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Sample records for clarias gariepinus fed

  1. (Clarias gariepinus

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    Lawrence Ezemonye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Gammalin 20 were investigated in a renewal static bioassay with particular reference to behaviour, survival, and histopathological changes. Early symptoms of gammalin 20 lethal poisoning were, respiratory distress, increased physical activity, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and increased breathing activity. Behavioural response was dose dependent and decreased with decreased concentration. The 96-hour lethal concentration (LC50 value was 30 ppb. Histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestinal tissues of fish treated with sublethal concentration of gammalin 20 for twelve weeks showed gill distortion and fusion of adjacent secondary lamella as a result of hyperplasia and excessive mucus accumulation. The liver showed swelling of hepatocytes with mild necrosis, pyknosis, and vacuolation, while the intestine showed yellow bodies of the lamina propria at the tip of the mucosal fold.

  2. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets

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    Ozório Rodrigo; Van Ginneken Vincent; van den Thillart Guido; Verstegen Martin; Verreth Johan

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  3. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van, CJJM Kees; Thillart, van den, G.; M.W.A. Verstegen; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  4. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

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    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  5. Growth performance and haematological responses of African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

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    H. E. Dienye

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the haematological indices and biochemical enzymes of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was investigated for a period of eight (8 weeks. M. oleifera leaf meal was substituted for fish meal at 0 (control, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in the six different diets. C. gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight 9.17 ± 0.33 g were randomly distributed into concrete tanks at 10 fish/tank in triplicate treatments and were fed twice daily at 8.00 hrs to 9.00 hrs and 17.00 hrs to 18.00 hrs for 8 weeks. The haematological parameters results showed that packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC and haemoglobin (Hb were 21.00 to 32.00%, 1.00 to 3.60 × 106 mm-3 and 7.00 to 920 g/100 ml respectively in the fish in the experiment. These parameters decreased as M. oleifera leaf meal increased in the diet in both stages of the experiment. The white blood cell (WBC and lymphocytes range obtained were 7.20 to 8.02 × 103 mm-3 and 60.00 to 70.00% respectively in the experiment. There was increase in the WBC and lymphocytes as M. oleifera leaf meal increased in the diet. The serum enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, in the fish fed with diet containing 0, 10 and 20% M. oleifera leaf meal were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The ranges 11.30 to 13.20, 19.57 to 27.00 and 46.80 to 59.00 Ul-1 were recorded for ALT, AST and ALP respectively for the six treatments. In conclusion, haematological test reveal that 10% substitution rate of M. oleifera leaf meal in catfish (C. gariepinus diet would not have any adverse effect on the blood and serum enzyme.

  6. Effects of exercise on l-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary l-carnitine and lipid levels

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    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Ginneken, van, A.C.G.; Bessa, R J B; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two l-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected, sixteen fish were induced to a 3-h swim (speed of 1.5 body length (BL)/s), while the other sixteen fish were kept under resting condition. Fish fed 1000 mg l-carnitine accumulated 3.5 and 5 times mor...

  7. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

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    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  8. The effects of two pesticides on Clarias gariepinus

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    Oloruntuyi, O.O.; Mulero, O.; Odukale, B.

    1993-01-01

    Bioassays were carried out to determine the toxicity of two pesticides, Roundup and Gramoxone on Clarias gariepinus. The acute toxicity of both pesticides decreased towards the end of the bioassay period. The calculated safe concentrations for Roundup and Gramoxone are 0.99 ppm - 0.99 ppm and 0.09 ppm - 0.9 ppm respectively. Histological examination revealed that there were pathological changes in the gills and liver even when the fish were subjected to sub-lethal levels

  9. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum leaf and onion (Allium cepa bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

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    OS Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL and onion bulb (OB residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%, OB2 (0.5%, OB3 (1.0%, OB4 (1.5%, OB5 (2.0%, WL6 (0.5%, WL7 (1.0%, WL8 (1.5% and WL9 (2.0%. Fish (mean weight of 1kg were fed twice daily at 3% body weight. Percentage healing and daily healing rate on lateral and caudal parts of the male and female Clarias gariepinus were investigated at 0, 7 and 14 days. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P < 0.05. The results demonstrated that the fish fed with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues showed better performance than the control. Dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus was better on lateral and caudal parts (100%, 14.29; 100%, 14.29 in WL 8 compared to the control (98%, 14.00; 80%, 11.43 respectively. The results obtained showed that the male Clarias gariepinus had better healing compared to the female (100%, 14.29; 82%, 11.71, respectively. Diets with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues had wound healing properties and they could be use in fish farming. Also, the inclusion of 1.5% of walnut leaf residue in fish feed promotes wound healing in Clarias gariepinus.

  10. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

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    Atefeh Sheikhlar; Abd Razk Alimon; Hassan Daud; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diet...

  11. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

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    Rodrigo Ozório; Vincent Van Ginneken; Guido van den Thillart; Martin Verstegen; Johan Verreth

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  12. Histopathological Effects of Gammalin 20 on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Gammalin 20 were investigated in a renewal static bioassay with particular reference to behaviour, survival, and histopathological changes. Early symptoms of gammalin 20 lethal poisoning were, respiratory distress, increased physical activity, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and increased breathing activity. Behavioural response was dose dependent and decreased with decreased concentration. The 96-hour lethal concentration (LC50) value was 30 ppb. Histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestinal tissues of fish treated with sublethal concentration of gammalin 20 for twelve weeks showed gill distortion and fusion of adjacent secondary lamella as a result of hyperplasia and excessive mucus accumulation. The liver showed swelling of hepatocytes with mild necrosis, pyknosis, and vacuolation, while the intestine showed yellow bodies of the lamina propria at the tip of the mucosal fold. environmental monitoring hazardous substances like heavy metals, pesticides

  13. Oxytetracycline resistant bacteria in Clarias gariepinus and Clarias batrachus larvae and the environment

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    Goondi Bharathkumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics and several other chemicals are used in catfish aquaculture as a remedy for various diseases. Reports on the distribution of different groups of bacteria especially the antibiotic resistant bacteria in catfish nursery system are scanty. The present study quantified motile aeromonads, pseudomonads and antibiotic (oxytetracycline resistant bacteria in Clarias gariepinus and C. batrachus larvae and the rearing water from five catfish nurseries of West Bengal, India between March 2007 and July 2007. The C. gariepinus and C. batrachus larvae recorded mean counts of log 7.26±0.18/g and log 6.24±0.64/g, log 6.37±0.41/g and log 4.93±0.51/g, log 5.46±0.22/g and log 4.38±0.53/g and, log 6.27±0.64/g and log 5.57±0.12/g, respectively for total viable bacteria (TVCs, motile aeromonads (MACs, presumptive pseudomonads (PPCs and oxytetracycline resistant bacteria (ARBCs. The levels of TVCs, MACs, PPCs and ARBCs were significantly high in C. gariepinus than in C. batrachus larvae. The rearing water recorded comparatively low bacterial counts than in larvae. The difference between the TVCs of larvae and larval rearing water of C. gariepinus was statistically significant, where as it was insignificant for C. batrachus. The mean proportion of motile aeromonads of C. gariepinus larvae and rearing water was about 4-5 fold higher than in C. batrachus. The catfish nurseries recorded high prevalence of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria ranging from 3.58-35.71% in larval rearing water and 2.05-37.89% in larvae.

  14. Male-specific DNA markers from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

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    Kovács, B; Egedi, S; Bártfai, R; Orbán, L

    2000-01-01

    We searched for sex-specific DNA sequences in the male and female genomes of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) by comparative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays performed on pooled DNA samples. Two sex-linked RAPD markers were identified from the male DNA pool and confirmed on individual samples, showing good agreement with phenotypic sex. Both markers were isolated, cloned and characterized. The first marker (CgaY1) was nearly 2.6 kb long, while the length of second one (CgaY2) was 458 bp. Southern blot analysis with a CgaY1 probe showed strong hybridizing fragments only in males and not in females under stringent conditions, indicating the presence of multiple copies of CgaY1 in the male genome. When tested by zoo blot on the genomes of two closely related species from the Clariidae family, CgaY1 hybridized to the DNA of Heterobranchus longifilis and generated a faint male-specific band at low stringency. CgaY2 produced similar hybridization pattern in both sexes of C. gariepinus, C. macrocephalus and H. longifilis. Specific primers were designed to the sequences and the markers were amplified in multiplex PCR reactions together with a control band common to all individuals. This allowed for rapid, molecular sexing of the species on the basis of a simple three band (male) versus one band (female) pattern. According to our knowledge these are the first sex-specific DNA markers isolated from a siluroid fish species. PMID:11766847

  15. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

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    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  16. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

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    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2001-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  17. Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

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    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,

  18. Essais d'adaptation de production massive de juvéniles de Clarias gariepinus en conditions rurales

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    Micha, JC.; Rukera Tabaro, S.; Ducarme, C.

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive Trials for Intensive Clarias gariepinus fingerling to Rural Conditions. Artificial reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) have been tested under less controlled conditions to adapt the intensive technology used by Aquafarm (Tihange, Belgium) to rural conditions present in developing countries. The main aim was to compare the efficiency of ovaprim a synthesised hormone with catfish pituitary extracts. Fecundity and quality of e...

  19. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

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    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  20. The food and feeding habits of African mud catfish clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) caught from the wild.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayinla, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Food and feedigng habits of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) was studied died using numerical, frequncy of occurrence and volumetric analysis. The three different stages of development of C. gariepinus collected from Olupanna Reservoir in Oyo State of Nigeria were investigated. Phytoplankton was the most important food item of C. gariepinus fingerling, juvenile and adult on the basis of numerical and frequency of occurance methods. Volumetrically insects and insect parts were the most i...

  1. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), fingerlings

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    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar; Mallick Prakash Kumar; Adikesavalu Harresh; Banerjee Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swoll...

  2. Comparative study of hatching rates of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) eggs on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Macharia, S.K.; Ngugi, C.C.; Rasowo, J.

    2005-01-01

    The hatching rates of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) eggs on four natural substrates: the roots of Nile cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), pond weed (Ceratophyllum dermasum) and green grass leaves (Commelina sp.), and four artificial substrates: sisal mats, nylon mats, papyrus mats and kakaban mats, was assessed. Concrete slabs were used as control. The natural substrates performed better than the artificial ones. Pistia roots gave the best mean hatching...

  3. Pengaruh Kombinasi Pakan Alami Dengan Pakan Buatan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Benih Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus)

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    Amanta, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fish hatchery catfish, request of the seeds also increase. Because it has been charged by the availability of seed with the quality and good quality seeding. To increase the growth catfish by doing the provision of a combination of feed. The purpose is to know he did this research the influence of the use of combination feed natural silk worms (Tubifex sp.) with artificial feed flour pellets on the growth of seed catfishes (Clarias gariepinus) that measuring + 3 cm with weights + 0...

  4. On-farm feed resources for catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Laos

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    Phonekhampheng, Oudom

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to collected information African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production systems, and the chemical composition and nutritive value of potentially available feedstuffs. Moreover, the apparent digestibility (AD) of nutrient and amino acids (AA) in raw, sun-dried and ensiled Golden Apple snails (GAS) was evaluated, as well as the potential of GAS to replace fish meal in the diet for growing African catfish fingerlings. The farmers used traditional feedstuffs such as mai...

  5. Relative Importance of Various Predators in Clarias gariepinus Fry Mortality in Cameroon

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    Sulem S.Y.; Brummett, R. E.; WorldFish Center

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the relative importance of the most common predators of Clarias gariepinus fry, increasing levels of protection were afforded to exclude amphibians, aquatic arthropods and birds. At a stocking density of 10 larvae/m▓ in nursing ponds, fencing off amphibians resulted in a 28 per cent decrease in mortality. Holding fry in hapas to protect them from both amphibians and aquatic arthropods decreased mortality by an insignificant 5.7 per cent. Installation of bird-netting over the hapas...

  6. Relative importance of various predators in Clarias gariepinus fry mortality in Cameroon

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    Sulem, S.Y.; Brummett, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the relative importance of the most common predators of Clarias gariepinus fry, increasing levels of protection were afforded to exclude amphibians, aquatic arthropods and birds. At a stocking density of 10 larvae/sq.m. in nursing ponds, fencing off amphibians resulted in a 28 per cent decrease in mortality. Holding fry in hapas to protect them from both amphibians and aquatic arthropods decreased mortality by an insignificant 5.7 per cent. Installation of bird-netting over the...

  7. Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, lysine and lipid supplements

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    Ozorio, E.O.A.; Uktolseja, J.L.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22?7 g/fish), Clarias gariepinus Burchell, juveniles were stocked (sixteen aquaria, twenty-five fish per aquarium) and fed for a maximum of 74 d. Dietary lysine had a clear effect on growth performance and feed conver...

  8. A karyological analysis of the artificial hybridization between Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Heterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes, 1840 (Pisces; Clariidae)

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    Teugels, G.G.; Ozouf-Costazt, C.; Legendre, Marc; Parrent, M.

    1992-01-01

    A karyological analysis of an artificial hybridization (reciprocical crosses) between two African clariid catfish, #Clarias gariepinus$ (Burchell, 1822) and #Heterobranchus longifilis$ Valencienne, 1840, was performed. #C. gariepinus$ has a standard karyotype of 2n = 56, while #H. longifilis$ has 2n = 52. The hybrids revealed an intermediate karyotype (2n = 54), and it appears as if they have totalized the haploid chromosome number of both parental species, excluding gynogenesis or androgenes...

  9. The use of hematology method and blood endoparasite observation for determining catfish (Clarias gariepinus) health in fishery Mangkubumen, Boyolali

    OpenAIRE

    AGUNG BUDIHARJO; NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI; INTAN ESTETIKA ALAMANDA

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to find out the health condition of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) based on hematology and to find out the blood endoparasite type of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) bred in Mangkubumen Boyolali. The sample collection of catfish in this research was conducted in Mangkubumen, Boyolali. The catfish becoming the sample had following criteria: 3 month old, 100-150 gr weight, and 20-25 cm long. The sample of catfish was taked from 5 pools, it was taken 10 fishes from each pool. The ...

  10. Effect of dietary administration of the herbal additive siamweed (Chromolaena odorata) on growth performance and haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle Ayokanmi Dada; Oladoye Francis Sonibare

    2015-01-01

    This work was conducted to study the effect of diets supplemented with different levels of aqueous extract of siamweed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf powder on growth performance, feed utilization and some blood parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings in 2014 at the Federal University of Technology, Nigeria. Fingerlings of about 6.84-6.86 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g) of C. odorata leaf extract powder for eight weeks. The h...

  11. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepin

  12. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  13. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  14. Textile effluent induced genotoxic effects and oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, S O; Bassey, B O; Alimba, C G; Ajani, E K

    2012-09-01

    Human and ecological disorder experienced in industrial settlements as a result of improper disposal of chemicals such as textile effluent calls for careful surveillance on the state of the environment. This study investigated the toxicity of textile effluent discharge using biochemical and cytogenetic responses to ascertain the acute and sub lethal effects on Clarias gariepinus. The 96 h LC50 of C. gariepinus exposed to the textile effluent was 8.203 ml L(-1). Fourteen day exposures to 1, 2, 4 and 6 ml L(-1) doses were conducted and several toxicological endpoints were evaluated. Sub lethal genotoxicity and biochemical study was also carried out for fourteen days. The genotoxicity studies utilized micronucleus test while the biochemical studies quantified serum anti-oxidant status Total Protein (TP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) of the exposed fish. Toxicity factor indicates that the 96 h LC50 was significantly more toxic than the 24 h LC50 (p effluent at the tested concentrations induced micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in the peripheral blood of exposed fish. Micronucleus, notch and binucleated cell formation were significant (p 0.05). The results obtained from this study showed that textile effluent increase cytogenetic damage and altered anti-oxidant status in C. gariepinus. Chemicals in the effluent can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the aquatic organism hence affecting man. PMID:24163963

  15. Lower than expected mercury concentration in piscivorous African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg), stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C), and the diet of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in Lake Awassa, Ethiopia, were studied from January 2003 to February 2004. Values of the δ15N were used as an index of trophic position in four length groups and compared to actual stomach contents. The diet of C. gariepinus within the length range of 201-600 mm L T mainly consisted of the small barb Barbus paludinosus, aquatic insects, and mollusks. The proportion of fish prey in the diet was 60% by volume, irrespective of fish size. The differences in δ15N values of individuals within and between length classes were less than 3 per mille , and were not significantly related to total length, showing the similarity in trophic niche of the different sizes, which corresponded to recorded stomach contents. Mercury concentrations were in the range of 0.002-0.154 mg kg-1 ww, and had no significant relationship to total length. Hence, even large specimens of C. gariepinus have Hg values below the WHO threshold of 0.2 mg kg-1 ww. The slope of the regression line between log [Hg] and δ15N was small, 0.06, indicating the absence of trophic shifts and biomagnification of Hg in larger specimens in our samples. The low Hg concentrations in C. gariepinus compared to the Hg concentrations in other piscivorous fish species in Lake Awassa, such as Barbus intermedius and B. paludinosus, may be due to its dependence on invertebrate preys at small size, diet switching towards low Hg prey fish at larger size, and growth biodilution owing to higher growth rate

  16. Evaluation of Response Patterns in Somatic and Otolith Features of Laboratory- Reared and Wild Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Taofeek A. Babatunde; Azubuike V. Chukwuka

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the responses of somatic and otolith features in Clarias gariepinus under chronic exposure conditions to industrial effluents in the laboratory for 60 days and in the wild for 6 months. Fish were collected upstream and downstream bi-monthly from a river receiving composite mixtures of industrial effluent while laboratory-rearedC. gariepinus were exposed to the same effluent mixtures in 60 days static renewal/bioassay using concentrations of 6.11, 3.05 and 2.2...

  17. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  18. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed. PMID:26725477

  19. The introduction of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 into Brazilian inland waters: a growing threat

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    Gecely Rodrigues Alves Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of the introduced species Clarias gariepinus in lagoa Encantada (Ilhéus, Bahia State was studied. Samples were obtained with gillnets between May 2002 and February 2004. All individuals caught exceeded the average length at first maturity cited in literature. Males and females in maturation stages indicate that the species is already established in the lake.A biologia de Clarias gariepinus, uma espécie introduzida, foi estudada na lagoa Encantada (Ilhéus, Bahia. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de espera, entre maio de 2002 e fevereiro de 2004. Todos os indivíduos capturados estavam acima do tamanho médio de primeira maturação citado na literatura. A ocorrência de machos e fêmeas em estágio de maturação indica que a espécie já está estabelecida na lagoa.

  20. Pengujian Perilaku Predator dan Anti-Predator pada Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Transgenik F3

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati, Putri

    2015-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) transgenic F3 containing Pangasius hypothalmus growth hormone (PhGH) genes can growth twice the average weight of the control population. However, before transgenic African catfish are released and utilized, their genetic impact on the natural environment must be examined. Predator avoidance is one of the major fitness traits determining potential environment risk. To determine the predator avoidance ability and growth performance of transgenic African cat...

  1. A first insight into the barcodes for African diplostomids (Digenea: Diplostomidae): Brain parasites in Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chibwana, F.D.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Georgieva, Simona; Hosea, K.M.; Nkwengulila, G.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, JUL 2013 (2013), s. 62-70. ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 252124 - PARAPOPGENE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tylodelphys spp. * Diplostomum spp. * Clarias gariepinus * Synodontis nigrita * Tanzania * Africa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  2. Evaluation of the haematology and biochemistry of Clarias gariepinus as biomakers of environmental pollution in Tiga dam, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Eneojo Abalaka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the haematological and biochemical changes in Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of environmental pollution in Tiga dam, Nigeria (wild aquatic environment. Water and fishes were sampled twice, a week apart, from the controlled and the wild aquatic environment. There were no significant (p>0.05 differences between the temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen contents of both aquatic environments. Similarly, there were no significant (p>0.05 changes in the haematological parameters of the reared and wild the C. gariepinus except in their white blood cell counts, which were significantly (p<0.05 higher in wild C. gariepinus. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (serum enzymes were significantly (p<0.05 higher in the wild C. gariepinus. However, the concentrations of serum total triglyceride (serum metabolite were significantly (p<0.05 lower in the wild C. gariepinus. The haematological and biochemical alterations in the wild C. gariepinus, which were strongly indicative of cellular damages, might have been a consequence of the toxic pollution of Tiga dam, Nigeria.

  3. Effect of dietary administration of the herbal additive siamweed (Chromolaena odorata on growth performance and haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

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    Adekunle Ayokanmi Dada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to study the effect of diets supplemented with different levels of aqueous extract of siamweed (Chromolaena odorata leaf powder on growth performance, feed utilization and some blood parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus fingerlings in 2014 at the Federal University of Technology, Nigeria. Fingerlings of about 6.84-6.86 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g of C. odorata leaf extract powder for eight weeks. The highest specific growth rate (0.96±1.16 % day–1 and best food conversion ratio (2.87±0.26 were obtained in fish fed 0.5 g 100 g−1C. odorata leaf extract powder diet treatment. There were significant differences in fish carcass protein, lipid or ash content among the treatments (p0.05 but there were greater improvement in the white blood cells of fish fed on dietary C. odorata leaf extract powder compared to the fish fed the control diet. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with C. odorata leaf extract powder improved growth rate, feed utilization, white blood cells and survival of C. gariepinus fingerlings.

  4. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al. PMID:27086300

  5. Ionoregulatory Impairment in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Combined Stressors of Lead and Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowumi O ADEWALE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of aquatic ecosystem with heavy metals and pesticides has increased dramatically over the years, and this has generated a lot of attention by environmental experts. There are reports on impacts of different single toxicants on aquatic organisms but not much has been done to investigate the impacts of mixtures of toxicants on aquatic life. In this study we investigated the effects of multiple stressors of Pb and cypermethrin on ionoregulation in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Adults C. gariepinus were exposed to either borehole water (control, 2 mg/L Pb, 0.5 μg/L cypermetrin or a mixture of 2 mg/L Pb and 0.5 μg/L cypermethrin for 96 h, after which the levels of plasma Na+, Cl- and K+ were determined as a measure of branchial ionoregulatory disturbance. The exposure of C. gariepinus to 0.5 μg/L cypermethrin resulted in a significant reduction in plasma Na+ (43% decrease and Cl- (31% decrease but a 2-fold increase in plasma K+ concentrations. Exposure to a mixture of cypermethrin and Pb resulted in 53% decrease in plasma Na+, 40% decrease in plasma Cl- and a 3- fold increase in plasma K+. There was no significant difference between the control and those exposed to just only 2 mg/L Pb for all the parameters measured. The results of this study indicated that exposure of aquatic organisms to combined stressors of heavy metals pollution as well as pesticide contamination could have a serious effect on the physiology especially on ionic regulation in the exposed fish.

  6. Effect of garlic peel on growth, hematological parameters and disease resistance againstAeromonas hydrophila in African catfishClarias gariepinus(Bloch) fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karthik Thanikachalam; Marimuthu Kasi; Xavier Rathinam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of dietary doses of garlic (Allium sativum L.) peel on the hematological and disease resistance of African catfish [Clarias gariepinus(C. gariepinus) ] fingerlings against the infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogenAeromonas hydrophila.Methods:Powdered garlic peel was incorporated into the diets at (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and1.5%) and fed to catfish fingerlings for20 days. After the feeding trial, biochemical (serum total protein, albumin and globulin), hematological parameters (white blood cells and red blood cells) of the fish were examined. Fish were challenged withAeromona hydrophila (A. hydrophila) after20days of post feeding and percentage mortalities were recorded up to10 days after post challenge.Results: Enhanced serum protein, albumin and globulin in fish fed with all the dosages of garlic peel when compared to control group. Significantly highest red blood cell and white blood cell counts were recorded in garlic peel incorporated diet fed groups compared to control group. The results also demonstrate that low survival rate (55.5±11.0)% in control groups and significantly higher survival rates were recorded in all the garlic peel fed groups after challenging withA. hydrophila. However no significant impact was noticed with regard to body weight gain, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio of fish fed with different levels of garlic peel inclusion and control group.Conclusions:These results indicate that garlic peel enhances the hematological parameters even at a low level(0.5%) incorporation and makesC. gariepinus highly immunopotent and more resistant to infection byA. hydrophila.

  7. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  8. Diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) differ in biomarker responses to the pesticide chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Goh, Yong-Meng; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Lazorchak, James M; Abdullah, Maha; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-07-01

    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus. PMID:26994807

  9. Unregulated aquaculture and invasive alien species: a case study of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus in Vembanad Lake (Ramsar Wetland, Kerala, India

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    K. Krishnakumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Indiscriminate and illegal farming of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus, in central Kerala has now resulted in the escape and spread of the species into Vembanad Lake, a large brackish water wetland and inland fish diversity hotspot. We collected 17 individuals of C. gariepinus ranging in size from 200 to 750 mm from different locations in the southern sector of the lake during a field survey conducted in 2007. Samples comprised of mature specimens of both sexes indicating their reproductive potential in the study area. The possible impacts of spread of C. gariepinus into natural water bodies of Kerala, especially the Vembanad Lake, and options for their management are discussed.

  10. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822, fingerlings

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    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swollen abdomen, anorexia, fin and tail rot, and reddish operculum. The LD50 of E. tarda PBB and PBP strains was found to be 8.52 × 106 and 1.68 × 107 cells fish-1, respectively. Histopathological observations on catfish infected naturally revealed lymphocyte infiltration in muscle and focal necrosis, hyperplasia, edema, and swelling of the gill lamellar epithelium. The kidney of diseased fish exhibited ischemic type tubulopathy, necrosis of nephritic tubules, hyperplastic hematopoietic tissue, rupture of the tubular basement membrane, hydropic dystrophy of nephritic cells, neutrophil infiltration, fibrinoid necrosis of nephretic tubules, hemosiderin deposition, and edema. The liver sections revealed lymphocyte infiltration, dilation of hepatic sinusoids, expansion of space between hepatic sinusoids, and focal necrosis. The inflammatory responses observed in kidney and liver in the present study were presumably suppuration and were attributed to the potential virulence factors of E. tarda.

  11. Characterization of dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were characterized using [3H]spiperone as radioligand. Specific binding of [3H]spiperone to pituitary membranes reached equilibrium within 60 min of incubation. The binding of the radioligand was tissue specific since the amount of binding was linear with pituitary membrane content in the incubations. In addition, pituitary membranes were observed to bind considerably more [3H]spiperone, compared to membrane preparation of various other tissues. Saturation experiments revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity/low capacity binding sites. The binding characteristics, estimated by Scatchard analysis, were: Kd = 3.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-9) M and Bmax = 105 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was displaceable with dopamine and with various specific D2 agonists and antagonists. The nature of displacement curves resembles those observed in studies on mammalian dopamine receptors. Binding experiments with cell fractions, obtained after centrifugation of dispersed pituitary cells over a Percoll density gradient, showed that most [3H]spiperone binding was obtained in an enriched gonadotropic cell fraction. This observation indicates that the receptor characteristics, estimated with the [3H]spiperone assay, are representative for dopamine receptors on the gonadotropic cells

  12. Estrogen-2-hydroxylase in the brain of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity, involved in the biosynthesis of catecholestrogens, was localized in the brain of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, by means of a radiometric assay using [2-3H]estradiol as substrate. Fore- and midbrain were divided in 18, 500-microns thick, transverse sections from which small defined areas were punched out and assayed. The estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity was calculated from the release of tritium during hydroxylation, and expressed in femtomole catecholestradiol.milligram-1 tissue.hour-1. The enzyme could be demonstrated throughout the brain. A high activity (greater than 350 fmol) was observed in the telencephalon, in particularly the rostral part and the area ventralis pars dorsalis; in the diencephalon in the preoptic region, including the magnocellular part of the preoptic nucleus and the rostral part of the anterior periventricular nucleus; and in the area tuberalis, including the nucleus lateralis tuberis, the rostral part of the nucleus anterior tuberis, the caudal part of the nucleus posterior periventricularis, and in the nucleus recessus posterioris. Also a high activity was detected in the mesencephalic tectum opticum and the dorsolateral part of the torus semicircularis. The ventral mesencephalon showed a moderate (200-350 fmol) to low (less than 200 fmol) activity, whereas the lowest activity was found in the hindbrain (118 fmol). The significance of the biosynthesis of catecholestrogens in the brain is discussed in light of the negative feedback mechanism of gonadal steroids on gonadotropin release

  13. Bacterial Flora from Healthy Clarias gariepinus and their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Efuntoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from Clarias gariepinus from 3 farms in Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria was investigated. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of isolates revealed that majority of the bacteria belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also recovered. E. coli strains were highly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline (82.4%. Majority of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to ampicillin (63.6%, amoxycillin (54.5%, nalidixic acid (63.6% and oxytetracycline (72.7%, whereas most of the Salmonella spp. were resistant to erythromycin (85.7%, gentamycin (71.4%, amoxicillin (57.1%, chloramphenicol (57.1% and sulphamethoxazole (57.1%. All isolates were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, novobiocin and ofloxacin. While the presence of potentially pathogenic bacterial species as observed in the study may not present a serious human health hazard because of heat treatment accorded fish before consumption, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains should not be ignored because of the potential for horizontal gene transfer in the food chain.

  14. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

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    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  15. Cytogenotoxicity of Abattoir Effluent in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Using Micronucleus Test

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    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenotoxic potential of abattoir effluent from Bodija, Nigeria, was investigated using micronucleus test in Clarias gariepinus. Fish was exposed to five different concentrations: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.1% of the effluent for 7, 14, and 28 days. Tap water and 0.02 mL/L of benzene were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed in the effluent in accordance with standard methods. After exposure, blood was collected from the treated and control fish and slides were prepared for micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormality evaluation in the peripheral erythrocytes. The effluent induced significant (p<0.05 increase in the frequency of MN in a time dependent manner. Similarly, the frequency of total nuclear abnormalities (blebbing, notch, bud, binucleation, and vacuolation was higher in the exposed fish than the negative control. Electrical conductivity, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, arsenic, and copper analyzed in the effluent may have provoked the observed cytogenetic damage. The findings herein suggest the presence of clastogens and cytotoxins in Bodija abattoir wastewater which are capable of increasing genomic instability in aquatic biota.

  16. Sublethal Effects of Paraquat on Some Plasma Organic Constituents (Metabolic Parameters of African Catfish: Clarias gariepinus (Osteichthys-Clariidae

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    Okenabirhie Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma levels of glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride were determined in Clarias gariepinus exposed to sublethal concentrations of paraquat (0.30 and 0.15 mg L-1. There were significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma glucose (showing hypoglycemia situation, plasma protein and triglyceride with a significant increase (p<0.050 in plasma cholesterol when compared with the control. These changes were directly proportional to the toxicant concentration and the exposure periods thus it is dose dependent and time-dependent.

  17. Comparison of effectiveness of heat and cold shocks applied in the induction of gynogenesis in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, K.K.; Sukumaran, N.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to optimize the procedure of gynogenesis in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus by suppressing meiotic and mitotic cell divisions in fertilized eggs. Gynogensis was conducted by fertilizing normal eggs with UV-irradiated sperm followed by either heat or cold shocking Irradiation of spermatozoa was given for a duration of 1 min and the eggs were fertilized in vitro. Cold shock at a temperature of 3± 1°C for a duration of 30 and 60 min and heat shock at a temperat...

  18. Pengaruh Pemberian EM-4 (Effective Microorganism-4) Pada Pakan Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Kelangsungan Hidup Ikan Lele Sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Banjarnahor, Dwy M

    2016-01-01

    In the cultivation of fish consumption, the most important factors are the growth and survival. Catfish is a freshwater fish consumption is relatifely fast growth. This study was aimed to know the influence of EM-4 in feed to the growth and survival rate of catfish and to determine the amount of effective concentration of EM-4 to the growth and survival rate of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish given 5 % of fish body weight per day. Feeding frequency of three times a day at 08.00,13.00 and...

  19. Culture feasibility of african catfish (Clarias gariepinus Lin.) fry in glass tank and synthetic hapa system using supplemental diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, G. U.; Islam, M. F.; Khan, M.N.A.; Haque, M.M.; Kibria, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with 1 0 days old Clarias gariepinus fry over a period of 42 days to determine the effects of different feeds on growth and survival of African catfish fry in glass tanks. The experiment was designed into four treatments each having three replications. Thus treatment 1 (T1) was named as Tank Tubifex (TT) and treatment 2 (T2) as Tank Sabinco (TS), treatment 3 as Pond Tubifex (PT), and treatment 4 (T4) as Pond Sabinco (PS). Live Tubifex (protein levels 64.48%) was ...

  20. Chromosomal differentiation between populations of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the Göksu Delta and Orontes River (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Arzu; Ergene, Serap

    2011-01-01

    The karyotype of Clarias gariepinus was described by means of G-banding, C-banding, Q-banding, and Ag-NORs (NORs) staining in this study. Samples were collected from 2 regions of Turkey: the Göksu Delta and Orontes River. Although samples from both regions had the same diploid chromosome number and fundamental arm number, (2n = 56, FN = 100), they had remarkable differences in karyotype formula and distribution of rDNA sites, according to silver nitrate staining and G-banding. While the karyo...

  1. Estudo de carcaça do bagre africano (Clarias gariepinus em diferentes categorias de peso Study of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus carcass in different weight categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Pinto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar carcaças de Clarias gariepinus, em três categorias de peso (P1=inferior a 1kg; P2=de 1 a 2kg e P3=superior a 2kg, para analisar o rendimento de carcaça com cabeça (RCC, sem cabeça (RCS, filé (RFI, músculos abdominais (RMA, partes comestíveis (RPC, tronco limpo (RTL, porcentagem de pele (PPE, cabeça (PCA, vísceras (PVI, resíduos totais (PRE e determinar a composição proximal do filé (proteína bruta, umidade, gordura e cinza. Foram utilizados 60 bagres, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 3 tratamentos com 20 repetições, em nível de significância de 5%. O rendimento de filé foi maior para P2 (38,61% que para P1 e P3. O rendimento das partes comestíveis e tronco limpo foram superiores para P2 (RPC=46,27% e RTL=56,67%, mas sem diferirem do P3. O rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça foi maior para P3, não diferindo de P2. O P2 foi inferior para PPE (4,64%, PCA (23,62% e PRE (53,73%, sem diferir de P3, para porcentagem de cabeça e de resíduos totais. Não houve diferença significativa para rendimentos dos músculos abdominais, carcaça com cabeça e vísceras. P2 (2,25% e 77,49% não diferiu do P1 (1,51% e 77,78% e P3 (3,03% e 76,39%, para gordura e umidade, respectivamente, enquanto, para proteína bruta, não houve diferença significativa. Conclui-se que P2 apresentou melhores rendimentos de filetagem, ao passo que a composição proximal do filé, nas três categorias de peso, foi relativamente similar, com aumento de deposição de gordura nos peixes acima de 1kg de peso vivo.The aim of this experiment was to study Clarias gariepinus carcass in three weight categories (P1=below 1kg; P2= 1 to 2kg and P3=over 2kg to analyze yield of carcass with head (YCH, without head (YCW, fillet (YF, abdominal muscles (YAM, eatable parts (YEP, dressed out (YDO and percentages of skin (PSK, head (PHE, viscera (PVI, total residues (PTR; and to determine the proximate composition of fillet (crude

  2. Máximo porcentaje de ensilado químico de pescado en la dieta de clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 - Maximum percent of chemical fish silage in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822, diet.

