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  1. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

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    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  2. CLA-enriched diet containing t10,c12-CLA alters bile acid homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

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    Letona, Amaia Zabala; Niot, Isabelle; Laugerette, Fabienne; Athias, Anne; Monnot, Marie-Claude; Portillo, Maria P; Besnard, Philippe; Poirier, Hélène

    2011-08-01

    Mice fed a mixture of CLA containing t10,c12-CLA lose fat mass and develop hyperinsulinemia and hepatic steatosis due to an accumulation of TG and cholesterol. Because cholesterol is the precursor in bile acid (BA) synthesis, we investigated whether t10,c12-CLA alters BA metabolism. In Expt. 1, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard diet for 28 d supplemented with a CLA mixture (1 g/100 g) or not (controls). In Expt. 2, the feeding period was reduced to 4, 6, and 10 d. In Expt. 3, mice were fed a diet supplemented with linoleic acid, c9,t11-CLA, or t10,c12-CLA (0.4 g/100 g) for 28 d. In Expt. 1, the BA pool size was greater in CLA-fed mice than in controls and the entero-hepatic circulation of BA was altered due to greater BA synthesis and ileal reclamation. This resulted from higher hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and ileal apical sodium BA transporter expressions in CLA-fed mice. Furthermore, hepatic Na(+)/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) (-52%) and bile salt export pump (BSEP) (-77%) protein levels were lower in CLA-fed mice than in controls, leading to a greater accumulation of BA in the plasma (+500%); also, the cholesterol saturation index and the concentration of hydrophobic BA in the bile were greater in CLA-fed mice, changes associated with the presence of cholesterol crystals. Expt. 2 suggests that CLA-mediated changes were caused by hyperinsulinemia, which occurred after 6 d of the CLA diet before NTCP and BSEP mRNA downregulation (10 d). Expt. 3 demonstrated that only t10,c12-CLA altered NTCP and BSEP mRNA levels. In conclusion, t10,c12-CLA alters BA homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

  3. 10e12z CLA alters adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte cytokine expression and induces macrophage proliferation.

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    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Eser, Pinar O; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-05-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 (10e12z) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer of CLA is responsible for loss of lipid storage or adipose tissue in vitro or in vivo. This isomer also induces inflammatory signaling in both mouse and human adipocytes in vitro. However, when these events occur and whether they are significant enough to affect other cell types are unclear. In these experiments, the 3T3-L1 cell line has been used to examine the interaction between inflammatory signaling and decreased differentiation or lipid storage induced by 10e12z CLA. In assays measuring both lipid accumulation and gene expression, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells exhibit concurrent induction of inflammatory signaling, as measured by cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and a decrease in adipocyte marker gene expression. Furthermore, in fully differentiated adipocytes, as identified in microarray assays and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction, 10e12z CLA also significantly affected expression of both matrix metalloprotein-3 (MMP-3), collagen VI α 3 ColVI alpha 3 (VIα3) and the cytokine epiregulin, demonstrating that the effects of 10e12z broadly impact adipocyte function. In agreement with other experimental systems, 10e12z CLA inhibited RAW 264.7 cell proliferation; however, in response to adipocyte-conditioned media, 10e12z-CLA-treated adipocytes induced proliferation of this cell line, suggesting that the effect of 10e12z CLA is context dependent. These results are largely consistent with the known activation of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor-κB in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo by 10e12z CLA treatment and demonstrate that adipose is an important target tissue of this isomer that impacts other cell types.

  4. Trans-10,cis-12-CLA-caused lipodystrophy is associated with profound changes of fatty acid profiles of liver, white adipose tissue and erythrocytes in mice: possible link to tissue-specific alterations of fatty acid desaturation.

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    Jaudszus, Anke; Moeckel, Peter; Hamelmann, Eckard; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce body fat mass. To investigate the effects of individual CLA isomers on the fatty acid profiles of lipogenic (liver and white adipose) and lipid sensitive (erythrocyte) tissues, BALB/c mice were fed with 1 of 2 diets supplemented with either a c9,t11-CLA-enriched and t10,c12-CLA-free or a CLA-mixture containing both isomers in equal amounts (1% w/w of the diet) for 5 weeks. A control group was fed with a diet enriched in sunflower oil to energy balance the CLA. Compared to the t10,c12-CLA-free and the control diets, we observed a significant reduction of adipose tissue accompanied by fatty livers in the CLA-mix-fed group. These alterations in body fat distribution entailed a conspicuous shift of the fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue and livers. Liver enlargement was mainly caused by accumulation of C18 monoenes that accounted for 67 ± 1% of total fatty acid methyl esters. The significant reduction of the 18:0/18:1 desaturation index in the liver upon CLA-mix diet indicated high stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity. In contrast, reduction in white adipose tissue was largely driven by percental reduction of monounsaturated fatty acids (p ≤ 0.001). 16:0/ 16:1 and 18:0/18:1 desaturation indices for white adipose tissue significantly increased, suggesting an inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase upon CLA-mix diet. The fatty acid profile of the erythrocytes widely reflected that of livers, depending on the supplemented diet. These profound changes in fatty acid composition of lipogenic organs due to t10,c12-CLA intake may be the consequence of functional alterations of lipid metabolism.

  5. Impact of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.

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    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Jonggun; Whang, Kwang-Youn; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has garnered special attention as a food bioactive compound that prevents and attenuates obesity. Although most studies on the effects of CLA on obesity have focused on the reduction of body fat, a number of studies have demonstrated that CLA also increases lean body mass and enhances physical performances. It has been suggested that these effects may be due in part to physiological changes in the skeletal muscle, such as changes in the muscle fiber type transformation, alteration of the intracellular signaling pathways in muscle metabolism, or energy metabolism. However, the mode of action for CLA in muscle metabolism is not completely understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects of CLA on skeletal muscle metabolism. Given that CLA not only reduces body fat, but also improves lean mass, there is great potential for the use of CLA to improve muscle metabolism, which would have a significant health impact.

  6. CLA Wrestles with the Future.

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    Horrocks, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Report on the 1992 Canadian Library Association (CLA) conference discusses plans for a national summit on information policy, the current situation of public libraries, updating of policy statements, and strengthening CLA. CLA officers and awards are listed. (MES)

  7. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men.

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    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Church, David D; Mangine, Gerald T; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Moon, Jordan R; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway appears to be the primary regulator of muscle protein synthesis. A variety of stimuli including resistance exercise, amino acids, and hormonal signals activate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a protein supplement on mTORC1 signaling following a resistance exercise protocol designed to promote elevations in circulating hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that the protein supplement would augment the intramuscular anabolic signaling response. Ten resistance-trained men (age, 24.7 ± 3.4 years; weight, 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; height, 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) received either a placebo or a supplement containing 20 g protein, 6 g carbohydrates, and 1 g fat after high-volume, short-rest lower-body resistance exercise. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, immediately, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours after exercise. Fine-needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline, 1 hour, and 5 hours after exercise. Myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after resistance exercise (P exercise also elicited a significant insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol response (P growth factor-1, insulin, testosterone, growth hormone, or cortisol. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed significant elevations in RPS6 phosphorylation after resistance exercise (P = .001); however, no differences were observed between trials for signaling proteins including Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6. The endocrine response and phosphorylation status of signaling proteins within the mTORC1 pathway did not appear to be altered by ingestion of supplement after resistance exercise in resistance-trained men.

  8. CLA Reaches beyond Its Borders.

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    Horrocks, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the activities at the Canadian Library Association (CLA) 1992 annual conference. Topics discussed include First Nations libraries; help for third world countries; censorship; IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) activities; financial concerns of CLA; publishing plans; work on a national information…

  9. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Emadi, Ladan; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Sharifi, Hamid; Mehdizadeh, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  10. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  11. Intramuscular plasmacytoma

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    Surov, Alexey [Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Tcherkes, Anatolij [Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Meier, Frieder [Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Pathology, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In multiple myeloma, secondary infiltration of adjacent muscles from bone lesions is common. However, plasmacytoma directly arising within the skeletal musculature is rare. Imaging findings of this rare entity have been described only sporadically. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical signs and radiological features of intramuscular plasmacytoma (IP). Eleven patients with IP were retrospectively identified in the pathological and radiological databases of our institution. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in nine patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in four cases. IP presented clinically with local pain in four patients. In one case with involvement of the rectus lateralis muscle of the eye, the patient showed a painless bulbus proptosis. In another patient, IP manifested as a massive bilateral forearm swelling with compartment syndrome. In four patients, IP was identified incidentally on computed tomography during staging examination. On imaging, two patterns of IP were found: intramuscular mass (n = 5) or diffuse muscle infiltration (n = 6). On CT with contrast, IP showed a moderate enhancement. With MRI on T1-weighted images, IP was isointense in comparison to the unaffected musculature, whereas on T2-weighted images, IP showed high signal intensity. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, a slight-to-moderate inhomogeneous enhancement was seen in all cases. IP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscle tumors. It manifests with two radiological patterns, either as intramuscular mass or as diffuse muscle infiltration. (orig.)

  12. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA.

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    1995-10-01

    experiment). 8 Thompson, H.J. (146-38-3497) Table 1. Mammary cancer prevention by CLA in rats fed either an unsaturated fat or a saturated fat dieta ...Mammary cancer prevention by different levels of CLA in rats fed a 20% corn oil dieta Tumor Total No. CLA incidence of tumors % inhibitionb 93.3% 87 0.5

  13. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

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    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  14. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  15. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

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    Mitchell, Patricia L; Karakach, Tobias K; Currie, Deborah L; McLeod, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/-) and LDLr(-/-) mice) we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area), was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix) supplementation in both apoE(-/-) (pCLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/-) strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (pCLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

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    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V.; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  17. Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

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    Koba, Kazunori; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric (cis or trans) isomers of linoleic acid with a conjugated double bond. The most representative CLA isomers are 9c,11t-18:2 and 10t,12c-18:2. CLA has been shown to exert various potent physiological functions such as anticarcinogenic, antiobese, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties. This means CLA can be effective to prevent lifestyle diseases or metabolic syndromes. Also, reports suggest that physiological effects of CLA are different between the isomers, for example the 10t,12c isomer is anticarcinogenic, antiobese and antidiabetic, whereas the 9c,11t isomer is mainly anticarcinogenic. We describe here the physiological properties of CLA including the possible mechanism and the possibility to benefit human health.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA-An Overview

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    D J Crumb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a group of octadecadienoic acids that are naturally present in the highest concentrations in foods originating in ruminant animals, and dairy products such as milk. Especially large numbers of CLA polymers have been detected in beef, lamb and milk fat. Results from many in vitro and animal studies, though conflicting, have suggested that CLA supplementation may have beneficial effect on obesity, weight management, cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This article provides a brief overview on the functionality, safety and toxicity of CLA as described in literature. .   Industrial Relevance: CLA is a functional food and dietary supplement ingredient with potential benefits against a number of metabolic chronic diseases. However, the mechanism of action and its toxicological effects are not very well understood. These factors may play an important role in the effectiveness as CLA as a viable functional dietary bioactive compound.

  19. Dietary t10,c12-CLA but not c9,t11 CLA reduces adipocyte size in the absence of changes in the adipose renin-angiotensin system in fa/fa Zucker rats.

