Mn > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd, respectively. In the water and sediment, the distribution of heavy metals were Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cd and Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cd, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of the concentrations of the trace elements in the aquatic habitat as well as the sediment were below the permissible limit of Federal Ministry of Environment. These findings confirmed that the aquatic habitat was adequate for fishing activity and that the consumption of fish species therein are safe. However, it should be noted that there was bioaccumulation of trace elements in the fish tissues which should not pose any danger to man. Therefore, a regular monitoring of the levels of trace elements in the water body as well as in the fauna should be regularly undertaken.

  11. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  12. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  13. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  14. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  15. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Puneet; Prasad, Y.; Patra, A.K.; Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C.; Pal, Satya

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 ± 4 cm and weight of 86 ± 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl 2 .H 2 O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl 2 .H 2 O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and taurine have potential to

  16. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  17. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  18. Two-dimensional proteomic analysis of gonads of air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus after the exposure of endosulfan and malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laldinsangi, C; Vijayaprasadarao, K; Rajakumar, A; Murugananthkumar, R; Prathibha, Y; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have raised public concern, since their effects have been found to interfere with the physiological systems of various organisms, especially during critical stage of development and reproduction. Endosulfan and malathion, pesticides widely used for agricultural purposes, have been known to disrupt physiological functions in aquatic organisms. The current work analyzes the effects of endosulfan (2.5 parts per billion [ppb]) and malathion (10 ppb) on the reproductive physiology of catfish (Clarias batrachus) by evaluating protein expression profiles after 21 days of exposure. The proteomic profile of testis and ovary after exposure to endosulfan showed downregulation of proteins such as ubiquitin and Esco2, and upregulation in melanocortin-receptor-2 respectively. Malathion exposed ovary showed upregulated prolactin levels. Identification of proteins differentially expressed in gonads due to the exposure to these pesticides may serve as crucial indications to denote their disruptive effects at the level of proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  20. Chemical composition of Clarias Lazera (cuv and val., 1840) as an indicator of fish raising in treated sewage effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad Elkareem, Manal Mohamed El Hassan

    1998-07-01

    The present study is one of the pioneer studies dealing with the possibility of growing fish in treated sewage water in Sudan. Khartoum sewage treatment plant - Green Belt area - was the main study site for this work, where fish was some how introduced to the canal which receives water from the last stage of treatment. Fish have reached large sizes and numbers, they are highly consumed by people of the area and widely marketed in the nearby localities. So this study aimed to discuss the potential health associated with the utilization of such fish for food, throwing light, on the advantages and disadvantages of fish culture in treated sewage effluent. The research was directed towards the study of the chemical composition of Clarias lazera (Cuv. and Val., 1840) (Garmout fish) being the only fish species in the area during the course of this study . Fish samples were collected from the Green Belt and the White Nile at the vicinity of Jebel Aulia reservoir which was taken as a control area for (April 1995 - April 1996). Basic biology was studies for each specimen, the concentrations of some of the hazardous and potentially hazardous heavy metals were investigated in the flesh of 30, randomly selected fish samples from both study sites, beside the major chemical body constituents : fats, proteins, moisture and ash in all specimens, to determine the quality of the flesh> Data obtained was analyzed, trying to correlate fish chemical composition to the surrounding environment. Treated sewage-fish showed higher weights and lengths than natural water-fish from the White Nile. Most of the hazardous metals investigated in the muscle tissues of treated sewage-fish were found to be of insignificant variation from that of natural water-fish (Mercury and Lead). They were found to be at lower levels than what is recommended by the International Agencies human consumption. The essential micronutrients for fish like Copper, Ferric (Iron) and Zinc showed significantly higher levels

  1. Variations de la température de l'eau des étangs en période froide à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... Conclusion et application : La mise en évidence de la courbe de variation de température en période froide à Lubumbashi est cruciale pour la mise en place des systèmes de .... niloticus) et le poisson-chat africain (Clarias ngamensis et Clarias gariepinus). Les étangs dont la profondeur varie entre 120 et ...

  2. Cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin induced in vivo alterations in nucleic acids and protein contents in a freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus; Family-Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Ravi S

    2009-08-01

    The fresh water fish, Clarias batrachus, were exposed to sub-acute concentrations of cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin for 96 h to assess their impact on the levels of nucleic acids and protein in different organs of fish. DNA content was found almost unchanged with a single exception of liver, which showed significant increment in the levels of DNA in response to the separate treatments of both compounds. Both RNA and protein contents declined in brain, liver, and muscle while sharp increase was observed in gills. However, in kidney, RNA contents depicted significant enhancement only at higher concentrations, with initial decline at lower concentrations. The trends of alterations in RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios were quite similar to the corresponding results explained above for RNA and protein. The results clearly indicated that both of these pyrethroids exerted their effects at transcriptional and translational levels while DNA synthesis was found to be unaffected by these compounds with an exception of liver.

  3. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  4. Tokamak-FED plasma-engineering assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the current US tokamak FED concept, which aims to provide a controlled, long pulse (approx. 100 s) burning plasma with an energy amplification of greater than or equal to 5, a fusion power of 180 MW, and a neutron wall load of greater than or equal to 0.4 MW/m 2 . The results of the assessment suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 5.0 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 5.4 MA are appropriate in reaching the above plasma performance, despite uncertainties in several plasma physics areas, such as confinement scaling, achievable beta, impurity control, etc. To enhance the probability of achieving fusion ignition and to provide some margin against a short fall in our physics projections in FED, a limited operating capability at B/sub t/ = 4.6 T and I/sub p/ = 6.5 MA is incorporated. Various other options and remedies have also been assessed aiming to alleviate the impact of the uncertainties on the FED design concept. These approaches appear promising because they can be studied within the current fusion physics program and may lead to drastically more cost-effective FED concepts

  5. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Blackfield, D.; Bobrov, E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Diatchenko, N.; LeClaire, R.

    1982-12-01

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m 2 ; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  6. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  7. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  8. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation

  9. Influence of the annual flood-pulse on catch per unit effort, condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of the annual flood-pulse on catch per unit effort, condition and reproduction of Clarias gariepinus from the upper Okavango Delta, Botswana. ... therefore, that conservation efforts should be focused on maintaining natural flow patterns in the face of climate change and potential water extraction schemes upstream.

  10. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    (MERH) based on histopathological alterations in the gills, liver, kidney, brain and heart of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) over a 56-day ... and haemorrhage were some of the changes observed in the heart. In view of these findings, the use ..... Unexposed fingerlings had normal neurons arranged in a regular pattern ...

  11. Effect of Rearing Periods on the Production of Hybrid Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerling production of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobanchus longifilis) was investigated over three rearing periods of 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks in fertilized earthen ponds during the rainy season. At harvest, fingerling mean weight was directly related to length of rearing period, while survival rate and ...

  12. 2814-IJBCS-Article-Inoussa Compaoré

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    et PK sont des partenaires scientifiques et ont tous participé à l'élaboration du protocole expérimental et à la lecture de l'article. REFERENCES. Akinwole AO, Faturoti EO. 2007. Biological performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in recirculating system in Ibadan. Aquaculture. Engineering, 36: 18-23.

  13. The effects of various preservation methods on fatty acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various preservation methods on fatty acid content of African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. Fresh fish samples were obtained from swimming pool end (Gamji Gate) of River Rino, Kaduna. Preservation methods investigated were: straight smoking (SS), ...

  14. Fatty acids of polar lipids in heart tissue are good taxonomic markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid profiles in total, neutral and polar lipids in the heart tissues of five freshwater fish species (Nile perch Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, marbled lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus, Bagrus docmak and African catfish Clarias gariepinus) from Lakes Victoria and Kyoga were determined ...

  15. The bio accumulation of some heavy metals in some organs of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the bioaccumulation of Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in samples of gill, Liver and offal of Clarias Gariepinus nigrodigilatus and Chrysichthys from 'Ose' fish landing site of River Niger, at Onitsha was investigated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result obtained showed that ...