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    Llanes Iglesias, José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar cinco dietas húmedas con diferentes porcentajes de inclusión (40, 50, 60, 70 y 80 de ensilado químico de pescado, preparado con 2% de ácido sulfúrico 98% (peso/volumen, como única fuente de proteína animal, las que fueron comparadas con un Alimento Comercial (20% de harina de pescado en la alimentación de alevines de Clarias gariepinus. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado durante 60 días. Los resultados mostraron que los indicadores de crecimiento, utilización del alimento y supervivencia no presentaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05 hasta 80% de inclusión de esta materia prima, representando un ahorro de 302,00 USD/ tonelada de pescado producidoAbstractThe objetive of this study was to evaluate five moist diets with graded levels (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 of chemical fish silage prepared with 2% sulfuric acid 98% (weigth/volumen, as a unique animal protein source. They were compared with comercial foods (20% of fish meal, Clarias gariepinus feeding. A completely randomised experimental design was development during 60 days. The results of the indicators such as: growth, feed utilization and suvival rate did not differ significantly (P> 0,05, until 80% chemical fish silage, representing a $ 302,00/ ton saving fish produced

  3. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Hmoud F.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC 50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  4. Effect of peanut powder (Arachis hypogeae L., 1753) on zootechnic parameters and sex inversion in catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Dougnon T; Elie, Montchowui; Messanvi, Gbeassor

    2015-01-01

    Benin is currently experiencing an overexploitation of piscatorial resources; this requires the research of endogenous means to increase the biomass of fish produced thanks to fish farming activities. The present study intends to improve the zootechnic performances and inverse the sex in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Therefore, 240 larvae obtained from artificial reproduction were used for this study. Three different feed were tested. The control feed (TO) was without peanut powder; contrary, the two experimental feeds were containing the powder at the rates of 10% (T1) and 20% (T2). The best growth of 94.51±27.14 g was recorded with the treatment T2 and 71.32±25.58 g from treatment T1 and finally 54.83±22.19 g from the control group. The sex inversion rate varied from 50% in the control group to 66.13% in lot 1 then 80.13% in lot 2. However, survival rates were low and varied from 26.25% for T2, to 30% in TO then 42.5% in T1. This study permitted to get better results about the zootechnic parameters and the sex inversion in Clarias gariepinus at incorporation rates of 10% and 20% of peanut powder "Arachis hypogeae." PMID:26571988

  5. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with [3H]pregnenolone, [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone, [3H]17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, [3H]androstenedione, [14C]11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and [3H]testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin

  6. Immunotoxicological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on Roundup and Stomp herbicides in Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Gihan G. Moustafa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was directed to investigate the immunotoxic and oxidative stress effects of Roundup and Stomp herbicides and their combination on Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 120 fish that randomly divided into four equal groups with three replicates: The first group kept as control, the second group exposed to 1/2 96 h lethal concentration 50 (LC50 of Roundup, the third group exposed to 1/2 96 h LC50 of Stomp, and the fourth one exposed to a combination of Roundup and Stomp at previously-mentioned doses. The experiment was terminated after 15 days; blood samples were obtained at 1st, 8th, and 15th days of treatment where the sera were separated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes. Meanwhile, at 15th day of exposure part of blood was collected from all groups with an anticoagulant for evaluation of phagocytic activity, then the fish were sacrificed, and specimens from the liver of all groups were obtained for histopathological examination. Results: Our results indicated that both herbicides either individually or in combination elucidated significant decrease in phagocytic activity that was highly marked in group exposed to both herbicides. Furthermore, our data elicited an obvious elevation in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Meanwhile, the data depicted reduction in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Histopathological investigation of liver proved the aforementioned results. Conclusion: It could be concluded that either Roundup or Stomp alone cause significant deleterious effects on aquatic vertebrates. However, the use of their combination enhanced their toxic effects. Toxicity can end up in humans through the food chain.

  7. Histopathological alterations, biochemical responses and acetylcholinesterase levels in Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, V F; Ladipo, M K; Aneyo, I A; Adeola, A; Odulele, W Y

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticides, commonly used in large scale farming, have been found to be major contaminants in aquatic environment. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force to evaluate single and joint action toxicity of the organophosphates. Effects of phostoxin and DD force on antioxidant enzymes, fish organs and acetylcholinesterase levels in fingerlings and juveniles of C. gariepinus were also investigated. The lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) for phostoxin and DD Force were 0.631 and 1.759 mg/l, respectively. The results obtained from the bioassay showed that phostoxin was 2.8× more toxic than DD Force after exposure of C. gariepinus. Joint action toxicity evaluations of phostoxin and DD Force showed that the interaction between the chemicals was synergistic (RTU >1). The biochemical responses in the exposed fish differed significantly (P toxicity studies, respiratory stress, erratic swimming and instant death of fish were observed in the exposed fish. This study reveals that changes in histopathology and acetylcholinesterase level are good biomarkers and can be successfully used to detect exposure to organophosphates pesticides in fish. PMID:27121169

  8. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

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    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  9. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  10. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER ACTING SINGLY OR IN JOINT-RATIOS ON CLARIAS GARIEPINUS

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    Aina Olubukola Adeogun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems were the most vulnerable to pollution due to their easy accessibility for disposal of wastewaters leading to deterioration of water quality. Ona river, Ibadan, Nigeria is part of a dense network of inland watercourses emptying into the Lagos lagoon and receives industrial effluents from a food and beverage industry. The single and joint-action toxicity of effluents from these industries mixed in predetermined ratios of 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75% (v/v (food:beverage; 100% (food and 100% (beverage respectively were tested against Clarias gariepinus fingerlings in a series of static bioassay to determine the pollution implications of interacting components of effluents and their effect on fish survival. Physico-chemical parameters of exposure concentrations and effluent samples were analyzed using standard methods. Effluent samples were further analyzed for heavy metals and interactions of composite mixtures were evaluated with models such as the Synergistic Ratio (SR, concentration-addition Relative Toxic Units (RTU and isobologram (pictorial isobole for joint-action evaluations. The 96 h LC50 values were 23.00, 31.00, 71.79 and 33.50% (food while no LC50 value was derived for the 100% beverage effluent. Toxicity evaluation of effluent mixtures revealed decreasing toxicity in the order 75:25% (food: beverage; 50:50% (food: beverage; 100% (food and 25:75% (food: beverage. Effluent samples and exposure concentrations were characterized by acidic pH and low DO (except for control exposures while other effluent physico-chemical analysis revealed that Pb, Cr and Fe concentrations exceeded NESREA and WHO permissible limit for surface waters and protection of the aquatic ecosystem. The SR and isobologram models both depicted the food-beverage mixture of 75:25 and 50:50% as synergistic and the 25:75% mixture as antagonistic. The concentration-addition model depicted all mixture ratios as synergistic. The observed antagonistic

  11. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) leaf and onion (Allium cepa) bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    OS Bello; BO Emikpe; AK Olaifa; FE Olaifa

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL) and onion bulb (OB) residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m) for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%), OB2 (0.5%), OB3 (1.0%), OB4 (1.5%), OB5 (2.0%), WL6 (0.5%), WL7 (1.0%), WL8 (1.5%) and WL9 (2.0%). Fish (mean weight of 1kg) were fe...

  12. Essais d'adaptation de production massive de juvéniles de Clarias gariepinus en conditions rurales

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    Micha, JC.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Trials for Intensive Clarias gariepinus fingerling to Rural Conditions. Artificial reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 have been tested under less controlled conditions to adapt the intensive technology used by Aquafarm (Tihange, Belgium to rural conditions present in developing countries. The main aim was to compare the efficiency of ovaprim a synthesised hormone with catfish pituitary extracts. Fecundity and quality of eggs (egg weight were not significantly different. Incubation results on water hyacinth and on mosquito mesh frames were compared to those obtained in Zoug jars; the latter showed a higher hatching rate (67% than water hyacinth (39% and mosquito mesh frames (44%. Larvae were stocked at different stocking rates in ponds (T1: 800 larvae.m-3 and T2: 1600 larvae. m-3 and in tanks (T3: 3200 larvae.m-3 et T4: 6400 larvae.m-3. After a 50-day nursing period, no significant difference (P> 0.05 was observed for specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate, but better SGR were observed in ponds (18.34%.d-1 than in tanks (16.81%.d-1. In general, production was slightly higher in tanks than in ponds being related to a higher stocking density. Significantly higher harvests were obtained from tanks with higher stocking densities but the sizes of the larvae were very heterogeneous. In such case, it is recommended to grade the larvae at 6 or 7 days intervals using different mesh sizes (from 3 to 5 mm. These less intensive rearing conditions gave nevertheless good fingerling productions.

  13. Morphology of the oropharyngeak cavity and oesophagus of the farmed adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Ikpegbu, E.; Ezeasor, D N; Nlebedum, U. C.; Nwogu, C.; Nnadozie, O.; Agbakwuru, I. O.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of the adult farmed African catfish -Clarias gariepinus a prominent omnivorous cultivable species in Nigeria was investigated. It revealed cornified horny plates lining the buccal surfaces of the lips. The tongue was not free moving, and the oesophagus was a narrow tube connecting the oropharyngeal cavity to the stomach with no valve or constriction separating it from the later. Histologically, the cavity wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium containing eosinophilic ...

  14. Bioaccumulation Pattern of Cadmium and Lead in the Head Capsule and Body Muscle of Clarias gariepinus [Burchell, 1822] Exposed to Paint Emulsion Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    S. O. Dahunsi; S.U. Oranusi; R.O. Ishola

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Sub-lethal concentrations of effluents from a paint emulsion industry were investigated on African catfish Clarias gariepinus in order to determine the bioaccumulation pattern of two heavy metals i.e., Lead and Cadmium in the Head capsule and Body muscle using a renewable static bioassay. The trend of bioconcentration of metals in the head capsule and muscle of the test organisms differs significantly (phead capsule. In the muscle, the highest bioaccumulation of lead was 0.468...

  15. Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of crude oil to the early life stages of the african catfish (clarias gariepinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend), was conducted to evaluate the toxicity on the early life stages of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) under static bioassay conditions. Five concentrations of water soluble fraction (WSF) of the crude oil (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) were constituted in glass aquaria (25 cm 24 cm 10 cm). Twenty laboratory-reared frys were introduced in triplicate in each of the test aquaria and exposure conducted for 96 h. The median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) and the 95% confidence interval was estimated using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. The physicochemical characteristic of the test media was also evaluated. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) at 95% confidence interval was estimated to give 2.84% (upper and lower confidence interval of 3.83% and 2.10%) of the water soluble fraction. There was no marked change in pH of the test media compared to the control. However, the dissolved oxygen content and the conductivity showed a concentration dependent decline in the test media when compared to the control. The frys were observed to be weak and swimming activities were reduced. It can be concluded from the study that the water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend) is toxic to early life stages of C. gariepinus. (author)

  16. Occurrence of Tetracampos ciliotheca and Proteocephalus glanduligerus in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 collected from the Vaal Dam, South Africa

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    Grace Madanire-Moyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are parasitic flatworms that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the liver, muscle, haemocoel, mesentery and brain of various animals as larval stages. To identify the cestodes infecting Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 (sharptooth catfish in the Vaal Dam, a total of 45 host specimens were collected with the aid of gill nets between October 2011, January and April 2012. The fish were sacrificed and examined for cestode parasites. Two adult cestodes, Tetracampos ciliotheca Wedl, 1861 (prevalence 86.7%, mean intensity = 15, n = 45 and Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928 (prevalence 51.1%, mean intensity = 5, n = 45 were found in the intestines of the catfish. Both T. ciliotheca and P. glanduligerus are new locality records. There were statistically insignificant differences in the infection of the male and female C. gariepinu. Fish with standard length ranging from 40 cm – 54 cm (≥ 3 years had the highest prevalence and mean intensity while those ranging from 10 cm – 24 cm (< 1 year had the lowest prevalence and mean intensity for both cestodes. The study highlights the importance of changing feeding habits of C. gariepinus with age on the prevalence and mean intensity of the two gastrointestinal cestode parasites.

  17. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds. PMID:27052872

  18. Evaluation of Response Patterns in Somatic and Otolith Features of Laboratory- Reared and Wild Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Industrial Effluent

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    Aina O. Adeogun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the responses of somatic and otolith features in Clarias gariepinus under chronic exposure conditions to industrial effluents in the laboratory for 60 days and in the wild for 6 months. Fish were collected upstream and downstream bi-monthly from a river receiving composite mixtures of industrial effluent while laboratory-rearedC. gariepinus were exposed to the same effluent mixtures in 60 days static renewal/bioassay using concentrations of 6.11, 3.05 and 2.23%, respectively and control series. A total of 21 variables representing saggital otolith and somatic data from both wild and laboratory fish were subjected to factor analysis. For laboratory reared fish, PC 1 indexed as ‘otolith factor’, PC 2 indexed as ‘condition factor’ and PC 3 indexed as ‘paired fin factor’ accounted for 26.15, 19.01 and 12.55% of the total variance, respectively. For wild fish, otolith factor (PC 1 and condition factor (PC 2 accounted for 38.24 and 22.69% of the variance respectively. The first 3 components and the first 2 components for laboratory and wild fish accounted for more than 50% of total variance in data. Reliability index (Cronbach’s alpha (&alpha>0.70 showed that the ‘otolith factor’ had strong internal consistency and is reliable as a primary and viable index of stress for both laboratory and wild fish. The complementary role of condition factor in stress detection was also highlighted. The emergence of paired features (otolith, pectoral and pelvic fins as sensitive parameters in toxicity responses may be an indication of the onset of asymmetry in these structures.

  19. Pemanfaatan ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis l. sebagai bakterisida terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila yang menginfeksi ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus

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    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this research was to find out the effectiveness of henna leaf extract (Lawsonia inermis L. on A. hydrophila in vitro and its effect on the survival rate of Clarias gariepinus that infected by those bacterias in vivo. The research was conducted at chemistry laboratory of Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Syiah Kuala University and at Microbiology laboratory, Brackishwater aquaculture Department Center, Ujong Batee on Avril to September, 2015. The research involved in vitro test with the inhibition zone as measured parameter and in vivo test with the survival rate value as measured parameter. The treated concentrations were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% of extract. The result of in vitro test showed that henna leaf extract was effective against A. hydrophila with the inhibition zone for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% extract were 5.45; 5.7; 6.5; 7.5; and 9.6 mm, respectively. The result of ANOVA test showed that henna leaf extract has a significant effect on the survival rate of catfish (P<0.05. The best survival rate was obtained at 4% of extract  concentration.   Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila; henna leaf extract; catfish Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis L. terhadap A. hydrophila secara in vitro dan pengaruhnya secara in vivo terhadap kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus yang terinfeksi bakteri ini dengan cara perendaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium kimia, FKIP Unsyiah dan Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Balai Budidaya Perikanan Air Payau (BBAP Ujong Batee pada dari bulan April hingga bulan September 2015. Penelitian ini meliputi uji in vitro dengan parameter uji berupa zona hambat ekstrak terhadap bakteri dan uji in vivo dengan parameter uji berupa nilai kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang pasca perlakuan dengan ekstrak. Konsentrasi perlakuan yang dilakukan adalah 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5%. Hasil uji in vitro menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun

  20. The regulation of gonadotropin release by neurohormones and gonadal steroids in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R. de; Goos, H.J.Th.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropic hormone (GTH) from the pituitary of teleosts is considered to be regulated by neuropeptides and neuroamines of cerebral origin and steroid hormones from the gonads. This paper reviews our studies concerning the control of GTH release in the African catfish, Clarias gari

  1. Some novel features of glutathione transferase from juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus exposed to lindane-contaminated water

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    Yetunde Adedolapo Ojopagogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Catfish are hardy in nature and it is not known whether the presence of efficient detoxication enzymes is partly responsible for this trait. To investigate this, we have assessed induction of glutathione transferase (GST in 10-week-old juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus exposed to graded concentrations of lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, and characterised the purified enzyme from groups having the highest and statistically significant induction. Some of the unique properties observed for the purified enzyme are a high Km (1.72±0.21 mM for the electrophilic model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB and a very low catalytic rate (Vmax=0.130±0.010 units/mg protein. The kcat/Km being 55.4±0.2 M−1 s−1. The enzyme is present in high concentration in the organism, the main isoform accounts for about 5.6% of the total soluble protein, probably to compensate for the observed kinetic imperfection. Since these properties are generally not known for a detoxication enzyme, we suggest that they may form part of the organism׳s own adaptation to its polluted environment.

  2. Acute phenanthrene toxicity to juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Romano, Nicholas; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Simpson, Stuart L; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-05-01

    Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures. PMID:26845363

  3. Effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on histopathology of gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus

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    Hmoud Fares Alkahem Al-Balawi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on the histopathology of the gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus. Results showed that lead accumulation in the tissues of C. gariepinus was dependent on the exposure period and lead concentration. Gills and liver were the predominant storage tissue and the order of accumulation in tissues was gill > liver > kidney > muscle. Some structural changes were observed in different organs, especially in the gills of the fishes exposed to lead acetate. Epithelial hypertrophy and epithelial lifting were apparent in the gills of exposed fishes. The degeneration of cytoplasm and secondary lamellae was also observed. Necrosis of hepatocytes was apparent. Glomerular expansion and gaps between the muscular bundles were found in the fishes exposed to lead acetate.

  4. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  5. Concentration of electrolyte reserves of the juvenile african catfish clarias gariepinus (burchell, 1822) exposed to sublethal concentrations of portland cement powder in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (39.10, 19.55, 9.87 and 0.00 mg/l) of Portland cement powder in solution on the electrolyte reserves (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and inorganic phosphorus) in the serum, liver and kidney of the juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus after a 15 day exposure period. The basic function of the determined electrolyte reserves in the body lies in controlling fluid distribution, intra and extra cellular acidobasic equilibrium, maintaining osmotic pressure of body fluid and normal neuro-muscular irritability. The result revealed significant (P0.05) changes in inorganic phosphorus. Sodium, calcium, chloride and inorganic phosphorus and potassium were significantly (P0.05) different in liver and kidney, respectively. Ipso-facto, the effector organs viz: liver and kidney of teleost species - Clarias gariepinus which are primarily responsible for regulating water and ionic movement between external and internal milieu of fishes are susceptible to deleterious effects of Portland cement powder thus sublethal concentration (39.10 mg/l) of Portland cement powder in solution after a 15 day exposure has been most toxic and debilitating to the test fish. (author)

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of fushi tarazu factor 1 in the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

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    Parikipandla Sridevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1 encodes an orphan nuclear receptor belonging to the nuclear receptor family 5A (NR5A which includes adrenal 4-binding protein or steroidogenic factor-1 (Ad4BP/SF-1 and liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1 and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of aromatases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Present study was aimed to understand the importance of FTZ-F1 in relation to brain aromatase (cyp19a1b during development, recrudescence and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG induction. Initially, we cloned FTZ-F1 from the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus through degenerate primer RT-PCR and RACE. Its sequence analysis revealed high homology with other NR5A1 group members Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1, and also analogous to the spatial expression pattern of the latter. In order to draw functional correlation of cyp19a1b and FTZ-F1, we analyzed the expression pattern of the latter in brain during gonadal ontogeny, which revealed early expression during gonadal differentiation. The tissue distribution both at transcript and protein levels revealed its prominent expression in brain along with liver, kidney and testis. The expression pattern of brain FTZ-F1 during reproductive cycle and after hCG induction, in vivo was analogous to that of cyp19a1b shown in our earlier study indicating its involvement in recrudescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our previous results on cyp19a1b and the present data, it is plausible to implicate potential roles for brain FTZ-F1 in ovarian differentiation and recrudescence process probably through regulation of cyp19a1b in teleosts. Nevertheless, these interactions would require primary coordinated response from ovarian aromatase and its related transcription factors.

  7. LETHAL EFFECTS OF 2,2-DICHLOROVINYL DIMETHYL PHOSPHATE (DDVP ON FINGERLING AND JUVENILE Clarias gariepinus (BURCHELL, 1822

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    Isaac Tunde Omoniyi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the lethal toxicity of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP on African mud catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight 7.02 ± 2.56 g and juveniles (mean weight 13.54 ± 1.46 g in a static renewable bioassay. DDVP, also known as Dichlorvos is an organophosphate pesticide. Each treatment in the lethal test was in triplicates with bioassay media concentrations (fingerlings: 0, 250, 275, 300, 325 µgL-1 and (juveniles: 0, 400, 450, 500, 600 µgL-1. Data on fish mortality as well as the physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity, EC of water were collected and subsequently subjected to a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% probability level. Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT was used to separate differences between means. The median lethal concentration (LC50 and median lethal time (LT50 were determined by probit analysis. The water quality parameters of the treatment tanks showed no significant difference with those of the control except for conductivity and pH. Behavioural responses in the fishes included erratic and uncoordinated swimming which were observed to be more pronounced in the juveniles. Bleached body was the only external change observed and this was more pronounced in the fingerlings. The 96-hr LC50 for fingerlings and juveniles were 275.2 and 492.0 µgL-1 respectively. The LT50 values for fingerlings were 48.10 and 7.77 hrs for concentrations 250 and 325 µgL-1 respectively; while those of juveniles were 25.54 and 5.34 hrs for 400 and 600 µgL-1 respectively. The results indicated that DDVP was 1.79 times more toxic to the fingerlings than the juveniles.

  8. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l-1, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l-1 Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 μg l-1, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 μg l-1). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 194 ± 1.80 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 ± 20.06 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 ± 2.23 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 ± 3.23 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 ± 0.02 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 ± 0.06 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and experimental group 2 (10.00 g). The results showed that the measurement of Cd concentration in water does not necessarily give

  9. Effects of storage conditions on quality characteristics of commercial aquafeeds and growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus

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    Solomon Shola Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of storage conditions on the quality of feed and the aftermath effect of feeding fish with such feeds. Three commercial diets used for this study included Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vital feed®. Feed was stored either by opening the bag to the atmosphere (WO, the bag opened with neck tied using a rubber ring to prevent exposure to the atmosphere (OT or sealed (SC until the start of the feeding trials. The feed was stored under these conditions for six months. Nutrient analyses revealed significant changes in feeds held under the WO condition when compared with other storage conditions. Nutritive changes also varied with commercial feed type. Mould infestation of the feed was noticeable more in the WO condition of storage compared to the SC condition. After feeding C. gariepinus for fifty-six days, lesions were observed on fish fed mouldy feed held under the WO condition, which led to mass mortalities. Growth performance was higher in all fish fed SC stored feed, and for those fed Coppens® and Multifeed® under OT storage conditions. It is advised that storage of fish feeds up to six months should be undertaken with considerable care and attention.

  10. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

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    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  11. Effect of photoperiod on some biological parameters of Clarias gariepinus juvenile

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    Solomon S. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod effect on Growth parameters and cannibalism of Clarias gariepinushave been well documented in resent past, but little is known about the response of other biological parameters such as, Condition factor, Shooters composition, Body colouration and Blood glucose of this important tropical fish species to different photoperiods, therefore the present study was designed to evaluate these responses of the African catfish to 24 hours of light (00D:24L, 24 hours of darkness (24D: 00L and 12 hour light / 12 hours darkness (12D: 12L. The six weeks experiment observed significant differences (P0.05 at the end of the experiment and were Significantly lower than value obtained at the start of the experiment, Shooters composition was highest in 00D:24L (41.5% i.e. 27 of 65 leading to high mortality (13.33% due to cannibalism compared to 12D: 12L (Shooters =15.27% i.e. 11 of 72, Mortality= 4% and 24D: 00L (Shooters=5.33% i.e. 4 of 75, Mortality= 0% photoperiod. More so, 93.33% (70 of 75 of fish in the dark phase (24D: 00Lexhibited Deep shiny black body colouration, while 6.67% (5 of 75 was observed of Normal fish colouration. However the fishes in the 00D: 24L photoperiod were observed to be predominantly Lighter skin colouration, (80% i.e. 52 of 65= lighter colouration, 18.46% i.e. 12 of 65= Normal skin coloration and 1.53 i.e. 1 of 65= Deep black body colouration while 12D: 12L were of Normal skin colouration (100% Normal skin colouration, also blood glucose was observed to increase as the light hours increased (P<0.05 with 24D: 00L photoperiod having the highest blood glucose level of 5.7+0.5, while those in 12D: 12L had 4.4+0.3 and 24D: 00L had the least value of 3.9+0.1. This study therefore establishes the fact that photoperiod may have no effect on the condition factor of African catfish, while higher shooters composition is highlighted as one of the causes of increased mortality and could be reduced to a large extent with reduced light

  12. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus: differences between day and night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, R; Boerrigter, J G J; Cloosterman, M; Gorissen, M; Flik, G; van den Bos, R; van de Vis, H

    2016-06-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1 lx) or 12L:12D (350-0 lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a stressor (given in the light or dark phase). Results showed that (1) baseline plasma cortisol levels were not different between photoperiods, (2) the number of baseline skin lesions was highest for C. gariepinus housed under continuous dim light, (3) stressor-induced peak levels of plasma cortisol were highest in the light phase and (4) the number of skin lesions following a stressor was highest in the dark phase. The higher number of stressor-related skin lesions in the dark (active) phase suggests increased stressor-induced aggression while in the active phase. In addition, the data suggest that housing under continuous dim light does not result in higher stress-axis activity, as measured by baseline levels of cortisol, but does result in more stressor-induced aggression, as measured by the higher number of skin lesions. The latter may be related to the fact that the continuous dim light photoperiod has twice the number of dark-phase (active) hours in which stressor-induced aggression is stronger compared to the 12L:12D photoperiod, which has a light phase in which stressor-induced aggression is lower. PMID:27125325

  13. Steatitis in wild sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Olifants and lower Letaba Rivers in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Govender, D; Pienaar, D J; Deacon, A R

    2011-07-01

    Large numbers of adult Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti), died from pansteatitis during autumn and winter 2008 in the lower Letaba and Olifants River gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Consequently, the health status of fish from these waters was investigated. The study presents the pathological findings in fish inhabiting these rivers within the boundaries of the Park. Changes typical of steatitis were diagnosed in many of the larger specimens of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), caught within the Olifants River gorge. These fish carried large amounts of mesenteric fat with characteristic small brown granulomata within the adipose tissue. Necrosis and inflammation of the adipose tissues, with characteristic ceroid accumulation within the resultant granulomata and the associated aggregation of ceroid-containing macrophages, were demonstrated histologically and were typical of steatitis. Other changes included mild thickening and pallor of the gill tissues and swollen, orange, fatty livers. Focal hepatic lipidosis was demonstrated histologically, and special stains revealed storage of large amounts of iron in the livers. Blood smears revealed chromatin clumping in erythrocyte nuclei and nuclear and cell membrane irregularities. This is the first record of steatitis in wild-caught C. gariepinus. PMID:21675995

  14. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  15. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the histopathological impact of Macrogyrodactylus clarii (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on the gills of catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mohammed Mohammed; Cable, Joanne; Zaky Arafa, Safaa; El-Abbassy, Samir Ahmed; Kearn, Graham C

    2016-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the histopathological effects of the monogenean Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev, 1961 on the gills of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Suction generated during attachment created 'footprints' on host surfaces in which the host tissues were elevated above the general gill surface. 'Footprints' were bordered by four clefts caused by the muscular flaps on the anterior, lateral and posterior margins of the haptor. The hamuli points penetrate the gill tissue but no evidence was found for the insertion of the marginal hooklets. At the site of attachment, host cells adjacent to the lateral flaps often appeared compressed and widely spaced with large intercellular spaces. Desquamation of these surface epithelia was also apparent and some of the widely spaced epithelial cells had pseudopodium-like processes. Cells within the upper surface epithelial layer of the host were vacuolated and necrotic. Ruptured blood capillaries (blood spaces) in the secondary gill lamellae contained atypical compressed erythrocytes, agranular and granular leucocytes and evidence of haemorrhaging. Cells with fibrotic cytoplasm, putative phagocytes and host mucous cells were evidence of a host response at the site of parasite attachment. The possible role of these cells is discussed in relation to host resistance against infection. PMID:27311695

  16. Bioaccumulation Pattern of Cadmium and Lead in the Head Capsule and Body Muscle of Clarias gariepinus [Burchell, 1822] Exposed to Paint Emulsion Effluent

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    S.O. Dahunsi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Sub-lethal concentrations of effluents from a paint emulsion industry were investigated on African catfish Clarias gariepinus in order to determine the bioaccumulation pattern of two heavy metals i.e., Lead and Cadmium in the Head capsule and Body muscle using a renewable static bioassay. The trend of bioconcentration of metals in the head capsule and muscle of the test organisms differs significantly (phead capsule. In the muscle, the highest bioaccumulation of lead was 0.4680 mg/L while the least was 0.0660 mg/L. Cadmium bioaccumulation in the head had the highest value to be 2.0424 mg/L while the lowest value was 0.0101 mg/L. In the head capsule on the other hand, the highest accumulation of lead was found to be 0.3918 mg/L while its lowest value was 0.1677 mg/L. The highest value for cadmium in the head capsule was 2.0249 mg/L while its lowest was 0.0058 mg/L. It was revealed in the study that fish can bioaccumulate heavy metals from a polluted environment, which often result in reduction or impairment of natural population size and could be a veritable source of these metals to man. Therefore corrective measures should be taken to avoid pollution of this sort in the environment.

  17. Effect of some pulverised plant materials on the developmental stages of fish beetle, Dermestes maculatus Degeer in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasakin, E A; Aberejo, B A

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of pulverised plant materials; Tithonium diversifolia, Afromomum melegueta, Nicotiana tabacum, Monodora myristica and Piper guineense as ovicidal, larvicidal and adult deterents of fish beetle (Dermestes maculatus) in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage were evaluated. Leaves of T. diversifolia, N. tabacum and seeds of A. melegueta, M. myristica and P. guineese were dried and pulverised into powder. Adults and larvae of third generation (F3) of D. maculatus were introduced into Kilner jars containing disinfested fish samples. Pulverised plant materials were applied to the surface of the fish samples at 10% (w/w) and monitored for 40 days, while egg hatchability of the insects was monitored for seven days. The result showed that all the plant materials had varying degree of insecticidal activities. Pulverised powder of P. guineense and A. melegueta were the most effective and significantly (P 0.05) affected by the plant materials. The percentage weight loss in fish treated with P. guineense and A. melegueta were minimal compared with the untreated fish sample. The result of this study showed that pulverised plant materials obtained from P. guineense and A. melegueta could be used to deter egg hatchability and adult emergence of D. maculatus in smoked catfish during storage. This could also reduce percentage losses due to insect infestation on smoked fish during storage. PMID:12227542

  18. Comparative assessment of sodium edta and heparin as anticoagulants for the evaluation of haematological parameters in cultured and feral african catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Olanike Kudirat Adeyemo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of anticoagulants on haematological parameters in thirty (30 feral (wild and thirty (30 pond cultured African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. The anticoagulants used in this study were lithium heparin and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. Red blood cell (RBC count, packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, total white blood cell (WBC count and differential count were determined. No significant differences (p >0.05 were observed in the total RBC, WBC and MCHC values in the feral and pond cultured fish. In the pond cultured African catfish, the neutrophil values were significantly higher (p =0.001 than those of the feral African catfish irrespective of the anticoagulant used. The values for PCV, Hb, lymphocytes, eosinophils, MCV and MCHC of the feral African catfish were significantly higher (p <0.05 than those of the pond cultured African catfish irrespective of the anticoagulant used. The monocyte value for the feral fish was significantly higher (p =0.041 when EDTA was used as the anticoagulant. This study therefore concludes that both anticoagulants could be used for haematological evaluation of fish blood. Also, the habitat and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration when analyzing blood samples in fish.

  19. Sewage impact on metal accumulation in sediments and fish (Clarias gariepinus from the University of Cape Coast community and its environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfo D.K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to measure the concentration levels of the heavy metals As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Hg upon samples of mudfish(Clarias gariepinus and sediments in wastewater discharge from the University of Cape Coast community and environs. This measurement was done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The average concentration of elements (in mg/kg in the fish samples, in decreasing order of magnitude were: Fe (130.63 > Cu (3.77 > Cr(0.16 > Co(0.04 and Fe(209.67 > Cu(2.74 > Cr(0.57 > Co(0.09 from piont A and point B respectively. Arsenic and Hg concentrations were below detection limits of INAA in samples from both point A and point B. The chronic daily intake (CDI obtained for each of the metals in the fish sample shows that the population is not prone to adverse health effects (i.e CDI>>1 due to the concentrations of the metals. From the sediments, Fe recorded the highest concentration of 9808 mg/kg whilst Hg was below the detection limits of INAA. The metals As, Cu, Cr and Co recorded concentrations in mg/kg of 2.04, 4.82, 0.21 and 3.73 respectively in the sediments.

  20. Protective potency of clove oil and its transcriptional down-regulation of Aeromonas sobria virulence genes in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hamid, M I; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Ali, H A

    2016-01-01

    Disease episodes of fish caused by Aeromonas species are moved to the top list of limiting problems worldwide. The present study was planned to verify the in vitro antibacterial activities as well as the in vivo potential values of clove oil and ciprofloxacin against Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The in vitro phenotypic virulence activities and the successful amplification of aerolysin and hemolysin genes in the precisely identified A. sobria strain were predictive for its virulence. In the in vivo assay, virulence of A. sobria strain was fully demonstrated based on constituent mRNA expression profile of tested virulence genes and typical septicemia associated with high mortalities of infected fish. Apparent lower mortality rates were correlated well with both decrescent bacterial burden and significant down-regulated transcripts of representative genes in the treated groups with clove oil, followed by ciprofloxacin as a prophylactic use for 15 days (P oil apart from ciprofloxacin significantly enhanced different hematological parameters (P medicinal plants-derived essential oils provide a virtually safer alternative to chemotherapeutics on fish, consumers and ecosystems. PMID:27609474

  1. Determining the safety and suitability of fluorescein dye for characterization of skin ulcerations in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify the presence of lesions in fish skin as soon as they erupt. Fish skin lesions are either macroscopic (can be visualized by the naked eye or microscopic (difficult to detect with the naked eye. Skin wounds resulting in loss of the epithelium (superficial or deep ulcers are serious as they may interfere with osmoregulation and open portals for opportunistic pathogens. Herein, we report on the use of a fluorescein dye for the detection of skin ulcers that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Due to their importance in aquaculture endeavors in Egypt, this study focused on two indigenous species, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the scale-less African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Fluorescein dye was tested for safety to fish without interfering with microbiological analysis. Parallel to the use of the flourescein dye, the detected ulcers were examined for the presence of bacteria or tissue alterations. Further, we experimentally induced the formation of skin ulcers in O. niloticus physically or by injecting Aeromons hydrophila, and then assessed the utility of fluorescein dye in detecting the induced skin lesions. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that fluorescein dye application is harmless to Nile tilapia at concentrations up to 0.5 mg fluorescein/ml water for up to 15 min. Indeed, a low dose of fluorescein (0.10 mg/ml for 5 min could identify very minute skin abrasions. We highly recommend the use of fluorescein dye for the evaluation of skin health in farmed fish species and the visualization of minute skin abrasions.