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    DeClercq, Vanessa; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2010-11-01

    In obesity, increased activity of the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and enlarged adipocytes with altered adipokine production are linked to the development of obesity-related health problems and cardiovascular disease. Mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been shown to reduce adipocyte size and alter the production of adipokines. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding individual CLA isomers on adipocyte size and adipokines associated with the local adipose RAS. Male fa/fa Zucker rats received either (a) control, (b) cis(c)9,trans(t)11-CLA, or (c) t10,c12-CLA diet for 8 weeks. The t10,c12-CLA isomer reduced adipocyte size and increased cell number in epididymal adipose tissue. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that neither CLA isomer altered mRNA or protein levels of angiotensinogen or AngII receptors in adipose tissue. Likewise, levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were unchanged in adipose tissue. Similarly, neither CLA isomer had any effect on phosphorylation nor DNA binding of NF-κB. Our results suggest that although the t10,c12-CLA isomer had beneficial effects on reducing adipocyte size in obese rats, this did not translate into changes in the local adipose RAS or associated adipokines.

  20. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

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    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov

    2003-01-01

    in primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose...... uptake and oxidation and preadipocyte differentiation by altering preadipocyte gene transcription in a manner that appeared to be due, in part, to decreased PPARgamma expression....

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile

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    A. Baddini Feitoza

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.

  2. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    mechanisms that may account for its protective activity. CLA , a collective term that refers to conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid, is a...hypothesis is that CLA affects the processes of clonal expansion and/or clonal selection via modulating genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms obligatory for, or...minutes at 4’, and the supernatant decanted and extracted twice with 24:1 chlroform/isoamyl alchohol . Nucleic acids were precipitated by the addition

  3. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Mitchell

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/- and LDLr(-/- mice we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area, was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix supplementation in both apoE(-/- (p<0.05, n = 11 and LDLr(-/- mice (p<0.01, n = 10. Principal component analysis was utilized to delineate the influence of multiple plasma and tissue metabolites on the development of atherosclerosis. Group clustering by dietary supplementation was evident, with the t-10, c-12 CLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/- strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (p<0.05, n = 10, triglyceride (p<0.01, n = 10 and cholesterol ester content (p<0.01, n = 10. Furthermore, t-10, c-12 CLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

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    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

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    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  6. CLA ¿antioxidante o prooxidante?

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    Cruz Pardos, S.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a term referred to a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with double conjugated bonds in carbon atoms 10 and 12 or 9 and 11 with all of the possible cis and trans combinations. CLA is a naturally occurring substance in food. The major dietary sources of CLA are foods derived from ruminants, e.g. beef and cheese and its content increases when meals are processed. There is ample evidence showing that free radicals and oxidation processes mediated by free radicals play an important role in many pathological situations including cancer and atherosclerosis. Natural and synthetic antioxidants, tolerated by humans, are employed in order to avoid or treat these pathologies. In the present paper, articles evaluating the antioxidant or prooxidant activity of CLA have been revised. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro studies suggested the antioxidant role for CLA, however recent researches have not shown any evidence related to it. New studies have to be carried out in order to get more information on the antioxidant and protective role of CLA in free radical-related degenerative diseases.Se define como conjugado dienoico derivado del ácido linoleico (CLA a una mezcla de isómeros posicionales y geométricos del ácido linoleico con dobles enlaces conjugados en los átomos de carbono 10 y 12 ó 9 y 11 con todas las posibles combinaciones cis y trans. El CLA se encuentra de forma natural en los alimentos, principalmente de origen animal y en particular en las carnes y productos lácteos de rumiantes, y su contenido aumenta por el cocinado o procesado. Actualmente se acepta que los radicales libres y los procesos de oxidación mediados por los mismos juegan un papel importante en muchas situaciones patológicas incluyendo cáncer y aterosclerosis. Por ello la búsqueda de antioxidantes naturales y sintéticos, tolerados por el organismo, que puedan ayudar a prevenir o tratar estas patologías es

  7. Effect of dietary vitamin E content on the CLA, cholesterol and triglycerides composition of Italian Mediterranean buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sacchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids, CLA, triglycerides and cholesterol in intramuscular fat depots of buffalo meat was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography to investigate the influence of dietary vitamin E content. Three groups of Italian Mediterranean buffalo calves were fed on three diets with high (H, low (L and zero (Z vitamin E contents. The animal were slaughtered at 15 months and three muscles were dissected on the half-carcass: Longissimus dorsi (LD, Tricipitis brachii (TB and Semimembranosus (Sm. Lipid extracts from muscles (g/100g f.m.: 0.82 for LD, 0.66 for TB and 0.48 for Sm were used to quantify the amount (mg/100g of lipids of fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and cholesterol. The effects of dietary vitamin E content were significant (P<0.05 but marginal. Comparison of lipid extracts from muscles showed that C18:2 and total CLA were higher respectively in TB and Sm muscles when vitamin content was low. Also Cholesterol content variation was affected by low dietary vitamin E: LD muscle has a lower cholesterol concentration for diet L. The different vitamin content of two diets did not significantly influence the composition of triglycerides. Considering the low lipid concentrations (<1g/100 g of fresh muscle none of the meat muscles should be considered a significant source of CLA.

  8. Production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 and its compatibility with CLA-producing rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hui Gyu; Heo, Wan; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyun Seop; Bae, Gui Seck; Chung, Soo Hyun; Seo, Ho-Chan; Kim, Young Jun

    2011-02-09

    This study was performed to characterize the ability of an active Bifidobacterium strain to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and to test its possible utilization as a probiotic compatible to the ruminal condition. Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 can actively convert linoleic acid (LA) to cis-9,trans-11-CLA, which is a major isomer derived from microbial conversion. LMC520 showed reasonable tolerance under acidic conditions (pH 2.5 with 1% pepsin) and in the presence of oxgall (0-3%). The growth and CLA production of LMC520 were tested under ruminal conditions and compared with those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, which is a major CLA producer in the rumen as an intermediate in the biohydrogenation (BH) process. LMC520 converted 15% of LA to CLA under ruminal conditions, which was 2 times higher activity than that of A38, and there was no decline in CLA level during prolonged incubation of 48 h. The BH activity of LMC520 was comparable to that of A38. When LMC520 was cocultured with A38, even with slight decrease of CLA due to high BH activity by A38, but the level of CLA was maintained by the high CLA-producing activity of LMC520. This comparative study shows the potential of this strain to be applied as a functional probiotic not only for humans but also for ruminants as well as to increase CLA production.

  9. Implication of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilzer, Allison; Park, Yeonhwa

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention in the last two decades for its variety of biologically beneficial effects. CLA reduces body fat, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and modulates immune and inflammatory responses as well as improves bone mass. It has been suggested that the overall effects of CLA are the results of interactions between two major isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. This review will primarily focus on current CLA publications involving humans, which are also summarized in the tables. Along with a number of beneficial effects of CLA, there are safety considerations for CLA supplementation in humans, which include effects on liver functions, milk fat depression, glucose metabolism, and oxidative stresses.

  10. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich potato chips by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Castrodale, Chelsey L; Proctor, Andrew

    2011-03-23

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by photoisomerization of soy oil linoleic acid. Nutritional studies have shown that CLA possesses health benefits in terms of reducing certain heart disease and diabetes risk factors. Potato chips are snacks that are readily produced in the CLA-rich soy oil containing CLA levels similar to those of the oil used for frying. The objective of this study was to develop an FTIR method to rapidly determine the CLA content of oil in potato chips. Photoirradiated soy oil samples with ∼25% total CLA were mixed with control soy oil, and 100 soy oil samples with total CLA levels ranging from 0.89 to 24.4% were made. Potato chips were fried using each of these 300 g CLA rich soy oil mixtures at 175 °C for approximately 3 min. Duplicate GC-FID fatty acid analyses were conducted on oil extracted from each batch of potato chips. The chip samples were ground and then scanned using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with the aid of a high-pressure clamp, and duplicate spectra of each sample were averaged to obtain an average spectrum. Calibration models were developed using PLS regression analysis. These correlated the CLA isomer concentrations of potato chips obtained by GC-FID fatty acid analysis with their corresponding FTIR spectral features. The calibration models were fully cross validated and tested using samples that were not used in the calibration sample set. Calibrations for total CLA, trans,trans CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had coefficients of determinations (R2v) between 0.91 and 0.96 and corresponding root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) ranging from 0.005 to 1.44. The ATR-FTIR technique showed potential as a method for the determination of the CLA levels in unknown potato chip samples.

  11. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARγ signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov; Morrison, Ron F.; Storkson, Jayne; Lea-Currie, Renee; Pariza, Michael; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adiopcytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA de...

  12. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  13. Catalyst for Change: The CIC/CLA Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, David C.

    2011-01-01

    From the fall of 2008 through the spring of 2011, 47 colleges and universities, organized and supported by the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), administered the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) to their students. The CLA is a test of critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving, and written communication developed by the…

  14. The ZmCLA4 gene in the qLA4-1 QTL controls leaf angle in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ku, L X; Han, Z P; Guo, S L; Liu, H J; Zhang, Z Z; Cao, L R; Cui, X J; Chen, Y H

    2014-09-01

    Maize architecture is a major contributing factor to their high level of productivity. Maize varieties with an erect-leaf-angle (LA) phenotype, which increases light harvesting for photosynthesis and grain-filling, have elevated grain yields. Although a large body of information is available on the map positions of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for LA, little is known about the molecular mechanism of these QTL. In this study, the ZmCLA4 gene, which is responsible for the qLA4-1 QTL associated with LA, was identified and isolated by fine mapping and positional cloning. The ZmCLA4 gene is an orthologue of LAZY1 in rice and Arabidopsis. Sequence analysis revealed two SNPs and two indel sites in ZmCLA4 between the D132 and D132-NIL inbred maize lines. Association analysis showed that C/T/mutation667 and CA/indel965 were strongly associated with LA. Subcellular localization verified the functions of a predicted transmembrane domain and a nuclear localization signal in ZmCLA4. Transgenic maize plants with a down-regulated ZmCLA4 RNAi construct and transgenic rice plants over-expressing ZmCLA4 confirmed that the ZmCLA4 gene located in the qLA4 QTL regulated LA. The allelic variants of ZmCLA4 in the D132 and D132-NIL lines exhibited significant differences in leaf angle. ZmCLA4 transcript accumulation was higher in D132-NIL than in D132 during all the developmental stages and was negatively correlated with LA. The gravitropic response was increased and cell shape and number at the leaf and stem junctions were altered in D132-NIL relative to D132. These findings suggest that ZmCLA4 plays a negative role in the control of maize LA through the alteration of mRNA accumulation, leading to altered shoot gravitropism and cell development. The cloning of the gene responsible for the qLA4-1 QTL provides information on the molecular mechanisms of LA in maize and an opportunity for the improvement of plant architecture with regard to LA through maize breeding.