  16. Length-weight relationships of five fish species in Epe lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fishes (Clarias gariepinus (Burch), Illisha africana Bloch), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede), Chrysichthys walkeri (Gunther) and Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich)) were obtained from fish landing site at Epe market from November 2001 to October 2002, and January to December 2003. The parameters a and b of the ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 420 ... TN Kamalu, GC Okpe, A Williams. Vol 9, No 3 (2012), Salinity tolerance of larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (♀) X .... Christopher Tochukwu Amalu, Fabian Chukwuemenam Okafor. Vol 6, No 3 (2009), Systematic environmental influences and variances due to direct and maternal effects and ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okayi, RG. Vol 2, No 2 (2010) - Articles Acute Toxicity of Glyphosate on Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-1778. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  19. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 7 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R N Obiezue, C B Ikele, B O Mgbenka, I C Okoye, G N Attamah, C Uchendu, E Ezeamachi, C Q Onyia, 884-896 ...

  20. Animal Research International - Vol 8, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effects of sublethal concentrations of diethyl Phthalate on the gills of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CK Ikele, BO Mgbekwa, NS Ndubuisi, 1375-1379 ...

  1. Toxic effects of sublethal concentrations of diethyl Phthalate on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of Diethyl phthalate (DEP) on the gill of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. Seventy-five (75) catfish fingerlings were subjected to continuous exposure to sublethal concentrations of DEP (30, 40, 60 and 80 ìg/L) for a period of four weeks. The gills of the catfish ...

  2. Oni et al. (2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ±0.4C; ... Keywords: Bacteria, Fungal, Clarias gariepinus, Culture media ..... S.E. Water*. 5.20±0.78 6.08±0.70. 5.427**. Skin. 8.38±0.92 8.26±0.75. 0.098 .... epizootic ulcerative syndrome in India- an ... animal health emergencies in Asia. pp.

  3. Nutritive Value and Availability of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly utilized feed ingredients for culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda were collected over a period of six months (January - June 2010) and evaluated for their nutritive composition through proximate analysis. Most of the fish feed ...

  4. Variability in Parasites' Community Structure and Composition in Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the composition and structure of the parasite communities in Cat fish with respect to levels of water pollution in Lake Victoria. A total of 1071 Clarias gariepinus with mean TL range of 19 to 27 cm were analyzed from three localities in Mwanza Gulf (Kirumba, 298 fish infected with 15 parasite species), ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ugwumba, AAA. Vol 8 (2010) - Articles Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-972X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    MUSCLE OF CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS, BURCHELL 1822) FROM SELECTED MARKETS IN .... out from the skin to give a “washboard” ... Bacterial growth was harvested and subjected to biochemical tests to identify and isolate Aeromonas hydrophila from the samples. Culture and sensitivity test was carried out ...

  7. 2452-IJBCS-Article-Dr Agbebi O T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Protein profile of breeding discrepancies of African catfish Clarias gariepinus ... growing groups. The protein sample extracts were prepared by homogenizing 150 mg of fish muscle and electrophoretic run in Sodium ... of large sized class fish seeds which is profitable for grow out farmers.

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offor, CC. Vol 31, No 2 (2010) - Articles Blood lead level as biomarker of environmental lead pollution in feral and cultured African catfish (Clarias gariepinus ) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0331-3026. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  9. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 20, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organosomatic indices, haematological and histological assessment as biomarkers of health status in feral and cultured Clarias gariepinus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A. Adeniran, O.K. Adeyemo, B.O. Emikpe, S.A. Alarape, 189- 194 ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeniran, A. Vol 20, No 2 (2017) - Articles Organosomatic indices, haematological and histological assessment as biomarkers of health status in feral and cultured Clarias gariepinus. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-5096. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  11. Nigerian Veterinary Journal - Vol 31, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood lead level as biomarker of environmental lead pollution in feral and cultured African catfish (Clarias gariepinus ) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OK Adeyemo, OB Adedeji, CC Offor. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nvj.v31i2.68957 ...

  12. African Journal of Aquatic Science - Vol 34, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro-distribution of freshwater snails before and after water flow events in hydraulic structures in Tessaout Amont irrigation system, Morocco · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ... Alterations in serum protein fractions and Na+-K+ATPase activity in Clarias gariepinus infested with henneguyosis in Ismailia, Egypt · EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  13. Toxicological assessment of four common household surfactants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of four common household liquid detergents coded as (FL, ML, MF and LC) was evaluated on two fish species; African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings in a static bioassay. During the exposure period (96 hours), there was a remarkable rise of alkalinity from ...

  14. Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) diets in which garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion levels were used ...

  15. Effects Of Exposure To Sublethal Concentrations Of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiological impairment on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus when exposed to sublethal concentrations of Azadirachta Indica was investigated. The fish were exposed to concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 ML -1 for the period of 12 weeks. The crude protein content decreased with increased concentration ...

  16. Parasites of fish at Lake Tana, Ethiopia | Yimer | SINET: Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that Contracaecum spp. were the most common larval nematode parasite that were identified from the mesentery of 52 (41.94%) Catfish (Clarias gariepinus), 17(24.64%) Barbus acutirostris, 102 (9.44%) Barbus tsanensis, 14(12.84%) Barbus brevicephalus, and from the pericardial cavity of 52 (59.8%) ...

  17. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and

  18. African Zoology - Vol 45, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology of metazoan parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Osteichthyes: Clariidae) from the Nwanedi-Luphephe Dams of the Limpopo River System, South Africa · EMAIL ... Towards a standardized and optimized protocol for rapid biodiversity assessments: spider species richness and assemblage composition in two savanna ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the Blood Parameters of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Abstract · Vol 31, No 1 (2016) - Articles Changes in haematological parameters of Tilapia guineensis exposed to different concentrations of detergent under laboratory conditions

  20. Journal of Aquatic Sciences - Vol 29, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African ... Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the Blood Parameters of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) · EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  1. 24__125 - 131__Musa_effect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Growth and nutrient studies was carried out on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles of mean ... 66.7 replacement) diet T4 (has 100% of raw soybean meal inclusion), diet T5 (66.7% toasted soybean ..... Thesis, University f Sterling, Scotland, U.K..

  2. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  3. Helminthiasis and gram negative enteric bacteria in freshwater fish from selected lakes of Haramaya District, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiological and helminthiasis examination of fish from Tinike and Adelle Lakes were conducted at Haramaya District, Ethiopia. The types of fish available in the lakes were also assessed. Adelle Lake has only Clarias gariepinus while the Tinike Lake has only Oreochromis niloticus fish species. Te...

  4. 2390-IJBCS-Article-Hugues Aguim Elegbe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    alimentation des poissons est la contrainte majeure pour l'émergence de la pisciculture tropicale. Dans le but d'évaluer l'effet de la co-culture Clarias gariepinus - Oreochromis niloticus sur la croissance de ces deux espèces élevées dans les whedos, ...

  5. Hydrogen ion (Ph), ammonia, dissolved oxygen and nitrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogen ion (pH), dissolved oxygen, ammonia and nitrite concentrations were studied monthly in two systems (re-circulatory and semi-intensive of 3 m2 sizes) each for six months. The systems were each stocked with 200 g of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Results showed that all parameters were within acceptable limits ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 207 ... Vol 1, No 1 (2001), Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the Incidence of Stalk Rot under Varying Plant Population Densities in Maize, Abstract. OS Balogun, OS Tanimola. Vol 14, No 1 (2015), Preliminary studies on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Clarias gariepinus ...

  7. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development - Vol 14, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Clarias gariepinus and Orechromis niloticus in Ibadan, Oyo state · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Adeshina, YA Adewale, 45-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jard.v14i1.5 ...

  8. Effect of semen extenders on the motility and viability of stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus) spermatozoa. ... The results of the effect of freezing (at -40°C) on motility revealed that no motility was observed in all the cryopreserved trials except the sample containing 10% egg yolk and 10% tomato juice, which recorded ...

  9. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Key words: Potassium permanganate, acute toxicity, LC50, LT50, behaviour, Clarias gariepinus, Nigeria. ... soft waters where other chemicals, such as copper sulphate, were too .... The temperature (oC) was measured by dipping a dry bulb thermo- .... (KMnO4) interferes with the respiratory mechanisms of.

  10. Extraordinary mullet growth through direct injection of foreign DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to produce a genetically modified grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, with accelerated growth through direct injection of foreign DNA isolated from the liver of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) or African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) into muscles of fingerlings fish at the dose of 40 μg/fish. The results show a ...