  2. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  3. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  4. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larvae of this species. In a second experiment, the gut contents of the fish larvae fed were calculated as they changed during development. In a third experiment, the gut evacuation rate of fish larvae ...

  5. Scanning electron microscope observations on the monogenean parasite Paraquadriacanthus nasalis from the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt with a note on some surface features of its microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Safaa Zaky

    2012-05-01

    Surface features of the monogenean Paraquadriacanthus nasalis Ergens, 1988 (quoted by Kritsky, 1990) inhabiting the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus were studied for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The anterior adhesive areas possess two slit-like openings. Many small openings were detected on the tegument covering the anterior-most region of the head. Some considerably large openings were also found in the median region between the two slit-like openings of the adhesive sacs. A transverse slit-like mouth opening with two lip-like structures was detected on the ventral surface of the body. Three types of presumed sensory structures were found associated with the tegument of the anterior adhesive area and anterior region of the body. These are surface ciliary sensilla, dome-shaped structures, and many spherical structures. The possible functions of these presumed sensory structures were discussed. The tegument covering the anterior adhesive area lacks microvilli, while the tegument covering the haptor is associated with microvilli. The haptoral sclerites were found in two different positions. Some surface features of the nasal cavities of C. gariepinus (microhabitat of P. nasalis) were also studied using scanning electron microscopy. Many lamellae-like and spine-like structures were recognized. The epithelium lining in some regions of the nasal cavities has small and large openings and covered with mucus. The possible roles of some haptoral sclerites in the attachment of the parasite to the host tissues were discussed. PMID:22015385

  6. Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D

    2013-11-01

    Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed. PMID:23634747

  7. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  8. Determination of some heavy metals in oreochromis niloticus, clarias gariepinus and synodontis spp from the coastal water of Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Mn, and Cr) were determined in Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias graiepinus and Synodontis spp obtained from the coastal water of Ondo State. All metals examined and detected in all fish samples. Iron, manganese and cadmium were found to be the most abundant metals in the fish samples with an average values of 35.8, 31.3, and 12.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Except for manganese, iron and cadmium, Syndrontis spp has the highest concentration for virtually all the metals under examination. (author)

  9. Use of hematological parameters to assess the efficiency of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf extract in alleviation of the effect of ultraviolet--A radiation on African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alaa G M; Koutb, Mostafa; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the negative impacts of UVA on some biochemical and hematological variables of the economically important African catfish, Clarias gariepinus and investigates the putative role of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf extract in protection and/or alleviation of such negative impacts. Changes in the hematological and blood biochemical values often reflect alteration of physiological state. Blood parameters can be useful for the measurement of physiological disturbances in stressed fish and thus provide information about the level of damage in the fish. We found a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the groups exposed to UVA compared to the control groups. Exposure to UVA induced marked red cell shrinkage (increased mean cell hemoglobin concentration) and showed an elevation in mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin in the blood of the exposed fish compared to the control. A significant (P<0.05) reduction in the total white blood cells was recorded in the exposed fish compared to the control. The biochemical parameters (blood glucose, total plasma protein, blood cholesterol, plasma creatinine, aspartic amino transferase and alanine amino transferase) exhibited a significant increase in the blood of fish exposed to UVA. Methanolic extract of quince leaf before ripening of the fruits was analyzed by GC/MS. To investigate the biological impact of this extract and its biologically active components, this extract was tested for its putative role in alleviation of UVA effect on catfish. Quince leaf extract had the ability to prevent hematotoxic stress induced by UVA and resulted in enhancement of the immune system of catfish represented by significant (P<0.05) increase in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes of the catfish. Quince extract also protected the red blood cells from UVA damage. To our knowledge this is the first report of the effect of quince leaf extract on

  10. Pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus pada konsentrasi tepung daun jaloh (Salix tetrasperma Roxb yang berbeda dalam pakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Dara Dewi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi kemungkinan pemanfaatan tepung daun jaloh (S. tetrasperma sebagai bahan baku alternatif untuk pakan ikan lele(C. gariepinus. Dalam penelitian ini telah diuji beberapa tingkat proporsi tepung daun jaloh yaitu (0%, 5%, 10%, dan 15% .Pemberian pakan dilakukan tiga kali sehari, yaitu pada pukul 08.00, 12.00 dan 17.00 WIB,sebanyak5%dari berat bobot tubuhnyaselama 35 hari. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa pemberian tepung daun jaloh memberikan pengaruh nyata (P0,05. Uji lanjut Duncan’s menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan kontrol (tanpa daun jaloh dalam pakan memberikan hasil terbaik dari segi pertumbuhan mutlak, pertumbuhan harian dan kelangsungan hidup. Oleh karena itu dapat disimpulkan tepung daun jaloh kurang sesuai sebagai bahan baku alternatif dalam pakan ikan lele dumbo.

  11. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet. PMID:26886132

  12. The Effects of Two Chemo-attractants and Different First Feeds on the Growth Performances of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822) at Different Larval Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Erdal

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 4 days old African catfish larvae were fed with trout starter diet, minced beef liver and fresh water mussel, dried tubifex, DL-alanine and betaine supplemented trout starter, artemia nauplii and a combined diet consisting of boiled chicken egg yolk, minced mussel and dried tubifex as the first feed after yolk absorption for a week. At the end of the first period, it was observed that DL-alanine and betaine supplementation did not improve the larval growth and survival compared...

  13. Rearing of catfish (Clarias batrachus Lin.) larvae with live and prepared feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin, A.; Mollah, M.F.A; Haylor, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    Provision or live feed (Tubificid worms) attributed significantly better weight gain in the five days old Clarias batrachus larvae when reared for another 28 days compared to those fed mixed feed (live and artificial) and artificial feed only. Larvae fed mixed feed showed significantly better weight gain compared to those fed only artificial feed and the survival rate was similar to those fed only live feed. Both the weight gain and survival rate were the lowest for the larvae reared only on ...

  14. Monoclonal antibody to serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus and its application in immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Singh, Akhilesh; Rathore, Gaurav

    2012-12-15

    Serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus (Cb-Ig) were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. Under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, Cb-Ig was composed of a heavy (H) chain (68.7 kDa) and two light (L) chains (27.4 and 26.3 kDa). Purified Cb-Ig was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated E4 MAb that belonged to IgG1 subclass. In Western blotting, this MAb showed binding to H chain of purified Cb-Ig and putative H chains in reduced sera of C. batrachus, Clarias gariepinus and Heteropneustes fossilis. However, no binding was observed with serum protein of Labeo rohita and Channa striata. Cross-reactivity of anti-Cb-Ig MAb was observed with serum of C. batrachus, C. gariepinus and H. fossilis in competitive ELISA. In immunoblotting of non-reduced Cb-Ig with E4 MAb, four bands assumed to be tetrameric, trimeric, dimeric and monomeric form were observed. In flow cytometric analysis of the gated lymphocytes, the number of surface Ig-positive (Ig+) cells in blood, spleen, kidney and thymus of C. batrachus was determined to be 50.1 ± 3.1, 55.1 ± 3.36, 42.4 ± 4.81 and 5.1 ± 0.89%, respectively, using E4 MAb. Ig+ cells were also demonstrated in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of spleen, kidney, thymus and smears of blood mononuclear cells in indirect immunoperoxidase test. The developed MAb was employed to detect pathogen-specific immunoglobulins in the sera of C. batrachus immunized with killed Edwardsiella tarda, by an indirect ELISA. This monoclonal antibody can be useful tool in immunological research and assays. PMID:23000018

  15. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation to...... enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  16. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  17. Deteksi Penyebaran Bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophilla Pada Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus) Di Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan

    OpenAIRE

    hidayat, rahmad

    2015-01-01

    Catfish has several advantages, some of them are the rapid growth, the ability to adapt in high environmental, and the nutritional content is high. Nowdays, most of the African catfish aquaculture activities conducted using intensive farming systems. One of significant factor for the success of catfish farming is pests and diseases that exist in catfish farming. Disease problems are usually a major obstacle because it can harm the cultivation such as total mortality, a decrease in production ...

  18. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

    OpenAIRE

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so the oxygen concentration in the water is no strongly limiting factor, which facilitates high density culture.To provide the basis for a production programme of any species the various phases of its culture proce...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of streptomycin sulfate in Staphylococcus aureus-infected Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Oladele

    2014-01-01

    Possible systemic therapeutic value is suggested, depending on increased distribution of streptomycin and levels of streptomycin in kidneys of diseased fish at corresponding times being higher than in sera.

  20. Inherent variation in growth efficiency of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the major causes of growth variation is crucial for the success of fish farming since its reduction contributes to maximize production efficiency, reduce food waste and improve water quality. The growth variation observed in aquaculture has been associated with the establishment of soc

  1. Morpho-histochemistry of the distal intestines and rectum of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpegbu Ekele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the farmed African catfish distal intestines and rectum was investigated. The samples were dissected out and the tissue slices were passed through graded ethanol, cleared in xylene, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned and stained for light microscopy. Grossly, the intestine was subdivided into proximal, middle, distal and rectal regions based on palpable thickness and diameter of the regions. No intestino-rectal valve was observed; hence the rectum was not well defined. The histology revealed the presence of tunica mucosa of simple columnar cells, lamina propria of collagen fibres and muscularis mucosae of smooth muscle fibres; submucosa of loose connective tissues and blood vessels; tunica muscularis of smooth muscles in an inner circular and outer longitudinal arrangement; and a serosa in all regions except the rectum and anus that presented tunica adventitia. The mucosal folds were fingerlike to orange leaf shaped ingrowths into the lumen on a transverse section. They decreased in complexity and height but increased in width towards the rectum. The lining epithelium of the intestinal tract was comprised of the absorptive simple columnar cells containing goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Some rectal simple columnar epithelium contained supranuclear vacuoles while others contained non-vacuolated cytoplasm. The goblet cells contained neutral and acid mucins, and increased in number progressively towards the rectum. The anal tunica muscularis contained mostly skeletal muscles.

  2. Preliminary study on the natural extenders for artificial breeding of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nor Siti-Azizah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the most suitable extender and theirrespective dilution ratios for African catfish sperm for artificial induced breeding and cryopreservationpurposes. Three natural extenders were tested i.e. coconut water, sugarcane water and soybeansolutions, at three different levels of sperm to extender dilutions of 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. While Ringersolution was used as a control Diluted sperm were fertilized with ready isolated eggs to assess thefertility and hatching rate at 0, 6 and 12 hour intervals. The results showed that the eggs hatchedapproximately 19 to 27 hours after fertilization. In general, the fertilization and hatching rates decreasedwith increasing dilution ratio. With respect to natural extenders, the coconut water showed the highestfertility and hatching rates at 1:20 dilution ratio. Therefore, coconut water at 1:20 dilution ratio was theoptimal condition for African catfish spermatozoa among the natural extenders investigated.

  3. Dietary L-carnitine and energy and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.

    2001-01-01

    As the lipid content of the diet increases so does the requirement for certain components involved in lipid metabolism. Carnitine is a normal constituent of animal tissues and plasma, which is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to the site of oxidation. To avoid accumulation of lipids, supplementation of dietary carnitine may be used to stimulate fatty acid oxidation and to regulate lipolysis. Previous studies have demonstrated that responses to carnitine administrat...

  4. Pertumbuhan dan konsumsi pakan ikan lele (Clarias sp.) yang diberi pakan berbahan baku lokal

    OpenAIRE

    Zaenal Abidin; Muhammad Junaidi; Paryono .; Nunik Cokrowati; Salnida Yuniarti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Fish meal, corn, and rice bran are feed ingredient which easily obtained. Different of quality and amount of each ingredients in fish feed result a various respons on fish.  The aim of this study were to determine respon of growth and feed consumption of walking cat fish (Clarias sp.) which fed feed made of fish meal, rice bran, and corn. The experimental diets containing fish meal, corn meal, and rice bran meal, respectively A. 70;10:19,5.; B. 60;25;14,5 C=60,19,75:19,75; D=60:9,5:...

  5. In vivo activity of native GnRHs and their analogues on ovulation in the American catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, T.; Radics, F.; Barth, Tomislav; Horváth, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2007), s. 140-146. ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3028; GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : GnRH * ovulation * African catfish Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2007

  6. Biometrická charakteristika klariase afrického (Clarias gariepinus) z akvakulturního chovu ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrka, R.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil

    Vodňany : VÚRH JU, 2000 - (Mikešová, J.), s. 131-135 ISBN 80-85887-32-0. [Česká ichtyologická konference /4./. Vodňany (CZ), 10.05.2000-12.05.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087804 Subject RIV: GL - Fishing

  7. A brief note on the relationship between residual feed intake and aggression behaviour in juveniles of African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Hillen, B.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in maintenance levels have been related with energetically expensive processes such as aggression. This relationship is not fully understood as on one hand individuals with higher maintenance requirements seem to be more aggressive but on the other hand have smaller metabolic

  8. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER ACTING SINGLY OR IN JOINT-RATIOS ON CLARIAS GARIEPINUS

    OpenAIRE

    Aina Olubukola Adeogun; Azubuike Victor Chukwuka

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems were the most vulnerable to pollution due to their easy accessibility for disposal of wastewaters leading to deterioration of water quality. Ona river, Ibadan, Nigeria is part of a dense network of inland watercourses emptying into the Lagos lagoon and receives industrial effluents from a food and beverage industry. The single and joint-action toxicity of effluents from these industries mixed in predetermined ratios of 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75% (v/v) (food:beverage); 100% ...

  9. EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA MARINADE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKE-DRIED AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi; Aminat Mustapha Ahmed El-Imam; Ayotunde Oluwatunbo Olorunsanya; Foluke Eunice Sola-ojo; Kehinde Mathias Okukpe; Olusegun Oyeshina Dosunmu; Rafiat Morolayo Shittu; John Tolulope Idris

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of Moringa oleifera marinade on chemical composition and organoleptic properties of smoke-dried catfish in a 6x8 factorial experiment. The experimental treatments are the control, 1, 2 and 3% (w/v) Moringa oleifera Marinade (MOM), 5% brine and 0.2% Butylated Hydroxyl Anisole (BHA) (w/v) solutions. Ninety fishes of average weight of 230±8 g were gutted, washed and randomly assigned to the treatments. Thereafter, the fishes were soaked in the treatments for 2 hours...

  10. Retention of health beneficial components during hot- and cold-smoking of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Elvevoll, E.O.; Bandarra, N.M.; Cordiero, A.R.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in content of selenium and taurine, and the alteration of fatty acid profile have been studied in African catfish fillets subjected to a commercial cold- or hot smoking process. Selenium content and the fatty acid profile did not change significantly during neither of the smoking procedures.

  11. Live food mediated vitamin C transfer to Dicentrarchus labraxand Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Dhert, Ph.; Pector, R.; Mai Soni, A.F.; Nelis, H.; Ollevier, F.P.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    Live food enrichment techniques, using formulated diets and emulsions for improving the nutritional quality of Brachionus and Artemia , were studied as a tool for transferring ascorbic acid (AA) to fish larvae. Artemia nauplii enriched for 24h with an experimental emulsion containing 20% HUFA and 0%, 10% and 20% ascorbyl palmitate (AP) were administered to catfish larvae in a 20-day feeding trial. Survival was not affected by the dietary AA, but from day 7 onwards a significantly positive eff...

  12. The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Sheng Wu, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each trea

  13. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-06-01

    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (p<0.05) accompanied by irregular disturbance of (Na(+), K(+)) ions in the presence of 4-nonylphenol. On the other hand, these enzymes, ions, and apoptotic cells decreased normally and significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of latex. Total phenol content, total capacity antioxidant, reducing power decrease significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of 4-nonylphenol and increase normally in the presence of latex. Latex was used for the first time to protect catfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol. PMID:26946283

  14. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF DIETARY GLUCOSAMINE AND PLANT/ANIMAL PROTEINS ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF ASIAN CATFISH (Clarias Batrachus JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CHOWDHARY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A 84-days feeding trials was conducted to evaluate the use of animal and plant protein, in combination with glucosamine source for Asian Catfish, Clarias batrachus (av. wt. 0.22+0.01 to 0.24+0.07g. Six (31.18 to 43.51% crude protein, 369 to 399 kcal/100g, and crude lipid 0.0 to 6.69% practical feeds were formulated. The animal and plant protein component of the feeds was progressively added with glucosamine 0.0, 0.5, 5.0 and 10.0% with fish meal, silkworm pupae, soybean meal and casein (F-1, PAG 0:100:0.5; F-2, PAG 0:100:5.0; F-3, PAG 0:100:10.0; F-4, PAG 100:0:0.5; F-5, PAG 100:0:5.0; F-6, PAG 100:0:10.0; The experimental feeds were fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings at 10% body weight per day and results were compared with control feed. Growth performance and feed utilization efficiency of catfish, fed with animal proteins are better than those of plant protein. The best growth among the animal protein group (F-1 to F-3 was recorded in F-2 followed by F-3 and F1 containing glucosamine @5.0, 10.0 and 0.05%. Amongst the plant protein fed fishes showed best in F6 followed by F5 and F4. The survival was improved in glucosamine supplemented feeds ranging from 49+3.2 to 85+1.7 whereas the control showed 41+1.8%. Results indicate that animal protein rich feeds were much acceptable than alternative plant protein sources for the Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus and the potential for replacing animal protein with soybean meal in the feeds of fish need more evaluation along with synergistic effects of growth promoter like glucosamine.

  15. Pertumbuhan dan konsumsi pakan ikan lele (Clarias sp. yang diberi pakan berbahan baku lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fish meal, corn, and rice bran are feed ingredient which easily obtained. Different of quality and amount of each ingredients in fish feed result a various respons on fish.  The aim of this study were to determine respon of growth and feed consumption of walking cat fish (Clarias sp. which fed feed made of fish meal, rice bran, and corn. The experimental diets containing fish meal, corn meal, and rice bran meal, respectively A. 70;10:19,5.; B. 60;25;14,5 C=60,19,75:19,75; D=60:9,5:30, and the other diets, E and F, were commersial diets. Daily growth rate, feed consumption, feed eficiency, and feed conversion ratio showed significant differences (p>0,05 among the treatments. In general, feed consumption rate, daily growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate were best obtained on commercial feed, while feed made from local ingredients showed lower performance than commercial feed. The low quality of feed local ingredients were caused by used low quality of local ingredients which caused the level minimum of fibre and ash were high in 17,9% and 23,5%, respectively. The utilization of Local fish meal 60-70%, corn meal 9,5-19,75%, and rice bran meal 14,5-30% in fish diet did not result better growth performance than commercial diet, however the best formulation for local ingredients of fish meal, corn meal, rice bran meal were 60%; 19,75%; 19,75% and 60%; 9,5%;30 % respectively Keywords : Corn meal; diets; feed consumption; fish meal; growth; rice bran; walking catfish (Clarias sp. Abstrak.  Tepung ikan, jagung dan dedak padi adalah merupakan bahan baku yang mudah diperoleh dan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan, meskipun demikian perbedaan kualitas setiap jenis bahan baku dan jumlah pengggunaan setiap bahan baku dalam pakan dapat menghasilkan respon yang berbeda terhadap ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan dan konsumsi pakan ikan lele (Clarias sp. yang diberikan pakan berbahan tepung

  16. Composition and dietary effects of the fish oil from "mandi" (Pinelodus clarias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buena da Costa, M H; Nelson, D L; Moraes Santos, T

    1986-06-01

    A study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and dietary effects of the oil from "mandi" (Pimelodus clarias). Findings revealed that it had a low proportion of essential C18:2 fatty acids and a high percentage of oleic acid (20.93%), as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids with more than 18 carbon atoms. Of the long-chain fatty acids, C22:6 was present in the highest percentage (1.94%). When rats were fed a diet the lipid source of which was the oil of mandi, they showed a reduced growth rate as compared to animals receiving the control diet (corn oil). The fatty acid composition of the liver and heart of rats from the experimental group was modified. The greatest variation occurred in the percentage of C22:6 in the heart muscle, wherein a five-fold increase was observed. Reduction of growth and alteration in the polyunsaturated fatty acids levels may be due to a deficiency in C18:2-w6, or to a possible imbalance between C18:2-w6 and C18:3-w3. PMID:3632207

  17. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  18. Effect of steaming process on new formulation and physical properties of earthworm-based fish pellets for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam, Kulaab; Zakaria, Zarina; Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Ishak, Mohd Azlan Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Fish feed has been recognized as one of main part/unit in aquaculture industry. However, current fish feed faces few challenges in terms of health aspects and cost issues. Alternatively, new nutritional and economical/low cost formulation of fish pellets was designed by combination of earthworm powder and other economical ingredients such as fishmeal, soybean waste, rice bran and tapioca flour. The formulation was calculated using Pearson's square and optimized by One-Factor-At-Time (OFAT) method. The effect of steaming processing on the water stability, soaking experiment, protein leaching test and breaking force of the earthworm-based fish pellets was investigated. Results indicate steam pellet at 80 degrees C for 40 min has higher water stability, less protein leaching and more durable than unsteam pellets. Introduction of this new formulation of fish meal is expected to provide essential nutrient, energy and improved the quality of pellets to fuel the growth of aquaculture industry. PMID:26031027

  19. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Koeypudsa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day and long-term (30 days exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C.Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs, high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s, low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs, and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s.Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWsand decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs to natural situation(HtW/s. This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

  20. Growth parameters for Lates niloticus (L.), Bagrus docmak (Forsskal), Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and Synodontis species derived from tag returns

    OpenAIRE

    Asila, A.A.; Okemwa, E.

    1999-01-01

    In a tagging experiment carried out in the Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria, an annual growth increment of 29 cm yr was obtained for Lates niloticus (L.). Growth parameters obtained using the von Bertalanffy model on the growth curve fitted by eye were L (inf.) = 122 cm yr and k = 0.26 yr. Data for other species tagged were inadequate to obtain meaningful results.

  1. Super-chilling (-0.7°C) with high-CO2 packaging inhibits biochemical changes of microbial origin in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) muscle during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingchun; Ma, Lizhen; Yang, Hua; Xiao, Yan; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-09-01

    Controlled freezing-point storage (CFPS) is an emerging preservative technique desirable for fish. In the present study, catfish fillets were stored at -0.7°C under different packaging atmospheres: air (AP), vacuum (VP), and 60% CO2/40% N2 (MAP). Chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were performed during storage. Results showed the following descending order of chemical changes (degradation of nucleotides, conversion of protein to volatile-based nitrogen and biogenic amines, and production of trimethylamine nitrogen), as well as loss of sensory properties: 4°C AP>-0.7°C AP≈4°C VP>-0.7°C VP≈4°C MAP>-0.7°C MAP. The chemical changes were well-correlated with microbial growth suggesting the microbiological pathways. Hence, CFPS at -0.7°C in combination with high-CO2 MAP can effectively maintain the quality of fresh catfish meat compared to traditional preservation methods. PMID:27041314

  2. Effects of lead nitrate on the activity of metabolic enzymes during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) are key metabolic enzymes. G6PDH has been used as a biomarker of pollution-induced carcinogenesis in fish. LDH has been used as marker of lesions in toxicology and clinical chemistry, and PK catalyses the

  3. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl) on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther)

    OpenAIRE

    Weena Koeypudsa; Malinee Jongjareanjai

    2011-01-01

    This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day) and long-term (30 days) exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C) and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C).Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs), high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s), low tempe...

  4. The effect of nearly closed RAS on the feed intake and growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, V.C.; Limbu, P.; Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges that Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) are still facing is the risk that in RAS fish grow less than in flow-through systems due to the accumulation of substances originating from feed, fish or bacteria associated with the water re-use. The present study investigated wheth

  5. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vancoillie, C.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal gro

  6. Isolation and immunohistochemical identification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from the tissue of catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vinay; Prasad, Yogendra

    2014-03-01

    This study deals with the identification of bacteria in paraffin embedded tissue of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus experimentally infected with F. psychrophilum to ascertain it's precise role in the occurrence and state of carrier stage of coldwater disease in asymptomatic fishes. Significant (P fish pathogenic bacteria in carrier fish where mortality occurs without explicit clinical signs of disease. PMID:24665767

  7. Pengaruh Padat Tebar Tinggi dengan Pengunaan Nitrobacter Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ikan Lele (Clarias sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Fenlya Meitha

    2016-01-01

    Catfish is one of the freshwater fishery commodities whose demand is increasing in Indonesia. Intensive cultivation is required to meet the market demand. Intensive cultivation can be done by optimizing the stocking density. This study aimed to determine the effect of added Nitrobacter with high stocking density system on the survival, height growth and weight growth of catfish (Clarias sp.) As well as to determine the maximum stocking density of catfish with the average length of 6 cm and 1....

  8. A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF PROTEOCEPHALIDEAN (CESTODA), FROM CLARIAS CATFISHES (SILURIFORMES: CLARIIDAE) IN AFRICA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Beletew, M.; Mariaux, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2009), s. 160-168. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : CESTODA * CLARIAS * AFRICA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  9. RELACIONES TALLA-PESO DEL BARBUL (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785) EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO SINU,

    OpenAIRE

    Iliana Santos-Sanes,; Charles Olaya-Nieto; Fredys Segura-Guevara; Samir Brú-Cordero; Glenys Tordecilla-Petro

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo. Establecer las relaciones de talla y peso del barbul (Pimelodus clarias) en la cuenca del río Sinú. Materiales y Métodos. Se estimaron las relaciones talla-peso de 4324 individuos de Barbul (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785) colectados entre enero 2000 y diciembre 2002. Resultados. La longitud total (LT) osciló entre 13.0-30.0 cm, promedio de 19.5 (±1.6) cm y el peso total (WT) entre 20.0 y 248.1 g, promedio de 65.8 (±23.2) g. Las relaciones lineales estimadas fueron: LT = 1.92 (�...

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp., and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species. Averages of total length, standard length (cm and gross body weight (gm were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 for Clarias spp. It was noticed that clarias spp. has the highest edible meat percentage 46.75% followed by Labeo niloticus 38.82% and Oreochromis niloticus 33.39%, and there were significant differences (P < 0.05 among the three species. Chemical analysis for the samples was done to determine (protein, fat, ash and moisture contents. The results of protein contents examined were 62%, 61.5% and 61.5% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Fat contents were 7.41%, 8.27% and 7.32% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Moisture contents were 6.7%, 7.5% and 7.5% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Ash contents were 5.90%, 6.05% and 6.85% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively.

  11. Lead nitrate induced changes in the thyroid physiology of the catfish Clarias batrachus (L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure of Clarias batrachus to sublethal dose of 5 ppm lead nitrate for a period of 150 days impaired thyroid function. Histological observations revealed hypertrophy, increased cell height, vacuolation, and reduction of colloid. The thyrotrophs of the pituitary also exhibited hypertrophy. Radioiodine (131I) uptake was significantly lowered. Fish exposed to 5, 10, and 25 ppm of lead nitrate for 7 days also exhibited significant reduction in 131I uptake which was dose dependent. These findings suggest that lead nitrate impairs thyroid function involving the hypothalamohypophysiothyroid axis

  12. Food and feeding habits of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Balasaheb Sakhare; Ashvini Dnayndeo Chalak

    2014-01-01

    The food analysis of 150 specimens of Clarias batrachus revealed that the food consisted of insect larvae, small fish, shrimps and organic debris. Small fish and insect larvae were preferred as the primary food item in all the seasons. On average for all months of the study period, small fish dominated the list with a percentage of 30.27.The other food items in descending order are insect larvae (27.66%), worms (20.27%), shrimps (14.3%) and organic debris (7.05%).The feeding intensity in matu...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan, Smitha Thomas, Aruna Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the peel. The banana is nourishing, doesn’t contain fat, and can be eaten at every hour of the day because of its digestive properties. The banana contains magnesium, selenium, iron, a lot of vitamins and is recommended for salt free diet because of its low content in sodium chloride. Generally, the peel is being thrown once the pulp is eaten. These peels are eaten by animals or sometimes degraded by nature. Our aim is to extract few vital substances. The protein content of the peel was estimated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extract was injected into Clarias batrachus and its immune cells were counted. The result shows the wasted peel has both lower and higher molecular weights and has an immunological response as it showed an increase in the immune cells and there were very less cellular distortions when histopathological observations was done.

  14. Malathion exposure induces the endocrine disruption and growth retardation in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Bechan; Sarang, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj

    2013-01-15

    Many hormones are known for their role in the regulation of metabolic activities and somatic growth in fishes. The present study deals with the effects of malathion (an organophosphorous pesticide) on the levels of metabolic hormones that are responsible for promotion of somatic and ovarian growth of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Malathion treatment for thirty days drastically reduced the food intake and body weight of fish. These fish also exhibited a great avoidance to food. Exposure of catfish to malathion reduced the levels of thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E(2)) in a dose dependent manner during all the studied reproductive phases, in general, except that malathion increased the level of GH during the quiescence phase. Significant reduction in muscle and hepatic protein content also occurred in the malathion-treated fish. Malathion exposure induced lipolysis too in the liver and muscle. The results thus support that malathion treatment disrupts the endocrine functions and the olfactory sensation responsible for food intake and gustatory feeding behavior, which ultimately leads to retardation of fish growth. PMID:23174696

  15. Cell volume changes affect gluconeogenesis in the perfused liver of the catfish Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Shritapa Datta; Kuheli Biswas; Nirmalendu Saha

    2004-09-01

    In addition to lactate and pyruvate, some amino acids were found to serve as potential gluconeogenic substrates in the perfused liver of Clarias batrachus. Glutamate was found to be the most effective substrate, followed by lactate, pyruvate, serine, ornithine, proline, glutamine, glycine, and aspartate. Four gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) could be detected mainly in liver and kidney, suggesting that the latter are the two major organs responsible for gluconeogenic activity in this fish. Hypo-osmotically induced cell swelling caused a significant decrease of gluconeogenic efflux accompanied with significant decrease of activities of PEPCK, FBPase and G6Pase enzymes in the perfused liver. Opposing effects were seen in response to hyper-osmotically induced cell shrinkage. These changes were partly blocked in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that the aniso-osmotic regulations of gluconeogenesis possibly occurs through an inverse regulation of enzyme proteins and/or a regulatory protein synthesis in this catfish. In conclusion, gluconeogenesis appears to play a vital role in C. batrachus in maintaining glucose homeostasis, which is influenced by cell volume changes possibly for proper energy supply under osmotic stress.

  16. Genetic structure of populations and conservation issues relating to an endangered catfish, Clarias batrachus, in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D; A, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), is a highly valued species endemic to India that is currently in drastic decline in most of its natural habitat. The present study was undertaken to document the genetic structure of populations of this species using mitochondrial DNA markers, specifically from the cytochrome B and D-loop regions. Specimens from eight wild populations were collected and analyzed from different regions in India. The genetic variation within and among populations was evaluated using a range of descriptive statistics. The analysis described here provides a broad and consistent view of population structure and demographic history of populations of C. batrachus. Although there was some genetic structuring consistent with regional differences, all eight populations examined here showed relatively low levels of genetic variation in terms of both haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the different analyses used. However, a number of private haplotypes were discovered, and this may provide valuable information for future selective breeding program and conservation management. The results may aid in the design and implementation of strategies for the future management of this endangered catfish C. batrachus in India. PMID:25103426

  17. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  18. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of catfish (Clarias magur) haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on Clarias magur haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is an interesting physiologically significant protein composed of specific functional prosthetic haem and globin moieties. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of fish haemoglobins (Hbs). Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on Clarias magur Hb. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 and NaCl as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic system P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.35, b = 56.63, c = 112.88 Å, β = 100.22°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The Matthews coefficient of 2.42 Å3 Da−1 for the crystal indicated the presence of two α2β2 tetramers in the asymmetric unit

  19. Sub-acute Toxicity of Carbofuran on Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Freshwater Catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity has been widely used as a biomarker in an animal exposed to the pesticides. However, the interaction of extensively used organocarbamate insecticide, carbofuran, with the nervous system of the aquatic organisms is not properly studied. AChE is a key enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junctions, and thus regulates the neurotransmission system. In the present study, we have evaluated the impact of sub-acute concentrations (0.01 and 0.02 mg/L i.e. 1/20th and 1/10th of LC50) of carbofuran on the activity of acetylcholinesterase,from different tissues of Clarias batrachus, a fresh water teleost, after 96 hr and 15 days exposure periods in vivo. The carbofuran significantly reduced the activity of AChE in different tissues of C. batrachus at both concentrations and periods of exposure. The greater inhibition of AChE activities were recorded in fish tissues at higher carbofuran concentration (0.02 mg/L) after longer (15days) treatment period. The inhibition of AChE activity in all fish tissues tested was dependent on pesticide concentration and the duration of treatment. AChE from the tissues of C. batrachus was found to be a true cholinesterase as it was completely inhibited by the small concentration (nM) of eserine as tested in vitro. It was found that carbofuran at very low concentration exerted significant inhibitory effect on AChE activity in fish tissues.

  20. Impact of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, on the fishery of Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.; Othina, A.N.; Wakwabi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Due to heavy infestation of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria catches of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and Protopterus aethiopicus (Heckel), which strongly decreased in the 1980s, increased markedly in 1998. Tilapia catches also recorded an increase following the infestation. Landing areas with sheltered bays, which harboured more hyacinth mats, had greater catches of C. gariepinus and P. aethiopicus than open beaches with little hyacinth mats. The increase in C. gariepinus, P. aethiopicus and ...