  15. Vaccenic acid-mediated reduction in cytokine production is independent of c9,t11-CLA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard; Schlörmann, Wiebke; Fischer, Janine; Kramer, Ronny; Degen, Christian; Rohrer, Carsten; Roth, Alexander; Gabriel, Holger; Barz, Dagmar; Gruen, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The ruminant trans fatty acid vaccenic acid (tVA) favorably alters markers of inflammation. However, it is not yet clear whether these effects are attributed to its endogenous partial conversion to c9,t11-CLA, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. We compared the cytokine reducing potential of tVA to c9,t11-CLA in human T-helper (Th) cells as a main source of cytokine production during inflammation. Secondly, we assessed whether a bioconversion of tVA to c9,t11-CLA via stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) encoded activity takes place in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in order to relate the outcomes of intracellular cytokine measurement to the degree of conversion. TVA reduced the percentage of both IL-2 and TNF-α expressing Th cells significantly, but to a lesser extent compared to c9,t11-CLA, as determined by flow cytometry after alloreactive stimulation of PBMC. Pre-treatment with the selective PPARγ antagonist T0070907 largely re-established the IL-2 and TNF-α positive Th cell population in both tVA and c9,t11-CLA treated cultures. Interestingly, while the portion of tVA dose-dependently increased within the cellular lipid fraction, the initially marginal amount of c9,t11-CLA remained unaltered. However, SCD mRNA although abundantly expressed in PBMC was not regulated by tVA. Conclusively, these results suggest that the cytokine reducing effect of tVA in human T cells is independent of c9,t11-CLA, since no bioconversion occurred. Moreover, the data provide evidence that tVA mechanistically acts in a manner similar to c9,t11-CLA.

  16. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on the Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muzaffer Denli

    performance, immune responses and other parameters in growing chickens. .... In contrast, CLA can have chemo-protective effects in several tissues during .... in fat accumulation and an increase in protein deposition (DeLany et al., 1999).

  17. Grazing increases the concentration of CLA in dairy cow milka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, M N; Kanneganti, R; Massingill, L J; Broderick, G A; Park, Y; Pariza, M W; Ferguson, J D; Wu, Z

    2014-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether increased CLA in milk of dairy cows fed fresh pasture compared with alfalfa and corn silages was because of ruminal or endogenous synthesis. Eight Holsteins were fed a total mixed ration using alfalfa and corn silages as the forage source in confinement or grazed in a replicated crossover design. The proportion of total fatty acids as CLA (primarily c9, t11-18:2) in g/100 g was 0.44 v. 0.28 in ruminal digesta, 0.89 v. 0.53 in omasal digesta and 0.71 v. 1.06 in milk during confinement feeding and grazing, respectively. Blood plasma CLA was 0.54 v. 1.05 mg/l for the two treatments, respectively. The increased concentration of CLA in milk with grazing likely resulted from increased synthesis through desaturation of t11-18:1 in the mammary gland.

  18. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  19. t10,c12-CLA decreases adiposity in peripubertal mice without dose-related detrimental effects on mammary development, inflammation status, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, M R; Giesy, S L; Bernal-Santos, G; Bauman, D E; Boisclair, Y R

    2010-12-01

    The trans 10, cis 12-conjugated linoleic acid (10,12-CLA) isomer reduces adiposity in several animal models. In the mouse, however, this effect is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Moreover, 10,12-CLA was recently shown to promote mammary ductal hyperplasia and ErbB2/Her2-driven mammary cancer in the mouse. Reasons for detrimental effects of 10,12-CLA on the mouse mammary gland could relate to its effect on the mammary fat pad (MFP), which is essential for normal development. Accordingly, we hypothesized that mammary effects of 10,12-CLA were mediated through the MFP in a dose-dependent manner. Female FVB mice were fed 10,12-CLA at doses of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.5% of the diet from day 24 of age, and effects on mammary development and metabolism were measured on day 49. The 0.5% dose reduced ductal elongation and caused premature alveolar budding. These effects were associated with increased expression of inflammatory markers and genes shown to alter epithelial growth (IGF binding protein-5) and alveolar budding (TNF-α and receptor of activated NF-κB ligand). The 0.5% dose also caused hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. In contrast, the 0.1% 10,12-CLA dose had no adverse effects on mammary development, metabolic events, and inflammatory responses, but remained effective in decreasing adipose weights and lipogenic gene expression. These results show that a low dose of 10,12-CLA reduces adiposity in the mouse without negative effects on mammary development, inflammation, and metabolism, and suggest that previously reported detrimental effects relate to the use of excessive doses.

  20. CLA-TG oil and its micro-encapsulation formulation in Yogurt%酸奶中CLA-TG油与CLA-TG微囊粉强化方式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李代; 张月梅; 陈剑彬; 吴迪; 马俊杰; 顾广伟; 吴文忠

    2011-01-01

    比较了共轭亚油酸三甘酯(CLA-TG油)和CLA-TG微囊粉两种不同形式不同质量分数的共轭亚油酸(CLA)对酸奶的感官可接受性、酸度、保水性的影响,并研究了这两种强化方式的CLA在酸奶中的稳定性.结果表明,酸奶中添加CLA-TG微囊粉比中添加CLA-TG油感官可接受性好,并具有良好的稳定性.%The effects of fortification with two different form of CLA-TG on the sensory acceptability, Ph, acid degree and the water holding capacity yogurt were studied. The stability of the two form of CLA-TG in yogurt have been studied. Results: The yogurt show the better sensory acceptability when fortified with CLA-TG micro-encapsulation than CLA-TG. CLA-TG micro-encapsulation have good stability in the yogurt.

  1. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  2. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation al...

  3. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  4. The Study on the Thermal Stability of CLA in Egg Yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Lin; Cao Ying Chen; Zhen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been a subject of extensive investigation for their anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and immune-enhancing activities. Stability of CLA in foods has not received much attention by both academics and industry. Although CLA has shown many beneficial effects, its decomposition must be prevented when CLA in foods is processed, stored and transported. However, no study to date has addressed the stability of CLA in foods. The present study was carried out further to examine the stability of CLA in egg yolk during the storage and frying, using gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (Agt-HPLC). The eggs, containing 4.0% CLA per gramme of egg yolk, were 40s. Either storage for 6 months or frying for 40 s did not significantly change the composition of CLA in egg yolk. However, the degradation of CLA was statistically significant when the CLA components of egg yolk protected CLA from degradation. It is concluded that CLA is well preserved in egg before it is consumed.

  5. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mdenli

    linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass characteristics, serum lipid variables and histopathological ... were not detected in any breast tissues collected from the broiler carcasses. ... There are four different aflatoxins produced by these fungi, AFB1, B2, G1 and ..... Experimental studies on aflatoxin B1 and M1 deposition and clearance.

  6. Metabolism of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Maria Cristina; Cannelli, Giorgio; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Melis, Maria Paola; Murru, Elisabetta; Stanton, Catherine; Banni, Sebastiano

    2013-08-01

    The c9,t11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is the most abundant CLA form present in the human diet, and is particularly prevalent in milk and dairy products, and is known to exert several health benefits in experimental animal models. A possible mechanism of action of c9,t11CLA relies on its metabolism via desaturases and elongases and partial beta oxidation in peroxisomes. In this study, we aimed to establish plasma incorporation of c9,t11CLA and its downstream metabolites in healthy volunteers after daily dietary intakes of 0.8g, 1.6g or 3.2g of c9,t11CLA in capsule form for two months. Following supplementation, the plasma concentrations of c9,t11CLA and its metabolites conjugated dienes (CD) 18:3 and the beta oxidation product CD 16:2 were incorporated in a linear fashion, while on the other hand CD 20:3 reached a plateau following intakes of 1.6g/d of dietary intake, and was not further increased following higher CLA intakes. We may conclude that supplementation of c9,t11 CLA levels result in linear responses of CLA and its main metabolites in plasma. In addition, only the highest concentration of CLA intake tested (3.2g/d) yielded plasma concentrations of CLA and metabolites close to the range found sufficient to exert nutritional effects in experimental animal models.

  7. Milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits growth of human mammary MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, M; Devery, R; Lawless, F; Murphy, J; Stanton, C

    The relationship between growth and the antioxidant enzyme defence system in human MCF-7 (breast) cancer cells treated with bovine milk fat enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was studied. Milk enriched in CLA was obtained from cows on pasture supplemented with full fat rapeseeds and full fat soyabeans (1). Cell number decreased up to 90% (p milk fat yielding CLA concentrations between 16.9 and 22.6 ppm. Growth suppression and prooxidant effects of milk fat CLA were independent of the variable composition of the milk fat samples, suggesting that CLA was the active ingredient in milk fat responsible for the cytotoxic effect. Mixtures containing isomers of CLA (c9, t11-, t10, c12-, c11, t13- and minor amounts of other isomers) and linoleic acid (LA) at similar concentrations to the milk fat samples were as effective at inhibiting growth and stimulating peroxidation of MCF-7 cells as the milk fatty acids. Incubation of the cells with the c9, t11 CLA isomer (20 ppm) or the mixture of CLA isomers (20 ppm) for 8 days resulted in a 60% decrease (p milk fat than the c9, t11 synthetic CLA isomer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were induced in MCF-7 cells exposed to milk fat (containing 16.9-22.6 ppm CLA) over 8 days. The data indicate that milk fat triglyceride-bound CLA, consisting primarily of the c9, t11 isomer, was cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation in edible oils by photoisomerization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangidi, Rahul Reddy; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) that is commonly found in dairy and ruminant fats, is geometrical and positional isomer of linoleic acid (LA). Edible oils are not good sources of CLA. Attempts have been made to generate CLA in edible oils through photoisomerization procedures. CLA isomers have several proven health benefits. This article reviews procedures for producing CLA containing edible oils by photoisomerization approach and applications of photoisomerized oils for food uses. The article reviews (1) the photoisomerized production of CLA containing oils on lab scale, with customized equipment, at pilot plant scale; (2) the effects of iodine content, photoisomerization time, refining, interference from minor components of oils, efficacy of different edible oils containing LA, interference from antioxidants; (3) the chemical kinetics, oxidative stability; and (4) photoisomerized oils for frying oils and as drying oils.The review also briefly covers methods of measurement of CLA.

  9. Development of design of CLA: target lens line-focusing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Zhu, Jianqiang

    1999-08-01

    In this paper the principle of CLA-target system to obtain focal line with homogenous intensity distribution was described. And tow new structure modal CLA used for improving the homogeneous of focal line was described and the numerical results of the classical CLA and new type CLA was also given. Those result showed that the focal line long-range intensity distribution can be improved greatly by using CLA with optimized unequal cylindrical lens element for beam with Gaussian intensity distribution and by using hybrid element CLA for the case of super-Gaussian distribution. The optimal process was treated by simulated annealing method. The intensity modulation decreased to 0.7 percent for optimized 4-element unequal width CLA system when incident laser with Gaussian section distribution.

  10. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  11. Trans-10,cis-12-CLA dysregulate lipid and glucose metabolism and induce hepatic NR4A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria A; Badimon, Lina; Rodriguez, Cristina; Arnal, Carmen; Noone, Enda J; Roche, Helen M; Osada, Jesus; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of two isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA), on glucose metabolism and hepatic expression of NR4A receptors, key transcription factors regulating gluconeogenesis. ApoE-deficient mice were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous westernized diets enriched with c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA or linoleic acid (control diet). Plasma glucose, NEFA, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the t10,c12-CLA group compared with c9,t11-CLA or control group. Plasma insulin concentrations were lowered by c9,t11-CLA compared with either control or t10,c12-CLA group. Hepatic expression of NR4A receptors (Nur77, Nurr1 and NOR-1) was induced by t10,c12-CLA while c9,t11-CLA had not effect. Consistently t10,c12-CLA up-regulated key genes involved in gluconeogenesis including glucose-6-phosphatase, enolase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase. Hepatic expression of NR4A receptors correlated with plasma NEFA, with the expression of their target gene fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36 and with the accumulation of fat in the liver. These results suggest that t10,c12-CLA promote dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, at least in part, by an isomer-specific modulation of hepatic expression of NR4A receptors.