  11. African Journal of Livestock Extension - Vol 4 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hedonic price analysis of sheep and goat market in Lagos State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Evaluation of haematalogical responses of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) to ammonia and nitrite levels in some selected fish farms in Ibadan, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. Influence of tanks liner material on water quality and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three tank liner materials: polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene and polyester were evaluated in a 93 days experiment for their influence on culture water quality and growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. Fish of average weight of 5.03±0.21g were stocked at 375 per m3 in tanks lined with the aforementioned materials.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 643 ... Vol 7, No 3 (2004), glycemic control and pain threshold in alloxan diabetic rats, Abstract PDF. GF Ibironke, OJ Saba, FO Olopade ... Vol 7, No 3 (2004), Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish farm in Ibadan, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. FE Olaifa, AK Olaifa, AA Adelaja, AG ...

  14. TOXICITY OF CASSAVA WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS TO AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    S.O. Adewoye 1, O.O. Fawole 1,*, O.D. Owolabi 2 and J.S. Omotosho 2 ... food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a ... Man in an attempt to alleviate food scarcity and ... Each treatment and control was in replicates ...

  15. Micronucleus test in fish genome: A sensitive monitor for aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquatic environment makes up the major part of our environment and resources, therefore its safety is directly related to the safety our health. In this study, three tilapia species (Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia zilli) and Clarias gariepinus were employed to estimate water pollution using ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 719 ... African Journal of Aquatic Science. ... Vol 32, No 2 (2007), Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes ... index to Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) in the Vaal River system, South Africa, Abstract ... Vol 40, No 2 (2015), Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

  17. Effect of some Nigerian spices on biodeterioration of tilapia and cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is in two phases, one phase investigated the use of spices to inhibit the quick deterioration of fish. Spices used ere Xylopia aethiopica, Capsicum frutescens, Zingiber officinale, Piper guineense. Fishes used were Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia guineensis. Blended spices were applied on the fishes and kept ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 3, No 8 (2004), Use of palm oil in the diet of the African mudfish, Clarias gariepinus ... Vol 13, No 16 (2014), Use of plumules cryopreservation to save coconut ... Vol 7, No 8 (2008), Use of psyllium (isubgol) husk as an alternative gelling ...

  19. Effects of sublethal concentrations of formalin on weight gain in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to various sublethal concentrations (25.0, 12.50, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56 and 0.0 mgl-1) of formalin to investigate their effects on the weight gain of the fish. Decrease in weight gain, directly proportional to the toxicant concentration, was observed in fish exposed to ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 412 ... Vol 30, No 2 (2015), Food of Pellonula leonensis (Boulenger,1916) in Ogbobiri River, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, Abstract .... Vol 30, No 1 (2015), Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on gills and liver of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Abstract.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 412 ... Vol 29, No 2 (2014), Acute Toxicity of Delsate® Herbicide (Glyphosate) On Albumin and Blood Urea Nitrogen of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, ... Vol 30, No 2 (2015), An evaluation of mixture of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf and kernel meals as partial replacement for fish meal in the diet of ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onyekwelu, K C. Vol 3, No 3 (2006) - Articles Effect Of Crude Oil And Its Products On Bilirubin Of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus. Abstract. ISSN: 1597-3115. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akande, GR. Vol 29, No 1 (2011) - Articles Thermo-Physical Properties of Farmed African Freshwater Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fillet for Process Design and Optimization Abstract. ISSN: 0189-7241. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 479 of 479 ... Vol 34, No 1 (2016), Thermal properties of African yam bean seeds as influenced by moisture content and temperature, Abstract. O.J. Ikegwu, I.C. Emenalum, V.N. Nwobasi. Vol 29, No 1 (2011), Thermo-Physical Properties of Farmed African Freshwater Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fillet for Process ...

  5. Acute toxicity of cassava mill effluent to the African catfish fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioassay test was performed on the toxic effect of Cassava Mill Effluent to the African Catfish - Heteroclarias Hybrid of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Male) and Clarias gariepinus (Female). The 96-h LC50 was determined as 50. 12 mgl -1. Exposed fish became darker in colour and showed signs of respiratory distress, ...

  6. A Review Of Reproduction And Gamete Management In The African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the current status of reproduction and gamete management of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) a highly appreciated culturable fish species in Nigeria were reviewed. Natural and artificial reproductive behaviour as well as gonadal maturation rhythm in the highly fecund fish were documented.

  7. The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus using cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of 0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of ...

  8. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an

  9. Effect of smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Crude protein was higher in the tilapia sample for both raw and smoked samples.

  10. Potentials of short term and long term cryopreserved sperm of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To service the growing demand for male African giant catfish (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock for aquaculture in Nigeria, and to conserve valuable genetic resources, we improved both short-term (in deep freezer at -35°C) and long-term cryopreservation (in liquid nitrogen at -296°C) of catfish sperm. Catfish sperm ...

  11. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory static bioassays were conducted to determine the 96-h LC50 and the lethal levels of concentrations of the aquaculture therapeutant, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on fingerlings (mean weight, 6.24 ± 0.15 g and mean length, 4.25 ± 0.07 cm) of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. A total number of one ...

  12. Occurrence of Klebsiella Species in Cultured African Catfish in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years, the increase in population, incomes, and demograph has lead to the increase in the consumption of fish as a result of its nutritional values. Clarias gariepinus is the most cultured fish species in Nigeria and attracts significant economic value making it a species of interest. Fish is capable of habouring ...

  13. Effects of pesticide (Chlorpyrifos Ethyl) on the fingerlings of catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos ethyl on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was evaluated to determine its effect on the survival, body morphology and the lethal concentration (LC50). Following a preliminary bioassay in mg/l concentration which showed 100% mortality, fish were ...

  14. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1882) fry were cultured at three different stocking densities in net hapas (submerged volume 0.75 m3) suspended in an outdoor concrete tank of the Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Catfish fry (mean weight 0.12 ± 0.10 g) were ...

  15. Ife Journal of Science - Vol 7, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review Of Reproduction And Gamete Management In The African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Soil Properties And Pavement Performance In The Nigerian Rainforest: A Case Study Of Shagamu-Benin Road, South-Western Nigeria.

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obomanu, FG. Vol 23, No 1 (2008) - Articles Opercular ventilation and tail beat frequency of manacron-exposed Clarias gariepinus (Burch. 1822) Abstract. ISSN: 0189-8779. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obomanu, FG. Vol 3, No 1 (2010) - Articles Fulton's condition, organ indices and haematological response of catfish hybrid (Heterobranchus longifilis, ♂ x Clarias gariepinus, ♀) to aqueous extracts of leaves of Lepidagathis alopecuroides. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-0507. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 437 ... SO Adeyemi. Vol 4, No 1 (2007), Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus and tilapia zillii in lake alau and monguno hatchery,, Abstract ... Vol 11, No 2 (2014), Lesser known indigenous vegetables as potential natural egg yolk colourant in Laying Chickens, Abstract. SA Bolu ...

  19. Animal Research International - Vol 4, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of hatchery-raised Clarias gariepinus I: fecundity · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Influence of weight grouping on the short term egg production of two strains of layer type chicken · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  20. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  1. FUZZY SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER FOR DOUBLY FED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-31

    Dec 31, 2010 ... against internal and external perturbations, but the FSMC is superior to ... controller, doubly fed induction motor, fuzzy logic control. 1. ... capabilities in accounting for modeling imprecision and bounded disturbances. It ..... To show the effect of the parameters uncertainties, we have simulated the system with.

  2. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  3. Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Datta, Soma; Rajagopal, R.; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-01-01

    We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 μM) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 and interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca 2+ homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest that arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca 2+ levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus. - Highlights: → Altered Ca 2+ homeostasis leads to arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Calpain-2 plays a critical role in the process. → ERK is pro-apoptotic in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involves cross talk between calpain-2 and ERK.