  1. Changes in brain monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, during chronic treatments with mercurials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mammals, the central nervous system is the primary target for CH3Hg poisoning which is clinically known as Minamata disease. Hg is a widely recognized neurotoxin and has been reported to impair brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. Reports on effects of Hg on brain monoamine activity in fishes are scarce. In the present study, therefore, changes in the brain monoamine levels and the degradation enzyme, monoamine oxidase (MAO), are described in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl2-inorganic Hg), methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl-organic Hg), and a commercial mercurial fungicide formulation, emisan 6 (methoxyethyl Hg-organic Hg) for 45, 90 and 180 d during gonadal recrudescence. These intervals correspond to late preparatory, prespawning and spawning phases, respectively, of the annual reproductive cycle of the catfish

  2. Study of sodium arsenite induced biochemical changes on certain biomolecules of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic impact of sublethal concentration (1 mg/L; 5% of 96h LC50 value of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 on certain biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and glycogen of five tissue components (muscles, liver, brain, skin, and gills of the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus was analysed. The important toxic manifestations include marked decrease in the concentration of proteins (21.72-45.42% in muscles; 3.42-53.94% in liver; 15.39-45.42% in brain; 15.40-4.00% in skin and 11.35-64.13% in gills, DNA (0.55-22.95% in muscles; 8.33-14.06% in liver; 5.30-18.40% in brain; 13.57-52.80% in skin; and 12.38-31.01% in gills, RNA (42.68-76.16% in muscles; 10.68-39.75% in liver; 5.66-29.05% in brain; 7.72-27.93% in skin and 21.47-44.38% in gills and glycogen (24.00-51.72% in muscles; 49.11-72.45% in liver; 11.49-26.03% in brain; 26.13-38.05% in skin and 17.80-37.97% in gills. Excepting liver where the lipid content increases (15.82-24.13%, the fat content also showed depletion in their concentration (10.40-29.83% in muscles; 8.30-34.45% in brain; 8.94-31.47% in skin and 12.75-28.86% in gills, in the rest of the organ systems.Foi analisado o impacto tóxico da concentração subletal (1 mg/L; 5% do valor de LC50 de 96h do arsenito de sódio (NaAsO2 sobre certas biomoléculas (proteinas, ácidos nucleicos, lipídios e glicogênio de cinco tecidos (músculos, fígado, cérebro, pele e brânquias do bagre Clarias batrachus. As manifestações tóxicas importantes incluiram o decréscimo acentuado na concentração de proteinas (21,72-45,42% nos músculos; 3,42-53,94% no fígado; 15,39-45,42% no cérebro; 15,40-4,00% na pele e 11,35-64,13% nas brânquias, DNA (0,55-22,95% nos músculos; 8,33-14,06% no fígado; 5,30-18,40% no cérebro; 13,57-52,80% na pele e 12,38-31,01% nas brânquias, RNA (42,68-76,16% nos músculos; 10,68-39,75% no fígado; 5,66-29,05% no cérebro; 7,72-27,93% na pele e 21,47-44,38% nas brânquias e glicogênio (24,00-51,72% nos músculos; 49

  3. Subtitusi Tepung Pisang Awak (Musa Paradisiaca Var Awak) dan Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias Garipinus) Dalam Pembuatan Biskuit Serta Uji Daya Terimanya

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rini Puspa

    2015-01-01

    Banana ‘awak’ ripe flour (Musa paradisiaca var. Awak) and dumbo catfish (Clarias Garapinus) can be processed into biscuit. Biscuit is one of additional food that can full fill the needs of toddler nutrient. Biscuits had sweet taste and interesting shape. This research purpose to determine the acceptability test and nutritional content of biscuits substitution banana ‘awak’ flour and dumbo catfish. The type of research was an experiment conducted by completely randomized design using two fa...

  4. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  5. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. ► Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. ► Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. ► Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. ► Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 μg/L) and flutamide (33 μg/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100 dph) to perform testicular germ cell count (histology), measurements of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) by

  6. Endosulfan-mediated Biochemical Changes in the Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. TRIPATHI AND PRIYANKA VERMA

    2004-01-01

    Objective Endosulfan is an extremely toxic organochlorine pesticide to aquatic organisms which might be hampering fish health through impairment of metabolism sometimes leading to death.So an experimental protocol was designed to look at endosulfan effects on a number of selected biochemical endpoints as well as to develop a mechanistic understanding of biochemical effects of endosulfan in freshwater fish. Methods The adult freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus were collected and acclimatized to laboratory condition for two weeks prior to experimentation. The toxicity bioassay test of commercial grade endosulfan (35% EC) was conducted for 21 days to determine its initial lethal concentration. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of endosulfan (0.06 mg/L) for 21 days. Pesticide - withdrawal experiments were also performed to study recovery. Protein synthesis inhibitors were injected to know the possible mechanism of recovery. The specimens of C. batrachus were sacrificed and brain, liver and caudal white skeletal muscle were removed. Tissues were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activities of citrate synthase (CS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) and lactate dehydrogease (LDH) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Similarly, DNA, RNA and protein content were measured as per standard procedure. Results The exposure of sublethal concentration of endosulfan decreased the activity of citrate synthase (CS) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) in the brain, liver and skeletal muscle of the freshwater catfish, C. batrachus. The brain lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was also reduced in response to endosulfan toxicity. The maximum reduction in activities of these enzyme was 34%-43%. Withdrawal of endosulfan restored the enzyme activity to control level in all the three tissues. The recovery in enzyme activity appears to be due to dissociation of endosulfan or its metabolite(s) from the enzyme

  7. ICRF heating of FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both 1-D slab and cylindrical models are used to examine second and third harmonic ICRF heating of FED. The slab model, which divides the plasma into 1500 thin uniform slabs, uses a full-wave treatment to examine the effects of mode conversion. The RF power profile and the amount of energy absorbed per radial pass are also calculated. The 1-D cylindrical model uses WKB theory and is incorporated into a 1-D cylindrical multispecies time-dependent fluid code to examine the temporal behavior of ICRF and to estimate the RF power needed to heat FED. Both models use the full 3 x 3 hot plasma dispersion tensor. We find that heating at the second harmonic of deuterium, (f = 55 MHz) with k/sub parallel/ = 0.1 cm-1 appears to be the most attractive scenario. Over 90% of the RF power is damped within one radial pass. Most of the power is deposited at the center in the ions. From the space-time results we find that 40 MW of RF power supplied for 500 ms will heat FED to operating temperatures assuming Alcator-type scaling

  8. RELACIONES TALLA-PESO DEL BARBUL (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785 EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO SINU,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Santos-Sanes,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer las relaciones de talla y peso del barbul (Pimelodus clarias en la cuenca del río Sinú. Materiales y Métodos. Se estimaron las relaciones talla-peso de 4324 individuos de Barbul (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785 colectados entre enero 2000 y diciembre 2002. Resultados. La longitud total (LT osciló entre 13.0-30.0 cm, promedio de 19.5 (±1.6 cm y el peso total (WT entre 20.0 y 248.1 g, promedio de 65.8 (±23.2 g. Las relaciones lineales estimadas fueron: LT = 1.92 (�� 0.16 + 1.20 (± 0.01 LS, r = 0.96; LT = 1.21 (± 0.16 + 1.15 (± 0.01 LH; r = 0.97 y LH = 0.91 (± 0.10 + 1.02 (± 0.01 LS, r = 0.97; con diferencias significativas entre las pendientes de la relación longitud estándar (LS-longitud horquilla (LH. La relación longitud-peso fue: WT = 0.005 (± 0.09 LT 3.16 (± 0.07, n = 4324, r = 0.81, con diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los diferentes coeficientes de crecimiento y factores de condición. Se encontró correlación entre el factor de condición, los niveles del Río Sinú y la época de desove del Barbul, la cual se extiende de marzo a octubre. Conclusión. Los resultados alcanzados en este estudio sugieren que las nuevas condiciones del río no han afectado la dinámica poblacional de la especie en lo que al crecimiento en talla y peso se refiere, y que el Barbul se ha adaptado a estas nuevas condiciones.

  9. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 μM) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge

  10. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of [1(-14C] linoleic acid and [1(14C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  11. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  12. RECOVERY OF DAMAGES IN THE SKIN OF ARSENIC EXPOSED CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN. FOLLOWING WITHDRAWAL OF THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh ، T. K. Banerjee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The bottom dwelling air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn. also respires via its skin (an accessory water-breathing organ. Prolonged (90 days exposure to disodium arsenate heptahydrate has caused massive damage (e.g. wear and tear of various cellular components including club cells, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the goblet mucous cells, altered staining and the slimy secretion to the epidermis of its skin. The present study investigated the recovery in architecture of the damaged epidermis following return of the 90 days disodium arsenate heptahydrate exposed fish to clean water. The significant regeneration of its different cellular components (epithelial cells, Club cells, Mucous cells took place after 24 h of withdrawal when sloughing; wear and tear and other damages of the epidermis of the skin got substantially reduced. The histopathological alterations which still continued included squeezing out of contents of the Club cells that formed a thin layer on the body surface. Regeneration of the Club cells continued throughout the epidermis even though the newly formed Club cells still showed massive sign of degeneration. Altered staining behaviour and hyperactivity of the Mucous cells continues even after prolonged withdrawal of the stress of the arsenic salt. Similarly the glycoproteins of the slime secreted by the mucous cells retained their sulphate moieties. This indicates that disodium arsenate heptahydrate induces certain permanent non-reversible damages including altered mucogenic activity in the epidermis of the skin of C. batrachus.

  13. Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air-breathing Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ratnesh Kumar Tripathi; Vindhya Mohindra; Akanksha Singh; Rajesh Kumar; Rahasya Mani Mishra; Joy Krushna Jena

    2013-06-01

    With an aim to study the mechanism of adaptation to acute hypoxic periods by hypoxia-tolerant catfish, Clarias batrachus, the mass-specific metabolic rate (VO2) along with its hematological parameters, metabolic response and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. During progressive hypoxia, C. batrachus was found to be an oxyconformer and showed a steady decline in its aquatic oxygen consumption rate. When C. batrachus was exposed for different periods at experimental hypoxia level (0.98±0.1 mg/L, DO), hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance oxygen transport capacity. Significant increase in serum glucose and lactate concentration as well as lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed. Antioxidant enzymes were found to operate independently of one another, while total glutathione concentration was unaffected in any of the tissues across treatments. These observations suggested that hypoxia resulted in the development of oxidative stress and C. batrachus was able to respond through increase in the oxygen carrying capacity, metabolic depression and efficient antioxidant defense system to survive periods of acute hypoxia.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM; Ahmed Mohamed MUSA AHMED; Abdelwahab M ADAM IBRAHIM; Fathi MIRGHANI YOUSIF

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp.), and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species). Averages of total length, standard length (cm) and gross body weight (gm) were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 f...

  15. The Fed's Year of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  16. Expression analysis of Sox9 genes during annual reproductive cycles in gonads and after nanodelivery of LHRH in Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Saha, Ratnadeep; Pathakota, Gireesh-Babu; Pavan-Kumar, Annam; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-06-01

    Transcription factor Sox9 plays a crucial role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a primary factor in regulation of gonadal development. Present study reports full-length cDNA sequence of Sox9a gene and partial coding sequence (cds) of Sox9b (two duplicate orthologs of Sox9 gene) from Clarias batrachus. The coding region of Sox9a gene encoded a peptide of 460 amino acids. The partial cds of Sox9b with the length of 558bp was amplified that codes for 186 amino acids. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Sox9a and Sox9b mRNA expression was significantly higher in gonads and brain tissues. Furthermore Sox9a and Sox9b mRNA expression levels were high during preparatory and pre-spawning phases and decreased gradually with onset of spawning and post-spawning phases of reproductive cycles in gonads. Chitosan nanoconjugated sLHRH (CsLHRH) of particle size 133.0nm and zeta potential of 34.3mV were synthesized and evaluated against naked sLHRH (salmon luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone). The entrapment efficiency of CsLHRH was 63%. CsLHRH nanoparticles increased the expression level of Sox9 transcripts in gonads and steroid hormonal levels in blood of male and female. Thus, our findings clearly indicate that Sox9 genes play essential role during seasonal variation of gonads. Besides, the current study reports that sustained release delivery-system will be helpful for proper gonadal development of fish. To the best of our knowledge, till date no study has been reported on nanodelivery of sLHRH and their effect on reproductive gene expression in fish. PMID:27234545

  17. Assembly and variation analyses of Clarias batrachus mitogenome retrieved from WGS data and its phylogenetic relationship with other catfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basdeo Kushwaha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing (WGS using next generation sequencing technologies paves the way to sequence the mitochondrial genomes with greater ease and lesser time. Here, we used the WGS data of Clarias batrachus, generated from Roche 454 and Ion Torrent sequencing platforms, to assemble the complete mitogenome using both de novo and reference based approaches. Both the methods yielded almost similar results and the best assembled mitogenome was of 16,510 bp size (GenBank Acc. No. KM259918. The mitogenome annotation resulted in 13 coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region, and the gene order was found to be identical with other catfishes. Variation analyses between assembled and the reference (GenBank Acc. No. NC_023923 mitogenome revealed 51 variations. The phylogenetic analysis of coding DNA sequences and tRNA supports the monophyly of catfishes. Two SSRs were identified in C. batrachus mitogenome, out of which one was unique to this species. Based on the relative rate of gene evolution, protein coding mitochondrial genes were found to evolve at a much faster pace than the d-loop, which in turn are followed by the rRNAs; the tRNAs showed wide variability in the rate of sequence evolution, and on average evolve the slowest. Among the coding genes, ND2 evolves most rapidly. The variations present in the coding regions of the mitogenome and their comparative analyses with other catfish species may be useful in species conservation and management programs.

  18. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 ± 4 cm and weight of 86 ± 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl2.H2O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and taurine have potential to reduce

  19. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  20. Study on the Skeletal System of Clarias leather%革胡子鲶骨骼系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成勋; 孙金辉; 马倩倩; 粱超; 孙敬锋

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究革胡子鲶骨骼系统的组成及形态学特征.[方法]常规煮沸剥离方法得到完整骨骼标本和单个骨骼标本,对标本进行摄影与分析,并总结出相应的骨骼特征.[结果]革胡子鲶的骨骼系统具有单个犁骨,鳃盖边缘有棘,无眶蝶骨,腰带简单,有韧带与肩带相连.无骨鳞,无肌间骨,无续骨、硕骨,第3、4椎骨彼此固结.胸鳍具有1枚强大且坚硬的骨质棘,具有14对腹肋.共有骨骼426块,其中脑颅区域25块,咽颅区域71块,附肢骨骼234块,躯干部分96块.[结论]革胡子鲶骨骼系统具有一般硬骨鱼类的基本特征,同时此种鱼类的骨骼结构也具有鲶形目的特点.%[Objective] The research aimed to study the organization and morphological characteristics of the skeletal system of Clarias leather. [ Method] The integrated and single skeletal specimens were obtained by using the conventional boiling-stripping method. The specimens were photographed and analyzed. And the relevant skeletal characteristics were summarized. [Result] The skeletal system contained only one vomer but no orbitosphenoid. There were brambles at both of the edges of operculum. The structure of pelvic girdle, which was connected with shoulder girdle, was simple. It contained no bone scales, intermascular bone, symplectic bone, or parietal bone. The third and fourth vertebrae connected firmly each other. Pectoral fin contained a strong spine and 14 pairs of ventral rib. The skeletal system was composed of 426 bones, including 25 bones in the district of neurocranium, 71 bones in the district of splanchnocranium, 234 appendicular skeleton and 96 bones in the trunk. [Conclusion] The skeletal system had the basic characteristics of common teleostean fish and it also fit in with that of the fish in Siluriformes.

  1. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  2. 木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶的研究%Study on the Condition of Hydrolysis of Clarias fuscus By Papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕芳

    2013-01-01

      Adore the papain to hydrolyze the protein of Clarias fuscus and study the process condition of enzymolysis. Analyse the influence of dosage of papain, concentration of substrate, temperature of enzymolysis, pH value etc. On the protein hydrolysis of Clarias fuscus Experimental results show that the best condition of the enzymolysis as follow: the concentration of papain at 1.8 %, the concentration of substrate at 3.5 %, the temperature of enzymolysis at 55℃, pH 7.0, time of hydrolysis at 6 h, in which the hydrolysis will be 30.65%achieved.%  采用木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶鱼蛋白,并对酶水解的工艺条件进行研究,分析了酶用量、底物浓度、酶水解温度、酶水解时间、pH等因素对胡子鲶蛋白水解的影响。实验结果表明,木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶的最佳条件为:酶浓度1.8%,底物浓度3.5%,酶水解温度55℃, pH 7.0,反应时间6 h ,在此条件下胡子鲶水解程度可达到30.65%。

  3. Myoarchitecture and vasculature of the heart ventricle in some freshwater teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, K; Vicentini, C A; Orsi, A M; Cruz, C

    2002-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of the ventricular myocardium and of coronary vascularization were studied in three freshwater teleost species, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish), by correlating their ventricular shapes and swimming habits. In Piaractus mesopotamicus and Colossoma macropomum, species with highly active swimming habits, the cardiac ventricle showed a pyramidal shape and a richly vascularized myocardium consisting of an outer compact layer and inner spongy layer. In Clarias gariepinus, a less active species, we observed a saccular ventricle with a mixed myocardium and coronary arteries, in contrast to the ventricular structure of other species described in the literature. PMID:12090393

  4. Testování produkční účinnosti speciálních krmiv pro sumce u tržního keříčkovce červenolemého (Clarias gariepinus) v recirkulačním systému

    OpenAIRE

    ČTRNÁCT, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this diploma thesis is compare the production efficiency of special types of feed for African catfish in experimental conditions in a recirculating system with biological treatment of water. It was tested four different types of floating feed, differing in the proportion of main components, the chemical composition and determining - for catfish (CatCo GROWER - 12 EF, CatCo SELECT - 13 EF and CatCo GROWER - 13 EF), respectively salmonid fish species (Dibaq Trout Evolution...

  5. Chemical composition of Clarias Lazera (cuv and val., 1840) as an indicator of fish raising in treated sewage effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is one of the pioneer studies dealing with the possibility of growing fish in treated sewage water in Sudan. Khartoum sewage treatment plant - Green Belt area - was the main study site for this work, where fish was some how introduced to the canal which receives water from the last stage of treatment. Fish have reached large sizes and numbers, they are highly consumed by people of the area and widely marketed in the nearby localities. So this study aimed to discuss the potential health associated with the utilization of such fish for food, throwing light, on the advantages and disadvantages of fish culture in treated sewage effluent. The research was directed towards the study of the chemical composition of Clarias lazera (Cuv. and Val., 1840) (Garmout fish) being the only fish species in the area during the course of this study . Fish samples were collected from the Green Belt and the White Nile at the vicinity of Jebel Aulia reservoir which was taken as a control area for (April 1995 - April 1996). Basic biology was studies for each specimen, the concentrations of some of the hazardous and potentially hazardous heavy metals were investigated in the flesh of 30, randomly selected fish samples from both study sites, beside the major chemical body constituents : fats, proteins, moisture and ash in all specimens, to determine the quality of the flesh> Data obtained was analyzed, trying to correlate fish chemical composition to the surrounding environment. Treated sewage-fish showed higher weights and lengths than natural water-fish from the White Nile. Most of the hazardous metals investigated in the muscle tissues of treated sewage-fish were found to be of insignificant variation from that of natural water-fish (Mercury and Lead). They were found to be at lower levels than what is recommended by the International Agencies human consumption. The essential micronutrients for fish like Copper, Ferric (Iron) and Zinc showed significantly higher levels

  6. Testování Fed modelu

    OpenAIRE

    Hříbalová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Diploma Thesis focuses on Fed Model testing and its credibility on market data. The research is based on Gordon Model and Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), it explains, what the basic features of the Fed Model are and describes its derivation from Gordon Model. The Thesis shows possible Fed Model limitation. It uses the US market, Great Britain and Germany 1979 -- 2011 data to demonstrate validity of the model. Eventually possible reasons of Fed Model development in period 2002 -- 2011 are ...

  7. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  8. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  9. Role of ureogenesis in tackling problems of ammonia toxicity during exposure to higher ambient ammonia in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmalendu Saha; Shritapa Datta; Kuheli Biswas; Zaiba Y Kharbuli

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, the possible role of ureogenesis to avoid the accumulation of toxic ammonia to a lethal level under hyper-ammonia stress was tested in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus by exposing the fish at 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Excretion of ammonia by the NH4Cl-exposed fish was totally suppressed, which was accompanied by significant accumulation of ammonia in different body tissues. The walking catfish, which is otherwise predominantly ammoniotelic, turned totally towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism with a 5- to 6-fold increase of urea-N excretion during exposure to higher ambient ammonia. Stimulation of ureogenesis was accompanied with significant increase of some of the key urea cycle enzymes such as carbamyl phosphate synthetase (urea cycle-related), argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase both in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. Due to this unique physiological strategy of turning towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism via the induced urea cycle, this air-breathing catfish is able to survive in very high ambient ammonia, which they face in certain seasons of the year in the natural habitat.

  10. PENAPISAN DAN APLIKASI PROBIOTIK UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT STREPTOCOCCOSIS DAN LACTOCOCCOSIS PADA IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Azis, Hasni Y.; Anshary, Hilal; Latama, Gunarto; -, Sriwulan

    2015-01-01

    Isolasi dan identifikasi bakteri asam laktat yang memiliki potensi antibakteri terhadap bakteri penyebab penyakit streptococcosis/Lactococcosis dari usus ikan Lele Clarias gariepinus dan ikan gabus Ophiocephalus striatus telah dilakukan untuk mengatasi penyakit tersebut pada ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Sebanyak masing- masing 20 ekor ikan lele dan ikan gabus dibedah secara aseptic dengan mengambil bag...

  11. 1981 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe waters

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, B.E.; Mandisodza, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 statistics of the open water fishery (sardine, Limnothrissa miodon , and tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus) and inshore fishery (cichlids, labeoa, mainly L. altivelis , distichoclids, mainly Distichodus schenga , tigerfish, H. vittatus , mormyrids, mainly Mormyrus longirostris and M. deliciosus , and catfish, Clarias gariepinus) in Lake Kariba are presented.

  12. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behaviou

  13. Chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: Role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Soma; Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Saha, Dhira Rani [Microscopy Laboratory, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, Scheme XM, C.I.T. Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata 700 010 (India); Bhattacharaya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)], E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2009-04-09

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of chronic low-level arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) of Clarias batrachus and at determining the changes in head kidney macrophage (HKM) activity in response to arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure (30 days) to arsenic (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.50 {mu}M) led to significant increase in arsenic content in the HK accompanied by reduction in both HKM number and head kidney somatic index (HKSI). Arsenic induced HK hypertrophy, reduction in melano-macrophage population and increased hemosiderin accumulation. Transmission electron microscopy of 30 days exposed HKM revealed prominent endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation and loss in structural integrity of nuclear membrane. Head kidney macrophages from exposed fish demonstrated significant levels of superoxide anions but on infection with Aeromonas hydrophila were unable to clear the intracellular bacteria and died. Exposure-challenge experiments with A. hydrophila revealed that chronic exposure to micromolar concentration of arsenic interfered with the phagocytic potential of HKM, helped in intracellular survival of the ingested bacteria inside the HKM inducing significant HKM cytotoxicity. The immunosuppressive effect of arsenic was further evident from the ability of A. hydrophila to colonize and disseminate efficiently in exposed fish. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay indicated that chronic exposure to arsenic suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory 'IL-1{beta} like' factors from HKM. It is concluded that arsenic even at very low concentration is immunotoxic to fish and the changes observed in HKM may provide a useful early biomarker of low-level xenobiotic exposure.

  14. Chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: Role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of chronic low-level arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) of Clarias batrachus and at determining the changes in head kidney macrophage (HKM) activity in response to arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure (30 days) to arsenic (As2O3, 0.50 μM) led to significant increase in arsenic content in the HK accompanied by reduction in both HKM number and head kidney somatic index (HKSI). Arsenic induced HK hypertrophy, reduction in melano-macrophage population and increased hemosiderin accumulation. Transmission electron microscopy of 30 days exposed HKM revealed prominent endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation and loss in structural integrity of nuclear membrane. Head kidney macrophages from exposed fish demonstrated significant levels of superoxide anions but on infection with Aeromonas hydrophila were unable to clear the intracellular bacteria and died. Exposure-challenge experiments with A. hydrophila revealed that chronic exposure to micromolar concentration of arsenic interfered with the phagocytic potential of HKM, helped in intracellular survival of the ingested bacteria inside the HKM inducing significant HKM cytotoxicity. The immunosuppressive effect of arsenic was further evident from the ability of A. hydrophila to colonize and disseminate efficiently in exposed fish. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay indicated that chronic exposure to arsenic suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory 'IL-1β like' factors from HKM. It is concluded that arsenic even at very low concentration is immunotoxic to fish and the changes observed in HKM may provide a useful early biomarker of low-level xenobiotic exposure

  15. Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 μM) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca2+) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 and interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca2+ homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest that arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca2+ levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus. - Highlights: → Altered Ca2+ homeostasis leads to arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Calpain-2 plays a critical role in the process. → ERK is pro-apoptotic in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involves cross talk between calpain-2 and ERK.

  16. Low concentration of arsenic could induce caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage apoptosis with JNK-p38 activation in Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had earlier demonstrated that chronic exposure (30 days) to micro-molar concentration (0.50 μM) of arsenic induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) death in Clarias batrachus. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the nature of HKM death induced by arsenic and elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in the process. Arsenic-induced HKM death was apoptotic in nature as evident from DNA gel, Annexin V-propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342 staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Inhibitor studies and immunoblot analyses further demonstrated that arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a well-characterized caspase-3 substrate. Preincubation with antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine or dimethyl sulfoxide significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arsenic-treated HKM and prevented caspase activation, malondialdehyde formation and HKM apoptosis. Arsenic induced membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. Preincubation with apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride, both selective inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, prevented p47phox translocation, ROS production and HKM death. Exposure of HKM to arsenic induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) proteins including c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Preincubation of HKM with p38 inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 protected the HKM against arsenic-induced apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to micro-molar concentration of arsenic induces ROS generation through the activation of NADPH oxidases, which in turn causes caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. In addition, the study also indicates a role of p38-JNK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

  17. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost. PMID:26759744

  18. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahdat Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cm×30 cm×60 cm where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results: The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20 d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  19. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Shahdat Hossain; Md Rajib Sharker; Syed Ariful Haque; Md Shaheed Reza; Md Anwar Hossain Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods:The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cmí30 cmí60 cm) where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g) by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results:The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions:The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  20. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m2; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  1. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: Roles of inorganic ions and taurine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Nirmalendu Saha

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (–80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures, respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25–30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 ± 0.54 mol/g liver) due to activation of Ba2+- and quinidine-sensitive K+ channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl¯ (4.35 ± 0.25 mol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68 ± 0.37 mol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride- and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78 ± 0.65 mol/g liver), and also Cl¯ (3.72 ± 0.25 mol/g liver). The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine, an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 ± 0.38 mol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 ± 0.45 mol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4′-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures, thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  2. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  3. Optimal Control of Fed-Batch Fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinotti, S.; Cannizzaro, C; Rhiel, M.; Holmberg, U.; von Stockar, U; Bonvin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Optimal control of fed-batch fermenters S. Valentinotti† C. Cannizzaro‡ M.Rhiel‡ U. Holmberg† U. von Stockar‡ D. Bonvin† †Institut d’Automatique, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ‡Institut de Genie Chimique, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Fermentors are often run in a fed-batch manner to avoid the formation of overflow metabolites. At a high growth rate, the most efficient metabolic pathway(s) of certain microorganisms become saturated resulting in overflow metabolite production. These byprodu...

  4. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation

  5. Winter survival of blood-fed and nonblood-fed Culex pipiens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C L; Faran, M E; Gargan, T P; Hayes, D E

    1982-09-01

    Comparisons were made between groups of Culex pipiens L. with different physiologic histories to test their ability to sucessfully overwinter under field conditions. On 14 December 1978, each group of mosquitoes was marked with a distinctive fluorescent dust and released inside an abandoned ammunition bunker at Fort Washington, Maryland. To insure that dead mosquitoes could be dissected and information obtained on their ovarian development, a sample of females from each group was also released into a plexiglass cage that was attached to the inside wall of the room. The physiologic histories of each group of mosquitoes were as follows: (a) "wild caught", those which had entered the bunker prior to the release date, (b) "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," (c) "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed nongravid, " (d)"lab-reared diapausing blood-fed gravid," (e) "lab-reared nondiapausing nonblood-fed," and (f) "lab-reared nondiapausing blood-fed." By 8 March 1979, all of the lab-reared nondiapausing groups, of mosquitoes released in the room had died, whereas 15.7, 22.4 and 24.7% were recovered from the "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed" (gravid and nongravid) and "wild caught" mosquitoes, respectively. For the mosquitoes in the cage, only 0, 2.1 and 7.0% of the "lab-reared nondiapausing blood-fed," "lab-reared nondiapausing nonblood-fed" and "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed gravid," respectively, survived. This compared to 45.4, 56.8 and 58.0%, respectively, for the "lab-reared diapausing nonblood-fed," "lab-reared diapausing blood-fed nongravid" and the "wild caught" groups. These data provide evidence to support the theory that a significant number of diapausing Cx. pipiens which have taken a prehibernation (possibly viremic) blood meal do not develop eggs and can survive the winter at rates comparable to diapausing nonblood-fed mosquitoes. PMID:6289686

  6. A further investigation into the bioaccumulation of lead and zinc in the organs and tissues of the African sharptooth catfish, Glorias gariepinus from two localities in the Olifants River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Marx

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioaccumulation of lead and zinc in the gills, liver, muscle and skin of Glorias gariepinus from two locations, Mamba and Balule, on the Olifants River within the Kruger National Park is reported here. Over a one year period (1994, four surveys (February, May, July and November were undertaken. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentrations of both metals in the tissues. The gills were the major route of uptake, with the liver accumulating high lead and zinc concentrations. The concentration of metals in the fish found at Mamba and Balule were found to be significantly different from each other. However, it could not be established at which location the greatest amount of bioaccumulation had taken place. The influences of temperature, alkalinity, salinity and pH on metal toxicity, bioavailability and bioaccumulation rates are discussed in detail. It is imperative that pollution levels in the Olifants River and its effect on fish is continually monitored and captured, so as to main- tain and conserve this river and the biota dependant on it.

  7. BIOMETRY AND COMPOSITION OF FISH SPECIES IN OWENA RESERVOIR, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAPOHUNDA Olawumi Oluwafunmilola

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of fish species present in Owena reservoir was conducted between October 2004 and March 2005. Fish samples were taken from the catch of the fishermen operating in the reservoir. The results of the survey showed that 14 fish species belonging to seven families were recorded. Two families namely Characidae and Clariidae constituted the dominant fish families in the reservoir. Among the Characidae, Brycinus nurse (23.1% and among the Clariidae family, Clarias gariepinus (22.8% were dominant. Other fish species with significant abundance were Sarotherodon galilaeus (9.3%, Parachanna obscura (8.0%, Clarias anguillaris (7.7% and Oreochromis niloticus (6.4%. The meristic features of the two most abundant fish species caught are as follows: Brycinus nurse had two dorsal spines with eight dorsal fins, two anal spines with eleven anal fins, 25 caudal fins, one pectoral spine and 13 pectoral fins and two ventral spines with seven ventral fins. Clarias gariepinus had 75 dorsal fins, 31 anal fins, 10 caudal fins, six pectoral fins and five ventral fins. The morphometric features of the two most abundant fish species are: Brycinus nurse: total length: 312mm, standard length: 255mm, head length: 60mm, body length: 90mm and body girth: 190mm. Clarias gariepinus: total length: 265mm, standard length: 240mm, head length: 62mm, body length: 62mm and body girth: 130mm.

  8. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  9. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  10. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...

  11. FedEX Sponsors China's Badminton Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reigning world champion team joins hands with the express delivery service to greet the coming Olympics Starting this year, Olympic badminton champion Zhang Ning and world badminton champion Lin Dan will be wearing clothing with the FedEx logo on it.

  12. The vented pressure fed gas journal bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrodynamic-type gas journal bearings with stabilising venting slots are often operated hydrostatically during starting-up as a means of 'jacking'. A simplified mathematical treatment of the circumferential gas flows in a vented, pressure-fed journal bearing is used to predict the relationship between load capacity, bearing geometry and gas properties. (author)

  13. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  14. Studies on the fungal infestation of five traditionally smoke-dried freshwater fish in Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafioye, O O; Efuntoye, M O; Osho, A

    2002-01-01

    Samples of traditionally smoke-dried Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede), Sarotherodon galilaeus (Trewavas), Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy) were obtained from Oja Oba Market, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria and examined for fungal infestation. The fish samples incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days showed fungal infestation. Fungi isolated and identified included Mucor sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. Six fungal species were isolated from C. nigrodigitatus, five each on C. gariepinus and H. niloticus. PMID:12206317

  15. Fed asset buying and private borrowing rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Past rounds of large-scale asset purchases by the Federal Reserve have lowered yields not only on the targeted securities, but also on various private borrowing rates. In particular, yields on corporate bonds and primary mortgage rates decreased in response to Fed asset purchase announcements. Notably, however, the link between rates on mortgage-backed securities and actual mortgage rates has weakened in the wake of the financial crisis.

  16. Revising the Atlanta Fed dollar index

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Acree

    1999-01-01

    For more than a decade the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta's trade-weighted dollar index has served as a summary statistic for foreign exchange movements of the dollar. Recent revisions acknowledging significant changes in the worldwide economy ensure that the index will continue to contribute valuable information into the future. ; One significant revision to the Atlanta Fed index is to include all eleven countries that adopted the euro on January 4, 1999. Other revisions take into account t...

  17. Palatability of concentrates fed to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Mereu, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Palatability of concentrates is important to avoid feed refusal and production losses in ruminants. Thus, the palatability of 14 feeds (soybean meal 44 and 49; soybean hulls; corn grains; canola meal; wheat grains; beet pulps; dehydrated alfalfa; sunflower meal; oat grains; pea grains; wheat brans; corn middlings; corn gluten meal) was measured in 6 min daily tests on 14 female lambs and 14 dry multiparous ewes. The palatability of the feeds fed to the lambs varied from high to...

  18. A Study of End-Fed Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kondylis, Konstantinos; Zimourtopoulos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a general analysis of end-fed space arrays with application to self-standing linear arrays of parallel dipoles. A number of test array models were simulated, constructed and their radiation pattern was then measured. The experimental and computational results were found to be in good agreement. The developed software applications are available through the Internet as FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software.