  12. Supplementation with CLA: isomer incorporation into serum lipids and effect on body fat of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Sagredos, Angelos

    2003-08-01

    Animal studies have suggested that CLA, a natural component of meat and dairy products, may confer beneficial effects on health. However, human studies using supplementation with CLA have produced contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on human body fat, serum leptin, and serum lipids, as well as the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum lipids classes. Sixteen young healthy nonobese sedentary women received 2.1 g of CLA (divided equally between the cis,trans-9,11 and trans,cis-10,12 isomers) daily for 45 d and placebo for 45 d in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Body fat was estimated (by measurement of skinfold thickness at 10 sites), and blood was sampled at the beginning, middle, and end of the entire intervention period; an additional blood sample was obtained 2 wk thereafter. No significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, lipid, or protein intake existed between the CLA and placebo intake periods. No significant differences were found in body fat or serum leptin, TAG, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase between CLA and placebo. The CLA isomer content of serum TAG, phospholipids, and total lipids increased 2-5 times with CLA supplementation (P lipids. These data indicate that supplementation with 2.1 g of CLA daily for 45 d increased its levels in blood but had no effect on body composition or the lipidemic profile of nonobese women.

  13. c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX对MCF-7细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用%The anti-tumor efficacy of c9, t11-CLA-PTX and t10, c12-CLA-PTX on MCF-7 breast cancer cells: in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科; 李星火; 李丹; 柯曦宇; 张烜; 张强

    2014-01-01

    在前期研究中,CLA-mixture-PTX展现出了对黑色素瘤与脑胶质瘤一定的抗肿瘤作用.本研究旨在探索c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX对人源乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用.研究中考察了c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX的体外细胞摄取、细胞毒、细胞凋亡,以及细胞周期作用.用荷瘤BALB/c裸鼠研究了c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX的体内抗肿瘤作用.体外细胞毒研究结果表明:t10,c12-CLA-PTX的IC50为(0.17±0.02) μM,显著优于CLA-mixture-PTX(1.08±0.15) μM (P<0.01),后者显著优于c9,t11-CLA-PTX (6.50±1.20)μM (P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX均可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01);和CLA-mixture-PTX组相比,t10,c 12-CLA-PTX可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01),c9,t11-CLA-PTX则使细胞总凋亡比例降低(P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX均将细胞周期阻滞于S期与G2-M,与CLA-mixture-PTX相同.t10,c12-CLA-PTX的细胞摄取量显著高于CLA-mixture-PTX (P<0.01),后者的细胞摄取量显著高于c9,t11-CLA-PTX (P<0.01).体内抗肿瘤药效研究结果显示,t10,c12-CLA-PTX的抗肿瘤活性显著高于空白对照组和CLA-mixture-PTX组(P<0.01),而c9,t11-CLA-PTX的抗肿瘤活性仅高于空白对照组(P<0.01).上述结果表明,t10,c12-CLA-PTX对MCF-7细胞有显著体内外抗肿瘤作用,可以作为CLA-mixture-PTX的替代药物进行后续研究.

  14. Karyotyping and analysis of GNAS locus in intramuscular myxomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Lobmaier, Ingvild; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Heim, Sverre

    2017-03-28

    Intramuscular myxoma is a benign soft tissue tumor about which very limited genetic information exists. We studied 68 intramuscular myxomas by means of chromosome banding analysis finding abnormal karyotypes in 21 of them. The most clearly nonrandom involvement was of chromosome 8 which was found gained in seven tumors (+8 was the sole change in five myxomas) and structurally rearranged in another two. Since mutation of the gene GNAS (20q13) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both solitary and hereditary multiple myxomas, we assessed the transcription and mutation status of this gene in five tumors from which we had suitable RNA. All five intramuscular myxomas expressed biallelic transcripts. The mutated GNAS allele found in one tumor was also biallelically transcribed. In none of the five myxomas were maternally expressed transcripts detected. Collectively, the data suggest that intramuscular myxomas have acquired genetic abnormalities that often include chromosome 8 changes but may also involve alterations of GNAS. To what extent these aberrations are pathogenetically important, remains uncertain.

  15. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  16. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohme-Meier, F; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  17. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatCLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  18. Studies on mechanism of cis9,trans11-CLA and trans10,cis12-CLA inducing apoptosis of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzi Wan; Xianlin Yuan; Xiangling Yang; Yichen Li; Ling Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to explore the activities of cis9,trans11-CLA (C9,t11-CLA) and trans10,cis12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA)inhibiting tumor,and investigate their relationships with PPARy and apoptotic proteins,and mechanism of anti-cancer.Methods:The inhibitory rate,cell growth curve and apoptotic morphological observation of MCF-7 cells were obtained by MTT assay,trypan blue staining and Hoechst33342 fluorescence staining.The apoptotic rate and cell cycle were detected with flow cytometry.Transcriptional level of genes was detected with RT-PCR semi-quantitative method,and Western blot was performed to detect proteins levels.Results:The two CLA isomers could reduce cell proliferation (P<0.05),increase apoptotic rate (P<0.05),and increase obviously the transcriptional and protein levels of PPARy (P<0.01).The synchronism and correlation between the effects of CLA to PPARy and apoptotic proteins Bax,Bcl-2,Caspase 3 changes were found with the dose-and time-dependent manners.There was cooperative relation between the levels of PPARy and the rates of Bax/Bcl-2,Caspase 3 (small fragment) by experiments of PPARy inhibitor GW9662 and ligand Rosiglitazone.Conclusion:The apoptotic pathway of PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 signaling was found.The C9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA could inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via activating PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 pathway.CLA may be a kind of activator of PPARy.

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA: los efectos en la modulación de la composición corporal y en el perfil lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA es un ácido graso que pertenece al grupo de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, representado por el conjunto de isómeros del ácido linoleico, que son denominados conjugados porque poseen una doble conexión tras una conexión simple. De entre sus isómeros se distinguen el trans-10,cis-12 y cis-9, cis-12 CLA. Estos isómeros son capaces de promover efectos distintos en el organismo: anticarcinogénesis, antidiabetogénesis, antiaterogénesis y cambios de composición corporal. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir sus mecanismos de acción, los efectos en las lipoproteínas plasmáticas, en la composición corporal y la suplementación. Los estudios acerca de la suplementación del CLA demuestran su capacidad de reducir el porcentaje de grasa, el peso corporal, y de mejorar el metabolismo lipídico. Sin embargo, unos de los efectos contrarios relacionados a uno de sus isómeros es la resistencia a la insulina a través de la redistribución de

  20. Intramuscular triamcinolone for difficult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Jayachandran R; Kenia, Priti; Silverman, Michael; Grigg, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    We treated a selected group of children attending a difficult asthma clinic with intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide. This study retrospectively reviews markers of asthma severity in those who received one or more monthly doses for three periods: 1) 3 months preceding the first injection (pretreatment), 2) from the first injection to 1 month after the last injection (treatment period), and 3) 3 months after the treatment period (follow-up period). Severity markers during the treatment and follow-up periods were compared with the pretreatment period by paired t-test. Five children (5-13 years old) received a single dose, and 8 children (12-15 years old) received multiple doses. Multiple doses of triamcinolone (n = 3-5) were associated with a fall in the number of asthma exacerbations (P < 0.01) and hospital admissions (P < 0.01) in both the treatment and follow-up periods. A single dose reduced exacerbations (P < 0.05, treatment vs. pretreatment) but not hospital admissions. We conclude that intramuscular triamcinolone is a useful short-term therapy in difficult asthma. Whether its efficacy is due to improved compliance, or an improved anti-inflammatory profile compared with oral steroids, remains unclear. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  1. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle.

  2. Differences in Circulating microRNAs between Grazing and Grain-Fed Wagyu Cattle Are Associated with Altered Expression of Intramuscular microRNA, the Potential Target PTEN, and Lipogenic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Shibata, Masahiro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Oe, Mika; Ojima, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    glucose homeostasis and intramuscular fat depot in the LL muscle of JB cattle.

  3. Effect of CLA on performance and immune response of weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M; Ledur, V S; Fischer, M M; Bockor, L; Cibulski, S P; Gava, D

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA on the immune response and performance of piglets when subjected to an immune challenge. A total of 32 weanling pigs (17 to 23 d of age) with an initial BW of 8.9 kg were allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 3 levels of dietary CLA (0%, 1%, and 2%) and 2 levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (unchallenged and challenged). Challenged pigs were challenged on d 7 and 21. On d 4 and 18, all pigs were inoculated with BSA for assessment of IgG production. There was no difference in growth performance among piglets receiving different CLA supplementation levels. However, LPS-challenged piglets had poorer BW (P CLA supplementation group (P CLA has an immunomodulatory effect. Supplementation with CLA did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, plasma proteins, red and white blood cell count, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature after LPS challenge. Although CLA supplementation did not influence growth performance or certain immune system measurements, the increased IgG titers with 1% CLA dietary supplementation indicate that it has a beneficial effect on the humoral immune system of weaned piglets.

  4. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and canola oil on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, egg yolk and albumen pH, .... were housed in individual cages with a light regimen of 16 h light : 8 h darkness. .... Nutritional studies showed that CLA isomers were readily incorporated into ... This data suggested that the t-10, c-12 CLA isomer might have a higher.

  5. Three hen strains fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk accumulation rates and source-specific isomer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2015-04-01

    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation.

  6. Isolation, molecular characterization and screening of indigenous lactobacilli for their abilities to produce bioactive conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Puniya, Anil Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Ingestion of conjugated linoleic acid poised many health benefits; however, amount of CLA one can get through generalized diet in is inadequate in exerting the desired benefits. Therefore, presence of CLA producing lactobacilli in dairy fermented foods has a tremendous potential to increase the CLA content. Therefore, present study was focused to isolate and characterize CLA producing lactobacilli from different dairy products and human faeces. Arguably, 283 lactobacilli were isolated from various sources and tested for CLA production. Fifty-seven CLA producing (≥20 µg/ml) lactobacilli were selected from screening in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth and reconstituted with skim milk (SM), supplemented with 0.5 mg/ml of linoleic acid. Positive strains were classified into-L. plantarum (44%), L. gasseri (30%), L. fermentum (21%) and L. salivarius (5%) species. Nineteen most efficient strains (CLA ≥25 µg/ml) were further assessed in SM for CLA production. Total 08 strains produced significantly higher CLA in SM than MRS and also produced cis 9, trans 11, trans 10, cis 12 and trans 9, trans 11 isomers. Overall, L. plantarum HIF15 was reported as the best producer of CLA and other 08 lactobacilli may be utilized for the formulation of CLA-enriched functional foods to support these bacteria to synthesize CLA in the human gut.