  4. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression construct: Development, nanodelivery and effect on reproduction in air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Pravesh Kumar; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Gireesh-Babu, Pathakota; Kumar, Kundan; Purayil, Suresh Babu Padinhate; Sharma, Rupam

    2017-11-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is responsible for the relocation of cholesterol across mitochondrial membrane in vertebrates and is, therefore, a key factor in regulating the rate and timing of steroidogenesis. In the present study, we developed chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) conjugated StAR gene construct (CNP-pcDNA4-StAR) in a eukaryotic expression vector, pcDNA4/HisMax A. CNPs of 135.4nm diameter, 26.7mV zeta potential and 0.381 polydispersity index were used for conjugation. The loading efficiency (LE) of pcDNA4-StAR construct with CNPs was found to be 86%. After the 24h of intramuscular injection, the CNP-pcDNA4-StAR plasmid could be detected from testis, brain, kidney and muscle tissues of Clarias batrachus. The transcript levels of important reproductive genes viz. cyp11a1, cyp17a1, 3β-hsd, 17β-hsd and cyp19a1 in CNP-pcDNA4-StAR treated group were initially low up to 24h, but significantly increased subsequently up to 120h. In naked pcDNA4-StAR treated group, the mRNA level of 3β-hsd, 17β-hsd and cyp19a1 increased initially up to 24h, while cyp11a1 and cyp17a1 increased up to 48h and then started declining. Similar results were obtained for 11-Ketotestosterone and 17β-estradiol. The results indicate relatively long lasting effects of nano-conjugated construct compared to the construct alone. Furthermore, the histopathology of gonads and liver authenticates its possible role in the gonadal development in fish without any adverse effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: Role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Soma; Ghosh, Debabrata; Saha, Dhira Rani; Bhattacharaya, Shelley; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2009-01-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of chronic low-level arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) of Clarias batrachus and at determining the changes in head kidney macrophage (HKM) activity in response to arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure (30 days) to arsenic (As 2 O 3 , 0.50 μM) led to significant increase in arsenic content in the HK accompanied by reduction in both HKM number and head kidney somatic index (HKSI). Arsenic induced HK hypertrophy, reduction in melano-macrophage population and increased hemosiderin accumulation. Transmission electron microscopy of 30 days exposed HKM revealed prominent endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation and loss in structural integrity of nuclear membrane. Head kidney macrophages from exposed fish demonstrated significant levels of superoxide anions but on infection with Aeromonas hydrophila were unable to clear the intracellular bacteria and died. Exposure-challenge experiments with A. hydrophila revealed that chronic exposure to micromolar concentration of arsenic interfered with the phagocytic potential of HKM, helped in intracellular survival of the ingested bacteria inside the HKM inducing significant HKM cytotoxicity. The immunosuppressive effect of arsenic was further evident from the ability of A. hydrophila to colonize and disseminate efficiently in exposed fish. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay indicated that chronic exposure to arsenic suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory 'IL-1β like' factors from HKM. It is concluded that arsenic even at very low concentration is immunotoxic to fish and the changes observed in HKM may provide a useful early biomarker of low-level xenobiotic exposure

  6. Chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: Role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Soma; Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Saha, Dhira Rani [Microscopy Laboratory, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, Scheme XM, C.I.T. Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata 700 010 (India); Bhattacharaya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)], E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2009-04-09

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of chronic low-level arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) of Clarias batrachus and at determining the changes in head kidney macrophage (HKM) activity in response to arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure (30 days) to arsenic (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.50 {mu}M) led to significant increase in arsenic content in the HK accompanied by reduction in both HKM number and head kidney somatic index (HKSI). Arsenic induced HK hypertrophy, reduction in melano-macrophage population and increased hemosiderin accumulation. Transmission electron microscopy of 30 days exposed HKM revealed prominent endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation and loss in structural integrity of nuclear membrane. Head kidney macrophages from exposed fish demonstrated significant levels of superoxide anions but on infection with Aeromonas hydrophila were unable to clear the intracellular bacteria and died. Exposure-challenge experiments with A. hydrophila revealed that chronic exposure to micromolar concentration of arsenic interfered with the phagocytic potential of HKM, helped in intracellular survival of the ingested bacteria inside the HKM inducing significant HKM cytotoxicity. The immunosuppressive effect of arsenic was further evident from the ability of A. hydrophila to colonize and disseminate efficiently in exposed fish. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay indicated that chronic exposure to arsenic suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory 'IL-1{beta} like' factors from HKM. It is concluded that arsenic even at very low concentration is immunotoxic to fish and the changes observed in HKM may provide a useful early biomarker of low-level xenobiotic exposure.

  7. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahdat Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cm×30 cm×60 cm where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results: The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20 d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  8. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor ... at speeds up to double rated without the magnetic flux reducing is presented. ... Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and ...

  9. Engineering testing requirements in FED/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Nygren, R.E.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Wire, G.; Oppermann, E.; Puigh, R.; Gold, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    The FED/INTOR critical issues activity has addressed three key testing requirements that have the largest impact on the design, operation and cost of FED/INTOR. These are: (1) the total testing time (fluence) during the device lifetime, (2) the minimum number of back-to-back cycles, and (3) the neutron wall load (power density in the first wall/blanket). The testing program activities were structured into three tasks in order to define the benefits, and in some cases, costs and risks of these testing requirements. The three tasks were carried out with wide participation of experts from a number of organizations in the United States. Similar effort was performed by Japan, the European Community and the Soviet Union

  10. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  11. Unique mitochondrial localization of arginase 1 and 2 in hepatocytes of air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus and their differential expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Koner, Debaprasad; Lal, Priyanka; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-07-30

    Arginase (ARG) catalyzes the final step of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) leading to a conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Several isoforms of ARG have been reported in vertebrates, out of which the two predominant isoforms are the cytosolic ARG1 and the mitochondrial ARG2. The air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the active presence of ARG1 and ARG2 isoforms in hepatocytes along with unique localization of both the isoforms inside the mitochondria, and also their specific expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress (5mM NH 4 Cl) in isolated hepatocytes of walking catfish. Initially, full length sequences of both arg1 and arg2 genes were obtained by RACE-PCR. Studies on molecular characterization demonstrated the presence of all the conserved amino acids required for stability and activity of binuclear metal center in both the isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of ARG isoforms showed a differentiation of the ARG1 and ARG2 into two distinct clusters with their respective isoforms from other species. Most interestingly, both the isoforms of ARG in hepatocytes were found to be localized inside the mitochondria as evidenced by the presence of mitochondrial target peptide (mTP) in N-terminal of the derived amino acid sequences, and exclusive localization of ARG activity in the mitochondrial fraction. This was additionally confirmed by Western blot analysis of ARGs in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions, and by immunocytochemical analysis in isolated hepatocytes. Although the possible reasons associated with the presence of both the isoforms of ARGs inside the mitochondria is not clearly understood, perhaps this mitochondrial localization of ARG is functionally advantageous in this catfish for the synthesis of N

  12. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 , with 0.5 MW/m 2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  13. Leucaena leucocephala pod seed protein as an alternate to animal protein in fish feed and evaluation of its role to fight against infection caused by Vibrio harveyi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Kumar, Shiva Raj; Prakash, Om

    2018-05-01

    The laboratory acclimatized Clarias gariepinus (80 ± 10 g) were divided into six groups and five subgroups each containing 10 fish. A fish feed was reconstituted by adding 33% powder of Leucaena leucocephala seed in place of fish trash. Group B, C and E were fed on reconstituted feed and group A, D and F were fed on artificial feed containing animal protein for 7 days prior to start of experiments. Then Group B was challenged with BSA while other groups were challenged with Vibrio harveyi (Group C, D) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Group E, F). Group A was used as negative control (not challenged with antigen). The fish were challenged on weekly intervals till 28th day. Blood was collected from one subgroup of each group on day 7, 14, 21 & 28 and finally sacrificed on day 35. Change in body weight, liver function tests (SGOT, SGPT) and serum ALP levels were monitored. The phagocytic index, percentage phagocytosis and nitric oxide levels were measured in macrophages isolated from spleen and head kidney. The levels of total fish immunoglobulin were also measured following indirect ELISA. The results showed improved immune response in fish fed on 33% L. leucocephala pod seed reconstituted feed; however their specific growth rate was low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal neutral beam heating scenario for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Optimal neutral beam heating scenarios are determined for FED based on a 1/one-half/-D transport analysis. Tradeoffs are examined between neutral beam energy, power, and species mix for positive ion systems. A ramped density startup is found to provide the most economical heating. The resulting plasma power requirements are reduced by 10-30% from a constant density startup. For beam energies between 100 and 200 keV, the power needed to heat the plasma does not decrease significantly as beam energy is increased. This is due to reduced ion heating, more power in the fractional energy components, and rising power supply requirements as beam energy increases

  15. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop...... a model for cultivation behaviour. This model is validated against 13 data sets and demonstrated to explain a significant amount of variation in the data. The multivariate model may directly be used for process monitoring. With this method faults are detected in real time and the responsible measurements...