  19. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m2, with 0.5 MW/m2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  20. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

  1. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  2. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  3. Expression analysis and localization of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 in the testis of catfish, Clarias batrachus: Impact of wt1-esiRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugananthkumar, Raju; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2016-08-15

    In teleosts, a comprehensive role or interaction of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 genes in relation to gonadal development and/or recrudescence was never attempted. Present study aimed to identify the involvement of these genes during testicular development of catfish, Clarias batrachus. Dominant expression of wt1 and gata4 was observed in developing and adult testis, while ad4bp/sf-1 showed steady expression. Localization of these genes in adult testis revealed their presence in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and interstitial/Leydig cells. Significant high expression during pre-spawning and spawning phases, and upregulated levels of these genes after hCG induction authenticated gonadotropic regulation. Transient silencing of wt1-esiRNA displayed decrease in wt1 expression, which further downregulated the expression of ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4, and certain steroidogenic enzyme genes related to androgen production. These results suggest that wt1 might target ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 expression, and also have regulatory influence either indirectly or directly on the steroidogenic enzyme genes of catfish. PMID:27173028

  4. An Assessment of the Heavy Metal Content of Cat Fish (Clarias Lazera) obtained from the Lower Niger Basin at Idah, Kogi State using Energy Dispersive X- ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five catfish (Clarias lazera) samples obtained from the Lower Niger River Basin at Idah were subjected to elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive X - ray Fluorescence (EDXR) technique. A voltage of 30KV and current of 1mA was applied to produce a 17.441KeV molybdenum X-ray which was used to irradiate the samples for ten minutes. The analysis was performed using the mini pal 4 version PW 4030 X -ray spectrometer at the Center for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The elemental composition and concentration of seven major and trace elements: Ca, Cr, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, and V were detected in the samples. The major elements are Ca,K and Fe while the trace elements are Cr,Cu, V and Mn. The concentration of Calcium which is the highest range fro 0.370% to 3.110% while the concentration of Copper which is the least range from 46.030pm to 99.859pm. The result shows the presence of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and V which are heavy metals the concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe and Mn in the sample were below World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization(FAO) maximum permissible limit of intake of the various minerals respectively. However the concentration of V found in the sample is above the WHO and FAO maximum limit for Vanadium.

  5. INDIRECT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF ECTODERMAL MERCURY EXPOSURE BY TRADITIONAL MEDICAL FORMULATIONS ON FRESHWATER CAT FISH CLARIAS BATRACHUS USING MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY AND ALKALINE SINGLE-CELL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (COMET ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prem Rajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and its salts are the major constituents of Ayurvedic, Chinese and Tibetan traditional formulations. The mercury is extensively reported to accumulate in food chain and cause many neurological disorders in environment. The safety assessment of mercury on the ectodermal application on animal model is rarely reported. The void in the scientific study on external exposure of mercury and its genotoxic inside the body lead to the necessity for the present study. The freshwater cat fish Clarias batrachus was used for broad specificity genotoxic indicators micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. The fish was exposed to 0.03 ppm of mercuric chloride for a period of 7, 14, 28 and 35 days ectodermally. The blood sample was assayed for the genotoxicity. The results revealed undoubted DNA damage through the micronuclei and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. Hence it is concluded the usage of traditional medicines containing the mercury may be toxic at genetic level in prolonged usage.

  6. Hypoxia influences expression profile of Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 in Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): A new candidate gene for hypoxia tolerance in fish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vindhya Mohindra; Ratnesh K Tripathi; Prabhaker Yadav; Rajeev K Singh; Kuldeep K Lal

    2014-06-01

    Several physiologically important genes were found to be regulated by hypoxia at the transcriptional level. The Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) gene was previously identified as an imprinted gene. The present study was aimed to determine the structure of complete cDNA and the deduced protein of PHLDA2 along with analysing the changes in its mRNA expression in Clarias batrachus tissues under hypoxic conditions. The complete cDNA of CbPHLDA2 gene consisted of 1009 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 417 nucleotides. The deduced CbPHLDA2 protein of 139 amino acids shared high homology with PHLD2A of other fishes as well as that of vertebrates. Importantly, a single amino acid (asparagine/lysine) insertion was identified in the PH domain of CbPHLDA2 and other fishes, which was absent in other vertebrates studied. Furthermore, under normoxic conditions, CbPHLDA2 was constitutively expressed with varying levels in analysed tissues. Short- and long-term hypoxia exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of CbPHLDA2 in liver, spleen, head kidney, brain and muscle in a time-dependent manner. The results suggested that CbPHLDA2 might play an important role for adaptive significance under hypoxia.

  7. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. samples of serunding were prepared with 3 different sizes (30-40cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm) of African catfish and control was prepared using round scad fish ('ikan selayang') with same amount of fish flesh...

  8. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  9. BIOMETRY AND COMPOSITION OF FISH SPECIES IN OWENA RESERVOIR, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    FAPOHUNDA Olawumi Oluwafunmilola; GODSTATES Ryghtway

    2007-01-01

    A survey of fish species present in Owena reservoir was conducted between October 2004 and March 2005. Fish samples were taken from the catch of the fishermen operating in the reservoir. The results of the survey showed that 14 fish species belonging to seven families were recorded. Two families namely Characidae and Clariidae constituted the dominant fish families in the reservoir. Among the Characidae, Brycinus nurse (23.1%) and among the Clariidae family, Clarias gariepinus (22.8%) were do...

  10. Athugun á möguleikum fiskeldis til að bæta lífskjör kenískra bænda við Viktoríuvatn : mat á áhrifum opinbers stuðnings

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi, Nora

    2013-01-01

    In Kenya, East Africa, fish-demand is constantly growing. Fish supply, however, lags behind owing to declining natural fish stocks. Aquaculture production in Kenya is still insignificant on a global scale, not following the sector’s worldwide rapid growth. However, Kenya shows great potential for aquaculture activities that are not yet fully explored. In 2009 development and commercialization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) aquaculture became p...

  11. A Comparative Economic Evaluation of Farming of three Important Aquaculture Species in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbugua, Henry Mwangi

    2007-01-01

    Information on the economic viability of aquaculture is crucial for investors when assessing the feasibility of an aquaculture investment. Unfortunately, such information has been scarce in Kenya. This paper evaluates the viability of commercial culture of three aquaculture species in Kenya under four culture practices. These are: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), mainly produced using mono- or polyculture under semi intensive systems; and rainbow ...

  12. Effects of dietary vitamin C on fish and crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary needs for ascorbic acid (AA) at startfeeding, the AA content in the various live diets currently applied in aquaculture (algae, rotifers, Artemia ) was studied. Application of boosting techniques using ascorbyl palmitate (AP) as the vitamin C source enabled the transfer of elevated levels of bioactive vitamin C (up to 2500µg AA.g DW-1) via the live food chain into larvae of fish (Clarias gariepinus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Scophthalmus maximus), shrimp (Pennaeus v...

  13. ISOLASI DAN PENAPISAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DARI SALURAN PENCERNAAN IKAN SEBAGAI PROBIOTIK UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT STREPTOCOCCOSIS DAN LACTOCOCCOSIS PADA IKAN NILA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasni Azis; Hilal Anshary; Sriwulan; Gunarto Latama

    2012-01-01

    Isolasi dan identifikasi bakteri asam laktat yang memiliki potensi antibakteri terhadap bakteri penyebab penyakit streptococcosis/Lactococcosis dari usus ikan Lele Clarias gariepinus dan ikan gabus Ophiocephalus striatus telah dilakukan untuk mengatasi penyakit tersebut pada ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Sebanyak masing-masing 20 ekor ikan lele dan ikan gabus dibedah secara aseptic dengan mengambil bagian usus dan lambungnya dan selanjutnya usus dibedah secara aseptic dan selanjutnya melet...

  14. ISOLASI DAN PENAPISAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DARI SALURAN PENCERNAAN IKAN SEBAGAI PROBIOTIK UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT STREPTOCOCCOSIS DAN LACTOCOCCOSIS PADA IKAN NILA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasni Azis; Hilal Anshary; Gunarto Latama

    2013-01-01

    Isolasi dan identifikasi bakteri asam laktat yang memiliki potensi antibakteri terhadap bakteri penyebab penyakit streptococcosis/Lactococcosis dari usus ikan Lele Clarias gariepinus dan ikan gabus Ophiocephalus striatus telah dilakukan untuk mengatasi penyakit tersebut pada ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Sebanyak masing-masing 20 ekor ikan lele dan ikan gabus dibedah secara aseptic dengan mengambil bagian usus dan lambungnya dan selanjutnya usus dibedah secara aseptic dan selanjutnya melet...

  15. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwegiessen, van de, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 2) how age mediates the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 3) the potential effects of chemical ...

  16. Turbo Pump Fed Micro-Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotti, P.; Tajmar, M.; Seco, F.; Guraya, C.; Perennes, F.; Soldati, A.; Lang, M.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-satellites (from 10kg up to 100kg) have mass, volume, and electrical power constraints due to their low dimensions. These limitations lead to the lack in currently available active orbit control systems in micro-satellites. Therefore, a micro-propulsion system with a high thrust to mass ratio is required to increase the potential functionality of small satellites. Mechatronic is presently working on a liquid bipropellant micro-rocket engine under contract with ESA (Contract No.16914/NL/Sfe - Micro-turbo-machinery Based Bipropellant System Using MNT). The advances in Mechatronic's project are to realise a micro-rocket engine with propellants pressurised by micro-pumps. The energy for driving the pumps would be extracted from a micro-turbine. Cooling channels around the nozzle would be also used in order to maintain the wall material below its maximum operating temperature. A mass budget comparison with more traditional pressure-fed micro-rockets shows a real benefit from this system in terms of mass reduction. In the paper, an overview of the project status in Mechatronic is presented.

  17. Effects of anisotonicity on pentose-phosphate pathway, oxidized glutathione release and t-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in the perfused liver of air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmalendu Saha; Carina Goswami

    2004-06-01

    Both hypotonic exposure (185 mOsmol/l) and infusion of glutamine plus glycine (2 mmol/l each) along with the isotonic medium caused a significant increase of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose by 110 and 70%, respectively, from the basal level of 18.4 ± 1.2 nmol/g liver/min from the perfused liver of Clarias batrachus. Conversely, hypertonic exposure (345 mOsmol/l) caused significant decrease of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose by 34%. 14CO2 production from [6-14C]glucose was largely unaffected by anisotonicity. The steady-state release of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into bile was 1.18 ± 0.09 nmol/g liver/min, which was reduced significantly by 36% and 34%, respectively, during hypotonic exposure and amino acid-induced cell swelling, and increased by 34% during hypertonic exposure. The effects of anisotonicity on 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and biliary GSSG release were also observed in the presence of t-butylhydroperoxide (50 mol/l). The oxidative stress-induced cell injury, caused due to infusion of t-butylhydroperoxide, was measured as the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the effluent from the perfused liver; this was found to be affected by anisotonicity. Hypotonic exposure caused significant decrease of LDH release and hypertonic exposure caused significant increase of LDH release from the perfused liver. The data suggest that hypotonically-induced as well as amino acid-induced cell swelling stimulates flux through the pentose-phosphate pathway and decreases loss of GSSG under condition of mild oxidative stress; hypotonically swollen cells are less prone to hydroperoxide-induced LDH release than hypertonically shrunken cells, thus suggesting that cell swelling may exert beneficial effects during early stages of oxidative cell injury probably due to swelling-induced alterations in hepatic metabolism.

  18. Bioavailability of cadmium in rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six-week-old female albino rats were fed rat diet or human foods 3 days before and 6 days after a single oral dose of 115sup(m)Cd. All animals were killed 6 days after administration and the radioactivity in the whole body and in the gut-free carcass was determined in a double scintillation counter. Gut retentions were calculated as the difference: whole body minus carcass. All animals fed meat, bread or milk had much higher body retentions than animals fed rat diet. Our results point out the importance of nutritional factors in metal metabolism and toxicity. (orig./MG)

  19. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Glenn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (C18:2 isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA (C18:1 t11, a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3 FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0, and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0 and palmitic (C16:0 FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A. It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.

  20. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  1. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, CTD Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: CTD Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June every year since 1983. In...

  2. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, Surface Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: Station Information and Surface Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June...

  3. Crises before and after the creation of the Fed

    OpenAIRE

    Early Elias; Òscar Jordà

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Reserve was created 100 years ago in response to the harsh recession associated with the Panic of 1907. Comparing that recession with the Great Recession of 2007–09 suggests the Fed can mitigate downturns to some extent. A statistical analysis suggests that if a central bank had lowered interest rates during the 1907 panic the same way the Fed did during the 2008 financial crisis, gross domestic product would have contracted two percentage points less than it actually did.

  4. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  5. Prevalence of bacterial respiratory pathogens in the nasopharynx in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleida, P H; Nativio, D G; Chao, H P; Cowden, S N

    1993-01-01

    In several studies, breast-feeding has been associated with decreased frequency or duration of otitis media episodes. If a causal relationship exists, the mechanism of protection of breast-feeding has not been established. We hypothesized that infants who are breast-fed, compared with infants who are formula-fed, have a lower prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization with the bacterial respiratory pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcu...

  6. Breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop distinct gut microbiotas and immune systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ardeshir, Amir; Narayan, Nicole R; Méndez-Lagares, Gema; Lu, Ding; Rauch, Marcus; Huang, Yong; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Lynch, Susan V.; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has a strong influence on the intestinal microbiota in both humans and animal models. It is well established that microbial colonization is required for normal development of the immune system and that specific microbial constituents prompt the differentiation or expansion of certain immune cell subsets. Nonetheless, it has been unclear how profoundly diet might shape the primate immune system or how durable the influence might be. We show that breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus mac...

  7. A Comparative Study of Z-Source Inverter Fed Three-Phase IM Drive with CSI and VSI fed IM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper cite comparative performance characteristics of Z-Source inverter fed IM drives with mostly used VSI & CSI fed IM drives. ZSI has both voltages buck and boost capabilities as they allow inverters to be operated in the shoot through state. It employs an exclusive Z-Source network (LC component to dc-link the main inverter circuit to the power source (rectifier. By controlling the shoot-through duty cycle, the inverter system using IGBTS reduces the line harmonics, improves power factor, increases reliability and extends output voltage range. It has reduced harmonics, low switching stress power and low common mode noise as compared to VSI. Simulation results are given to compare the behavior of conventional and proposed topology and also demonstrate the new features of the improved topology i.e ZSI fed IM. Simulation results of  ZSI fed IM gives different performance characteristics as compared to VSI & CSI fed IM drives such as its stator & rotor current characteristics, speed characteristics , torque characteristics which put a gloss on the VSI fed IM performance

  8. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  9. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. PMID:25463859

  10. The Photonic TIGER: a multicore fiber-fed spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-01-01

    We present a proof of concept compact diffraction limited high-resolution fiber-fed spectrograph by using a 2D multicore array input. This high resolution spectrograph is fed by a 2D pseudo-slit, the Photonic TIGER, a hexagonal array of near-diffraction limited single-mode cores. We study the feasibility of this new platform related to the core array separation and rotation with respect to the dispersion axis. A 7 core compact Photonic TIGER fiber-fed spectrograph with a resolving power of around R~31000 and 8 nm bandwidth in the IR centered on 1550 nm is demonstrated. We also describe possible architectures based on this concept for building small scale compact diffraction limited Integral Field Spectrographs (IFS).

  11. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  12. Organic acids emissions from natural-gas-fed engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Efthimios; Tazerout, Mohand

    A natural-gas-fed spark-ignition engine, operating under lean conditions, is used for the study of the organic acids exhaust emissions. These pollutants are collected by passing a sample of exhaust gas into deionised water. The final solution is directly analysed by HPLC/UV at 204 nm. Only formic acid is emitted in detectable concentration under the experimental conditions used. Its concentration decreases with the three engine operating parameters studied: spark advance, volumetric efficiency and fuel/air equivalence ratio. Exhaust formic acid concentration is also linked with exhaust oxygen concentration and exhaust temperature. A comparison with other engines (SI engines fed with gasoline and compression ignition engines) from bibliographic data proves that natural-gas-fed engines emit less organic acids than the other two types of engines.

  13. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  14. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  15. Analysis of Capacitive Parasitism in PWM Inverter-Fed Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of parasitic capacitance in induction motor system are unnoticed when it is fed from the AC line. but they are obvious when supplied directly from a PWM inverter. Consequently. many parasitic problems occur, such as motor-to-earth leakage current, bearing current, incoming line current distortion and uneven distribution of electrical stresses along the winding. On the ba sis of the uniform transmission line principle, a complete equivalent circuit of the PWM inverter-fed motor system is presented, based on which all the capacitive parasitic problems mentioned above are analyzed and simulated by means of PSPICE. All the results are consistent with the existing ones.

  16. Is the Fed Funds Rate Still Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    John Silvia; Azhar Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Both the depth and length of the Great Recession create the impression that the economy proved impervious to monetary policy. Policy rates, such as the federal funds rate (fed funds rate), were set at record lows, but the recovery in housing, employment, and GDP were subpar at best. Now with a self-sustaining expansion, the FOMC began rolling back its asset purchases program and, at some point in the future, it will start increasing its target for the fed funds rate. This raises the questions...

  17. Conducting monetary policy without government debt: the Fed's early years

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Wheelock

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Reserve implements its monetary policy by using open market operations in U.S. government securities to target the federal funds rate. A substantial decline in the stock of U.S. Treasury debt could interfere with the conduct of monetary policy, possibly forcing the Fed to rely more heavily on discount window lending or to conduct open market transactions in other types of securities. Either would cause the implementation of monetary policy to resemble the methods used by the Fed b...

  18. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

    1983-04-01

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

  19. U.S. Grass-Fed Beef: Marketing Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Li, Quan; Wandschneider, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Grass-fed beef is a product with health benefits that may appeal to health-conscious consumers. This article analyzes the results of a choice experiment to explore the importance of health benefits in the marketing of grass fed beef. Both price and fat and calories have a negative effect on the choice of the product, and higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids have a positive effect. Price is the most important attribute to respondents (39.5%), a low level of fat and calories is the second most ...

  20. Thermal power of small scale manually fed boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Janić Todor V.; Igić Saša M.; Dedović Nebojša M.; Pavlović Darijan B.; Turan Jan J.; Sedlar Aleksandar D.

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews test results of the combustion of square soybean straw bales used as fuel in manually fed boiler with nominal thermal power of 120 kWth. The influence of the mass flow rate (180, 265, 350, 435, and 520 kg h-1) of inlet air and flue gas recirculation (0%, 16.5%, and 33%) fed to the boiler furnace was continuously monitored. Direct method was used for determination of the boiler thermal power. Correlation between boiler thermal power and ba...

  1. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required

  2. Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose...

  3. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the partial results of a research project that studied the impact of medium voltage PWM ASD (adjustable speed drives) on motor stator insulation system. The findings from this study/ investigation have aided designers to improve the robustness of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors, based on accelerated laboratory tests. (author)

  4. Wideband Coaxial Fed Rotated Stacked Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ujwala; A. Gnandeep Reddy

    2014-01-01

    A novel circularly polarized coaxial fed rotated stacked patch antenna is proposed and its performance characteristics are presented in the current work. The antenna consisting of four parasitic patch, each one being rotated by 300 relative to its adjacent patches. The proposed antenna is giving return loss less than -10 dB with VSWR

  5. Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters; 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1; 3 - Probiotic (Pool based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, Streptococcus lactis and faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Aspergillus oryzae (Pro 2; 4 - Prebiotic based on Phosphorylated Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and Organic Acidifier (OA (Pre 1; 5 - MOS-based prebiotic (Pre 2; 6 - Pro 1 + Pre 1; 7 - Pro 1 + Pre 2; 8 - Pro 2 + Pre 1; 9 - Pro 2 + Pre 2. Higher villus height (VH (p<0.01 were seen in the duodenum of birds fed diets without prebiotics, whereas birds fed Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic and birds fed prebiotic based on MOS and OA showed higher VH (p<0.01 in jejunum and ileum. Greater crypt depths (CD (p<0.01 were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of birds receiving B. subtilis, and in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed diets without prebiotics. Significant interaction (p<0.01 between the evaluated factors was seen for both, VH and CD, in the three intestinal portions. Greater VH was obtained in duodenum, jejunum and ileum with the use of probiotics and prebiotics and greater CD with the use of probiotics, in relation to the control group. There was no difference in villus density (VD between birds fed diets without additives or diets containing probiotics and prebiotics. Nevertheless, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05 between the evaluated factors for VD in the duodenum. Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age.

  6. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

  7. Genetic identification and phylogenetic relationships of Indian clariids based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Aneesha; Kumar, Raj; Shajitha, P P; John, Reshma; Padmakumar, K G; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mathew, Linu

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) sequence variation among the clariid fishes of India (Clarias magur, C. dussumieri and C. gariepinus) and their relationship with other representative clariids was studied in this work. Three species were sampled and together with 23 COI sequences from GenBank were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in the family Clariidae. The study revealed two clades: one consisting of the African species with C. dussumieri, and the other of Asian species suggesting the prevalence of intra-continental diversification of catfishes. This study further revealed that the genus Clarias is monophyletic. For the COI gene, the interspecies genetic divergence ranged from 0.056 to 0.182. The mean genetic difference between C. dussumieri and other selected African species in this study is 12.1%. It was also observed that the morphological similarity of C. dussumieri and C. magur was not replicated in the genetic level. Clarias dussumieri was more close to African catfish C. gariepinus thus indicating the utility of COI phylogeny to identify the well-known African-Asian relationships within catfishes. The results also showed that C. magur and C. batrachus are genetically distinct from each other. PMID:26358817

  8. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O;

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  9. Cross Federal Workgroup on Telehealth (FedTel) Inventory of Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is a collection of the submitted activities and projects from member of the Cross Federal Workgroup on Telehealth (FedTel). The FedTel's membership...

  10. Meat characteristics of buffaloes fed with different roughage: concentrate ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sanghuayprai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Meat characteristics of mature swamp buffalo fed with two different ratios of roughage and concentrate feed was studied. Twelve draught buffaloes with an average weight of 350 kg were randomly divided into two treatments and kept individually in pens. The concentrate:roughage ratio (based on dry matter was 50:50 (T1 or 30:70 (T2, respectively. All buffaloes were slaughtered at a body weight of 500 kg (± 25 and M. longissimus dorsi was removed in order to study meat quality. The meat quality in terms of color, pH and conductivity values were not significantly different between the groups. Meat color in terms of L* (lightness showed that LD of T2 group was significantly lighter when compared with T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, meat characteristic traits of buffalo fed concentrate to roughage in ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 were similar.

  11. SIMULATION OF CYCLOCONVERTER FED SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Pratap Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase induction motors are widely used in many applications. Improvements in its performance mean a great saving in electrical energy consumption. A cycloconverter fed variable frequency motor is a typical example of such improvement. In this regard, the paper presents an analysis of the performance and speed control of the split phase induction motor when it is fed with cycloconverter. Dynamic models and analysis of the motor behavior during transient and steady state phases are presented. A speed controller based oncycloconverter is proposed. The controlled motor exhibited better performance at staring state. A cycloconverter is a device that converts AC, power at one frequency into AC power of an adjustable but lower frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in between. It can also be considered as a static frequency changer andtypically contains silicon-controlled rectifiers.

  12. A space-fed phased array for surveillance from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Charles H.; Wong, Sam H.; Perkons, Alfred R.; Igwe, Christian I.

    1991-05-01

    A space-fed radar antenna called a venetian blind is proposed for all-weather wide-area surveillance from space. Radar requirements for tasked and untasked operation are discussed, and the process of selecting the venetian blind concept, which can support both, is described. In its untasked form (essentially a space-fed passive lens), it achieves off-axis squint angles of many beamwidths with negligible performance degradation. It is inherently insensitive to mechanical distortion and is a first step in the evolution to the more complex tasked system antenna. The antenna lens consists of easily manufactured slats with microstrip dipole radiating elements and matching networks on a dielectric substrate. Phase control is achieved with low-loss delay lines in the passive lens or active transmit/receive modules if electronic scan is desired.

  13. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since it...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow. To...... offers very fast system response to grid disturbances and lower sensitivity to the grid impedance, and moreover, this control structure releases the central control of having grid impedance estimation techniques or adaptive control methods. The difference between the required reactive power and the one...

  14. Blood concentrations of chlortetracycline in macaws fed medicated pelleted feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, K; Cassidy, D R; Landgraf, W W; Ross, P F

    1989-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the suitability of using a pelleted diet containing chlortetracycline (CTC) for treatment of chlamydiosis in macaws. Macaws, normally fed seed and fruit diets in captivity, are notoriously difficult to treat with CTC-medicated mash diets. Healthy macaws fed a pelleted diet containing 1% or 1.5% CTC for 30 or 45 days maintained adequate food intake and mean blood concentrations of 1-2 CTC micrograms/ml blood throughout the treatment period. There were no significant differences between blood concentrations induced by the different dietary CTC concentrations. Blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, so it is likely that 1% CTC-medicated pellets will be adequate for treating chlamydiosis in these species. PMID:2930403

  15. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  16. Direct torque control of brushless doubly-fed reluctance machines

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jian

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and Experimental results of research on the Direct Torque Control (DTC) of the Brushless Doubly Fed Reluctance Machine (BDFRM) are presented in this thesis. The main motivation for this work has been found in the relative simplicity of the DTC strategy and attractive properties of the BDFRM drive, foremost its cost-effectiveness associated with the use of a partially rated power electronics, and reliability of brushless structure of the machine itself. It is hoped that the project...

  17. SELF CONTROL OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FED BY MATRIX CONVERTER

    OpenAIRE

    CALISKAN, ABUZER; Orhan, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study self control of synchronous motor fed by matrix converter was examined by developing a Matlab/simulink model. Self control of synchronous motor was performed by fixing frequency of stator voltage to rotor speed. Thus, the probable danger of asynchronism of the motor during transient operation in open loop control is removed. In the developed model, simplified Venturini modulation algorithm was used. This algorithm provides unity fundamental displacement factor at the input regar...

  18. Borrowed Reserves, Fed Funds Rate Targets, And the Term Structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey H. Nilsen

    1997-01-01

    When examined for the period 1985-1992 as a whole, the impact of changes in the targeted Fed funds rate on U.S. treasury bill rates has been weaker than during previous periods. The period, however, should be viewed as three separate regimes. First, I show significant differences between the Greenspan and Volcker eras arising from management style. Volcker emitted ambiguous signals to the market, which induced "heterogenous" expectations. Greenspan's market leadership forged more homogeneous ...

  19. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  20. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococci Isolated from Turkey Flocks Fed Virginiamycin

    OpenAIRE

    Welton, L. A.; Thal, L A; Perri, M B; Donabedian, S; McMahon, J.; Chow, J. W.; Zervos, M J

    1998-01-01

    From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE types of E. faecalis and 7 PFGE types of E...

  2. Improved Energy Conversion for Doubly Fed Wind Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A. C.; Todd, R.; Barnes, M; Tavner, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently significant interest in offshore wind turbines up to 5 MW. One of the preferred options is doubly fed slip-ring generators. Turbine manufacturers have proposed an operating scheme for low speeds that is claimed to improve the overall energy extraction from the wind. This paper aims to examine the performance benefits for this new operational mode on a small experimental rig, confirmed by simulation, and to provide a fundamental understanding of the differences in the genera...

  3. Microstrip-fed Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; McEvoy, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A wideband circularly-polarized printed antenna is proposed, which employs an asymmetrical dipole and a slit in the ground plane which are fed by an L-shaped microstrip feedline using a via. The proposed antenna geometry is arranged so that the orthogonal surface currents, which are generated in the dipole, feedline and ground plane, have the appropriate phase to provide circular polarization. A parametric study of the key parameters is made and the mechanism for circular polarization is desc...

  4. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Behera; D. R. Poddar; Mishra, R K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array...

  5. Electromagnetic effects on the FED/INTOR limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic effects were among the critical issues of the impurity control system examined in the 1982 FED/INTOR design study. During a plasma disruption, the decaying plasma current induces voltages and currents in the first wall and limiter systems which can produce arcing between limiter segments and large forces and torques on the limiter. The effects of first wall time constant, limiter electrical resistance, and limiter segmentation on the voltages, forces, and torques were studied

  6. A Compact Modified Ground CPW Fed Antenna for UWB Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vasudevan, K; P. Mohanan; C. K. Aanandan; Jacob, S; S. Mridula; V. A. Shameena

    2011-01-01

    A Coplanar waveguide fed compact planar monopole antenna with a modified ground plane is presented. Measured and simulated results reveal that the antenna operates in the Ultra Wide Band with almost constant group delay throughout the band. Developed design equations of the antenna are validated for different substrates. Time domain performance of the antenna is also discussed in order to assess its suitability for impulse radio applications.

  7. CPW-Fed Slot Antenna for Wideband Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmuganantham, T.; K. Balamanikandan; Raghavan, S

    2008-01-01

    A new coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed wideband printed slot antenna is presented, and the impedance characteristics of this antenna with different sizes of tapers are discussed. The effect of tapering angle with the resonant frequency is also observed. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as bandwidth, return loss, gain, radiation pattern, and polarization are obtained. All meets the acceptable antenna standards. The measured input impedance bandwidth (return loss < −10 dB) of the pro...

  8. High-Performance Control of Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Milutin Jovanović; Hamza Chaal

    2010-01-01

    The Brushless Doubly Fed Reluctance Machine (BDFRM) is a promising cost-effective alternative solution in applications with narrow speed ranges such as large wind turbines and/or pump-type drives. Apart from providing a comprehensive literature review and analysis of vector (fieldoriented) control and direct torque (and flux) control (DTC) methods, the development, and results of experimental verification, of an angular velocity observer-based DTC scheme for sensorless speed operation of the ...

  9. Corner-Fed Microstrip Antenna Analysis for Dual Polarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates a corner-fed microstrip patch antenna by means of the cavity model with proposedfeed modeling. The input impedance and radiation patterns for a corner feed are calculated. The mutual coupling be-tween two corner feeds is investigated. An improvement in mutual coupling has been found for corner feeds relativeto edge feeds, which is helpful for the design of dual-polarized antenna arrays in wireless communication and radarapplications

  10. A New Asymmetrical Current-fed Converter with Voltage Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Delshad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter with high voltage gain. In this converter all switches (main and auxiliary) turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. Furthermore, the voltage spike across the main switch due to leakage inductance of forward transformer is absorbed. The flyback transformer which is connected to the output in series causes to high voltage gain and less voltage s...

  11. A compact wideband monopole antenna fed by coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guoping; Zhao, Wenhua; Zhou, Jiang; Su, Yan; Li, Qifu

    2016-02-01

    A compact wideband printed antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) is presented in this paper. The wideband characteristic is achieved by coupling three monopole resonant modes of the proposed antenna. The proposed antenna is built and simulated to verify the design strategy. A wide impedance bandwidth of 100.5% (1.7866-5.3953 GHz) with S11antenna has stable performance, including bi-directional radiation pattern and gain. It also shows the merits of low cost and simple structure.

  12. Optimal parametric sensitivity control for a fed-batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a method to derive an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for optimal estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed batch bio-reactor case study for optimal estimation of the saturation constant Ks and, albeit intuitively, the parameter combination "mu-max X/Y" where mu-max is the maximum growth rate [g/min], Y is the yield coefficient [g/g], and X is the (constant) biomass [g].

  13. Crowbar System in Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício B. C. Salles; Kay Hameyer; José R. Cardoso; Ahda. P. Grilo; Claudia Rahmann

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). According to new grid code requirements, wind turbines must remain connected to the grid during grid disturbances. Moreover, they must also contribute to voltage support during and after grid faults. The crowbar system is essential to a...

  14. Continuous cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by cyclic fed-batch cocultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-03-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter(-1), the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter(-1) and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

  15. Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

  16. Crowbar System in Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício B. C. Salles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT. According to new grid code requirements, wind turbines must remain connected to the grid during grid disturbances. Moreover, they must also contribute to voltage support during and after grid faults. The crowbar system is essential to avoid the disconnection of the doubly fed induction wind generators from the network during faults. The insertion of the crowbar in the rotor circuits for a short period of time enables a more efficient terminal voltage control. As a general rule, the activation and the deactivation of the crowbar system is based only on the DC-link voltage level of the back-to-back converters. In this context, the authors discuss the critical rotor speed to analyze the instability of doubly fed induction generators during grid faults.

  17. Urotensin II promotes atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li

    Full Text Available Urotensin II (UII is a vasoactive peptide composed of 11 amino acids that has been implicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether UII affects the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. UII was infused for 16 weeks through an osmotic mini-pump into male Japanese White rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions along with cellular components, collagen fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 were examined. Moreover, vulnerability index of atherosclerotic plaques was evaluated. UII infusion significantly increased atherosclerotic lesions within the entire aorta by 21% over the control (P = 0.013. Atherosclerotic lesions were increased by 24% in the aortic arch (P = 0.005, 11% in the thoracic aorta (P = 0.054 and 18% in the abdominal aorta (P = 0.035. These increases occurred without changes in plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides or body weight. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly enhanced by 2.2-fold and 1.6-fold in UII group. In vitro studies demonstrated that UII up-regulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by the UII receptor antagonist urantide. In conclusion, our results showed that UII promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  18. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W. [TECO-Westinghouse Motor Co., Round Rock, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Adjustable speed drives (ASD) are commonly used in power electronics and control systems. It is estimated that more than 15 per cent of medium voltage motors are currently fed by such drives worldwide. A research project was conducted to examine the influence of medium voltage pulse width modulated (PWM) ASD on motor stator insulation systems. The findings, based on accelerated laboratory tests, have helped designers to improve the capabilities of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors. Repetitive, high magnitude voltage spikes with fast rise time create significant stress on insulation systems. Gradual deterioration and premature failure of the motor insulation can result from surge voltages which generate surface discharges between phase windings/end windings, or partial discharges between stator turns. However, there is no industrial standard to evaluate motor insulation life under ASD-cable-motor conditions. Several material manufacturers have developed their own version of corona resistant material. However, the insulation life of ASD-fed motors does not depend solely on the raw materials. Rather, it depends on the complete insulation system, including the stator manufacturing process. In order to address this problem, TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company has developed special design criteria and manufacturing practices in order to reduce winding insulation temperature and to compensate for the additional heat generated by high frequency contents in the PWM voltage waveform. A patent pending new cooling system should reduce winding temperature by 15 to 20 degrees C. This paper presented design considerations for turn insulation, groundwall insulation, and a voltage stress grading system. A new thermal class H insulation system was also described. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  20. Commercial enzyme influence on broilers fed different levels of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Seifi S.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multienzyme supplement (Natuzyme®) in diets containing wheat on the broilers performance. A total of one hundred twenty day old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with a 2 3 factorial arrangement (0, 150 and 300 gram per kilogram wheat and 0 and 0.025 gram per kilogram enzyme). Chickens were fed with starter, grower and finisher diets during 1-21, 22- 35, 36-49 day...

  1. NCI at Frederick Contributes to Feds Feed Families | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once again, NCI at Frederick participated in the annual Feds Feed Families event, which challenges federal workers to help knock out hunger with a food drive. This year, NIH collected 26,315 pounds of non-perishable goods, beating its goal of collecting 20,000 pounds. This includes over four tons of food that was collected at satellite locations, including NCI at Frederick. The food collected at NCI at Frederick was donated locally to the Frederick Rescue Mission. These donations help feed local families in need through the holiday season.

  2. Wind Generator Stabilization with Doubly-Fed Asynchronous Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li; WANG Zhi-xin

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the function of doubly-fed asynchronous machine(DASM) with emphasis placed on its ability to the stabilization of the power system including wind generators. P(active power) and Q(reactive power) compensation from DASM can be regulated independently through secondary-excitation controlling. Simulation results by power system computer aided design(PSCAD) show that DASM can restore the wind-generator system to a normal operating condition rapidly even following severe transmission-line failures. Comparison studies have also been performed between wind turbine pitch control and proposed method.