  7. Development of a New High-throughput Screening Model for Human High Density Lipoprotein Receptor (CLA-1) Agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop a new high-throughput screening model for human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor (CD36 and LIMPII analogous-1, CLA-1) agonists using CLA-1-expressing insect cells. Methods With the total RNA of human hepatoma cells BEL-7402 as template, the complementary DNA (cDNA) of CLA-1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system was used to express CLA-1 in insect cells. CLA-1 cDNA was cloned downstream of polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) into donor vector pFastBac1 and recombinant pFastBac1-CLA-1 was transformed into E. coli DH10Bac to transpose CLA-1 cDNA to bacmid DNA. Recombinant bacmid-CLA-1 was transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells to produce recombinant baculovirus particles. Recombinant CLA-1 was expressed on the membrane of Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculoviruses. A series of parameters of DiI-lipoprotein binding assays of CLA-1-expressing Sf9 cells in 96-well plates were optimized. Results Western blot analysis and DiI-lipoprotein binding assays confirmed that CLA-1 expressed in insect cells had similar immunoreactivity and ligand binding activity as its native counterpart. A reliable and sensitive in vitro cell-based assay was established to assess the activity of CLA-1 and used to screen agonists from different sample libraries. Conclusion Human HDL receptor CLA-1 was successfully expressed in Sf9 insect cells and a novel high-throughput screening model for CLA-1 agonists was developed. Utilization of this model allows us to identify potent and selective CLA-1 agonists which might possibly be used as therapeutics for atherosclerosis.

  8. Sources alimentaires et consommation estimée de CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “conjugated linoleic acid” (CLA describes a group of geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid (18 : 2 9cis 12cis with double bonds in conjugated position. These isomers are the 18 : 2 8trans 10cis, 18 : 2 9cis 11trans, 18 : 2 10trans 12cis and 18 : 2 11cis 13trans. In human diet, the fats from ruminants are the natural source of these fatty acids (milk, meat…. CLAs is produced by the rumen anaerobic bacteria metabolism of linoleic fatty acid, the 18 : 2 9cis 11trans being the predominant isomer (up to 90% of total CLAs, and named for that reason “rumenic acid”. The CLA richest food is milk (2 - 40 mg/g of fat, depending on the animal feed, as well as butter, dairy products, followed by meat of ruminants. Vegetable oils and margarine contain only small amounts of CLAs (0 - 0.5 mg/g, originating from technological processes. Some significant quantities of CLAs are found in human breast milk, depending on women dietary habits (from 1.9 to 11.2 mg/g. The human consumption levels of CLAs have been estimated in different countries. With food questionnaires of the “3-7 days recall” or “semi-quantitative frequency” types, the population consumption has been estimated between 20 and 500 mg per day, with higher levels in men than in women. In Australia, the dietary intake may reach in some cases 1.5 g/day.

  9. A comparison between CLNA and CLA effects on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Fernández-Quintela, A; Macarulla, M T; Churruca, I; García, C; Rodríguez, V M; Simón, E; Portillo, M P

    2009-03-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as an anti-obesity molecule for humans is still a matter for debate. Thus, a great deal of scientific work is focussed on the research of new effective molecules without deleterious effects on health. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effects of jacaranda seed oil, rich in a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA), jacaric acid (cis-8,trans-10,cis-12), on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition in rats, and to compare these effects with those of trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Twenty-six male Wistar rats were divided into three groups fed with high-fat diets, supplemented or not (control group) with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA group) or 0.5% jacaric acid (CLNA group) for 7 weeks. No statistical differences in food intake or in final body weight were found. Whereas CLA reduced adipose tissue size, CLNA did not. Both CLA and CLNA significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol. In spite of a lack of significant changes in glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR index was significantly increased, as well as did non-esterified fatty acid levels in CLNA-fed rats. No changes in liver composition were observed. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, jacaric acid, unlike CLA, does not show a body-fat lowering effect. Even though it leads to a healthy lipoprotein profile, it impairs insulin function. Consequently, it cannot be proposed as an anti-obesity molecule.

  10. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids.

  11. Circulating CLA(+) T cells in atopic dermatitis and their possible role as peripheral biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnowicki, T; Santamaria-Babí, L F; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA(+) ) T cells are specialized for skin homing and represent the main T-cell population in atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions. CLA(+) is expressed on the surface of circulating CD45RO(+) memory T cells and most skin-infiltrating T cells. Mechanistic studies and thus treatment advancements are limited by the need of large number of skin biopsies. Circulating CLA(+) T cells may be a reliable surrogate marker of the inflammatory events occurring in the skin, and thus, the evaluation of CLA(+) T cells in the blood may eliminate the need for skin biopsies. Preliminary work in AD has established that disease-associated T-cell abnormalities can be approached by either a study of skin lesions or activated CLA(+) T-cell subsets in peripheral blood. Future studies in adults and children, across different skin disorders, correlating blood and skin phenotypes and determining skin-homing T-cell functional properties are needed to establish whether CLA(+) memory subsets can be used as biomarkers and a substitute for skin biopsies. This review summarizes the latest advancements reached on circulating CLA(+) in AD and the great potential they harbor in understanding AD mechanisms.

  12. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  13. Variations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of processed cheese by lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, O-Jun; Choi, Nag-Jin; Oh, Se Jong; Jeong, Ha-Yeon; Song, Man-Kang; Jeong, Inhye; Kim, Young Jun

    2009-04-22

    Dairy products are major sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); thus, an increase in CLA content can improve the quality value of dairy products. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening period on the level of CLA in processed cheese. CLA content in milk varied with the period of lactation; high in spring (April and May, about 6.8 mg CLA/g fat) and relatively low in mid summer and winter (about 4.3 mg CLA/g fat). The effects of dietary regimen and ripening period were determined in milk, which was obtained from March to May. After aging for 4 months, the cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed on pasture contained relatively higher levels of CLA compared to cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors (8.12 mg CLA/g fat vs 6.76 mg CLA/g fat), but there was no difference in 7 month-aged cheeses. In both pasture and indoor feeding, 7 month-aged cheeses showed higher CLA content than 4 month-aged cheeses. The contents of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) were significantly higher in cheese from pasture fed cows compared to those in cows fed indoors. These findings should be helpful for the efficient production of functional dairy products with high CLA contents.

  14. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

  15. Study on Effect of claR Application on Clavulanic Acid Production of Streptomyces clavuligerus%claR基因的扩增对棒状链霉菌棒酸合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志晗; 赵海龙

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid positive regulation gene claR of Streptomyces clavuligerus was cloned.claR expression plasmid pSET152-claR was constructed and transformed into S.clavuligerus by conjugation.The attP site in pSET152-claR could inserted into attB site of S.clavuligerus.Thus an extra copy of claR was inserted into the chromosome of S.clavuligerus.The obtained mutant S.clavuligerus: claR was cultured in the shaken flask,and the production of clavulanic acid was analyzed by HPLC,the yield of clavulanic acid was 1.86 times compared with S.clavuligerus.%从棒状链霉菌中克隆对克拉维酸具有正调控作用的基因claR。构建了claR的重组质粒pSET152-claR,通过接合转移将重组质粒pSET152-claR转入了野生型S.clavuligerus中,通过pSET152-claR中的attP位点整个质粒插入到S.clavuligerus基因组中的attB位点,实现了S.clavuligerus基因组DNA中增加一个拷贝claR基因的目的,所得突变株S.clavuligerus∷claR通过发酵培养,HPLC检测克拉维酸产量为原产量的1.86倍。

  16. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  17. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  18. Dietary CLA combined with palm oil or ovine fat differentially influences fatty acid deposition in tissues of obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Alves, Susana P; Alfaia, Cristina M; Castro, Matilde F; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in combination with fat from vegetable versus animal origin on the fatty acid deposition, including that of individual 18:1 and 18:2 (conjugated and non-conjugated) isomers, in the liver and muscle of obese rats was investigated. For this purpose, 32 male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing palm oil or ovine fat, supplemented or not with 1% of 1:1 cis(c)9,trans(t)11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers mixture. Total fatty acid content decreased in the liver and muscle of CLA-fed rats. In the liver, CLA increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in 11.9% and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in 6.5%. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) relative proportions were increased in 30.6% by CLA when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. In the muscle, CLA did not affect SFA but decreased MUFA and PUFA percentages. The estimation of Δ9-indices 16 and 18 suggested that CLA inhibited the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in the liver (a decrease of 13-38%), in particular when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. Concerning CLA supplementation, the t10,c12 isomer percentage was 60-80% higher in the muscle than in the liver. It is of relevance that rats fed ovine fat, containing bio-formed CLA, had more c9,t11 CLA isomer deposited in both tissues than rats fed palm oil plus synthetic CLA. These results highlight the importance to further clarify the biological effects of consuming foods naturally enriched in CLA, alternatively to CLA dietary supplementation.

  19. Perfil lipídico da gordura intramuscular de cortes e marcas comerciais de carne bovina Lipid profile of intramuscular fat in meat cattle cuts of commercial brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Pereira dos Santos Pinho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para caracterizar a gordura intramuscular dos cortes contrafilé, picanha e costela de seis marcas comerciais (A, B, C, D, E e F de carne bovina comercializadas no município de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em uma rede de hipermercados. As marcas A e B foram associadas a animais de raças britânicas, as marcas C e D de animais de raças européias produzidos em sistema convencional e orgânico, respectivamente, e provenientes do Uruguai e as marcas E e F de animais sem raça definida e sistema de alimentação não identificado, obtidas em um frigorífico regional e em uma rede de hipermercados, respectivamente. As amostras foram desossadas, moídas, embaladas a vácuo e armazenadas em temperatura de resfriamento até o momento das análises. Em cada amostra foram realizadas a extração dos lipídios e a identificação dos ácidos graxos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com arranjo fatorial 6 × 3 e os dados analisados pelo procedimento GLM do aplicativo computacional SAS. Não houve interação significativa entre cortes e marcas para o perfil lipídico dos cortes comerciais. O percentual lipídico foi de 0,95; 3,01 e 0,97% nos cortes contrafilé, costela e picanha, respectivamente. A costela apresentou maior percentual de ácidos graxos (AG saturados e maior estimativa da D9 desaturase a partir do C16:0 e C18:0. O maior percentual de C18:2 cis-9, trans 11, ácido linoleico conjugado, CLA, n-6 e n-3 foi encontrado na picanha. A marca F apresentou maior grau de saturação e a marca D, maior valor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, relação poliinsaturados/saturados e trans18 e menor valor de ácidos graxos saturados. Houve interação significativa entre corte e marca para o conteúdo de CLA, sendo o maior conteúdo encontrado no contrafilé da marca F. As características da gordura intramuscular da carne bovina dependem do corte e da marca comercial

  20. Tissue necrosis following intramuscular diclofenac injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzi Çelik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Following intramuscular drug injections, livedoid dermati-tis (also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or NicolauSyndrome, characterized by pain, skin discoloration,and cutaneous necrosis, may rarely be observed. In thepresent study, we present a 32-year-old male patient whodeveloped Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injec-tion of single-dose diclofenac sodium 75 mg due to renalcolic pain. The physical examination revealed skin discol-oration in his left gluteal region, and a skin necrosis. Caseis very interesting because of rarely.

  1. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.