  16. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  17. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, R O

    1995-09-01

    Minor offshore gas and oil resources located 20-50 km from existing installations may often be commercially exploited only by use of complete sub sea solutions. This thesis deals with analyses of a sub sea adjustable speed electric motor which is fed by a frequency converter via a long cable (up to 50 km) between the converter and the motor. The author develops a general model for analysing such motor drive systems with the objective of verifying the feasibility of specific applications and of specifying the requirements on the system components. The simulation model is used to identify the critical frequency ranges in which the converter must not generate significant harmonics, to verify the start-up strategy chosen, and to verify the stability with potential disturbances applied to the system. Simulation models are developed for both transient and steady state analyses. They are accurate up to 5 kHz and can incorporate the frequency dependency of the motor and cable parameters. Ideal thyristors and diodes are used. The models are implemented in existing simulation tools. Most of the results relate to a base case with a 670 kW squirrel cage motor fed from a 30 km long cable, but cases with 3 MW rating or with 50 km cable have also been analyzed and found to be feasible. Each specific application must be separately studied. Results of simulation calculations are presented and conclusions given. 53 refs., 124 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Cyclin B and Cell division cycle 2 in gonads of diploid and triploid bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyalak Wachirachaikarn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the differential expression of genes associated with reproduction in sterile triploid and normal diploid bighead catfish (Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864. The triploid fish were produced using cold shock and were reared in the same conditions as the diploid counterpart. The histomicrographs showed completely retarded triploid gonads across the samples aged 2–12 mth, whereas the gonads of the diploids were in developing stages during 2–4 mth, reached the early maturing stage at 6 mth, matured at 8 mth and showed signs of atresia at 10–12 mth. In parallel, the full-length cDNAs of cyclin B1 (CmCcnb1; 1539 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF of 1194 bp corresponding to 397 amino acids and cell division cycle 2 (CmCdc2; 1355 bp, an ORF of 909 bp, 302 amino acids of bighead catfish (C. macrocephalus Günther, 1864 were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the newly characterized CmCcnb1 should be regarded as a member of cyclin B1 rather than cyclin B2. The expression level of CmCcnb1 mRNA was limited in different stages of the ovaries and testes of triploids. In diploid ovaries, its expression was significantly higher than that in triploid ovaries in fish aged 2 mth (513.43 ± 82.22 fold and in fish aged 8 mth (2430.87 ± 900.06 fold. The CmCcnb1 level in the testes of diploids was significantly greater than that in triploids in fish aged 2 mth (928.85 ± 208.72 fold. Similarly, expression of CmCdc2 mRNA was also reduced in triploids. Its expression was significantly lower than that in diploid females aged 2 mth (7.66 ± 3.42 fold, 4 mth (59.42 ± 10.50 fold and 8 mth (42.74 ± 8.36 fold. In males, significantly greater expression of CmCdc2 was observed at age 6 mth (58.61 ± 34.64 fold and 8 mth (72.70 ± 4.36 fold diploids compared to triploids. The results illustrated that CmCcnb1 and CmCdc2 are functionally involved in oogenesis and spermatogenesis and reduced

  20. BIOMETRY AND COMPOSITION OF FISH SPECIES IN OWENA RESERVOIR, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAPOHUNDA Olawumi Oluwafunmilola

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of fish species present in Owena reservoir was conducted between October 2004 and March 2005. Fish samples were taken from the catch of the fishermen operating in the reservoir. The results of the survey showed that 14 fish species belonging to seven families were recorded. Two families namely Characidae and Clariidae constituted the dominant fish families in the reservoir. Among the Characidae, Brycinus nurse (23.1% and among the Clariidae family, Clarias gariepinus (22.8% were dominant. Other fish species with significant abundance were Sarotherodon galilaeus (9.3%, Parachanna obscura (8.0%, Clarias anguillaris (7.7% and Oreochromis niloticus (6.4%. The meristic features of the two most abundant fish species caught are as follows: Brycinus nurse had two dorsal spines with eight dorsal fins, two anal spines with eleven anal fins, 25 caudal fins, one pectoral spine and 13 pectoral fins and two ventral spines with seven ventral fins. Clarias gariepinus had 75 dorsal fins, 31 anal fins, 10 caudal fins, six pectoral fins and five ventral fins. The morphometric features of the two most abundant fish species are: Brycinus nurse: total length: 312mm, standard length: 255mm, head length: 60mm, body length: 90mm and body girth: 190mm. Clarias gariepinus: total length: 265mm, standard length: 240mm, head length: 62mm, body length: 62mm and body girth: 130mm.

  1. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty Weaner pigs with an average initial live weight of 6.81 ± 1.0kg were studied for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw bambara waste (BW) using a completely randomized design (CRD). They were fed five diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percentage composition for 5 months ...

  2. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  3. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  4. Efficacy and immunogenicity of live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and formula-fed European infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Prymula, Roman; Schuster, Volker; Tejedor, Juan-C; Cohen, Robert; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Damaso, Silvia; Han, Htay Htay

    2012-05-01

    Rotavirus is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children less than 5 years of age. Potential impact of breast-feeding on the efficacy and immunogenicity of human rotavirus G1P[8] vaccine was examined in this exploratory analysis. Healthy infants (N = 3994) aged 6-14 weeks who received 2 doses of human rotavirus vaccine/placebo according to a 0-1 or 0-2 month schedule were followed for rotavirus gastroenteritis during 2 epidemic seasons. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate (anti-IgA antibody concentration ≥ 20 mIU/mL) and geometric mean concentrations were measured prevaccination and 1-2 months post-dose 2. Vaccine efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was analyzed according to the infants being breast-fed or exclusively formula-fed at the time of vaccination. Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was 85.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.4-88.3) in breast-fed and 89.2% (95% CI: 84.2-93) in exclusively formula-fed infants; geometric mean concentrations in the respective groups were 185.8 U/mL (95% CI: 161.4-213.9) and 231.5 U/mL (95% CI: 185.9-288.2). Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season but fell in breast-fed infants in the second rotavirus season. During the combined 2-year efficacy follow-up period, vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis was 76.2% (95% CI: 68.7-82.1) and 89.8% (95% CI: 77.6-95.9) and against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis 88.4% (95% CI: 81.6-93) and 98.1% (95% CI: 88.2-100) in the breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants, respectively. The difference in immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants was small. Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season. Breast-feeding seemed to reduce slightly the efficacy in the second season.

  5. Bioavailability of cadmium in rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabar, I.; Kostial, K.

    1981-01-01

    Six-week-old female albino rats were fed rat diet or human foods 3 days before and 6 days after a single oral dose of 115 sup(m)Cd. All animals were killed 6 days after administration and the radioactivity in the whole body and in the gut-free carcass was determined in a double scintillation counter. Gut retentions were calculated as the difference: whole body minus carcass. All animals fed meat, bread or milk had much higher body retentions than animals fed rat diet. Our results point out the importance of nutritional factors in metal metabolism and toxicity. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...

  7. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  8. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  9. Protein, energy and phosphorus supplementation of cattle fed low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein, energy and phosphorus supplements, fed ..... The results of this experiment confirm the basic concepts that ... article. The lack of response or even negative reaction to energy supplements under these conditions can be ...

  10. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Slaughter characteristics in three groups of fattening pigs fed in different ways were ... INTRODUCTION. Probiotic preparations are used as food additives ...... Effect of use of Vitaprotein 50 as fish meal substitute in nutrition of.

  11. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.

  12. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  13. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  14. Assessment of the haematological indices of albino rats fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Haematology, jackfruit, bulb, seed, supplementation. INTRODUCTION ... Albokhadaim, 2015) and humans (Lavy,. 1994 .... Table 2: Body weights and daily food intake of control and rats fed jackfruit seed diet (g). Experimental.