  3. Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhlouf Laakam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a grid connected wind power generation scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied. The aims of this paper are: The modelling and simulation of the operating in two quadrants (torque-speed of a DFIG, the analysis employs a stator flux vector control algorithm to control rotor current using the PI regulator. The simulation calculations were achieved using MATLAB®-SIMULINK® package. The obtained results are presented, illustrating the good control performances of the system

  4. Exploring New Clustering Algorithms for the CMS Tracker FED

    CERN Document Server

    Gamboa Alvarado, Jose Leandro

    2013-01-01

    In the current Front End (FE) firmware clusters of hits within the APV frames are found using a simple threshold comparison (which is made between the data and a 3 or 5 sigma strip noise cut) on reordered pedestal and Common Mode (CM) noise subtracted data. In addition the CM noise subtraction requires the baseline of each APV frame to be approximately uniform. Therefore, the current algorithm will fail if the APV baseline exhibits large-scale non-uniform behavior. Under very high luminosity conditions the assumption of a uniform APV baseline breaks down and the FED is unable to maintain a high efficiency of cluster finding. \

  5. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP) operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstr...

  6. Wideband Coaxial Fed Rotated Stacked Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ujwala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel circularly polarized coaxial fed rotated stacked patch antenna is proposed and its performance characteristics are presented in the current work. The antenna consisting of four parasitic patch, each one being rotated by 300 relative to its adjacent patches. The proposed antenna is giving return loss less than -10 dB with VSWR<2 and bandwidth 700 MHz (5.8 to 6.5 GHz with axial ratio less than 3dB. The analysis of the antenna is explained through parametric study and HFSS simulation results are presented in the current work.

  7. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha; Meenakshi saini

    2014-01-01

    A single-fed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02) substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42%...

  8. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John;

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  9. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  10. Modal Analysis of Power Systems with Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jialin

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the reliable operation of the power system, stability analysis considering the interaction between wind power and power system must be understood. In this thesis, the impact of wind power on the stability of Nordic32A power system is of interest. Many wind farms nowadays employ doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) variable speed wind turbines. In this thesis, a third order DFIG model and its control circuits are employed. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to tu...

  11. Antigenic specificity of serum antibodies in mice fed soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Bruun, S.W.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    the relationship between the immunogenic proteins involved in this nondeleterious antibody response and the pathological response associated with food allergy. The objective of the present study was to characterize the antigenic specificity of the soy protein-specific antibody response generated in...... healthy mice ingesting soy protein. Methods: Blood from mice fed a soy-containing diet was analyzed using ELISA and immunoblot for antibody reactivity towards various soy protein fractions and pure soy proteins/subunits. Mice bred on a soy-free diet were used as controls. Results: The detectable antigenic...

  12. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    delivery system (SNEDDS) was either dosed in a hard gelatin capsule (SNEDDS-C) or loaded onto a porous tablet core (SNEDDS-T) and compared to a marketed conventional tablet (Conv) in an in vitro lipolysis model. The model simulates the digestion in the stomach and intestine during either the fasted......The present study aims at evaluating the ability of a gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis model to predict the performance of two lipid formulations and a conventional tablet containing a poorly soluble drug, cinnarizine, in dogs, both in the fasted and fed state. A self-nano-emulsifying drug...

  13. Doxycycline plasma concentrations in macaws fed a medicate corn diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, S E; Clubb, S L; Flammer, K

    1992-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the doxycycline plasma concentrations attained by feeding a medicated corn diet to large psittacine birds. Doxycycline is the preferred drug for the treatment of chlamydiosis in psittacine birds. Healthy macaws were fed a 0.1% doxycycline-medicated corn diet for 45 days, and plasma doxycycline concentrations were determined by microbiological assay on treatment days 3, 15, 30, and 45. Plasma doxycycline concentrations exceeded 1 microgram/ml in 87% of the samples assayed. As blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, a doxycycline-medicated corn diet may be efficacious in the treatment of chlamydiosis in large psittacine birds. PMID:1627120

  14. Centralised control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Sorensen, Poul; Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of doubly-fed generators. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to behave as active controllable components in the power system. The attention is mainly drawn to the...... ability of the wind farm control strategy to regulate the wind farm power production to the reference power ordered by the system operators. The performance of the control strategy is assessed and discussed by means of normal operation simulations of a grid connected wind farm....

  15. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  16. Treatment with methotrexate inhibits atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Adriana; Martins Dias, Adriana Abalen; Caramelli, Bruno; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante

    2012-04-01

    A decrease in the number of cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis treated with methotrexate (MTX) has been observed in the literature. The aim of this study was to test whether MTX could promote anti-inflammatory effects and reduce the atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol feeding. Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet for 60 days. Starting from day 30 of cholesterol feeding, 10 animals were treated with 4 weekly intravenous injections of MTX (4 mg/kg) and 10 with 4 weekly saline solution injections for 30 days. MTX reduced the size of the lesion areas of cholesterol-fed animals by 75% and intima-media ratio 2-fold. The drug inhibited macrophage migration into the intima by 50% and the presence of apoptotic cells by 84% but did not inhibit the intimal proliferation of smooth muscle cells. MTX treatment also diminished the positive staining area of metalloproteinase 9 in the intima, which is probably beneficial. In the tumor necrosis factor-α-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell line, incubation with MTX led to downregulation of 5 pro-inflammatory genes, TNF-α, VAP-1, IL-1β, CXCL2, and TLR2, and upregulation of the anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 gene, thus showing endothelium-protective properties. In conclusion, MTX showed direct in vivo anti-atherosclerotic action and may have potential in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:22113347

  17. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  18. Transitioning the child fed by gastrostomy into school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J S; Davis, B D; La Montagne, M J

    1990-07-01

    Young children dependent on gastrostomy feeding are examples of special-needs children now eligible for expanded nutrition services in schools through Public Law 99-457. With the implementation of this law, nutritionists have an opportunity to expand their roles as consultants to special education teachers. A team approach involving nutrition, nursing, and special education was used to prepare a gastrostomy-fed preschool child and his family for school. The family of the multihandicapped child had been isolated by the child's feeding problems and viewed the problems as barriers to his entering school. Components of a nutrition care plan for an interdisciplinary team included oral feeding readiness, nutritional adequacy and timing of meals, and mechanical aspects of gastrostomy feeding in the classroom. Nutrition interventions were adjusted for the classroom from those used in the home or clinical setting. The major activity in the transition program was behavioral management of the child's rumination, which affected nutritional status and feeding. The major outcome of the transition program was enrollment of the child in school, with gastrostomy feeding as a routine activity. A transition program for a gastrostomy-fed child is an appropriate mechanism for expanding the role of the nutritionist into the classroom. PMID:2114432

  19. Biodiversity under threat in glacier-fed river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Milner, Alexander M.; Brown, Lee E.; Dangles, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is under threat across the globe, with climate change being a significant contributor. One impact of climate change is the rapid shrinking of glaciers, resulting in a reduction in glacial meltwater contribution to river flow in many glacierized catchments. These changes potentially affect the biodiversity of specialized glacier-fed river communities. Perhaps surprisingly then, although freshwater biodiversity is a major conservation priority, the effects of shrinkage and disappearance of glaciers on river biodiversity have hitherto been poorly quantified. Here we focus on macroinvertebrates (mainly insect larvae) and demonstrate that local (α) and regional (γ) diversity, as well as turnover among reaches (β-diversity), will be consistently reduced by the shrinkage of glaciers. We show that 11-38% of the regional species pools, including endemics, can be expected to be lost following complete disappearance of glaciers in a catchment, and steady shrinkage is likely to reduce taxon turnover in proglacial river systems and local richness at downstream reaches where glacial cover in the catchment is less than 5-30%. Our analysis demonstrates not only the vulnerability of local biodiversity hotspots but also that extinction will probably greatly exceed the few known endemic species in glacier-fed rivers.

  20. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  1. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den, L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and 50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan con...

  2. Significant factors affecting the economic sustainability of closed aquaponic systems. Part II: fish and plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Palm, Harry W.; Karl Bissa; Ulrich Knaus

    2014-01-01

    Two identical closed ebb-flow substrate aquaponic systems for warm-water fish were tested for fish and plant productivity. Each system contained 3.7 m3 water, and the relationship of the water volume in the aquaculture tank to the settling basin (sedimenter, clarifier), the biofilter and the hydroponic units was 2.25:1:0.075:0.6 (fish tank:hydroponic unit = 3.75). The comparative batch cultivation of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at ...

  3. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  4. Characterization of Human Duodenal Fluids in Fasted and Fed State Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethorst, Danny; Mols, Raf; Duchateau, Guus; Tack, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Augustijns, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    This work provides an elaborate characterization of human intestinal fluids (HIF) collected in fasted- and fed-state conditions. HIF from 20 healthy volunteers (10 M/F) were aspirated by intubation near the ligament of Treitz in a time-dependent manner (10-min intervals) and characterized for pH, bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), diacylglycerides (DAG), monoacylglycerides (MAG), free fatty acids (FFA), pancreatic lipase, phospholipase A2, and nonspecific esterase activity. For almost all parameters, a food-induced effect was observed. Results were characterized by a high variability, as illustrated by the broad ranges observed for each parameter: pH (fasted: 3.4-8.3; fed: 4.7-7.1), bile salts (fasted: 0.03-36.18 mM; fed: 0.74-86.14 mM), phospholipids (fasted: 0.01-6.33 mM; fed: 0.16-14.39 mM), cholesterol (fasted: 0-0.48 mM; fed: 0-3.29 mM), TAG (fed: 0-6.76 mg/mL), DAG (fed: 0-3.64 mg/mL), MAG (fasted: 0-1.09 mg/mL; fed: 0-11.36 mg/mL), FFA (fasted: 0-3.86 mg/mL; fed: 0.53-15.0 mg/mL), pancreatic lipase (fasted: 26-86 g/mL; fed: 146-415 g/mL), phospholipase A2 (fasted: 3-6 ng/mL; fed: 4.3-27.7 ng/mL), and nonspecific esterase activity (fasted: 270-4900 U/mL; fed: 430-4655 U/mL). This comprehensive overview may serve as reference data for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and the optimization of biorelevant simulated intestinal fluids for the use in in vitro dissolution, solubility, and permeability profiling. PMID:26228456

  5. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Leonides; Jariod Manel; García Natalia; Albújar Mar; Arroyo Rebeca; Maldonado Antonio; Delgado Susana; Jiménez Esther; Gómez Adolfo; Rodríguez Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed) participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples...

  6. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard D. Holmes; Inman III, Floyd L.; Sivanadane Mandjiny; Rinu Kooliyottil; Devang Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process s...

  7. Growth Indices of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Larvae Fed with Live Food and Artificial Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Shammi, Qaiser Jahan; Shaukath Ali MIR

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the individual and mixed effect of live and artificial food on the growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae. The triplicate treatments were divided into four sets. The first group was fed a commercial starter food; the second group was fed on live Artemia salina nauplii (for 3 days); the third group was fed on live Artemia salina nauplii (for 7 days); and the last group was fed on a combination of live Artemia nauplii ...

  8. Methane Production by Fermentor Cultures Acclimated to Waste from Cattle Fed Monensin, Lasalocid, Salinomycin, or Avoparcin

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to ferment waste from cattle fed monensin, lasalocid, or salinomycin to methane was determined. Continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with 3-liter working volumes at 55°C were used; fermentors were fed once per day. Initially, all fermentors were fed waste without antibiotics at 6% volatile solids (VSs, organic matter) and a 20-day retention time (RT) for 60 days. Waste from animals fed monensin, lasalocid, or salinomycin at 29, 20, and 16.5 mg per kg of feed, ...

  9. A multipurpose fiber-fed VPHG spectrograph for LAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongtian; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhang, Qingfeng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jianing

    2006-06-01

    A multipurpose fiber-fed double-beam Schmidt spectrograph using VPHG (volume phase holographic gratings) is under construction for LAMOST (The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope). There are 16 such spectrographs (hereafter referred to as LRSs) for the project. The spectrographs are designed with wavelength coverage from 370 to 900 nm, with spectral resolutions of 1000-10000, and with multi-object capability over a 5 degrees field of view. Each spectrograph will be accommodating 250 fibers of 320 microns diameter (corresponding 3.3 arcsecs). The 200 mm diameter collimated beam is split into two separate channels. The blue channel is optimized for 370nm-590nm, and the red channel for 570nm-900nm. The LRS can work in several varied resolution modes. The optical design and performance is described. The spectrograph is of simple design with moderate image quality and good throughput. Progress on the construction of LRS is reported as well.

  10. Wireless Sensor Networking for Rain-fed Farming Decision Support

    CERN Document Server

    Panchard, J; Sheshshayee, M S; Papadimitratos, P; Kumar, S; Hubaux, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be a valuable decision-support tool for farmers. This motivated our deployment of a WSN system to support rain-fed agriculture in India. We defined promising use cases and resolved technical challenges throughout a two-year deployment of our COMMON-Sense Net system, which provided farmers with environment data. However, the direct use of this technology in the field did not foster the expected participation of the population. This made it difficult to develop the intended decision-support system. Based on this experience, we take the following position in this paper: currently, the deployment of WSN technology in developing regions is more likely to be effective if it targets scientists and technical personnel as users, rather than the farmers themselves. We base this claim on the lessons learned from the COMMON-Sense system deployment and the results of an extensive user experiment with agriculture scientists, which we describe in this paper.

  11. Robust Adaptive Reactive Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reactive power control for mains-side inverter (MSI in doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied in this paper. To accommodate the modelling nonlinearities and inherent uncertainties, a novel robust adaptive control algorithm for MSI is proposed by utilizing Lyapunov theory that ensures asymptotic stability of the system under unpredictable external disturbances and significant parametric uncertainties. The distinguishing benefit of the aforementioned scheme consists in its capabilities to maintain satisfactory performance under varying operation conditions without the need for manually redesigning or reprogramming the control gains in contrast to the commonly used PI/PID control. Simulations are also built to confirm the correctness and benefits of the control scheme.

  12. Hopf bifurcation in doubly fed induction generator under vector control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first presents the Hopf bifurcation phenomena of a vector-controlled doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) which is a competitive choice in wind power industry. Using three-phase back-to-back pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converters, DFIG can keep stator frequency constant under variable rotor speed and provide independent control of active and reactive power output. Main results are illustrated by 'exact' cycle-by-cycle simulations. The detailed mathematical model of the closed-loop system is derived and used to analyze the observed bifurcation phenomena. The loci of the Jacobian's eigenvalues are computed and the analysis shows that the system loses stability via a Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, the boundaries of Hopf bifurcation are also given to facilitate the selection of practical parameters for guaranteeing stable operation.

  13. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  14. Fusion Engineering Device (FED) first wall/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The torus of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is comprised of the bulk shield and its associated spool lstructure and support system, the first wall water-cooled panel and armor systems, and the pumped limiter. The bulk shielding is provided by ten shield sectors that are installed in the spool structure in such a way as to permit extraction of the sectors through the openings between adjacent toroidal field coils with a direct radial movement. The first wall armor is installed on the inboard and top interior walls of these sectors, and the water-cooled panels are installed on the outboard interior walls and the pumped limiter in the bottom of the sectors. The overall design of the first wall and shield system is described in this paper

  15. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

  16. Six-Phase Matrix Converter Fed Double Star Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendiabdellah Azeddine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available two different control strategies applied to a direct AC-AC six-phase matrixconverter are investigated in the present paper. The first strategy is derived from theVenturini method, and the second approach is practically an extension of the scalarstrategy control. Both strategies were originally applied to the three-phase matrixconverter.The current investigation deals with a comparative performance study of a double starinduction motor fed from a six-phase matrix converter using the two above controlstrategies.After a theoretical introduction of the six-phase matrix converter, a detailed description ofthe strategies implementation is presented followed by a discussion of results obtained fromsimulation results.

  17. A Wideband Single Fed L Slot Circularly Polarized Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-fed circularly polarized (CP patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (εr = 10.02 substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42% and Axial Ratio Bandwidth by 4% by this design. The other Parameters of antenna like return loss and radiation pattern are also analyzed using HFSS software.

  18. Series-Fed Microstrip Array Antenna with Circular Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Yung Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel 2 × 2 array antenna design with broadband and circularly-polarized (CP operation. The proposed design uses a simple series-fed network to increase the CP bandwidth without requiring one-by-one adjustment of each array element or a complex feed network. Selecting the appropriate spacing between each array element allows the proposed array antenna to generate CP radiation with a low axial ratio. Experimental results based on a prototype show that this 2 × 2 microstrip array antenna achieves a wide 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of more than 10%. Simulated data are also provided to confirm the measured results.

  19. Cross polarization in beam waveguide-fed Cassegrain reflector antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Bijan

    1991-02-01

    The sensitivity of the cross-polarization level to a deviation from the geometrical condition derived by Mizusawa and Kitsuregawa (1973) for different geometrical configurations is studied. This condition restricts the number of possible beam waveguide configurations for beam waveguide-fed Cassegrain reflector (BFCR) antennas. For a symmetrical feed, this condition results in a symmetrical aperture distribution with no cross-polarized component. By examining a number of beam waveguide configurations satisfying the condition, it was observed that for linearly polarized feed, the cross-polarization level is very sensitive to a deviation from this condition. For circularly polarized feed, deviation from this condition does not increase the cross-polarization level; however, it results in the squinting of the beam for BFCRs.

  20. Analysis of Variable Speed PFC Chopper Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jeya Selvan Renius

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the detailed analysis of the DC-DC chopper fed Brushless DC motor drive used for low-power applications. The various methods used to improve the power quality at the ac mains with lesser number of components are discussed. The most effective method of power quality improvement is also simulated using MATLAB Simulink. Improved method of speed control by controlling the dc link voltage of Voltage Source Inverter is also discussed with reduced switching losses. The continuous and discontinuous modes of operation of the converters are also discussed based on the improvement in power quality. The performance of the most effective solution is simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment and the obtained results are presented.

  1. Pump Fed Propulsion for Mars Ascent and Other Challenging Maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    Returning Mars geology samples to Earth within science mission budgets requires a miniature launch vehicle (100-200 kg) for ascending from Mars to an orbital rendezvous. A Mars Ascent Vehicle must deliver a velocity change exceeding 4 km/s within minutes, entirely outside the capabilities of satellite propulsion. A possible solution is to scale down liquid launch vehicle principles to achieve stage propellant mass fractions near 90 percent. Feeding a high-pressure engine from thin-walled low pressure tanks permits stage hardware to be sufficiently lightweight and compact, if very high performance pumps can be made available. NASA's Mars Technology Program has funded refinement and testing of a miniature piston pump, powered by reacted propellant. A pump-fed bipropellant rocket stage remains to be developed. The technology could also benefit other future lunar and planetary science programs.

  2. A New Asymmetrical Current-fed Converter with Voltage Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELSHAD, M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter with high voltage gain. In this converter all switches (main and auxiliary turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. Furthermore, the voltage spike across the main switch due to leakage inductance of forward transformer is absorbed. The flyback transformer which is connected to the output in series causes to high voltage gain and less voltage stress on the power devices. Considering high efficiency and voltage gain of this converter, it is suitable for green generated systems such as fuel cells or photovoltaic systems. The presented experimental results verify the integrity of the proposed converter.

  3. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  4. Growth rate of sheep fed high fat ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating high amount of fats into the ration for ruminants will affect the rumen microbes adversely and will reducefiber digestion potential. To correct such negative effects, the free fatty acids used for feed should be bond with Ca++, so it canpassing through the rumen savely (rumen by-pass fat. To test the Ca-fat utilization biologically, 20 growing male Garut shee pwere used and fed with 4 type of isocaloric-isoprotein concentrate feed which were allotted based on a randomized block desig nwith 5 replications. The concentrate (C-A was a positive control diet, while C-B was substituted with 10% free fatty acids (negative control, C-C was substituted with 10% Ca-fat, and C-D with 15% Ca-fat. The concentrate feed was fed at 500 g/d, while forage (King grass was 4 kg/d. Results of the experiment showed that the negative effect of free fatty acids can be corrected if it was given in the form of Ca-fat. Growth rate curve indicating a good growing pattern, with average daily gain was 100.18, 87.68, 112.86, and 115.00 g/d (P0.05. Carcass production was relatively good, where for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D were 14.84, 14.68, 16.34, and 15.72 kg (P<0.05 respectively, with final live weights of 34.00, 31.74, 34.58, and 34.30 kg (P<0.05. It can be concluded that Ca-fat (rumen by-pass fat can be used as an energy source component for growing sheep diet, and give the best result at 10% substitution rate in concentrate feed.

  5. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream. PMID:26775961

  6. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  7. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  8. Implementation of Sliding Mode Controller with Boundary Layer for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of sliding mode control for yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Developed controller has been implemented on two real fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The controller successfully stabilizes the process and shows a very good performance at high input disturbances.

  9. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  10. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  11. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.;

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  12. A novel LTCC differentially Fed UWB antenna for the 60 GHz band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Valavan, A.S.E.; Buisman, K.; Shoykhetbrod, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel differentially fed Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology to be used in the 60 GHz band for integrated RF front-ends is presented. The antenna is based on the aperture stacked patch fed via H-shaped aperture to achieve more than 10

  13. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH3) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO2) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N2O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH4) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia and bacteria

  14. Development of a Gas-Fed Pulse Detonation Research Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Hutt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In response to the growing need for empirical data on pulse detonation engine performance and operation, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and placed into operation a low-cost gas-fed pulse detonation research engine. The guiding design strategy was to achieve a simple and flexible research apparatus, which was inexpensive to build and operate. As such, the engine was designed to operate as a heat sink device, and testing was limited to burst-mode operation with run durations of a few seconds. Wherever possible, maximum use was made of standard off-the-shelf industrial or automotive components. The 5-cm diameter primary tube is about 90-cm long and has been outfitted with a multitude of sensor and optical ports. The primary tube is fed by a coaxial injector through an initiator tube, which is inserted directly into the injector head face. Four auxiliary coaxial injectors are also integrated into the injector head assembly. All propellant flow is controlled with industrial solenoid valves. An automotive electronic ignition system was adapted for use, and spark plugs are mounted in both tubes so that a variety of ignition schemes can be examined. A microprocessor-based fiber-optic engine control system was developed to provide precise control over valve and ignition timing. Initial shakedown testing with hydrogen/oxygen mixtures verified the need for Schelkin spirals in both the initiator and primary tubes to ensure rapid development of the detonation wave. Measured pressure wave time-of-flight indicated detonation velocities of 2.4 km/sec and 2.2 km/sec in the initiator and primary tubes, respectively. These values implied a fuel-lean mixture corresponding to an H2 volume fraction near 0.5. The axial distribution for the detonation velocity was found to be essentially constant along the primary tube. Time-resolved thrust profiles were also acquired for both underfilled and overfilled tube conditions. These profiles are consistent with previous time

  15. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  16. AAOmega: a multipurpose fiber-fed spectrograph for the AAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg A.; Saunders, Will; Bridges, Terry; Churilov, Vladimir; Lankshear, Allan; Dawson, John; Correll, David; Waller, Lew; Haynes, Roger; Frost, Gabriella

    2004-09-01

    The AAOmega project replaces the two 2dF spectrographs, which are mounted on the top end of the Anglo Australian Telescope, with a bench mounted double beam spectrograph covering 370 to 950nm. The 2dF positioner, field plate tumbler mechanism, and fiber retractors will be retained. The new spectrograph will be fed by 392 fibers from either of the two 2dF field plates, or by the 512 fiber Spiral integral field unit, located at the Cassegrain focus. New instrument control electronics has also been designed to drive the spectrograph. Stability will be improved by locating the spectrograph off the telescope, but the 2df fibers must be extended to thirty-eight metres length. Despite this, using fibers with improved characteristics, increased pupil diameter, volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings with articulated cameras, and more efficient coatings on optics we achieve a minimum twofold increase in throughput. We will also fit larger (4k x 2k pixel) detectors. The spectrograph comprises: a F/3.15 Schmidt collimator, incorporating a dichroic beamsplitter; interchangeable VPH gratings; and articulating red and blue F/1.3 Schmidt cameras. The beamsplitter may be exchanged with others which cut off at different wavelengths. A full suite of VPH gratings are provided to cover resolution to 8000.

  17. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Aceituno, J; Grupp, F; Lillo, J; Hernan-Obispo, M; Benitez, D; Montoya, L M; Thiele, U; Pedraz, S; Barrado, D; Dreizler, S; Bean, J

    2013-01-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alem\\'an (CAHA). CAFE is a single fiber, high-resolution ($R\\sim$70000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800\\AA. It was built on the basis of the common design for Echelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to $V\\sim$13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of $m s^{-1}$. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, so the wavelentgth coverage; no filter wheel, one slit and so on, with a particular care taken in the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the red...

  18. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 6000C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs

  19. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  20. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Behera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array is linearly polarized. Here four elements were considered and 2arranged at the four corners of a square domain. This arrangement shows that each antenna sees its adjacent ones to be radiating from an edge orthogonal to its edge of radiation. Circular polarization is achieved due to this sequential feeding. This array is designed with operating frequency 2.4 GHz. A good axial ratio of 2.4 is obtained at 2.37 GHz frequency. The noise figure is considerably reduced and which is around -19dB.

  1. Hectospec, the MMT's 300 Optical Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Fabricant, D; Roll, J; Hertz, E; Caldwell, N; Gauron, T; Geary, J; McLeod, B; Szentgyorgyi, A H; Fabricant, Daniel; Fata, Robert; Roll, John; Hertz, Edward; Caldwell, Nelson; Gauron, Thomas; Geary, John; Leod, Brian Mc; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The Hectospec is a 300 optical fiber fed spectrograph commissioned at the MMT in the spring of 2004. A pair of high-speed six-axis robots move the 300 fiber buttons between observing configurations within ~300 s and to an accuracy ~25 microns. The optical fibers run for 26 m between the MMT's focal surface and the bench spectrograph operating at R~1000-2000. Another high dispersion bench spectrograph offering R~5,000, Hectochelle, is also available. The system throughput, including all losses in the telescope optics, fibers, and spectrograph peaks at ~10% at the grating blaze in 1" FWHM seeing. Correcting for aperture losses at the 1.5" diameter fiber entrance aperture, the system throughput peaks at $\\sim$17%. Hectospec has proven to be a workhorse instrument at the MMT. Hectospec and Hectochelle together were scheduled for 1/3 of the available nights since its commissioning. Hectospec has returned \\~60,000 reduced spectra for 16 scientific programs during its first year of operation.

  2. Wholesomeness studies in rats fed irradiated Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 90-day feeding study, including a single reproduction, was undertaken to evaluate the safety of radurized 1.5 kGy (150 krad) Indian mackerel in Wistar rats. Three roups of rats, each consisting of 60 animals, were given the following diets for a period of 90 days: (1) stock laboratory ration; (2) a diet containing 35% unirradiated mackerel powder dried to 8-10% moisture; and (3) a diet containing 35% irradiated mackerel powder dried to 8-10% moisture. The following parameters were evaluated to assess the potential toxic effects: general appearance and any overt signs of toxicity body weight food consumption haematological profile clinical chemistry liver analysis gross pathology absolute and relative organ eights reproductive performance mutagenicity evaluation using (a) Host-mediated assay; (b) Cytogenetic studies on the bone marrow of rats; (c) Dominant lethal test (F1-generation). In summary, the 90-day feeding study and the single reproduction study in Wistar rats did not show any effect that could be attributed to the ingestion of irradiated mackerel. The difference probably observed between animals fed the stock ration and the mackerel diets arise from the significant variations in the nutritional components, in particular in the protein, of the two diets. (orig./AJ)

  3. dc power control for a liquid-fed resistojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    A simple breadboard power controller was designed and demonstrated for a new liquid-fed water resistojet. The 1-piece laboratory model thruster has an integrated vaporizer/superheater using a single heating element. Heater temperature was maintained at or near a preset reference value with the closed loop controller providing pulse width modulated (PWM) dc power into the thruster heater. A combined thruster, temperature readout, PWM transfer function was experimentally determined. This transfer function was used to design a proportional plus integral controller that demonstrated zero steady state error, conservative stability margins and adequate transient response to step changes in propellant flow rate, input voltage and temperature reference. Initial turn-on temperature overshoot from room temperature to a 650 C setpoint was 80 C. In addition, EMI was alleviated by reducing heater dI/dt and dV/dt using a simple diode-inductor-capacitor network. Based on limited initial tests, thruster preheat with no propellant flow was necessary to achieve stable system operation during startup. Breadboard power efficiency was 99 percent at 1 kW, and component mass was 0.4 kg excluding the power loss and mass of an input filter required for spacecraft integration.

  4. The dc power control for a liquid-fed resistojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    A simple breadboard power controller was designed and demonstrated for a new liquid-fed water resistojet. The 1-piece laboratory model thruster has an integrated vaporizer/superheater using a single heating element. Heater temperature was maintained at or near a preset reference value with the closed loop controller providing pulse width modulated (PWM) dc power into the thruster heater. A combined thruster, temperature readout, PWM transfer function was experimentally determined. This transfer function was used to design a proportional plus integral controller that demonstrated zero steady state error, conservative stability margins and adequate transient response to step changes in propellant flow rate, input voltage and temperature reference. Initial turn-on temperature overshoot from room temperature to a 650 C setpoint was 80 C. In addition, EMI was alleviated by reducing heater dI/dt and dV/dt using a simple diode-inductor-capacitor network. Based on limited initial tests, thruster preheat with no propellant flow was necessary to achieve stable system operation during startup. Breadboard power efficiency was 99 percent at 1 kW, and component mass was 0.4 kg excluding the power loss and mass of an input filter required for spacecraft integration.

  5. Innovative nanomaterials for fuel cells fed with biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenges on sustainability promote research policy focused on renewable-energy technology development in order to enhance global energy security, local energy independence, environmental protection and economic growth. Biomass resources offer renewable energies that can play a key role in the current global strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by partially replacing fossil fuels. The conversion of biomass chemical energy into electrical energy and cogenerated heat can be obtained by fuel cells. In particular, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is the most suitable device for bioenergy production because it can be fed directly with biogas, whose primary constituents all improve the performance of the cell. However hydrogen sulfide, which is the main biogas impurity, poisons the traditional nickel based anode, affecting the power and the endurance of the cell. In order to overcome this problem, an innovative anode material that resists against the sulfide corrosions has been developed. This material, made of a nanostructured and porous nickel support covered with a thin layer of ceria, exhibits high sulfur tolerance and recovering capability.

  6. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  7. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment

  8. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  9. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  10. Photovoltaic Cell Fed 3-Phase Induction Motor Using MPPT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudimetla Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This Paper emphasizes on proposing a cost effective photovoltaic (PV fed 3 phase Induction motor drive which serves for rural pumping applications. Generally in a standalone system, the PV unit will charge the battery and the battery set up in turn will serve as a source for the inverter. A new single stage battery less power conversion is employed by designing a maximum power point tracker (MPPT embedded boost converter which makes the overall cost of the setup to go down considerably. The realized as a prototype consisting PV array of 500watts, MPPT aided boost converter, three phase inverter and a three phase squirrel cage induction drive of 300 watts. An efficient and low cost micro controller dspic4011 is used a platform to code and implement the prominent perturb and observe MPPT technique .Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM is the  control technique employed for  the three phase  inverter. To validate the experimental results simulation of the whole set up is carried out in matlab /simulink environment. Simulation and hardware results reveal that the system is versatile.

  11. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  12. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  13. Folate nutrition is optimal in exclusively breast-fed infants but inadequate in some of their mothers and in formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenperä, L; Perheentupa, J; Siimes, M A

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of folate were studied in a group of exclusively breast-fed infants and their mothers (their numbers gradually decreased from 200 at birth to 7 at 12 months) and in infants completely weaned to a cow's milk formula (containing 35 micrograms of folate/L) and solid foods. The exclusively breast-fed infants were in no danger of folate deficiency; their plasma levels were elevated after the age of 2 months and, on average, were 2.0-3.3-fold higher than maternal levels throughout the study. None of these infants had an inadequate plasma concentration, whereas up to 5% of the mothers had values less than or equal to 3 micrograms/L, despite supplementation during lactation with 0.1 mg folate/day. In the formula-fed infants, 69-94% of the plasma folate concentrations lay below the lowest concentration for the breast-fed infants. Although no infant had signs of anemia or macrocytosis in red cell indices, the infants weaned earliest had the lowest hemoglobin concentrations (p = 0.09) and the highest mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (p = 0.06) at 9 months of age. Thus, an infant fed a formula containing the recommended amount of folate runs a risk of folate deficiency. PMID:3958855

  14. Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Meat from Capons Fed Cereals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Díaz; Luisana Rodríguez; Alexandr Torres; Ángel Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat from capons (castrated male cockerels) fed cereals were studied. Three groups of capons were reared. One group was fed ad libitum the same commercial diet until the 4th mon of life. The last month of its life, the capons of this group were fed corn. The second and third group of capons were fed the same diet from caponization. The second group was fed mixture of corn (50%) and wheat (50%). The third group of capons was fed 2/3 corn and 1/3 mixture of corn (50%) and barley (50%). Capons were reared under free-range conditions and slaughtered at 150 d of age. Caponization was performed at 48 d. No signiifcant effects of feeding in chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip and cooking losses and texture of the meat were observed. The meat of the third group (capons fed 83%corn) was more yellow and showed higher content of C18:2 than that of the other capons.

  15. An Analysis of Perceived Important Challenges Currently Facing the U.S. Grass-fed Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sitienei, Isaac; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine U.S. grass-fed beef producer perceptions of important challenges facing the industry. The most important challenges facing grass-fed beef producers were shortage of processors, lack of a clear marketing system, pasture management problems, and the long period of time required to get animals to the desired market weight. Key words: Grass-fed beef, grain-fed beef, challenge, industry

  16. Speed Control of Brushless Dc Motor Using Current Fed Quasi Z-source Inverter with Regeneration Capability

    OpenAIRE

    A. Santhi Mary Antony; Ramya, D.; J. Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Current fed Quasi Z-Source Inverters (qZSI) have the advantages of voltage buck-boost capability, improved reliability, reduced passive component ratings, continuous input current, a common dc rail between source and inverter and unique regeneration capability. This current-fed qZSIs are bidirectional with an additional diode, unlike the voltage-fed ZSI that needs a switch to achieve bidirectional power flow. Since current fed quasi Z Source Inverter has many advantages it can be employed for...