  2. Isolated Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANHERE, Sujata; BHAGAT, Manish; PHADKE, Varsha; GEORGE, Riya

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis is caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, larvae of a tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticercosis can involve any tissue in the body; the most common affected sites are central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, eyes, and muscles. A few cases of isolated intramuscular cysticercosis without any other tissue involvement have been reported in pediatric population. Here, we report a case of intramuscular cysticercosis diagnosed by ultrasonography in a 5.5 year-old boy who presented with the swellings over the calf and the scapular region, without any associated neurological or ocular involvement. The patient responded well to the course of steroids and Albendazole with complete resolution of both the swellings. PMID:26023298

  3. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  4. Hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens fed CLA or n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Gita; Goeger, Mary P

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary CLA and n-3 PUFA on hepatic TAG accumulation, histopathology, and FA incorporation in lipid classes by laying chickens was investigated. One hundred twenty 30-wk-old single comb white leghorn laying hens were distributed randomly to four treatments (3 replications of 10 birds) and were fed diets containing CLA and animal fat (Diet I), 18:3n-3 (Diet II), or long-chain n-3 FA (Diet III). A sunflower oil (n-6 FA)-based diet vvas the control. Feeding Diet I resulted in an increase in hepatic total lipids (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 32.2, 18.9, 29.4, and 18.7 mg/g for hens fed Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and the control diet, respectively (P< 0.05). The serum TAG was lowest in birds fed Diet II (P < 0.05). Diet I resulted in an increase in the total number of fat vacuoles and lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). The number of cells with 75% or higher lipid vacuolation was observed only in birds fed Diet I. Feeding diets containing CLA resulted in an increase in the content of the c9,t11 CLA isomer in liver TAG and PC (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the CLA concentration of hepatic PE fractions. The content of DHA (22:6n-3) was higher in the TAG, PC, and PE of hens fed Diet II and Diet III than Diet I and the control (P < 0.05). Feeding CLA resulted in an increase in total saturated FA in the TAG and PC fractions (P < 0.05). Long-term feeding of CLA in laying birds leads to an increase in liver TAG and may predispose birds to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

  5. Increase of Clavulanic acid production by using recombinant Streptomyces clavuligerus strain including claR gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Clavulanic acid is a major β-lactam antibiotic which is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is used in combination of strong but sensitive to β-lactamase antibiotics. The claR gene has an important role in regulation of clavulanic acid production and is needed for the expression of the genes in final step of clavulanic acid biosynthesis.   Materials and methods: The recombinant construct pMTclaR which contains claR gene is obtained from Isfahan University and plasmid extraction was done from Streptomyces lividans for next steps. The Streptomyces clavuligerus protoplast was prepared and transformation was done by using polyethylene glycol. Transformation was confirmed by plasmid extraction and PCR. Finally, bioassay method was used to survey the effect of extra copy of claR on clavulanic acid production .   Results : The typical chalky white colony of Streptomyces clavuligerus was seen on GYME plates containing thiostrepton antibiotic. Plasmid extraction was initially carried out. Furthermore, PCR reaction was done by claR specific primers and the 1334 bp band which was belonging to claR was detected. Finally, the bioassay was done and the diameters of zone of inhibition in control and sample were compared. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the claR gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 2.5 fold increase in clavulanic acid production .   Discussion and conclusion : In this study the 3.3 fold increase in clavulanic acid production was obtained by using an expression vector containing claR. According to the clinical use of clavulanic acid, production of bacterial strains which are able to produce high level of antibiotic can help significantly in customization of antibiotic production.

  6. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  7. Effect of pasture and soybean supplementation on fatty acid profile and CLA content in dairy cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has been related to several beneficial effects on human and animal health (anticancerogens, antiatherogenics, etc. The main dietary source of CLA for humans are foods derived from ruminants. In dairy products CLA content depends on ruminal bio-hydrogenation of the dietary unsaturated fats and it is also related to the Δ9desaturase activity in the mammary gland. The CLA level of milk is affected by various factors, including diet composition, that seems to play an important role (Jensen, 2002. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of toasted and raw soybean addition to a mixed diet and...........

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) promotes endurance capacity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ-mediated mechanism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with exercise training potentially improved endurance capacity via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-mediated mechanism in mice. This study determined the role of exercise and/or CLA in endurance capacity and PPARδ-associated regulators. Male 129Sv/J mice were fed either control (soybean oil) or CLA (0.5%) containing diets for 4 weeks and were further divided into sedentary or training regimes. CLA supplementation significantly reduced body weight and fat mass independent of exercise during the experimental period. Endurance capacity was significantly improved by CLA supplementation, while no effect of exercise was observed. Similarly, CLA treatment significantly increased expressions of sirtuin 1 and PPARγ coactivator-1α, up-stream regulators of PPARδ, in both sedentary and trained animals. With respect to downstream markers of PPARδ, CLA up-regulated the key biomarker needed to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis, nuclear respiratory factor 1. Moreover, CLA supplementation significantly induced overall genes associated with muscle fibers, such as type I (slow-twitch) and type II (fast twitch). Taken together, it suggests that CLA improves endurance capacity independent of mild-intensity exercise via PPARδ-mediated mechanism.

  9. Intramuscular Myxoma – A Rare Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath Yaligod

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor involving the musculoskeletal system. The incidence is reported as varying from 0.1 to 0.13 per 100,000 population. Most patients present between the fifth and sixth decade of life. The swelling commonly occurs in the large muscles of the thigh, shoulder, buttocks and arms. The tumor can be diagnosed with certainty only with histopathological examination. Local recurrence is rare after excision. Case Report: A 73 year old male patient presented to us with a swelling of the anterior aspect of the middle third of the right thigh measuring about 8 x 4 centimeters. He was thoroughly investigated and the swelling excised in toto. The soft cystic swelling excised was found on histopathology to be an intramuscular myxoma. Conclusion: This case report is being presented since the tumor is rare and also an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of sarcomas, intramuscular lipoma, hemangioma, hematoma, and desmoid tumor. Another important feature is that it can be diagnosed with certainty only after excision. Keywords: Intramuscular myxoma, soft tissue swelling, benign.

  10. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Rodriguez, I.; Pulido-Camarillo, E.; Hernandez-Diaz, E.; Alexander-Aguilera, A.; Garcia, H.S.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman's capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group of the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

  11. 蛋鸡日粮添加CLA-Ca对蛋黄中CLA和胆固醇含量的影响%Effect of Adding CLA-Ca in Layer Dietary on CLA and Cholesterol Contents in Eggyolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪兰; 魏祥法; 艾武; 黄宝华

    2007-01-01

    选用产蛋量相近的72周龄海兰白蛋鸡840只,随机分为7组,每组40只,重复3次.采用单因素随机试验设计,分别饲喂含1%、2%、3%、4%、5%、6%共轭亚油酸(CLA)的玉米-豆粕型日粮4周,研究了日粮添加CLA-Ca对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋黄中胆固醇含量和CLA含量的影响.结果表明,日粮中添加CLA-Ca降低了蛋鸡的生产性能,可提高蛋黄中CLA含量.日粮CLA水平在1%~6%范围内,CLA水平越高,富集速度越快,富集量越大,CLA最大富集量为692 g/枚鸡蛋,蛋黄脂肪中胆固醇含量随时间的变化总体趋势为先升后降,随日粮CLA浓度的变化趋势为CLA浓度越高,胆固醇的含量越低,但显著高于对照组(P<0.05).

  12. Dietary trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduces murine collagen-induced arthritis in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    Dietary trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce inflammation in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CA) model. To understand the anti-inflammatory potential of t10c12-CLA in the diet, the minimum dose of pure dietary t10c12-CLA capable of reducing CA was investigated. Because plasma inflammatory cytokines often do not reflect the progression of late-stage arthritis, inflamed tissue cytokine concentrations were also investigated in relation to increasing dietary t10c12-CLA amounts. Mice were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments upon the establishment of arthritis: corn oil (CO) or 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375%, or 0.5% t10c12-CLA (wt:wt) for 84 d. Sham mice (no arthritis) were fed CO and served as controls. Arthritic paw score, based on subjective assessment of arthritic severity, and paw thickness decreased linearly overall [16-65% (P CLA increased (P CLA was associated with a decrease in plasma interleukin (IL)-1β at days 21 and 42 compared with CO-fed arthritic mice, such that mice fed ≥0.25% t10c12-CLA had IL-1β concentrations that were similar to sham mice. Plasma cytokines returned to sham mice concentrations by day 63 regardless of treatment; however, an arthritis-induced elevation in paw IL-1β decreased linearly as dietary t10c12-CLA concentrations increased at day 84 (P = 0.007, R(2) = 0.92). Similarly, increasing dietary t10c12-CLA linearly decreased paw tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P = 0.05, R(2) = 0.70). In conclusion, ≥0.125% t10c12-CLA dose-dependently reduced inflammation in a murine CA model.

  13. Determinants and nature of intramuscular temperature changes during cold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdon, B J; Moore, R J

    1975-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intramuscular temperature response during an ice massage treatment. In addition, the effect of subcutaneous tissue thickness and limb circumference on temperature changes was investigated. Intramuscular temperature was measured by intramuscular thermocouples each minute during ice massage treatments of five, ten and fifteen minutes. It was shown that ice massage produces a significant drop in intramuscular temperature. However, there was no significant difference in temperature change after five minutes of treatment. In addition it was shown that there is a high multiple correlation between logarithmic time, subcutaneous tissue thickness, limb circumference, and intramuscular temperature change.

  14. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  15. Enhanced sensitivity of Cypridina luciferin analog (CLA) chemiluminescence for the detection of O2- with non ionic detergents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Laane, C.; Hilhorst, R.

    2000-01-01

    Superoxide anion-triggered chemiluminescence of Cypridina luciferin analogue (CLA), 2-methyl-6-phenyl-3,7-dohydroimidazo[1,2-]pyrazin-3-one, is enhanced by non-ionic detergents such as Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Tween 80. At the concentration of 0.6øv/v) the largest increase (2.7-fold) of CLA light

  16. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  17. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Catanese, Patrizia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rizzuto, Luigi; Marozzi, Paola; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Stampone, Tomaso; Cappello, Francesco; Morici, Giuseppe; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C) supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  18. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of CLA-PTX on B16-F10 melanoma cells%CLA-PTX对黑色素瘤B16-F10的体内外抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李捷思; 杨科; 柯曦宇; 杜若; 张烜; 张强

    2014-01-01

    本研究旨在探索CLA-PTX对黑色素瘤B16-F10细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用.选择鼠源B16-F10细胞系作为研究模型.研究CLA-PTX体外细胞毒,细胞凋亡,细胞周期作用,以及CLA-PTX体外细胞摄取作用.用荷瘤C57BL6/N小鼠研究CLA-PTX的体内抗肿瘤作用.体外细胞毒研究结果表明:CLA-PTX的ICso为(4.25±0.43) μM,优于紫杉醇(6.70±0.80) μM(P<0.01).与空白组和紫杉醇组相比,CLA-PTX可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,CLA-PTX将细胞周期阻滞于S期,而紫杉醇则使细胞在G2-M期蓄积.CLA-PTX的细胞摄取量显著高于紫杉醇(P<0.01).体内抗肿瘤药效显示,CLA-PTX抗肿瘤活性显著高于空白对照组和紫杉醇组(P<0.01或P<0.05).上述结果表明,CLA-PTX对B16-F10细胞有显著体内外抗肿瘤作用.