  15. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different mixtures of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The experimental diets (starter and finisher diets) were offered to the respective bids with water ad libitum.

  16. An Assessment of the Heavy Metal Content of Cat Fish (Clarias Lazera) obtained from the Lower Niger Basin at Idah, Kogi State using Energy Dispersive X- ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodu, A.E.; Achumu, L. A.; Egwuogu, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Five catfish (Clarias lazera) samples obtained from the Lower Niger River Basin at Idah were subjected to elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive X - ray Fluorescence (EDXR) technique. A voltage of 30KV and current of 1mA was applied to produce a 17.441KeV molybdenum X-ray which was used to irradiate the samples for ten minutes. The analysis was performed using the mini pal 4 version PW 4030 X -ray spectrometer at the Center for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The elemental composition and concentration of seven major and trace elements: Ca, Cr, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, and V were detected in the samples. The major elements are Ca,K and Fe while the trace elements are Cr,Cu, V and Mn. The concentration of Calcium which is the highest range fro 0.370% to 3.110% while the concentration of Copper which is the least range from 46.030pm to 99.859pm. The result shows the presence of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and V which are heavy metals the concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe and Mn in the sample were below World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization(FAO) maximum permissible limit of intake of the various minerals respectively. However the concentration of V found in the sample is above the WHO and FAO maximum limit for Vanadium.

  17. CoQ10 plasmatic levels in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnoni, G; Giuffrè, B; Lista, G; Mosca, F; Marini, A

    2004-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 has been recognized as an important antioxidant factor besides its main role in bioenergetic metabolism. CoQ10 tissue levels depend both on exogenous dietetic intake and on endogenous biosynthesis, as this compound can be partly synthesized in human cells. Q10 plasma levels reflect the tissue content of the coenzyme and can be used to evaluate the presence of this compound in the human organism. Aim of the study was to measure CoQ10 plasmatic levels in a newborn breast-fed population and to compare them to CoQ10 levels in a newborn formula-fed population in order to verify whether changes in CoQ10 plasmatic contents could be related to a different dietetic intakes. We measured CoQ10 plasmatic levels in 25 healthy term neonates with different dietetic intakes: 15 breast-fed and 10 bottle-fed with a common infant formula. These infants were evaluated prospectively during the first month of life. The analyses were performed on the mothers' blood samples and cord blood samples at the time of delivery, then on infants at 4 and 28 days of age. Our results showed markedly reduced Q10 levels in cord blood samples compared to maternal Q10 plasmatic levels at the time of delivery, suggesting placental impermeability towards this molecule or increased fetal utilization during labor and delivery. At 4 days of age Q10 levels had increased in both groups of neonates, but significantly more in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed babies (p <0.05). At 4 weeks of age no significant changes occurred in breast-fed infants, while values increased significantly in formula-fed infants (p <0.05). The content of Q10 in breast milk samples was lower than in infant formula. The results of this study show that CoQ10 plasmatic levels are at least partly influenced by the exogenous dietetic supply.

  18. Microcirculatory effects of zinc on fructose-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, R C; Barros, C M M R; Boa, B C S; Bouskela, E

    2016-04-01

    Fructose is a major dietary component directly related to vascular dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Zinc is considered a non-pharmacological alternative for treating diabetes due to its antioxidant and hyperglycemia-lowering effects in diabetic animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on the microcirculatory parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, whereas control animals were fed drinking water alone. Their microcirculatory function was evaluated using cheek pouch preparation, as well as their blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Their microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator) as well as the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) were noted. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was significantly increased in control animals with high zinc supplementation compared to the groups without zinc supplementation. Zinc was able to protect against plasma leakage induced by I/R in all control and fructose-fed groups, although the microvascular permeability was higher in animals fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution compared to those fed filtered drinking water alone. Our results indicate that dietary zinc supplementation can improve microvascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial-dependent dilatation and reducing the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by I/R in fructose-fed animals. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seffects of hydrogen ion concentration and salinity on the survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the interactions of two environmental parameters, pH and salinity on the survival of juvenile Clarias gariepinus (4 – 12 g) under laboratory conditions. The pH values used were 3, 3.5, 4, 7 and 10 while salinity values varied thus: 0, 5 10 15 and 20 ppt ineach o the pH ...

  20. Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic efficacy of Sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03) and its effects on haematology of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in five different concentrations [0.00 g/L (control), 50.00, 100.00, 150.00 and 200.00 g/L] were determined in two sizes: juvenile (mean length 26.64 cm ± 3.11SD; mean weight 356.21 g ± 12.91SD) ...

  1. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: A 96-hour bioassay was conducted using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian light crude oil sample on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mls of water soluble fractions (WSF) of the oil were added to 1000 litres of de-chlorinated tap water to form 0, 25, 50 , 75 and 100 parts per million ...

  2. Acute Toxicity of Delsate® Herbicide (Glyphosate) On Albumin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some biochemical metabolism [albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] were monitored in the serum of fresh water adult African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to acute concentrations of Delsate herbicide for 96 hours. The concentrations of the toxicant tested were 0.5 mgL-1, 1.0 mgL-1, 1.5 mgL-1, 2.0 mgL-1 and 2.5 ...

  3. Effects of dietary protein levels on length-weight relationships and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial involving different protein levels on length–weight relationships and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus was conducted in floating hapa system. Fingerlings (average weight, 4.50± 0.01g and average length, 8.0±0.2 cm) were randomly stocked at 20 fish/1m3. Five diets with crude protein: 40.0, 42.5, 45.0, 47.5 ...

  4. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of the heavy metal, lead (Pb) on the gill and liver of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. One hundred and sixty (160) fingerlings of the fish were exposed to continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.006 mg/l and 0.008 mg/l) of lead for a period of ...

  5. Histopathological changes in the Brain Tissue of Africa Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty normal post juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) of both sexes with a mean weight of 135.44±1.99 g and mean length of 28.32±0.844 cm were purchased from Osayi farm. They were kept in 60 l aquaria at 27.5±0.4 ◦C, pH 7.3, with 12:12 h photoperiod, well aerated, provided with external filtration ...

  6. Growth and Reproduction of Artificially Fed Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian XU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, fed on an artificial diet were studied. The results showed that the larvae were able to grow and pupate on the artificial diet. The durations of larvae and pupas of C. medinalis on the artificial diet were 28.1 d and 10.1 d, postponed 4.9 d and 1.7 d respectively, compared with those reared with rice leaves. The number of ovipositions was 41.6 per female, 26.2% higher than that fed on rice leaves. Survival rate curve of larvae was a descent function of mortality-age, with no significant differences from the curve of larvae fed on rice leaves. The net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of increase (rm and finite rate of increase (λ of the population fed on diet were 17.6928, 0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively, and the mean generation time (T and double time (td were prolonged 4.9 d and 1.3 d in comparison with the treatment of rice leaves. Population trend index (I was 3.26, indicating a growing number of the population of C. medinalis fed on artificial diet.

  7. Pumpkin seed cake as a fishmeal substitute in fish nutrition: effects on growth performance, morphological traits and fillet colour of two freshwater salmonids and two catfish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiling, Alexander Michael; Schwarz, Christiane; Gierus, Martin; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2018-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the digestibility of pumpkin seed cake (PSC) for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), and effects on performance and product quality traits of four different fish species when PSC partially replaced fishmeal in extruded diets. A digestibility trial was carried out to determine apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) of PSC fed to rainbow trout. In subsequent growth trials, effects on performance and morphological traits and fillet colour values of four different fish species [rainbow trout; brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814); African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822); and wels catfish, Silurus glanis (Linnaeus, 1758)] were evaluated when 60% of fishmeal protein of a reference diet was replaced by PSC protein (based on digestible CP). Nutrient ADC of PSC were high (CP: 89%, EE: 88% and GE: 84%). No significant effects on growth and only minor effects on fillet colour were detected in the trials. However, replacing fishmeal with PSC at the chosen level affected morphological traits and feed conversion in all four species to different extents. Replacement effects of PSC should be tested at lower levels of inclusion before conclusions are drawn on its suitability in fish diets.