  17. Improved feed compositions for slurry-fed ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One method for immobilizing high-level nuclear waste is to convert it into a glass. This is commonly done by fusing together glass frit and waste, which in the case of West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is an alkaline sludge. In work conducted at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the WVDP, frit is being evaluated in large-scale, slurry-fed ceramic melter tests. However, the glass frit can give rise to some difficulties, and therefore other ''glass formers'' are being investigated in parallel. Melter feed consisting of frit is abrasive, which results in relatively high wear of pumps, valves, and piping. For example, mechanical seals can fail in a short time. Even pumps designed to avoid seal problems can exhibit significant wear of the impeller and housing, and flowmeters are similarly susceptible. To compound the situation, frit and sludge mixtures tend to separate upon standing unless they are properly agitated or transported above minimum flow velocities. If separation does occur, a ''hard pan'' can form that is difficult to resuspend. This phenomenon seems to be the reason why airlifting of a glass frit--waste suspension is frequently terminated by plugging. West Valley wastes are high in iron and contain nickel and manganese oxides and, as such, are susceptible to spinel formation during vitrification. This tendency would be increased if localized high waste to frit concentrations occurred because of separation of the frit from the waste. For the same reason, a molten sulfate phase that is both corrosive and prone to segregate cesium can form even when the average sulfate level is below the saturation limit in the glass. In contrast, a melter feed based upon a colloidal dispersion of glass formers is nonabrasive, can be easily pumped and airlifted, and is not prone to settling or thixotropic behavior. Furthermore, the glass formers mix more intimately with the waste sludge before melting than can be achieved by using frit

  18. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the development and reproduction of Ceraeochrysa cubana when fed the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi. The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba – Areia/PB. It used a completely randomized design. The study was conducted in climate chambers, regulated to 26 ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% with a 12 h photoperiod. The treatments were as follows: eggs, nymphs of only the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th instars, and nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of A. woglumi, with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella as a control. The 1st instar of C. cubana lasted 5.8 to 10.7 days, the 2nd instar lasted 6.0 to 13.3 days, and the 3rd instar lasted 8.2 to 18.5 days. The larvae of C. cubana did not survive when the food provided was only the eggs of A. woglumi, since the predator could not eat them. C. cubana, when provided nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of the citrus blackfly, had a shorter pre-pupal period and lower longevity than when consuming the eggs of S. cerealella, but the sex ratio and oviposition period were not affected. However, changes occurred in the pre-oviposition period, the total number of eggs, and the number of viable eggs.

  19. Performance of finishing steers fed different sources of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Silva Freitas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate sources (corn, soybean hulls or wheat bran in the diet on performance of feedlot steers in the finishing phase. Twenty-four Charolais × Nellore crossbred steers, aged 22 months and initial weight of 335.0±10.9 kg were used in the experiment. Diets contained 40% sorghum silage and 60% concentrate. The intakes of dry matter (DM; 10.68, 10.16 and 10.34 kg/day and crude protein (1.66, 1.70 and 1.72 kg/day were not affected by diets with corn, soybean hulls or wheat bran, respectively. The intakes of neutral and acid detergent fiber were higher for soybean hulls, but the diet containing corn provided higher intake of non-fibrous carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients and digestible energy. Weight gain was higher and better feed conversion for animals fed corn (1.57 kg/day, 6.85 kg DM/kg gain or soybean hulls (1.58 kg/day and 6.61 kg DM/kg gain compared with steers receiving wheat bran (1.29 kg/day and 8.14 kg DM/kg gain in the diet. There was no significant effect of carbohydrate sources on the final body score (3.78 points, energy conversion (28.25 Mcal digestible energy/kg gain, hot carcass yield (57.63 kg/100 kg BW and fat thickness (3.1 mm. From an economic point of view, soybean hulls can be an alternative source of carbohydrate to corn in diets of finishing steers with 60% concentrate.

  20. Food web structure in a harsh glacier-fed river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie R Clitherow

    Full Text Available Glacier retreat is occurring across the world, and associated river ecosystems are expected to respond more rapidly than those in flowing waters in other regions. The river environment directly downstream of a glacier snout is characterised by extreme low water temperature and unstable channel sediments but these habitats may become rarer with widespread glacier retreat. In these extreme environments food web dynamics have been little studied, yet they could offer opportunities to test food web theories using highly resolved food webs owing to their low taxonomic richness. This study examined the interactions of macroinvertebrate and diatom taxa in the Ödenwinkelkees river, Austrian central Alps between 2006 and 2011. The webs were characterised by low taxon richness (13-22, highly connected individuals (directed connectance up to 0.19 and short mean food chain length (2.00-2.36. The dominant macroinvertebrates were members of the Chironomidae genus Diamesa and had an omnivorous diet rich in detritus and diatoms as well as other Chironomidae. Simuliidae (typically detritivorous filterers had a diet rich in diatoms but also showed evidence of predation on Chironomidae larvae. Food webs showed strong species-averaged and individual size structuring but mass-abundance scaling coefficients were larger than those predicted by metabolic theory, perhaps due to a combination of spatial averaging effects of patchily distributed consumers and resources, and/or consumers deriving unquantified resources from microorganisms attached to the large amounts of ingested rock fragments. Comparison of food web structural metrics with those from 62 published river webs suggest these glacier-fed river food web properties were extreme but in line with general food web scaling predictions, a finding which could prove useful to forecast the effects of anticipated future glacier retreat on the structure of aquatic food webs.

  1. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Grupp, F.; Lillo, J.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; Benitez, D.; Montoya, L. M.; Thiele, U.; Pedraz, S.; Barrado, D.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). CAFE is a single-fiber, high-resolution (R ~ 70 000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800 Å. It was built on the basis of the common design for Échelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to V ~ 13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of m s-1. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, as is the wavelength coverage; there is no filter wheel, etc. Particular care was taken with the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the reduction pipeline; and (iv) show the results from the first light and commissioning runs. The preliminar results indicate that the instrument fulfills the specifications and can achieve the planned goals. In particular, the results show that the instrument is more efficient than anticipated, reaching a signal-to-noise of ~20 for a stellar object as faint as V ~ 14.5 mag in ~2700 s integration time. The instrument is a wonderful machine for exoplanetary research (by studying large samples of possible systems cotaining massive planets), galactic dynamics (highly precise radial velocities in moving groups or stellar associations), or astrochemistry.

  2. Investigation of transient models and performances for a doubly fed wind turbine under a grid fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Yang, C.; Ye, R.; Chen, Z.

    2011-01-01

    fed induction generator (DFIG), the assessments of the impact on the electrical transient performances were investigated for the doubly fed wind turbine with different representations of wind turbine drive-train dynamics models, different initial operational conditions and different active crowbar...... trip time. Firstly, the different mathematical models of the doubly fed wind turbine were presented, including the electromagnetic transient models of DFIG, a one-mass lumped model, a two-mass shaft flexible model of the wind turbine drive train system, and the power decoupling control strategies of...

  3. A Broadband Circularly Polarized Stacked Probe-Fed Patch Antenna for UHF RFID Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Leong Chung; Xianming Qing; Zhi Ning Chen

    2007-01-01

    A broadband circularly polarized stacked probe-fed antenna suitable for UHF RFID applications is presented and studied. The proposed antenna is fed by two probes which are connected to a hybrid coupler. Two parasitic patches are stacked above a primary probe-fed patch to enhance the bandwidth of the antenna. The optimized antenna prototype achieves gain of more than 6.5 dBic, axial ratio of less than 3.0 dB, and return loss of less than −15 dB over the UHF band of 820–980 MH...

  4. Growth and feed utilization of the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis fed diets containing different marine protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Ronaldo Olivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing different protein sources (fish, squid and mussel meals and their combinations at the proportions of 40, 30 and 30% or 60, 20 and 20% were fed for 28 days to Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Growth performance and feed utilization of shrimp fed the fish meal-based diet was comparatively inferior to those fed other protein sources or their combinations. This indicates that fish meal may not be the best protein source for F. paulensis. Feeds containing a mixture of protein sources are better utilized by F. paulensis and therefore result in significantly higher growth than those containing a single protein source.

  5. Antidiabetic activity of 3-hydroxyflavone analogues in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Yogendra; Venkatachalam, H.; Daroji, Vijay Kumar; Mathew, Geetha; Jayashree, B. S.; Unnikrishnan, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues (JY-1, JY-2, JY-3, JY-4), were tested for antidiabetic activity in high-fructose-diet-fed (66 %, for 6 weeks) insulin-resistant Wistar rats (FD-fed rats). The fasting blood glucose, insulin, creatinine and AGEs were decreased to near normal upon treatment with test compounds. Insulin resistance markers such as HOMA-IR, K-ITT, plasma triglycerides, lipids, endogenous antioxidant defense and glycogen were restored in FD-fed rats after treatment with 3-hydrox...

  6. Antioxidant capacity of meagre (Argyrossomus regius fed different lipid content and source, with and without selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthelio Braga Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Meagre (600 animals were kept in 24 tanks (80 L with constant renovation and aeration and maintained at 20.7 ± 0.7ºC and oxygen 8.8 ± 1.7 mg L-1. Fish were fed twice per day, six days per week, with eight different experimental diets for 60 days. Diets were formulated to have two different oil sources (fish or vegetable blend oils with 45% of linseed, 35% of rapeseed and 20% of soybean oil, two lipid levels (12 and 17% and two selenium supplementation (0 and 1 mg/kg diet. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (TG and catalase (CAT were analyzed in liver of fish. CAT, GPx and GR activities were not significantly altered in fish fed with diets with different oil sources. However, TG in fish fed with fish oil diet was higher than the levels observed in fish fed with vegetable blend oil. Furthermore, fish fed with fish oil diet showed lower lipid peroxidation when compared with fish fed vegetable blend oil diet (Table 1. Concerning the oil level in diet, it was observed that fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids had a higher level of total glutathione when compared to fish fed with a diet of 12% lipids. On the other hand, the fish fed with a diet with 12% lipids showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids. Fish fed with diets supplemented with selenium showed a significantly increased activity of GPx when compared with fish fed without selenium. Three-way ANOVA analysis showed that dietary lipid level and the presence of selenium have a significant interaction on the activities of CAT and GR, as well as, levels of TG and LPO. A significant interaction between the source of oil and the presence of selenium on GR activities was observed. Interaction on source and level was observed to CAT. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of meagre is influenced by the source of oil, the level of lipids and the presence of selenium in their diet.

  7. Hormonal concentrations and reproductive performance of Holstein heifers fed Trifolium alexandrinum as a phytoestrogenic roughage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N M; El-Azrak, K M; Sallam, S M A

    2016-07-01

    Effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones in Berseem clover on hormonal balance during early pregnancy and fertility of heifers were studied. Holstein heifers (n=26) were divided into two equal homogenous groups. Heifers in the first group (Clover-fed group) were fed Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) as oestrogenic roughage; whereas the heifers in the second group (Silage-fed group) were fed maize silage. Concentrations of four isoflavone aglycones (genistein. Daidzein, biochanin A and formononetein) were determined in the two roughages. Treatment lasted for 20 consecutive weeks (5 months) during which blood samples were collected biweekly for determining the metabolic profile of heifers. Heifers were subjected to oestrous synchronisation using a double prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) based protocol, 14days apart (week 10 and 12), and were artificially inseminated 12h following detection of overt signs of oestrus. Concentrations of serum oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on the day of insemination (Day 0) and on Days 7, 14 and 21 post-insemination (early pregnancy) were determined and P4 to E2 ratio was calculated. Clover had greater total isoflavone content than maize silage. The dominant isoflavone detected in Berseem clover was biochanin A, whereas the least was formononetein. Metabolic profile was not affected (P>0.05) by the type of roughage and was in the same trend in both experimental groups. The overall mean concentration of serum E2 was greater (Psilage-fed group. The overall mean concentration of serum P4 was less (Psilage-fed group. During the period of early pregnancy (from Day 7-21 post-insemination) the concentration of serum P4 increased in the silage-fed group, however, no change was observed in the clover-fed group. The overall mean of P4 to E2 ratio was greater (Psilage-fed group compared with that in the clover-fed group. Heifers fed clover had a lesser (P=0.054) conception rate and a greater (P=0.062) percentage of heifers returning to

  8. A novel LTCC differentially Fed UWB antenna for the 60 GHz band

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, B; Yarovoy, A. G.; Valavan, A.S.E.; Buisman, K.; Shoykhetbrod, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel differentially fed Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology to be used in the 60 GHz band for integrated RF front-ends is presented. The antenna is based on the aperture stacked patch fed via H-shaped aperture to achieve more than 10 GHz operational bandwidth. The antenna is fed by a parallel-wire transmission line which enables the antenna to be directly integrated with differential Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MM...

  9. Protein abundance of urea transporters and aquaporin 2 change differently in nephrotic pair-fed vs. non-pair-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Matar, Raed N.; Malik, Bela; Wang, Xiaonan H.; Martin, Christopher F; Eaton, Douglas C.; Sands, Jeff M.; Klein, Janet D.

    2012-01-01

    Salt and water retention is a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome (NS). In this study, we test for changes in the abundance of urea transporters, aquaporin 2 (AQP2), Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2), and Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), in non-pair-fed and pair-fed nephrotic animals. Doxorubicin-injected male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) were followed in metabolism cages. Urinary excretion of protein, sodium, and urea was measured periodically. Kidney inner medulla (IM), outer medulla, and cortex tissue...

  10. Descriptions of diplostomid metacercariae (Digenea: Diplostomidae from freshwater fishes in the Tshwane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmey B.E. Moema

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The metacercarial (larval stages of diplostomid digeneans are known to inhabit freshwater fish, causing tissue damage in the process. Due to their widespread diversity, little is known about their life cycle. The classification of these parasitic stages to the species level using only the morphology is very challenging due to the lack of genitalia; they are regarded to be the most important structures in the identification of these organisms. In this study, additional morphological information through light and scanning electron microscopy is given for two different diplostomids found in the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus and the vitreous chambers of Tilapia sparrmanii and Pseudocrenilabrus philander. The diplostomid metacercaria inhabiting the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus was morphologically identified as Diplostomulum (Tylodelphys mashonenseand an unknown metacercaria of the genus Diplostomumwas found in the vitreous chambers of Pseudocrenilabrus philander and Tilapia sparrmanii. Both parasitic species’ 28S recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid genomic regions were successfully amplified using Dig 125/1500R primer pairs. The assay yielded a product of approximately 1300 base pairs as seen on the gel images. There were 14 nucleotide differences over the entire analysed sequences resulting in a 1.1% (14/1273 nucleotide difference. In line with the morphological characteristics of these parasites, there seemed to be a slight difference in their genetic makeup. The application of molecular techniques on digenetic trematodes seems very promising and may yield great potential in future descriptions of morphologically similar parasitic species.

  11. Production variables and nutrient retention in single comb White Leghorn laying pullets fed diets supplemented with direct-fed microbials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Nakaue, H S; Mirosh, L W

    1994-11-01

    Two experiments were carried out for six and seven 28-d periods, respectively, with DeKalb XL Single Comb White Leghorn laying pullets to ascertain the effect of feeding 1,100 mg Lactobacillus (Lacto)/kg diet (ppm) and 2,200 ppm Lacto diets, and the supplementation of these diets with 1 and 3% fat, on layer performance and nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal (C-S) control, C-S plus condensed cane molasses solubles (CCMS)-1,100 ppm Lacto (4.4 x 10(7) cfu/mg Lacto), and C-S plus CCMS-2,200 ppm Lacto (8.8 x 10(7) cfu/mg Lacto) without fat (Experiment 1) and without and with 1 and 3% supplemental fat to each Lacto level (Experiment 2). In both experiments, layers fed the 1,100 ppm Lacto diets had better (P Lacto. Egg mass, interior egg quality, and feed conversion (Experiment 1), mean body weight gains, and nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention (Experiment 2) were further improved (P Lacto diets. Feeding Lacto diets with 1% fat provided (P fat decreased (P Lacto diets and nitrogen and calcium retentions, daily feed consumption, and egg size were observed. Feeding 1,100 ppm Lacto diets to layers stimulated appetite and improved egg production, egg mass, egg weight, egg size, and feed conversion. Addition of fat to Lacto diets reduced daily feed consumption and provided better feed conversion, egg masses, egg sizes, body weight gains, and nutrient retentions. PMID:7862610

  12. Proximity fed gap-coupled half E-shaped microstrip antenna array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit A Deshmukh; K P Ray

    2015-02-01

    Broadband gap-coupled array configuration of proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna with half E-shaped microstrip antennas are proposed. The rectangular slot in half E-shaped patch reduces the orthogonal TM01 mode resonance frequency of equivalent rectangular patch and along with TM10 modes of fed and parasitic rectangular patches, yields broader bandwidth of more than 470 MHz (> 45%). An improvement in radiation pattern and gain characteristics over the bandwidth is obtained by gap-coupling half E-shaped patches along all the edges of proximity fed rectangular patch, which yields bandwidth of nearly 510 MHz (∼49%). Further to enhance the gain, a gap-coupled 3 × 3 array configuration of half E-shaped patches with proximity fed rectangular microstrip antenna is proposed. The gap-coupled array configuration yields bandwidth of more than 530 MHz (>50%) with broadside radiation pattern and peak gain of 11 dBi.

  13. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  14. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  15. Regeneratively-Cooled, Pump-Fed Propulsion Technology for Nano / Micro Satellite Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...

  16. Performance analysis of DFIM fed by matrix converter and multi level inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The performances of a DFIM are considered when it is fed by a matrix and a multi level inverter. • We have presented the stategies of contorl of the two considered configurations. • The obtained simulation results are analyzed and discuted. • Time and frequency analyzes show a better performances when the DFIM is fed by a matrix converter. - Abstract: In this paper, we study the performance of a doubly fed induction machine when its stator and rotor are respectively fed by a matrix converter and a multi level inverter. For this, we first present the structures and models of the machine, the multi level inverter and matrix converter. Then, using simulation analysis, we proceed to test the rate of harmonic distortion of the stator currents obtained for the two considered configurations. The obtained simulation results by numerical simulations are shown and analyzed

  17. A High-Payload Fraction, Pump-Fed, 2-Stage Nano Launch Vehicle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on-demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...

  18. Performance and Carcass characteristics of broad breasted bronze toms fed radappertized Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiated complete diets at dose level of 25 KGy was studied in broad breasted bronze tome evaluating their growing performances as well as characteristics of the carcasses. Two experimental groups received irradiated and non irradiated diets for 18 weeks (from the 5th to the 23rd week of age). Four toms per treatment at the age of 23 weeks were slaughtered and the carcass was dissected. Radappertized diets improved body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion and reduced mortality rate. No significant differences were observed between toms fed processed and non processed diets on carcasses components, while the gizzard weight was greater for those fed the processed diets. Dressing and drawn weights in toms fed processed diets were 3% higher than in those fed non processed diets. The results suggest that sterilization of turkeys feed may have a beneficial effect on the body weight and deed conversion of turkeys consuming these diets without harmful effect on the bird

  19. Adiposity of calf- and yearling-fed Brangus steers raised to constant-age and constant-body weight endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Chapman, A A; Lunt, D K; Harris, J J; Savell, J W

    2007-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that fatty acid biosynthesis and adipocyte diameter and volume would be greater in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of calf-fed steers than in yearling-fed steers at a constant BW, due to the greater time on feed for the calf-fed steers. Conversely, we predicted that the capacity for s.c. and i.m. preadipocytes to divide, as estimated by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, would be greater in the less mature adipose tissues of calf-fed steers and in yearling-fed steers at 16 mo of age than in yearling-fed steers fed to 18 mo of age. Brangus steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet as calves (calf-fed; n = 9) or yearlings (n = 4) to 16 mo of age (CA yearling-fed); another group of yearlings (n = 5) was fed to a constant-BW end point of 530 kg (CW yearling-fed). Both groups of yearling-fed steers had free access to native pasture until 12 mo of age. At slaughter, the fifth to eighth thoracic rib section of the LM was removed, and fresh s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were removed for in vitro incubations. There were no differences in the number of s.c. adipocytes/g or mean peak volumes of adipocytes across production groups (P > or = 0.14). However, s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers contained greater proportions of smaller adipocytes (<1,500 pL) than calffed or CW yearling-fed steers, and similar results were observed for i.m. adipose tissue. Acetate incorporation into total lipids was greater (P = 0.02) in s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers than in calf-fed or CW yearling-fed steers, and tended to be different (P = 0.10) across production groups in i.m. adipose tissue. The production system x cell fraction interaction was significant (P = 0.03) for s.c. adipose tissue DNA synthesis, which was greatest in adipocytes from CA yearling-fed steers, whereas there were no differences across production system in stromal vascular (SV) DNA synthesis. For i.m. adipose tissue, DNA synthesis was greatest in adipocytes and SV cells

  20. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  1. "Unusual and Exigent: How the Fed Can Jump-start the Real Economy"

    OpenAIRE

    William Greider

    2013-01-01

    Though it is not widely understood, the Federal Reserve has enormous untapped power to directly stimulate or influence the flows of lending and spending that generate jobs. Doing so would fulfill the Fed's often neglected "dual mandate": to strive for maximum employment as well as stable money. Fed technocrats often plead that legal or technical barriers won't allow them to do this, but their objections reflect an institutional bias that favors finance over industry, capital over labor. The c...

  2. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  3. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Subtropical Calves Fed Untraditional Fattening Ration

    OpenAIRE

    Amal El-Asheeri; Mutassim Abdelrahman; Ahmed Saad Sami; Mohamed Radwan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding two levels of corn silage on growth performance, carcass characteristics of subtropical calves. Fifteen Egyptian native calves (initially weighed 245.33.0 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: group 1 (Control, C): fed Concentrate Fed Mixture (CFM) and rice straw; group 2 (50%): CFM was replaced with 50% corn and group 3 (75%); CFM was replaced with 75% corn silage on dry matter basis. Growth performa...

  4. Materials and design experience in a slurry-fed electric glass melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a slurry-fed electric gas melter and an examination of the performance and condition of the construction materials were completed. The joule-heated, ceramic-lined melter was constructed to test the applicability of materials and processes for high-level waste vitrification. The developmental Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) was operated for three years with simulated high-level waste and was subjected to conditions more severe than those expected for a nuclear waste vitrification plant

  5. Materials and design experience in a slurry-fed electric glass melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.M.; Larson, D.E.

    1981-08-01

    The design of a slurry-fed electric gas melter and an examination of the performance and condition of the construction materials were completed. The joule-heated, ceramic-lined melter was constructed to test the applicability of materials and processes for high-level waste vitrification. The developmental Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) was operated for three years with simulated high-level waste and was subjected to conditions more severe than those expected for a nuclear waste vitrification plant.

  6. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    OpenAIRE

    Russell G. DEATH; José BARQU��N

    2011-01-01

    Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristic...

  7. Influence of batch or fed-batch growth on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerca, Nuno; Pier, Gerald B.; Vilanova, Manuel; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To make a quantitative evaluation of the differences in biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis using batch and fed-batch growth systems and to correlate this with production of the major biofilm polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG). Methods and Results: Dry weight measurements of biofilms formed in batch and fed-batch conditions were compared with haemagglutination titres, which measure the amount of PNAG produced. Strains grown in batch systems devel...

  8. fedOA, Open access archives a "Federico II" University of Naples

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchini, Maria Rosaria

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the Author illustrates the Institutional Repository of “Federico II” Naples University: fedOA. This archive was developed since 2004 and it has been officially introduced in November 2005 based on GNU EPrints software. This software use got the possibility too go through the following aspects: - Eprint type - Metadata set - Fulltext format type supported Moreover, FedOA archive will contain all the research doctorate e-theses and furthermore even all the Univers...

  9. USEFULNESS OF PLACEMENT-WEIGHT DATA IN FORECASTING FED CATTLE MARKETINGS AND PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, the USDA began reporting cattle-on-feed placements in various weight groups, which should provide information regarding expected slaughter timings and improve fed cattle price forecasts and marketing strategies. Private data were collected to obtain the necessary degrees of freedom to test statistical relationships between placement weight distributions, beef supply, and fed cattle prices. Use of placement weights improved beef supply forecasts only at a one-month horizon; it contrib...

  10. Growth curves and their implications in hand-fed Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petzinger C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina Petzinger,1,2 J Jill Heatley,3 John E Bauer1,2 1Comparative Animal Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Intercollegiate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, 3Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus were hand-fed over two chick seasons spanning of 2010 to 2011. Information from the growth curve of chicks hand-fed in 2010 was used to develop a feeding protocol for the 2011 season (Protocol-2011. This protocol addressed the problems of delayed followed by excessive growth experienced by parrots hand fed in 2010. Monk parrots that were hand-fed in 2011 following the new protocol experienced delayed growth after 20 days of age. However, some Monk parrots were fed in excess of Protocol-2011 and did not experience a major delay in growth. The energy requirement equations used to construct Protocol-2011 were low when compared to adult Monk parrot maintenance energy requirements. The data suggest that growing birds do not require approximately twice their adult maintenance energy requirements, as is the case for growing dogs. Additionally, there appear to be fluctuations in energy needs as Monk parrots grow. A major increase in energy needs occurred between days 18 and 23 posthatching, which corresponds to feather development and growth in Monk parrot chicks. Thus, multiple equations estimating energy requirements, rather than just one equation, are likely needed from hatching to fledging in order to ensure adequate energy is provided to chicks. More research on the energy requirements of growing Monk parrots, especially around the time of fledging and weaning, is needed to improve hand-fed methods and potentially the adult health of hand-fed birds. Keywords

  11. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  12. Performance Analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind turbine under Faulty and RLC Load Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Parashar; Shashikant,

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbine system during different types of grid fault. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine (WT) system provides better power delivery towards the demand. The design and response of the DFIG based wind turbine system during different fault conditions, various load conditions and integrated system consisting of DFIG based WT system have been verified using MATLAB/ Simulink. The simulation re...

  13. Control of Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machines under Normal and Faulty Operating Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The brushless doubly fed reluctance machine (BDFRM) is an attractive alternative technology to traditional slip-ring doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) for slip-power recovery applications with limited variable speed ranges such as wind turbines or pump-alike drives. Owing to its favourable operational characteristics, the BDFRM has been receiving increasing attention by the research and industrial communities, foremost because of its brushless design and high reliability (these being the...

  14. Differences in Prices and Price Risk across Alternative Marketing Arrangements Used in the Fed Cattle Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Mary K.; Liu, Yanyan; Koontz, Stephen R.; Lawrence, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Information on prices and price risk differences across marketing arrangements aids fed cattle producers in making choices about marketing methods. As part of the congressionally mandated Livestock and Meat Marketing Study, we investigated fed cattle price and price risk differences across marketing arrangements. The analysis uses data representing cattle purchased by 29 large beef packing plants from October 2002 through March 2005. Results indicate that marketing agreements offered the best...

  15. How the Fed affects the economy: a look at systematic monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dotsey

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, when assessing the economic effects of monetary policy, economists have emphasized the role of unanticipated changes in policy. But are these policy shocks likely to be the most important influence on the economy? Mike Dotsey believes not. It seems more likely that the Fed's systematic behavior plays a bigger part in what happens in the U.S. economy. In "How the Fed Affects the Economy: A Look at Systematic Monetary Policy," Dotsey explains the ways in which systematic policy ...

  16. Rare but active taxa contribute to community dynamics of benthic biofilms in glacier-fed streams

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Linda; Besemer, Katharina; Fasching, Christina; Urich, Tim; Singer, Gabriel A.; Quince, Christopher; Battin, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers harbour diverse microorganisms, which upon ice melt can be released downstream. In glacier-fed streams microorganisms can attach to stones or sediments to form benthic biofilms. We used 454-pyrosequencing to explore the bulk (16S rDNA) and putatively active (16S rRNA) microbial communities of stone and sediment biofilms across 26 glacier-fed streams. We found differences in community composition between bulk and active communities among streams and a stronger congruence between biofi...

  17. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  18. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  19. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Çaglar; I Özer; Altugan, F S

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), p...

  20. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Çaglar M.K.; Özer I.; Altugan F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), ...

  1. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Alwathnani, Hend A.; Rensing, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  2. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the su...

  3. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently  increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey

  4. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  5. Green tea attenuates cardiovascular remodelling and metabolic symptoms in high carbohydrate-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Celestine; Iyer, Abishek; Chan, Vincent; Brown, Lindsay

    2010-12-01

    Excess carbohydrate in the diet may initiate a chronic state of oxidative stress exacerbating the clinical and biochemical symptoms of diet-induced type 2 diabetes, especially glucose intolerance, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. This study has tested whether green tea, rich in antioxidants, improves both cardiovascular symptoms and glucose intolerance and also reduces oxidative stress in rats fed a high carbohydrate diet. Male 8 week old Wistar rats were fed a diet including fructose and condensed milk (each 40%) for 16 weeks (112 days); control rats were fed corn starch. Green tea-containing food was started from day 1 for the prevention protocol and from day 56 for the reversal protocol. High carbohydrate diet-fed rats showed glucose intolerance, hypertension, mild left ventricular hypertrophy, approximate doubling of cardiac interstitial and perivascular collagen deposition, increased passive diastolic stiffness and increased plasma malondialdehyde concentrations. Administration of green tea to high carbohydrate diet-fed rats prevented and reversed glucose intolerance and the increased systolic blood pressure, left ventricular wet weight, interstitial collagen and passive diastolic stiffness. Plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were also normalized. In summary, treatment with green tea both prevented and reversed the cardiovascular remodelling and metabolic changes seen in high carbohydrate-fed rats suggesting a chronic state of oxidative stress plays a key role in the symptom initiation and progression. Further, green tea may be a useful complementary therapy in diet-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID:20874683

  6. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  7. Distribution of trans and cis 18:1 fatty acid isomers in chicks fed different fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Athari, A K; Watkins, B A

    1988-05-01

    The effects of dietary trans isomers of 18:1 (t-18:1) were studied in chicks by feeding purified diets containing soybean oil (SBO) as the control lipid source, saturated fat (SF), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), or spent restaurant grease (SRG) for three weeks. Argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography were used to separate trans and cis (c) isomers of 18:1 and to determine the fatty acid composition in chick tissues. Chicks fed HSBO (34% t-18:1 of total 18:1) had weight gains similar to those of chicks fed SF but significantly (P less than .05) lower gains than those of chicks fed SBO or SRG. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratios (total feed:total gain) across treatments. Trans-18:1 was incorporated into liver, heart, lung, and abdominal fat pad of chicks fed HSBO. Chicks fed HSBO had higher levels of c-16:1 omega 7 and 18:1 and lower levels of linoleate and arachidonate in tissue lipids. Similar changes were observed in liver microsomal fatty acids of chicks fed SRG that was adequate in linoleate, but which contained low levels of t-18:1 (4% of total 18:1). Positional and geometrical isomers of 18:1 appear to impair essential fatty acid metabolism in the chick. PMID:3405954

  8. Enhanced reproduction in mallards fed a low level of methylmercury: An apparent case of hormesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 mg/g mercury (Hg) in the form of methylmercury chloride. There were no effects of Hg on adult weights and no overt signs of Hg poisoning in adults. The Hg-containing diet had no effect on fertility of eggs, but hatching success of eggs was significantly higher for females fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (71.8%) than for controls (57.5%). Survival of ducklings through 6 d of age was the same (97.8%) for controls and mallards fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury. However, the mean number of ducklings produced per female was significantly higher for the pairs fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (21.4) than for controls (16.8). Although mercury in the parents' diet had no effect on mean duckling weights at hatching, ducklings from parents fed 0.5 mg/g Hg weighed significantly more (mean = 87.2 g) at 6 d of age than did control ducklings (81.0 g). The mean concentration of Hg in eggs laid by parents fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury was 0.81 ??g/g on a wet-weight basis. At this time, one cannot rule out the possibility that low concentrations of Hg in eggs may be beneficial, and this possibility should be considered when setting regulatory thresholds for methylmercury. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  9. Reduction of DMH-induced colon tumors in rats fed psyllium husk or cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Andersen, J; Mehta, T; Wilson, R B

    1987-01-01

    The effect of feeding psyllium husk, a water-soluble fiber, and cellulose, a water-insoluble fiber, against chemically induced colon cancer was investigated in rats. Adult male rats were fed semipurified diets containing 20% fat, no fiber, or 10% psyllium husk or cellulose for 22 weeks. Tumors were induced in one-half of the rats fed each diet by the gastric intubation of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) during Weeks 3-11. In terms of the number of animals with tumors in each group, psyllium strongly reduced the tumorigenicity of DMH and cellulose moderately reduced tumorigenicity, whereas the two fibers did not differ significantly from each other with respect to tumorigenicity. Psyllium-fed rats had the highest fecal aerobic counts, lowest beta-glucuronidase, and highest 7-alpha-dehydroxylase activities. The psyllium diet also resulted in increased fecal output and percent moisture. Rats fed cellulose tended to have greater fecal bulk and lower beta-glucuronidase activity compared with rats fed no fiber and lower 7-alpha-dehydroxylase activity compared with rats fed psyllium husk. PMID:2819829

  10. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  11. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

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    Johanna Rintahaka

    Full Text Available A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we

  12. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

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    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  13. Rumen parameters of sheep fed Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Machado Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    .05 in the treatment containing 60% of Arachis and a quadratic effect (P0.01 in the treatment with 100% of legume with reduction at 4 hours after the feeding followed by an increase. Fiber contents of forage is highly correlated with DMI and intake increases occurs until it is no longer limited by the rumen filling (physical regulation and decreases when limited by excess of the metabolic products produced (physiological regulation. This explains the DMI reduction with total replacement of grass hay by the legume, since it presented high CP content, high digestibility and lower fiber content. The rumen concentration of SCFA is related to fermentation conditions in the rumen, and high digestibility diets. The high DMI in animals fed with diets with 60% of Arachis and higher concentration of total SCFA and acetate is due to the animals consuming more organic matter fermentable in the rumen. The results suggest that Arachis hay contains more than soluble proteins than grass hay, because the rate of ammonia production in the rumen reflects the solubility and fermentability of the diet. The legume proved forage with a high quality and excellent behavior ruminal, ensuring the quality of rumen environment. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results and use of this feed for ruminants is as promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

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    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine, while the diet (B contained 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% fish meal. The fish were fed twice a day at affixed feeding rate of 5% body weight of fish per day for 90 days. The total body weight, total length and standard length were measured every 10 days throughout the experimental period. The growth response and performance data of the studied fish (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diet (B containing fishmeal recorded a better growth response than that fish fed poultry by- product meal (diet A. The final weight increment, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER over the experimental period showed lowest value for the group fed the diet with poultry by-product (Diet A compared to those fed with the fishmeal (Diet B. Except the apparent protein utilization (APU was recorded higher for those fed with Diet A (23.31 than Diet B (11.99. The groups fed diet (A attained SGR 0.24, FCR 1.9, PER 0.75, APU 23.31, while it recorded in group (B, SGR 0.34, FCR 1.2, PER 1.06, APU 11.99. Therefore, fish meal is better as compared to poultry by-products for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus nutrition.