  20. The combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and extra virgin olive oil increases mitochondrial and body metabolism and prevents CLA-associated insulin resistance and liver hypertrophy in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Flávia G; Vicentini, Tatiane M; Teodoro, Bruno G; Dalalio, Felipe M; Dechandt, Carlos R P; Prado, Ieda M R; Curti, Carlos; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Uyemura, Sergio A; Alberici, Luciane C

    2016-02-01

    Clinical conditions associated with obesity can be improved by daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with CLA and EVOO, either alone or in combination, changes body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energetics. Male C57Bl/6 mice were divided into one of four groups: CLA (1:1 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12; 18:2 isomers), EVOO, CLA plus EVOO or control (linoleic acid). Each mouse received 3 g/kg body weight of the stated oil by gavage on alternating days for 60 days. Dietary supplementation with CLA, alone or in combination with EVOO: (a) reduced the white adipose tissue gain; (b) increased body VO2 consumption, VCO2 production and energy expenditure; (c) elevated uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression and UCP activity in isolated liver mitochondria. This organelle, when energized with NAD(+)-linked substrates, produced high amounts of H2O2 without inducing oxidative damage. Dietary supplementation with EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameter, but supplementation with CLA itself promoted insulin resistance and elevated weight, lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 expression in liver. Interestingly, the in vivo antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine abolished the CLA-induced rise of body metabolism and liver UCP expression and activity, while the in vitro antioxidant treatment with catalase mitigated the CLA-dependent UCP-2 expression in hepatocytes; these findings suggest the participation of an oxidative-dependent pathway. Therefore, this study clarifies the mechanisms by which CLA induces liver UCP expression and activity, and demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effects of combined CLA and EVOO supplementation.

  1. Generalized intramuscular granulocytic sarcoma mimicking polymyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Jan; Claussen, Claus D.; Pereira, Philippe L.; Horger, Marius S. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogel, Wichard [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Wehrmann, Martin [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Pathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We report a case of granulocytic sarcoma exclusively manifesting as diffuse intramuscular infiltration of the proximal upper and lower limb girdle and the torso muscles in a patient with previous history of acute myelogenous leukemia 5a. Whole-body CT showed widespread distribution of ill-defined intramuscular, homogeneously enhancing lesions. On whole-body MRI, lesions were homogeneously hyperintense on fat saturated T2-weighted images, isointense on T1-weighted images and strongly enhancing after intravenous gadolinium contrast administration. Histopathology revealed muscular infiltration of blast cells with identical immunochemistry to the initial manifestation of leukemia, diagnostic for an extramedullary relapse manifesting as granulocytic sarcoma. CT and MRI characteristics of this previously undocumented manifestation of granulocytic sarcoma should assist in the identification of such cases. (orig.)

  2. Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular benzathine penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome (NS is a rare complication of an intramuscular injection characterized by severe pain, skin discoloration, and varying levels of tissue necrosis. The case outcomes vary from atrophic ulcers and severe pain to sepsis and limb amputation. We describe a case of a seven-year-old boy with diagnosis of NS after intramuscular benzathine penicillin injection to the ventrolateral aspect of the left thigh. Characteristic violaceous discoloration of skin and immediate injection site pain identified it as a case of NS. The case was complicated by rapid progression of compartment syndrome of the lower limb, proceeding to acute renal failure and death. Associated compartment syndrome can be postulated as a poor prognostic factor for NS.

  3. Two Intramuscular Lipoma Case Reports: Radiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Umul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are common soft tissue tumors of mesenchymal origin.They contain mature adipose tissue. They are usually located in the subcutaneous tissue. They rarely ocur within the muscle and then are called intramuscular lipomas. Ultrasonography is the first diagnostic method to be selected. However, cross-sectional imaging methods are more useful in the diagnosis. On Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, with the help of signal characteristics and fat suppression techniques,diagnosis is easily achieved. In addition, the relationship of lesion with the adjacent anatomical structures can be assessed better with MRI. Here, will be explained two different intramuscular lipoma cases and imaging findings will be reviewed. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 221-225

  4. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-05-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism.

  5. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention:

  6. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention: Seventy

  7. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention: Seventy

  8. Field Test of a Remote Multi-Path CLaDS Methane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Plant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing technologies for quantifying methane emissions are often limited to single point sensors, making large area environmental observations challenging. We demonstrate the operation of a remote, multi-path system using Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy (CLaDS for quantification of atmospheric methane concentrations over extended areas, a technology that shows potential for monitoring emissions from wetlands.

  9. Interviews with the 2000 CLA Breakfast Speakers: Mary Pope Osborne, Rosemary Wells, and Patricia Reilly Giff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darigan, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Presents three interviews with the 2000 CLA (Children's Literature Assembly) Breakfast Speakers. Discusses how Osborne has written for virtually every genre for all ages and discusses the new Magic Treehouse book. Talks about Wells' two Mother Goose books, McDuff books and books to come. Considers where Giff gets her ideas for books and discusses…

  10. CLA Selection Guidelines: How to Choose Materials for Parish and School Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Reviews selection guidelines suggested by the Catholic Library Association (CLA) for parish and school libraries. Highlights include who develops the selection policy; American Library Association selection guidelines for school libraries; criteria for both print and nonprint materials; how to handle censorship challenges; and issues concerning…

  11. The Influence of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) on Children's Learning and Teachers' Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue; Lawrence, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) as a means of evidencing, supporting and promoting children's creative learning in arts-based contexts. The research team at the Centre for Literacy in Primary Education (CLPE) worked with a group of teachers in inner-city Lambeth primary schools to develop an…

  12. The Influence of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) on Children's Learning and Teachers' Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue; Lawrence, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) as a means of evidencing, supporting and promoting children's creative learning in arts-based contexts. The research team at the Centre for Literacy in Primary Education (CLPE) worked with a group of teachers in inner-city Lambeth primary schools to develop an…

  13. Solvent-free production of 1,3-diglyceride of CLA: Strategy consideration and protocol design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic production of a homogeneous 1,3-diglyceride of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was carried out using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a model fatty acid. Three different operation modes, namely, magnetic stirring under vacuum, vacuum-driven N2 bubblin...

  14. 高等教育质量测评新动向--美国大学生学习评价升级版CLA+%CLA+:The Enhanced Version of Collegiate Learning Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁会青; 魏红

    2016-01-01

    As the enhanced version of Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA), CLA+includes new subscores, criterion-referenced Mastery Levels, and reliable information about performance at both student and institutional levels to play a greater role in the development of higher education institutions and college students. The idea and method of CLA+ provides a valuable reference for the evaluation of teaching and learning in Chinese higher education institutions.%美国大学生学习评价(Collegiate Learning Assessment, CLA)的升级版CLA+针对CLA的不足,在评估内容、评估工具、结果报告、用途等方面进行完善。 CLA+不仅通过完善题目类型、增加分项分数提高问卷的信效度,而且设定了技能掌握的级别标准,进一步拓宽了用途范围。 CLA+作为一种评价学生学习效果的直接标准化工具,其评价理念、方法等都对我国高等教育质量测评的开展具有多层次的启示意义。

  15. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR, were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group, and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group. A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman´s capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group or the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue proporcionar evidencia que el CLA dietario puede evitar la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico en la estructura tisular, lo que sugiere beneficios potenciales en el desarrollo de este síndrome. Dos grupos de ratas Wistar macho espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR fueron alimentadas con una dieta normal por 8 semanas: una dieta contenía 7.5% de aceite de girasol (grupo VSHR, y el otro contenía 6% de aceite de girasol y 1.5% de CLA (grupo CLA-SHR. A un grupo testigo sano de ratas macho Kyoto-Wistar les fue proporcionada una dieta normal con 7.5% de aceite de girasol. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se tomaron secciones de hígado, riñones y aorta, las cuales fueron fijadas en formaldeh

  16. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, C. H.; Byun, M. W.; Jeong, I. Y.; Kim, D. H

    2006-01-15

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals.

  17. Effect of CLA supplementation to low-protein diets on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma urea nitrogen concentration, and fatty acid profile in the meat of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Aispuro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on the meat of pigs (0,1% and three crude protein (CP levels (nursery: 20.5, 16.0, 14.5%; growing: 16, 14.5, 11.5%; and finishing: 14.0, 12.5, 11% CP, studies were conducted with 36 hybrid (Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc barrows (17.3-83.5 kg, which were individually penned and allotted in a completely randomized design in a factorial (2×3 arrangement for 84 d. The analysis by phases indicated that CP level affected some variables. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, fat free lean gain, backfat thickness, longissimus muscle area and final body weight were reduced (P≤0.05 feeding the lowest CP diet in nursery and growing pigs. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was also lower (P≤0.05 in the growing and finishing phases when fed the lowest CP level. The global analysis showed that all the analyzed variables (except feed gain ratio, lean meat percentage and plasma urea nitrogen concentration were reduced (P≤0.05 in the pigs fed low-protein diets; plasma urea nitrogen concentration tended to be lower (P=0.07 when CP was reduced. The fatty acid profile of the meat (semimembranosus and longissimus muscles indicated that CLA addition increased CLA isomers and total saturated fatty acids, and reduced the total monounsaturated fatty acids (P≤0.05. α-Linolenic acid was lowered in longissimus muscle of pigs fed LPD (P=0.08. These results indicated that reducing the crude protein concentration in the diet of fattening pigs from 20.5 to 16.0% in nursery phase; from 16.0 to 14.5% in growing stage; and from 14.0 to 12.5% in finishing pigs, did not negatively affect the growth performance, nor carcass characteristics. The results also showed that the addition of CLA did not improve pig response and the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids and total lipids altered the feeding LPD.

  18. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, R; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Rezayazdi, K; Mousavi, M; Safari, H; Martinez-Pastor, F

    2017-02-07

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the semen production and sperm freezability in Holstein bulls. Twelve bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 per group). Bulls received the normal diet (control group) or the normal diet top-dressed with 50 g of CLA (treated group) for 10 weeks. The control group received 40 g/day calcium soap of fatty acid. Fresh and post-thaw semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected at the 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 week of supplementation. Semen evaluations including sperm concentration, motion characteristics (subjective and computer-assisted), viability (Eosin-Nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and abnormality were conducted. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output were not affected by dietary treatment (p > .05). The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology in fresh semen significantly increased (p CLA-fed group compared to control group. Also, in CLA-fed group, the proportion of post-thaw spermatozoa with abnormal morphology at week 10 of trial was significantly higher in CLA than control group (p CLA-fed group, although dietary supplementation did not affect other CASA parameters or viability in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. In this study, CLA supplementation had little positive effect on fresh or post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

  19. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  20. Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Khoojine, Amir Babak Sioofy; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Hassanzadeh, Belal; Heydari, Ali Akbar

    2012-10-01

    From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1-2, 2-3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P CLA detection with increasing age (P CLA test were 2.92 years and in the oldest age group 31 (47%) cases had the highest infection.

  1. Can intramuscular glucose levels diagnose compartment syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, Christopher J; Sitzman, Thomas J; O'Toole, Robert V

    2014-02-01

    Compartment syndrome is difficult to diagnose, particularly in patients who are not able to undergo adequate clinical examination. Current methods rely on pressure measurements within the compartment, have high false-positive rates, and do not reliably indicate presence of muscle ischemia. We hypothesized that measurement of intramuscular glucose and oxygen can identify compartment syndrome with high sensitivity and specificity. Compartment syndrome was created in 12 anesthetized adult mixed-sex beagles, in the craniolateral compartment of a lower leg, by infusion of lactated Ringer's solution with normal serum concentration of glucose. The contralateral leg served as a control. Hydrostatic pressure, oxygen tension, and glucose concentration were recorded with commercially available probes. Compartment syndrome was maintained for 8 hours, and the animals were recovered. Two weeks later, compartment and control legs underwent muscle biopsy. Specimens were reviewed by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 minutes of creating compartment syndrome, glucose concentration and oxygen tension in the experimental limb were significantly lower than in the control limb (glucose, p = 0.02; oxygen, p = 0.007; two-tailed t test). Intramuscular glucose concentration of less than 97 mg/dL was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 73-100%) and 75% specific (95% CI, 40-94%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Partial pressure of oxygen less than 30 mm Hg was 100% sensitive (95% CI, 72-100%) and 100% specific (95% CI, 69-100%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Pathology confirmed compartment syndrome in all experimental limbs. Our results show that intramuscular glucose concentration and partial pressure of oxygen rapidly identify muscle ischemia with high sensitivity and specificity after experimentally created compartment syndrome in this animal model.