  8. Analysis of Microstrip Line Fed Patch Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, theoretical analysis of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator is presented. The proposed antenna shows that the dualband operation depends on gap between parasitic element, split-ring resonator, length and width of microstrip line. It is found that antenna resonates at two distinct resonating modes i.e., 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The antenna shows dual frequency nature with frequency ratio 2.0. The characteristics of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator antenna is compared with other prototype microstrip line fed antennas. Further, the theoretical results are compared with simulated and reported experimental results, they are in close agreement.

  9. FEDS : A Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  10. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  11. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  12. Ultra-Wideband Notched Characteristic Fed by Coplanar Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastanto Hadinegoro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Ultra-Wide Band (UWB notch patch antenna with co-planar waveguide (CPW fed is presented. This antenna only used one layer and the patch antenna is constructed on the first layer and back to back with CPW fed and bottom part is ground plane. The width notch is used to achieve the UWB characteristic. The results shown that the impedance bandwidth is 1130 MHz (1.662–2.792 GHz or about 50.7% for VSWR <2.

  13. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  14. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted eight (8) weeks was carried out to determine the intake and nutrient digestibility by growing Yankasa rams fed graded levels of Tamarindus indica leaves. Twelve Yankasa rams with average liveweight of 17.40kg were randomly allocated to three treatments of four replicates in a Randomized ...

  15. Evolving Microbial Communities in Cellulose-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Toczyłowska-Mamińska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of cellulosic wastes make them attractive source of energy for producing electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. However, electricity production from cellulose requires obligate anaerobes that can degrade cellulose and transfer electrons to the electrode (exoelectrogens, and thus most previous MFC studies have been conducted using two-chamber systems to avoid oxygen contamination of the anode. Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs typically produce higher power densities than aqueous catholyte MFCs and avoid energy input for the cathodic reaction. To better understand the bacterial communities that evolve in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose, we examined the changes in the bacterial consortium in an MFC fed cellulose over time. The most predominant bacteria shown to be capable electron generation was Firmicutes, with the fermenters decomposing cellulose Bacteroidetes. The main genera developed after extended operation of the cellulose-fed MFC were cellulolytic strains, fermenters and electrogens that included: Parabacteroides, Proteiniphilum, Catonella and Clostridium. These results demonstrate that different communities evolve in air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose than the previous two-chamber reactors.

  16. Sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ...

  17. Defense.gov Special Report: Feds Feed Families 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    visit the Capital Area Food Bank. The Corporation for National and Community Service has the United We virtually! Order food online and have it sent to a food bank of your choice. Instructions Campaign Materials Capital Area Food Bank Feeding America Ample Harvest 2013 DoD Feds Feed Families Website . Main Menu Home

  18. Defense.gov Special Report: Feds Feed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    defense for civilian personnel policy. Story Mark McCaffrey Featured at FFF Rally Capital Area Food Bank community. For more information visit the Capital Area Food Bank. The Corporation for National and Community Feds Feed Families Website Capital Area Food Bank What Others Are Doing FFF People, Pets and Paper

  19. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  20. Performance of weaner rabbits fed with varying levels of Tridax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four weaner rabbits (mongrel breed) of both sexes with average weight of 350g were fed formulated diet comprising 0, 15, 30 and 45% Tridax procumbens (TRP). The parameters evaluated were nutrient intake, daily weight gain, feed, conversion ratio, incidences of diarrhoea and mortality. At the end of the study, ...

  1. Growth Performance of Red Sokoto Bucks Fed Inclusion levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance of red Sokoto bucks fed two (2) inclusion levels of rawwater soaked and lime soaked Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds in rice offal based diets. A total of twenty one (21) red Sokoto bucks were randomly allotted into seven treatments with three (3) bucks per group while ...

  2. Feeding behavior in lambs fed diets containing crambe cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Adriane Syperreck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing 30% sorghum silage and 70% crambe cake (30:70 diet, and 70% sorghum silage and 30% crambe cake (70:30 diet under voluntary and controlled consumption. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four animals, four periods, and four treatments; feeding behavior was determined by observation. The results indicated that animals fed the 30:70 diet showed higher DM and NDF (g day-1 than those fed the 70:30 diet. Animals fed the 70:30 diet showed longer feeding times (h kg-1 DM, mastication (min kg-1 DM and min kg-1 NDF, rumination (min day-1 and min kg-1 DM, and the largest number of mericics chewing per bolus; however, a higher feed efficiency (g DM h-1 was observed in the 30:70 diet group. Furthermore, animals feeding voluntarily had higher DM intake and chewed for longer. Therefore, the combined results indicated that crambe cake could be used in the diet of sheep without affecting feeding behavior.

  3. Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage Source Inverter Using Fixed-Band Hysteresis Current Controller Method. ... with the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy; boosting the dc power; inversion of the dc to ac and then synchronization of the inverter output with the utility, and consequently, ...

  4. Zinc deprivation of methanol fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Collins, G.; Bartacek, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of

  5. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  6. Testicular morphometry and sperm reserves of local turkey toms fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometry and sperm reserves of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of three groups (n=5/ group) of sexually active adult local turkey toms fed isocaloric diet with varying levels (12 %, 16 %, 20 %) of protein were studied for sixteen weeks. The weights of the toms before treatment were between 3.5 – 4.5 kg, while ...

  7. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  8. Haemato-biochemistry of Albino rats fed African Kudzu ( Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooked and acid-extracted kudzu seed meals on some nutritional and blood and liver biochemical parameters were investigated. Rats fed cooked kudzu meal had significantly (p<0.01) slower rates of growth than the casein control. Cooking enhanced feed efficiency (FE) but the acid-extracted meal could not ...

  9. Production performance of pigs reared in different systems and fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental material comprised 90 growing-finishing pigs, divided into six groups of 15 animals that were diverse in terms of rearing (with or without free access to outdoor runs) and feeding systems (fed increased metabolizable energy (ME) content diets with or without green alfalfa). Different feeding regimes and ...

  10. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  11. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCB) on calf performance and some blood parameters. Sixteen female Holstein calves with a mean age of 3 ± 1 d were divided into two equal groups and fed a milk replacer supplemented with 3 g of coated calcium butyrate (CCB)/day or with no ...

  12. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  13. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the partial results of a research project that studied the impact of medium voltage PWM ASD (adjustable speed drives) on motor stator insulation system. The findings from this study/ investigation have aided designers to improve the robustness of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors, based on accelerated laboratory tests. (author)

  14. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njb/index and ... for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw ... significant (P<0.05) differences among treatments in feed intake, weight gain, ... Keywords: Growth Performance, Bambara nut wastes, Weaner Pigs and ... waste used in the feeding of pigs (Okeke,.

  15. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...

  16. Digestive efficiency of indigenous and invasive avian species fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and Purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) Turacos and invasive alien Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) met their energy demands when fed fruits of four fleshyfruited invasive alien plant species: Solanum mauritianum, Cinnamomum camphora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba.

  17. Haematology and serum chemistry of finisher broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the haematology and serum chemistry of broiler chickens fed maize-cassava diets supplemented with methionine and inorganic sulphur. A total of 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups of 30 birds making 10 birds per replicate group. Starter and ...

  18. Oligosaccharides in feces of breast- and formula-fed babies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Zoeren, van D.; Lingen, van R.A.; Groot Jebbink, L.J.M.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    So far, little is known on the fate of oligosaccharides in the colon of breast- and formula-fed babies. Using capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE–LIF–MSn), we studied the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of 27 two-month-old breast-,

  19. Oligosaccharides in feces of breast- and formula-fed babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; van Zoeren, Diny; van Lingen, Richard A; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-10-18

    So far, little is known on the fate of oligosaccharides in the colon of breast- and formula-fed babies. Using capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE-LIF-MS(n)), we studied the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of 27 two-month-old breast-, formula- and mixed-fed preterm babies. The interpretation of the complex oligosaccharide profiles was facilitated by beforehand clustering the CE-LIF data points by agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). In the feces of breast-fed babies, characteristic human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) profiles, showing genetic fingerprints known for human milk of secretors and non-secretors, were recognized. Alternatively, advanced degradation and bioconversion of HMOs, resulting in an accumulation of acidic HMOs or HMO bioconversion products was observed. Independent of the prebiotic supplementation of the formula with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) at the level used, similar oligosaccharide profiles of low peak abundance were obtained for formula-fed babies. Feeding influences the presence of diet-related oligosaccharides in baby feces and gastrointestinal adaptation plays an important role herein. Four fecal oligosaccharides, characterized as HexNAc-Hex-Hex, Hex-[Fuc]-HexNAc-Hex, HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-Hex and HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-HexNAc-Hex-Hex, highlighted an active gastrointestinal metabolization of the feeding-related oligosaccharides. Their presence was linked to the gastrointestinal mucus layer and the blood-group determinant oligosaccharides therein, which are characteristic for the host's genotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the ability of a gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis model to predict the performance of two lipid formulations and a conventional tablet containing a poorly soluble drug, cinnarizine, in dogs, both in the fasted and fed state. A self-nano-emulsifying drug de...