  15. Mineral Dynamics of Blood and Milk in Dairy Buffaloes Fed on Calcium and Phosphorus Supplementation

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    I. Begum, A. Azim, S. Akhter1, M. I. Anjum* and M. Afzal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P on nutrient utilization, milk production, its composition and reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Twelve lactating buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups, with 4 animals in each group, fed diets containing 80, 100 and 120% NRC recommended Ca and P, respectively. Daily feed consumption and milk yield (MY were recorded. Fortnightly collected milk samples were analyzed for total solids (TS, milk protein (MP, milk fat (MF, lactose, Ca and P contents. Calcium and P concentrations were also determined in blood serum. Milk yield was 10%, MF 4% and TS 3.7% higher in buffaloes fed on 120% Ca and P than those fed on 100% Ca and P of NRC recommendation but dry matter intake was similar among all groups. However, MP, lactose and solids not fat were not affected by mineral supplementation. In milk, slightly increased concentrations of Ca and P were noted during the last two weeks of experiment in all groups. Dietary protein digestibility was higher in buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P, crude fibre and dry matter digestibility was higher in 80 and 100% Ca and P supplemented groups respectively however, difference was non-significant among the groups. Serum P concentration was higher but Ca was lower in 120% Ca and P supplemented group compared to other two groups however, these values were within the normal range. Buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P conceived 100% but in buffaloes fed 100 and 80% Ca and P, conception rates were 75 and 50% respectively. Number of services per conception was lower in buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P supplemented diet. It may be concluded that 120% Ca and P supplementation increased milk production and reproductive performance of lactating buffaloes.

  16. Reproductive, Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy, 1809 and its Hybrid Clariabranchus Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Anetekhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance, growth rate and nutrient utilization capacities of pure breed Heterobranchus bidorsalis (H. bidorsalis ? x H. bidorsalis ? and its hybrid (H. bidorsalis ? x C. gariepinus ? (Clariabranchus induced with synthetic hormone (ovaprim and pituitary of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis. In this study, 3 female Heterobranchus bidorsalis, 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 3 male Clarias gariepinus were used for the experiment. One female H. bidorsalis induced with ovaprim produced eggs which were divided into two equal halves. Each half was fertilized separately by milt from H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus to produce pure breed and hybrid, respectively. A similar crossing was done for the female H. bidorsalis induced with Male Pituitary Extract (MPE and Female Pituitary Extract (FPE. Percentage fertilization and hatching rate of pure breed induced with ovaprim were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the other genetic crosses. The highest values for weight gain (5.461.58 g, average daily growth (0.390.11 g and specific growth rate (1.040.16%/day occurred in pure breed induced with MPE. The lowest values for these growth parameters were obtained in the hybrid induced with FPE. Feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio varied significantly (p<0.05 among the treatments. This study has shown that the pure breeds and hybrids induced with ovaprim and MPE performed better than those induced with FPE. Therefore, they are recommended for commercial aquaculture.

  17. Chronic effects of fumonisin B1 in broilers and turkeys fed dietary treatments to market age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, J N; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E

    2002-01-01

    Floor pen studies were conducted with 270 broiler chicks and 144 turkey poults, all 1 wk old, to evaluate the chronic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1). A completely randomized design was used in both studies with six pen replicates of 15 chicks or eight pen replicates of six poults assigned to each of three dietary treatments from Weeks 1 to 7 (broilers) or to Week 14 (turkeys). Fusarium moniliforme (M-1325) culture material was added to a typical corn-soybean basal diet to supply 0, 25, or 50 mg FB1/kg diet. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion of chicks were not affected (P > 0.05) by FB1. Turkeys fed 50 mg FB1/kg had significantly (P 0.05) by FB1, other than those chicks fed 25 mg FB1/kg, which had lower (P Broilers fed 50 mg FB1/kg had decreased serum calcium and increased serum chloride when compared to broilers fed 0 or 25 mg FB1/kg. Hematology was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary FB1. No lesions were present in any organ examined microscopically. Results indicate that 50 mg FB1/kg diet is detrimental to turkeys but is not toxic to broilers fed to market age. PMID:11885900

  18. The use of fed batch approaches to maximise yields in bacterial fermentation and protein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fermentation facility for the scale up of bacterial and yeast fermentations has been set up at the University of Queensland under the auspices of the ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics. A major application is the production of recombinant proteins for determination of tertiary structures by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance. For this purpose, large amounts of protein arc needed and the yield from a single fermentation run is crucial to success within constrained laboratory budgets. To achieve maximal yields we are optimising fed batch approaches in bacterial fermentation. Fed batch offers many advantages over batch cultures. Coupled with the ability to monitor online the internal conditions of the fermentation including pH and dissolved oxygen and stirrer cascading functions it is possible to ensure that the nutritional environment of the microorganism is optimised for its growth and or for optimal protein expression. The poster will describe some of our experience in setting up fed batch fermentations and successful applications of fed batches to increasing protein yield. It will also outline services that are available to academic groups outside the University of Queensland For structure determination and functional studies, the production of radiolabelled proteins can also be an advantage. We will describe initial experiments aimed at coupling the principles of fed batch fermentation to the introduction of carbon or nitrogen isotopes into the recombinant protein

  19. Ezetimibe and Simvastatin Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet

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    Ji Sun Baek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol-fed zebrafish is an emerging animal model to study metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory vascular processes relevant to pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis. Zebrafish fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD develop hypercholesterolemia and are characterized by profound lipoprotein oxidation and vascular lipid accumulation. Using optically translucent zebrafish larvae has the advantage of monitoring vascular pathology and assessing the efficacy of drug candidates in live animals. Thus, we investigated whether simvastatin and ezetimibe, the principal drugs used in management of hypercholesterolemia in humans, would also reduce cholesterol levels in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. We found that ezetimibe was well tolerated by zebrafish and effectively reduced cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. In contrast, simvastatin added to water was poorly tolerated by zebrafish larvae and, when added to food, had little effect on cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. Combination of low doses of ezetimibe and simvastatin had an additive effect in reducing cholesterol levels in zebrafish. These results suggest that ezetimibe exerts in zebrafish a therapeutic effect similar to that in humans and that the hypercholesterolemic zebrafish can be used as a low-cost and informative model for testing new drug candidates and for investigating mechanisms of action for existing drugs targeting dyslipidemia.

  20. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  1. Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed on genetically modified soybean

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    M Malatesta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the reports on the effects of a genetically modified (GM diet are scanty and heterogeneous; in particular, no direct evidence has so far been reported that GM food may affect human or animal health. Hepatocytes represent a suitable model for monitoring the effects of a GM diet, the liver potentially being a primary target. In a previous study, we demonstrated that some modifications occur in hepatocyte nuclei of mice fed on GM soybean. In order to elucidate whether such modifications can be reversed, in the present study, 3 months old mice fed on GM soybean since their weaning were submitted to a diet containing wild type soybean only, for one month. In parallel, to investigate the influence of GM soybean on adult individuals, mice fed on wild type soybean were changed to a GM diet, for the same time. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrated that a one-month diet reversion can influence some nuclear features in adult mice, restoring typical characteristics of controls in GM-fed animals, and inducing in control mice modifications similar to those observed in animals fed on GM soybean from weaning. This suggests that the modifications related to GM soybean are potentially reversible, but also that some modifications are inducible in adult organisms in a short time.

  2. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  3. Performance of growing pigs fed diets based on by-products of maize and wheat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred Landrace × Large white pigs with an average body weight of 8.5 ± 0.4 kg and aged 2 months were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed two diets in which bran from maize or wheat was used as the energy source. A third diet based on whole maize grain was used as a control. Animals in groups of four, balanced for litter, sex and weight were allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. Data were collected on feed intake and weight gain for a period of 4 months. A digestibility trial was carried at the end of the feeding trial using two male pigs per treatment while six pigs per treatment were randomly selected for slaughter to determine carcass characteristics. Daily gain averaged 0.23, 0.31 and 0.13 kg/day, for pigs fed maize bran, wheat bran and whole maize diets, respectively. Average feed intake and final body weight were significantly (P pigs fed maize bran while crude protein digestibility was highest (P pigs fed wheat bran. There were significant differences (P pigs fed cereal bran and full-grain diets are real. PMID:22836486

  4. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  5. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

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    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  6. Oviposition and the plasma concentrations of LH, progesterone, and corticosterone in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) fed parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite quail were fed concentrations of parathion (0,50, 100, 200 or 400 p.p.m.) for 10 days. Food intake, body weight change, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, egg production, and ovary weight were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In a second experiment, birds were fed 0, 25 or 100 p.p.m. parathion or pair-fed control food to equate consumption in the 100 p.p.m. group. Egg production was not affected in birds fed 25 p.p.m. or in the pair-fed group, but the daily time of oviposition was more variable than in the control group. Cessation of egg production, inhibition of follicular development, and reduced plasma LH concentration were observed in birds fed 100 p.p.m. parathion. These findings indicate that exposure to parathion can impair reproduction, possibly by altering gonadotrophin secretion.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  8. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during a...... 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased...... sucking and butting when hunger was increased. The results suggest that nonnutritive sucking is a more sensitive indicator than drinking rate of changes in feeding motivation. Consequently, reduction in nonnutritive sucking might be a new candidate in the search for behavioral indicators of disease in...

  9. Rational design and optimization of fed-batch and continuous fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Inan, Mehmet; Meagher, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides rational approaches to design and optimize fed-batch and continuous fermentations of both Mut+ and Muts (methanol utilization plus and slow) Pichia pastoris strains. The methods are described in detail for glycerol batch, glycerol fed-batch, transition, and methanol fed-batch/mixed feed/ continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) phases of the process based on glycerol and methanol consumption models. Cell density, broth volume, substrate feed rate, and the length of each phase are rationally designed to conduct runs with selected parameters for optimizing a process. The optimization is anchored by the impact of a specific growth rate/dilution time (for CSTRs) on productivity. Equations for simulation of a process with optimal parameters are derived for an optimal process design. This protocol can be used as a practical manual for process development of a P. pastoris recombinant fermentation, and also as a reference for fermentation of other microorganisms. PMID:17951634

  10. Temporal variability in discharge and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in a tropical glacier-fed stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Andino, Patricio; Calvez, Roger;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract High flows are major disturbances in streams and cause benthic communities to vary temporally. Meltwater runoff in glacier-fed streams at temperate–arctic latitudes primarily follows a strong seasonal pattern. In contrast, such streams at the equator show less seasonal, but more......-pronounced diel variability in discharge that tracks a year-round diurnal melting–nocturnal freezing cycle of glaciers. Consequently, qualitative and quantitative differences in temporal variability of macrobenthos communities should be expected between high-latitude and tropical glacier-fed streams. We explored...... temporal variability in density, taxon richness, and community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates and analyzed community responses to flow events at 3 sites along a glacier-fed stream in equatorial Ecuador (0.05, 1.6, and 4.3 km from the glacier front). We obtained continuous flow recordings...

  11. Growth, body composition and hematology of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus fed increasing levels of ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.A. Bicudo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four levels of dietary ractopamine (RAC on growth, body composition and hematology of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus juveniles (103.6±3.3g were studied. Fish were housed into 12 circular tanks of 1 m3 - 15 fish per tank - and fed for 60 days with practical diets supplemented with 0; 10; 20 or 40mg RAC per kg of diet, in a totally randomized design trial (n=3. Fish fed diets containing up to 40mg RAC/kg diet for 60 days did not have improved growth or body composition parameters. There were no significant differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Plasma glucose and triglycerides were significantly smaller in fish fed with RAC; however no significant differences between RAC levels were detected. The inclusion of up to 40mg RAC/kg of diet did not improve growth and body composition, but influenced some hematological and biochemical parameters of juvenile pacu.

  12. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani; Wangikar, Pramod P.

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch...... and fed batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl......−1, 6.34g$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  13. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul; Raybould, Helen E; Ney, Denise M

    2006-01-01

    in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with...... of bioactive GLP-2 resulting from resection in orally fed rats. Ablation of spinal/splanchnic innervation by ganglionectomy failed to attenuate resection-induced adaptive growth. In TPN rats, capsaicin did not attenuate resection-induced mucosal growth. We conclude that vagal afferents are not...... essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal growth. Rats received systemic or perivagal capsaicin or ganglionectomy before 70% midjejunoileal resection or transection and were fed orally or by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 7 days after surgery. Growth of residual bowel was assessed by changes...

  14. Cow milk allergy symptoms are reduced in mice fed dietary synbiotics during oral sensitization with whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Bastiaan; van Esch, Betty C A M; Hofman, Gerard A; van Doorn, Suzan A C M; Knol, Jan; Nauta, Alma J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M; Knippels, Léon M J

    2009-07-01

    Cow milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children. So far, no effective treatment is available to prevent or cure food allergy. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mixture (Immunofortis), a probiotic strain [Bifidobacterium breve M-16V], or a synbiotic diet combining both on the outcome of the allergic response when provided during oral sensitization with whey in mice. Mice were fed diets containing 2% (wt:wt) Immunofortis and/or the B. breve M-16V (n = 6/group). The acute allergic skin response was determined by measuring ear swelling. Antigen-induced anaphylaxis was scored. Furthermore, whey-specific serum immunoglobulins and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were determined. In mice fed the synbiotic mixture, the allergic skin response and the anaphylactic reaction were strongly reduced compared with whey-sensitized mice fed the control diet (P food allergens. PMID:19474160

  15. Ovicidal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1990-07-01

    Ovicidal activity was observed in four adult groups (virgin males; virgin females; newly gravid females; and inseminated, reproducing females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) at the LC50's and LC95's determined from fifth-stage nymphs. All compounds were active only when fed to reproducing females (including the feeding period in which the ootheca is developing). Hexafluron and triflumuron at the LC50 caused 100% inhibition of hatch in reproducing females. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 at the LC50 had similar ovicidal activity (45.8 and 50.0% hatch, respectively). Female German cockroaches fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors before mating and after the ootheca had protruded from the abdomen were not affected. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected, and males did not effectively transfer the compounds to untreated females during mating. PMID:2388230

  16. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  17. Optimal Feed Rate Control of Escherichia coli Fed-batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an optimal control algorithm for E. coli fed-batch fermentation has been developed. A simple material balance model is used to describe the E. coli fermentation process. The optimal feed rate control of a primary metabolite process is studied and a biomass production is used as an example. An optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process is usually done using the calculus of variations to determine an optimal feed rate profile. In the optimal control literature the problem is formulated as a free final time problem where the control objective is to maximise biomass at the end of the process. The obtained optimal feed rate profile consists of sequences of maximum and minimum feed rates. The obtained results are used for optimization of E. coli fed-batch fermentation and the presented simulations show a good efficiency of the developed optimal feed rate profile.

  18. Flicker study on variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines with...... doubly fed induction generators is investigated during continuous operation, and the dependence of flicker emission on mean wind speed, wind turbulence intensity, short circuit capacity of grid and grid impedance angle are analyzed. A comparison is done with the fixed speed wind turbine, which leads to a...... conclusion that the factors mentioned above have different influences on flicker emission compared with that in the case of the fixed speed wind turbine. Flicker mitigation is realized by output reactive power control of the variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. Simulation results...

  19. Astragaloside IV Improves Metabolic Syndrome and Endothelium Dysfunction in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased in modern society and the condition is proving to be a common precursor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether astragaloside IV, a major active constituent of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bge., is able to prevent the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in fructose-fed rats. Rats were fed with 10% fructose in their drinking water for 8 weeks. From the beginning of week 5, two groups of fructose-fed rats were treated with 0.5 or 2 mg/kg, i.p., astragaloside IV. Another group of fructose-fed rats, injected with the same volume of vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO from week 5, served as the control group. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure, blood glucose, glucose tolerance, blood insulin and lipids were determined. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted at the end of the eight week treatment period to evaluate endothelium-dependent aortic vasorelaxation, as well as myocardial and aortic tissue levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx and cGMP. Fructose-fed rats developed clustering signs of metabolic syndrome, such as increased bodyweight, mild hypertension, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Administration of astragaloside IV reduced blood pressure and triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats and high dose of astragaloside IV also improved glucose tolerance and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The astragaloside IV-induced improvement in vasorelaxation was associated with increased levels of aortic NOx and cGMP and was abrogated by blockade of nitric oxide synthase with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME. On the basis of its favourable effects on lipid metabolism, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and the nitric oxide–cGMP-related pathway, astragaloside IV may be useful in ameliorating food-induced metabolic syndrome.

  20. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810 juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Vite-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival during first months after birth is one of the bottlenecks for consolidating the seahorse farming industry. In this work, Artemia metanauplii enriched with two highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA rich commercial emulsions with different docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels (63% and 14% of total lipids, a vegetable oil with no DHA, and non-enriched Artemia as control, were used to feed 5-day-old juvenile Hippocampus erectus for 60 days. Enriched Artemia had similar levels of DHA (13% and 9%, despite great differences of DHA in the emulsions, with traces of DHA in non-enriched and vegetable oil enriched Artemia. More than 20% of DHA was found in 24 h starved juveniles fed both DHA-enriched treatments, similar to values in newly born juveniles, but those fed vegetable oil enriched Artemia or non-enriched Artemia had 5% of DHA. Total lipid and protein levels were similar in juveniles from the four treatments. The n-3/n-6 ratio was almost four-fold higher in seahorses fed DHA-enriched treatments compared to juveniles fed the non-enriched treatments. Survival of seahorses only partially reflected the DHA levels: it was lower in the vegetable oil treatment, similar in the seahorses fed Artemia with higher DHA and in the control treatment, and higher in seahorses fed the HUFA-enriched Artemia with lower DHA levels, although growth was similar in the two DHA-enriched Artemia treatments. Juvenile H. erectus seahorses perform better when they have at least 20% of DHA in their tissues, and these levels can be attained with no more than 14% of DHA in emulsions, eliminating the need for more expensive emulsions with higher DHA levels.

  1. Influence of dietary supplementation of propolis on hematology, biochemistry and lipid profile of rats fed high cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Albokhadaim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of propolis in rats fed high cholesterol diet. The rats (n=32) were divided into four equal groups. The rats of group 1 (control) were fed basal diet, whereas rats of group 2 were fed basal diet mixed with cholesterol (1%). The rats of group 3 and 4 were fed high cholesterol diet (1%) mixed with propolis powder 1 and 2%, respectively. Hematological parameters were comparable among all groups. C...

  2. Nonlinear control of a doubly fed induction generator for wind energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Boudjema

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a variable speed device to produce electrical energy on a power network, based on a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG used in wind energy conversion systems. In the first place, we developed a model of the doubly fed induction machine. In order to control the power flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the power network, a control law is synthesized using two types of controllers : adaptive fuzzy logic and sliding mode. Their respective performances are compared in terms of power reference tracking, response to sudden speed variations, sensitivity to perturbations and robustness against machine parameters variations.

  3. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  4. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  5. Raspberry Ketone Protects Rats Fed High-Fat Diets Against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague–Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the r...

  6. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were ...

  7. Reduced models of doubly fed induction generator system for wind turbine simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Lund, Torsten; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2005-01-01

    fed induction generator system is very well represented by the dynamics due to the generator inertia and the generator control system, whereas the electromagnetic characteristics of the generator can be represented by the steady state relations. The parameters for the proposed models are derived from......This article compares three reduced models with a detailed model of a doubly fed induction generator system for wind turbine applications. The comparisons are based on simulations only. The main idea is to provide reduced generator models which are appropriate to simulate normal wind turbine...

  8. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  9. Growth, body composition and hematology of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fed increasing levels of ractopamine

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. A. Bicudo; R.Y. Sado; J. E. P. CYRINO

    2012-01-01

    The effects of four levels of dietary ractopamine (RAC) on growth, body composition and hematology of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus juveniles (103.6±3.3g) were studied. Fish were housed into 12 circular tanks of 1 m3 - 15 fish per tank - and fed for 60 days with practical diets supplemented with 0; 10; 20 or 40mg RAC per kg of diet, in a totally randomized design trial (n=3). Fish fed diets containing up to 40mg RAC/kg diet for 60 days did not have improved growth or body composition paramete...

  10. Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi Ra; Kim, Byung Chan; Kim, Ran; Oh, Hyun In; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Choi, Kang Ju; Sung, Chang Keun

    2013-01-01

    Black ginseng is produced by a repeated steaming process. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of black ginseng ethanol extract (BG-EE) in high fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Two groups were fed either a normal control (NC) diet or a HF diet (45% kcal fat). The other three groups were given a HF diet supplemented with 1% BG-EE, 3% BG-EE, and 5% BG-EE for 12 wk. The anti-obesity effects of the BG-EE supplement on body weight, the development of fat mass, and lipid mechani...

  11. Performance analysis of samarium cobalt P.M. synchronous motor fed from PWM inverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis and performance of samarium cobalt permanent magnet (P.M.) synchronous motors fed from two types of voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters. The analysis and test results on the steady state performance of a P.M. motor fed from PWM inverters are presented. PWM inverters are used in variable voltage variable frequency applications to avoid a double conversion process of ordinary inverters. In drives, they are used for voltage and speed regulation of motors. Use of modulation technique in inverters also allow to eliminate or minimize selected harmonics from the inverter output voltage

  12. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Britt Tranberg; Hellgren, Lars I; Jens Lykkesfeldt; Kristen Sejrsen; Aymeric Jeamet; Ida Rune; Merete Ellekilde; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Axel Kornerup Hansen

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were ...

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  14. Compact optically-fed microwave true-time delay using liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui;

    2009-01-01

    Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz.......Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz....

  15. New electronic control equipment for doubly fed induction motors of high rating

    CERN Document Server

    Dirr, R; Schluter, W; Waldmann, H

    1972-01-01

    Modern data processing systems and power electronics have made it possible to replace the auxiliary machine used hitherto for controlling doubly fed induction machines by static electronic circuits. A brief outline of the mode of operation of the doubly fed induction machine is followed by a description of the automatic control system chosen and of the direct static frequency convertor used as the final control element in solving the special problem involved by way of example of the motor of the impulsing m.g. set for the new power supply of the CERN magnetics. (6 refs).

  16. Abundance and diversity of rumen protozoa in lambs fed Gliricidia sepium silage

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Martinele; Lucas Feitosa Silva; Marta D'Agosto; Evandro Neves Muniz; José Luiz de Sá; Gladston Rafael Arruda Santos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal protozoa in lambs after partial replacement of feed concentrates in their diets with Gliricidia sepium silage. Twenty-four male Santa Ines lambs with an average initial weight of 14.5 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replications. Treatments (given as a percentage of dry matter) were as follows: control - corn silage (600 g kg-1 as fed) + concentrate (400 g kg-1 as fed);...

  17. Utilization of fishery by-products as supplements fed with roughages to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishery by-products can be used for feeding ruminants, the main ones being fish meal, fish oil, or fish viscera silage. Sources of raw materials are discussed and attention drawn to the fact that on a worldwide basis large quantities of potential raw materials, mainly in the form of by-catch fish and fish viscera, are not utilized. Results of three experiments are presented where grass silage was fed ad libitum with fish meal or fish viscera silage as supplements to growing bull calves. Liveweight gains in Experiment 1 were 598 and 531 g/head/day respectively, for animals fed 350 and 700 g fish viscera silage/head/day, but 850 and 975 g for animals fed 200 and 400 g fish meal/head/day. Animals fed fish viscera silage ate 12% less grass silage dry matter. in Experiment 2 the relationship between liveweight gains g/head/day (Y) and fishmeal supplementation g/head/day (X) could be expressed by the equation: Y = 445.0 + 1.616 x - 0.001281x2. Liveweight gains in Experiment 3 were 471, 838 and 914 g/head/day for animals fed 0, 200 and 400 g fishmeal/head/day respectively, and 358 g for animals fed 400 g fish viscera silage/head/day. Intake of grass silage dry matter was reduced by 9% for the animals fed the fish viscera silage. No differences were observed in dry matter digestibility between treatments in Experiment 3. It is concluded that the lower growth rate observed when fish viscera silage is fed with grass silage compared to fish meal or the control is due to reduced intake of grass silage dry matter and possibly reduced nutrient utilization. The improved growth rate observed when grass silage is supplemented with fish meal occurs without an increase in dry matter digestibility or an increase in intake of grass silage dry matter which points to changes in rumen metabolism or tissue metabolism of the animals. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs

  18. CPW-fed Wideband Antenna with U-shaped Ground Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Shagun Maheshwari; Priyanka Jain; Archana Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the design of CPW-fed wideband antenna with U-shaped ground plane. The proposed antenna is a simple printed antenna, which is fed by a 50Ω CPW line. The Antenna has a compact size of 13mm×25mm. To obtain wide bandwidth, a slot is cut in ground plane and radiating patch is modified. The proposed antenna yields the operating frequency range from 7.3GHz to 15.1GHz, which offers the bandwidth of 7.79GHz. Simulation has been performed by using CST Microwave Studio Software. Thi...

  19. Performance Analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind turbine under Faulty and RLC Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Parashar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbine system during different types of grid fault. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG based wind turbine (WT system provides better power delivery towards the demand. The design and response of the DFIG based wind turbine system during different fault conditions, various load conditions and integrated system consisting of DFIG based WT system have been verified using MATLAB/ Simulink. The simulation results are shown with the model of DFIG based wind energy generation system.

  20. A novel and simple coplanar waveguide-fed planar monopole antenna for ultra-wideband applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel and simple CPW-fed planar monopole antenna is presented for UWB application. The antenna is fabricated on inexpensive FR4 substrate and fed by 50Ω CPW on the same layer. Measured data show that the antenna provides an impedance bandwidth of about 8GHz for the return loss less than 10dB. It is also observed that the radiation patterns are nearly omni-directional over the entire frequency range. Details of the proposed antenna are presented, and simulated results are presented and discussed.

  1. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans

  2. Competitiveness of irradiated methyl eugenol fed oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of methyl eugenol feeding in the sexual competitiveness of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was studied. Addition of methyl eugenol concentration up to 0.5 ml per liter diet revealed no significant difference base on different quality control parameters used in the study. Results of mating tests showed high number of mated pairs were collected on flies fed with methyl eugenol both on the larvae and adult stage as compared with the untreated flies. Although no significant difference was observed between the larval and adult methyl eugenol-fed flies, the number of mated pairs slightly increased in the former than the latter in all mating tests conducted. (Author)

  3. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR; K.M. ELAMIN; A E Amin; H E Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian) fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg) of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control), B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, wa...

  4. SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PID-ANN CONTROLLER FOR CHOPPER FED EMBEDDED PMDC MOTOR

    OpenAIRE

    M. Madheswaran; Muruganandam, M.

    2012-01-01

    The closed loop control of PMDC drive with an inner current controller and an outer PID-ANN (Proportional Integral Derivative – Artificial Neural Network) based speed controller is designed and presented in this paper. Motor is fed by DC / DC buck converter (DC Chopper). The controller is used to change the duty cycle of the converter and thereby, the voltage fed to the PMDC motor to regulate the speed. The PID-ANN controller designed was evaluated by computer simulation and it was implemente...

  5. SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PID-ANN CONTROLLER FOR CHOPPER FED EMBEDDED PMDC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The closed loop control of PMDC drive with an inner current controller and an outer PID-ANN (Proportional Integral Derivative – Artificial Neural Network based speed controller is designed and presented in this paper. Motor is fed by DC / DC buck converter (DC Chopper. The controller is used to change the duty cycle of the converter and thereby, the voltage fed to the PMDC motor to regulate the speed. The PID-ANN controller designed was evaluated by computer simulation and it was implemented using an 8051 based embedded system. This system will operate in forward motoring with variable speed.

  6. Eigenvalue-based harmonic stability analysis method in inverter-fed power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    This paper presents an eigenvalue-based harmonic stability analysis method for inverter-fed power systems. A full-order small-signal model for a droop-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of digital control system, inner current and voltage...... control loops, and outer droop-based power control loop. Based on the inverter model, an overall small-signal model of a two-inverter-fed system is then established, and the eigenvalue-based stability analysis is subsequently performed to assess the influence of controller parameters on the harmonic...... harmonic stability analysis method....

  7. Design of CPW-fed Printed Rectangular Monopole Antenna for Wideband Dual-Frequency Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Agarwal; Singhal, P.K.; Shailendra Singh Ojha; Akhilesh Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A printed rectangular monopole antenna (PRMA) with coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed is designed for wideband dual frequency application. A proposed monopole antenna which has a size of 31.9 x 33 mm2, is fabricated to work on a substrate (FR4 lossy) that has the relative permittivity of 4.4 and a thickness of 1.6 mm with CPW-fed in the frequency range of 6 - 16 GHz. Simulation results such as impedance bandwidth are presented and discussed. Simulation results have been verified with good agreement...

  8. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P < 0.003). In conclusion, stage of maturity at harvest strongly affects the distribution of particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silages....

  9. Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Phiri, Harris; Mwase, Maxwell; Choongo, Kennedy; Van der Waal, Ben; Kanchanakhan, Somkiat; Reantaso, Melba B; Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2012-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area. PMID:21647772

  10. Exploring the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi: comparative analysis of expression profiles of sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van-My

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sandflies, the blood meal is responsible for the induction of several physiologic processes that culminate in egg development and maturation. During blood feeding, infected sandflies are also able to transmit the parasite Leishmania to a suitable host. Many blood-induced molecules play significant roles during Leishmania development in the sandfly midgut, including parasite killing within the endoperitrophic space. In this work, we randomly sequenced transcripts from three distinct high quality full-length female Phlebotomus papatasi midgut-specific cDNA libraries from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies. Furthermore, we compared the transcript expression profiles from the three different cDNA libraries by customized bioinformatics analysis and validated these findings by semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR. Results Transcriptome analysis of 4010 cDNA clones resulted in the identification of the most abundant P. papatasi midgut-specific transcripts. The identified molecules included those with putative roles in digestion and peritrophic matrix formation, among others. Moreover, we identified sandfly midgut transcripts that are expressed only after a blood meal, such as microvilli associated-like protein (PpMVP1, PpMVP2 and PpMVP3, a peritrophin (PpPer1, trypsin 4 (PpTryp4, chymotrypsin PpChym2, and two unknown proteins. Of interest, many of these overabundant transcripts such as PpChym2, PpMVP1, PpMVP2, PpPer1 and PpPer2 were of lower abundance when the sandfly was given a blood meal in the presence of L. major. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides a comprehensive look at the repertoire of transcripts present in the midgut of the sandfly P. papatasi. Furthermore, the customized bioinformatic analysis allowed us to compare and identify the overall transcript abundance from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania-infected sandflies. The suggested upregulation of specific

  11. Modeling of the pyruvate production with Escherichia coli in a fed-batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelić, B; Vasić-Racki, D; Wandrey, C; Takors, R

    2004-07-01

    A family of 10 competing, unstructured models has been developed to model cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation of the pyruvate producing strain Escherichia coli YYC202 ldhA::Kan strain used in fed-batch processes. The strain is completely blocked in its ability to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA or acetate (using glucose as the carbon source) resulting in an acetate auxotrophy during growth in glucose minimal medium. Parameter estimation was carried out using data from fed-batch fermentation performed at constant glucose feed rates of q(VG)=10 mL h(-1). Acetate was fed according to the previously developed feeding strategy. While the model identification was realized by least-square fit, the model discrimination was based on the model selection criterion (MSC). The validation of model parameters was performed applying data from two different fed-batch experiments with glucose feed rate q(VG)=20 and 30 mL h(-1), respectively. Consequently, the most suitable model was identified that reflected the pyruvate and biomass curves adequately by considering a pyruvate inhibited growth (Jerusalimsky approach) and pyruvate inhibited product formation (described by modified Luedeking-Piret/Levenspiel term). PMID:15085423

  12. Doubly fed induction generator based wind turbine systems subject to recurring grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhu, Nan; Chen, Min; Xu, Dehong

    New grid codes demand the wind turbine systems to ride through recurring grid faults. In this paper, the performance of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator wind turbine system under recurring grid faults is analyzed. The stator natural flux produced by the voltage recovery after the first grid fault...

  13. Rotary Calciner - Metallic Melter and Slurry - Fed Ceramic Melter for Treatment of High Level Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotary calciner-metallic melter and slurry-fed ceramic melter are used for treatment of high level liquid waste in the industrial scale. Rotary calciner-metallic melter is operated by induction heating and slurry-fed ceramic melter by Joule heating. Both of melter are compared it’s characteristics of waste-glass composition for process and melter operation, melter materials, life time of melter, treatment of off gas, and power consumption. For melter with Joule heating, electric resistance of waste-glass is 4.8 ohm.cm at temperature 1150 °C. The metal of platinum group is not soluble in the molten waste-glass, so that influence the electric current pass by the molten waste-glass. For melter with induction heating there is not influence of platinum metal group. For melter with Joule heating, the material which contact with waste-glass is monofrax K-3. The outer materials layer i.e MRT-70K, LN-135, AZ-GS, fiber board, and stainless steel 304. The material of melter with induction heating is Inconel-690. The life time of melter with Joule heating is longer than melter with induction heating. From the safety aspect, operation of the both of melter have already successful. Operation cost of slurry-fed ceramic melter is cheaper, but construction and decommissioning cost more expensive than rotary calciner-metallic melter. Based on Indonesia condition, the slurry-fed ceramic melter is more reasonable to be utilized. (author)

  14. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Jensen, Bent Borg; Finster, Kai;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with sol...

  15. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  16. Global study of microbial communites in tilipia gut fed sludge-infused diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project was to examine the impact of microbial diversity in feed on gut communities of fish. To do so, tilapia larvae were fed three experimental diets incorporated with sludge produced under either aerobic, methanogenic or denitrifying conditions. Microbial diversity between differ...

  17. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain. PMID:27307576

  18. Higher Education And Economic Growth. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Chicago Fed on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.…

  19. Altered heart proteome in fructose-fed Fisher 344 rats exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunggren, S A; Iggland, M; Rönn, M; Lind, L; Lind, P M; Karlsson, H

    2016-03-10

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is an artificial estrogen initially produced for medical purposes but is today widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Exposure-related reproductive disorders have been found, but recently it has also been suggested that BPA may be involved in obesity, diabetes, myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial infarction in humans. To mimic a modern lifestyle, female rats were fed with fructose or fructose plus BPA (0.25mg/L drinking water). The myocardial left ventricle proteome of water controls, fructose-fed and fructose-fed plus BPA supplemented rats was explored. The proteome was investigated using nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identification. In total, 41 proteins were significantly altered by BPA exposure compared to water or fructose controls. Principal component analysis and cellular process enrichment analysis of altered proteins suggested increased fatty acid transport and oxidation, increased ROS generation and altered structural integrity of the myocardial left ventricle in the fructose-fed BPA-exposed rats, indicating unfavorable effects on the myocardium. In conclusion, BPA exposure in the rats induces major alterations in the myocardial proteome. PMID:26930160

  20. Effects of water supplementation on physiological jaundice in breast-fed babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, M.; Hall, M.; Harvey, D

    1981-01-01

    The effect of water supplementation in normal, term, breast-fed babies with physiological jaundice was studied. Water supplementation was given to 120 babies and 55 received no extra fluids. There was no significant difference between the two groups when peak serum bilirubin levels and incidence of phototherapy were compared.