  1. Reproductive performance of female goats fed life-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct-fed-microbes (DFM) (life-enzyme) was prepared in a traditional setting using Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria from palm sap) to ferment sawdust. The result revealed an improvement in the nutrient content of the sawdust and its feed values (protein, fibre etc.), and the feed usage efficiency. The reproductive ...

  2. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    The experimental diets formulated were A (0%), B (15%) and C (30%) inclusion levels of the test ingredient. ... experiment, the experimental animals were dewormed with Albendazole at 1ml per. 50kg body weight and fed with the experimental diets. The experimental animals were .... 34th annual conference of the NSAP.

  3. Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed maize stover based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme additive (containing cellulase, xylanase and beta glucanase) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility parameters of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed total mixed ration in the dry season. A total of sixteen (16) WAD goats were ...

  4. Nutrient digestibility and egg production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 20-week feeding trial involving 72 Isa brown-laying birds, in a completely randomized design, evaluated the nutrient digestibility and egg production of layers fed diets containing biodegraded palm kernel meal (PKM) at dietary levels of 20 per cent undegraded and 20, 30 and 40 per cent biodegraded PKM, respectively.

  5. Performance and economy of production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed fermented wild cocoyam corm (FWCC) as a partial replacement for maize. Two hundred and forty (240) Nera black laying birds were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated on 0, 10, 20 and 30% FWCC as graded replacement ...

  6. Choice of compressed air fed system of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Congkui; Lei Zeyong

    2006-01-01

    The selection of compressed air fed system in a uranium mine is discussed. The research indicates that the movable air compressor is better than the fixed one in energy saving, once capital cost and operational cost when it is applied in an underground uranium mine. (authors)

  7. Low serum biotin in Japanese children fed with hydrolysate formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Mimaki, Masakazu

    2016-09-01

    Given that nutritional biotin deficiency in Japanese infants has been reported, a straightforward method for estimating biotin level is needed. The biotin content in infant formula, breast milk, and the sera of infants fed with various types of formula were measured using avidin-binding assay. A commercially available ELISA kit was used for the measurement of biotin in 54 types of formula, including hydrolysate formulas for milk allergy, as well as in breast milk and in the sera of 27 infants fed with these formulas. The biotin content reached the recommended value in only five formulas. All of the hydrolysate formulas and more than half of the special formulas contained biotin biotin was low in infants fed only with the hydrolysate formulas, and one of them had alopecia related to biotin deficiency. While many were asymptomatic, infants fed with formulas lacking biotin are at risk of developing symptomatic disease. The addition of biotin to breast milk substitutes was finally approved in the middle of 2014, however pediatricians in Japan should still be vigilant with regard to nutritional biotin deficiency in infants for the time being. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Semen characteristics of pubertal Yankasa rams fed Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is consumed by humans and has been reported to possess medicinal uses. It possesses androgenic property with significant increase on male reproductive parameters. This study assessed the reproductive performance of Yankasa rams fed diets supplemented with different levels of ginger ...

  9. Performance response and egg qualities of laying birds fed enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theperformance response and egg qualities o laying birds fed enzyme supplemented PKC diets asreplacement for maize was investigated wth 210, 20 week old layng pullets of Dominant Black strain at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria. The birds which ust come into ...

  10. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fed on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) which has been adopted owing to its high dry matter. (DM) yields and palatability (Anindo ... high nutrient yields and therefore high animal output are likely to be achieved. Unfortunately, farm- ers lack specific ..... This consequently led to higher nutrient intake and weight gains.

  11. Nutritive value and biochemical changes in broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis Linn.) is an important oilseed rich in protein but rarely used as livestock feed due to antinutritional factors. Castor seed was detoxified using combined processing techniques of moist heating and fermentation (5 and 7- day) or lye treatment and fed to150 day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks at ...

  12. Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Control Under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lima, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control technique to improve the fault-ride through capability of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). In such generators the appearance of severe voltage sags at the coupling point make rise to high over currents at the rotor/stator windings, something that makes...

  13. Effect of Different Levels of Molasses Fed Through Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses fed through drinking water on growth and economic performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and sixty unsexed day old chicks of Anak strain were used. They were divided into four treatment groups with each group having four replicates of ten birds per ...

  14. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  15. A Current-Fed Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Shen, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a current-fed isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter (CF-IBDC) which has the advantages of wide input voltage range, low input current ripple, low conduction losses, and soft switching over the full operating range. Compared with conventional CF-IBDCs, the voltage spikes...

  16. Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena leucocephala forage. I.V. Nsahlai, B.K. Byebwa, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 111-112). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Antioxidant status and serology of laying pullets fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) eighteen weeks old ISA Brown pullets were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments when egg production was 4% in a completely randomized design. The birds ... Pullets fed mistletoe leaf meal had significantly (p<0.05) lower serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein compared to the control. Serum ...

  18. Performance of rabbits fed Leucaena leucocephala and concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four fryers which were fed the same % of concentrates and Aspilia africana served as the control. Growth rate decreased at the beginning of the study followed by satisfactory growth thereafter. The control animals had a higher growth rate compared to the other two groups (P< 0.05). Alopecia and decreased appetite were ...

  19. Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters; 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1; 3 - Probiotic (Pool based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, Streptococcus lactis and faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Aspergillus oryzae (Pro 2; 4 - Prebiotic based on Phosphorylated Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and Organic Acidifier (OA (Pre 1; 5 - MOS-based prebiotic (Pre 2; 6 - Pro 1 + Pre 1; 7 - Pro 1 + Pre 2; 8 - Pro 2 + Pre 1; 9 - Pro 2 + Pre 2. Higher villus height (VH (p<0.01 were seen in the duodenum of birds fed diets without prebiotics, whereas birds fed Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic and birds fed prebiotic based on MOS and OA showed higher VH (p<0.01 in jejunum and ileum. Greater crypt depths (CD (p<0.01 were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of birds receiving B. subtilis, and in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed diets without prebiotics. Significant interaction (p<0.01 between the evaluated factors was seen for both, VH and CD, in the three intestinal portions. Greater VH was obtained in duodenum, jejunum and ileum with the use of probiotics and prebiotics and greater CD with the use of probiotics, in relation to the control group. There was no difference in villus density (VD between birds fed diets without additives or diets containing probiotics and prebiotics. Nevertheless, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05 between the evaluated factors for VD in the duodenum. Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age.

  20. Vapor-fed bio-hybrid fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Marcus S; Jahnke, Justin P; Mackie, David M

    2017-01-01

    Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions. By bubbling a carrier gas (N 2 ) through a yeast fermentation and then through a direct ethanol FC, we protect the FC anode from the catalyst poisons in the fermentation (which are non-volatile), and also protect the yeast from harmful FC products (notably acetic acid) and from build-up of ethanol. Since vapor-fed direct ethanol FCs at ambient conditions have never been systematically characterized (in contrast to vapor-fed direct methanol FCs), we first assess the effects on output power and conversion efficiency of ethanol concentration, vapor flow rate, and FC voltage. The results fit a continuous stirred-tank reactor model. Over a wide range of ethanol partial pressures (2-8 mmHg), power densities are comparable to those for liquid-fed direct ethanol FCs at the same temperature, with power densities >2 mW/cm 2 obtained. We then demonstrate the continuous operation of a vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC with fermentation for 5 months, with no indication of performance degradation due to poisoning (of either the FC or the fermentation). It is further shown that the system is stable, recovering quickly from disturbances or from interruptions in maintenance. The vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC enables extraction of power from dilute bio-ethanol streams without costly concentration and purification steps. The concept should be scalable to both large and small