  2. Erdheim-Chester disease with intramuscular lipogranuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Mizuno, Kosaku [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    We report on a rare manifestation of Erdheim-Chester disease with intramuscular lipogranuloma. The patient was a 66-year-old man who noted a soft tissue mass in the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Radiographs revealed symmetrical osteosclerosis in the diametaphysis of both femora and tibiae. An open biopsy revealed a proliferation of lipid-laden histiocytes in the femoral bone marrow and the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the second case of Erdheim-Chester disease involving muscle. (orig.)

  3. A case report of intramuscular myxoma in the paraspinal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Jin; Cho, Woo Ho; Kim, Soung Hee [Sanggye Paik Hospitl, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Myxomas rare benign mesenchymal neoplasms composed of undifferentiated stellate cells in the myxoid stroma and can affect the heart, subcutaneous tissues, bone and skin. Myxomas arising from muscle tissue are called intramuscular myxomas, and account for 17% of all myxomas. Intramuscular myxomas are most commonly located in the large muscles of the thigh, shoulder, and buttocks. However, intramuscular myxomas of the head and neck region are rarely reported. In this study, we report a case of intramuscular myxoma arising from the paraspinal space of the head and neck region.

  4. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  5. Regulatory T cell expression of CLA or α4β7 and skin or gut acute GVHD outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, BG; Jagasia, M; Savani, BN; Bratcher, NL; Greer, JP; Jiang, A.; Kassim, AA; Lu, P.; Schuening, F; Yoder, SM; Rock, MT; Crowe, JE

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a suppressive subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes implicated in the prevention of acute GVHD (aGVHD) after allo-SCT (ASCT). To determine whether increased frequency of Tregs with a skin-homing (cutaneous lymphocyte Ag, CLA+) or a gut-homing (α4β7+) phenotype is associated with reduced risk of skin or gut aGVHD, respectively, we quantified circulating CLA+ or α4β7+ on Tregs at the time of neutrophil engraftment in 43 patients undergoing ASCT. Increased CLA+ Tregs at eng...

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Did not Alter trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Incorporation into Mice Brain and Eye Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuri, Madhuri; Adkins, Yuriko; Mackey, Bruce E; Kelley, Darshan S

    2017-09-01

    trans 10,cis 12-CLA has been reported to alter fatty acid composition in several non-neurological tissues, but its effects are less known in neurological tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if CLA supplementation would alter brain and eye fatty acid composition and if those changes could be prevented by concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3). Eight-week-old, pathogen-free C57BL/6N female mice (n = 6/group) were fed either the control diet or diets containing 0.5% (w/w) t10,c12-CLA in the presence or absence of either 1.5% DHA or 1.5% EPA for 8 weeks. CLA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the eye but not in the brain lipids of the CLA group when compared with the control group. The sums of saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n3:n6 ratio did not differ between these two groups for both tissues. The n3:n6 ratio and concentrations of 20:5n3 and 22:5n3 were significantly greater, and those of 20:4n6, 22:4n6, and 22:5n6 were lesser in the CLA + DHA and CLA + EPA groups than in the control and CLA groups for either tissue. DHA concentration was higher in the CLA + DHA group only but not in the CLA + EPA group when compared with the CLA group for both tissues. The dietary fatty acids generally induced similar changes in brain and eye fatty acid concentration and at the concentrations used both DHA and EPA fed individually with CLA were more potent than CLA alone in altering the tissue fatty acid concentration.

  7. 牛乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)的研究%Study on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华伟; 盛漪; 张灏

    2001-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(CLA)是亚油酸的同分异构体的混合物,主要来源于牛乳、乳制品及反刍动物食品的天然营养成分.本文就CLA的抑癌和降血脂等多种生理功能及其作用机理,阐述了CLA作为一种新型营养物质的潜力.

  8. Intramuscular and intermuscular lipoma: neglected diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, C D; Martin-Bates, E

    1988-03-01

    Fifty-four cases of lipoma arising either within or between skeletal muscles are presented. Of these, 52 were identified in a systematic review of 2478 tumours of adipose tissue diagnosed and treated in one hospital over a 25 year period. Intramuscular lipomas account for 1.8% of fatty tumours, arise predominantly in middle to late adult life and, in our series, are commonest on the trunk. They may be divided into infiltrative and well-circumscribed types, respective local recurrence rates being 19 and 0%. Intermuscular lipomas are comparatively rare, 0.3% of fatty tumours, have a similar age distribution and arise most often in the anterior abdominal wall; none of the seven cases recurred. It is important that both pathologists and surgeons appreciate the significant tendency of infiltrative intramuscular lipomas to recur. Hence, preventative surgical measures may be undertaken and worries that the lesion may be sarcomatous can be avoided. Differential diagnosis, most importantly from well-differentiated liposarcoma, is discussed.

  9. CLaSPS: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR KNOWLEDGE EXTRACTION FROM COMPLEX ASTRONOMICAL DATA SETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Laurino, O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Djorgovski, G.; Donalek, C.; Longo, G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, we present the Clustering-Labels-Score Patterns Spotter (CLaSPS), a new methodology for the determination of correlations among astronomical observables in complex data sets, based on the application of distinct unsupervised clustering techniques. The novelty in CLaSPS is the criterion used for the selection of the optimal clusterings, based on a quantitative measure of the degree of correlation between the cluster memberships and the distribution of a set of observables, the labels, not employed for the clustering. CLaSPS has been primarily developed as a tool to tackle the challenging complexity of the multi-wavelength complex and massive astronomical data sets produced by the federation of the data from modern automated astronomical facilities. In this paper, we discuss the applications of CLaSPS to two simple astronomical data sets, both composed of extragalactic sources with photometric observations at different wavelengths from large area surveys. The first data set, CSC+, is composed of optical quasars spectroscopically selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, observed in the x-rays by Chandra and with multi-wavelength observations in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet spectral intervals. One of the results of the application of CLaSPS to the CSC+ is the re-identification of a well-known correlation between the {alpha}{sub OX} parameter and the near-ultraviolet color, in a subset of CSC+ sources with relatively small values of the near-ultraviolet colors. The other data set consists of a sample of blazars for which photometric observations in the optical, mid-, and near-infrared are available, complemented for a subset of the sources, by Fermi {gamma}-ray data. The main results of the application of CLaSPS to such data sets have been the discovery of a strong correlation between the multi-wavelength color distribution of blazars and their optical spectral classification in BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars, and a

  10. [Improvement of natamycin production in an industrial strain by heterologous expression of the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Yemin; Zheng, Hualiang; Tao, Meifeng

    2015-05-01

    The afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus activate the production of two antibiotics in Streptomyces lividans. In this study, we gained an increase of 38% in the production of natamycin (3.56 g/L) in an industrial strain Streptomyces gilvosporeus TZ1401 through the integration of pHL851 that bears the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes into its genome. We discovered by quantitive real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that the expression of 6 genes of the natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster were improved from 1.9 to 2.7 times. This suggests that afsRS(cla) improve the production of natamycin through increased transcription. This study provides a good example for applying afsRS(cla) in high yield breeding of industrial antibiotic producers.

  11. Reliability and agreement of intramuscular coherence in tibialis anterior muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, E.H. van; Campfens, S.F.; Verwer, S.J.; Putten, M.J.A.M. van; Stegeman, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroplasticity drives recovery of walking after a lesion of the descending tract. Intramuscular coherence analysis provides a way to quantify corticomotor drive during a functional task, like walking and changes in coherence serve as a marker for neuroplasticity. Although intramuscular

  12. CLaSS Computer Literacy Software: From Design to Implementation - A Three Year Student Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cole

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Both computer literacy and information retrieval techniques are required to undertake studies in higher education in the United Kingdom. This paper considers the research, development and the 3-year student evaluation of a piece of learning technology in computer and information literacy (CLaSS software. Students completed a questionnaire to examine their own assessment of knowledge and competence in computer and information literacy and based on this assessment CLaSS software was created to assist nursing students with computer and information literacy. This paper draws on existing literature and applies a specific learning model to the software while considering software engineering and user-centered design methodologies. The technical processes involved in designing and creating the software are briefly considered with software development data analysis discussed. A 3-year student evaluation of the software after it's release was undertaken to consider the long-term validity and usefulness of this software with the results analysed and discussed.

  13. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  14. Intramuscular Hemangioma Mimicking Myofascial Pain Syndrome : A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Miriam; Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, In Jong; Park, Yoon Kun

    2007-01-01

    Intramuscular hemangioma, an infrequent but important cause of musculoskeletal pain, is often difficult to establish the diagnosis clinically. This report describes a case of a 32-yr-old woman who presented with severe left calf pain for 10 yr. Initial conservative treatments consisting of intramuscular electrical stimulation, herb medication, acupuncture, and intramuscular lidocaine injection under the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome in other facilities, failed to alleviate the symptoms. On physical examination, there was no motor weakness or sensory change. Conventional radiography of the leg revealed a soft tissue phlebolith. Conventional angiography study showed hemangioma. Intramuscular hemangioma within the soleus muscle was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Following surgical excision of the hemangioma, the patient's symptom resolved completely. Intramuscular hemangioma is a rare cause of calf pain and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if a patient with muscle pain, particularly if associated with a soft tissue mass, fails to respond to conservative treatment. PMID:17596677

  15. Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, fails to attenuate CLA-induced milk fat depression and hepatic lipid accumulation in lactating mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Diwakar; Teter, Beverly B; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Erdman, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the combination of rosiglitazone (ROSI) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on mammary and hepatic lipogenesis in lactating C57Bl/6 J mice. Twenty-four lactating mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatments applied from postpartum day 6 to day 10. Treatments included: (1) control diet, (2) control plus 1.5 % dietary CLA (CLA) substituted for soybean oil, (3) control plus daily intra-peritoneal (IP) rosiglitazone injections (10 mg/kg body weight) (ROSI), and (4) CLA plus ROSI (CLA-ROSI). Dam food intake and milk fat concentration were depressed with CLA. However, no effects were observed with ROSI. The CLA-induced milk fat depression was due to reduced expression for mammary lipogenic genes involved in de-novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, FA uptake and desaturation, and triacyglycerol synthesis. Liver weight (g/100 g body weight) was increased by CLA due to an increase in lipid accumulation triggering a compensatory reduction in mRNA abundance of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase I and stearoyl-CoA desaturase I. On the contrary, no effects were observed with ROSI on hepatic and mammary lipogenic gene and enzyme expression. Overall, feeding CLA to lactating mice induced milk fat depression and increased hepatic lipid accumulation, probably due to the presence of trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, while ROSI failed to significantly attenuate both hepatic steatosis and reduction in milk fat content.

  16. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  17. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA on the Reproductive Axis Pituitary, Thyroid, Testes of Ram in Non-reproductive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Mahdavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2 and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 g and the third group received 1 g of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 mL syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05. Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

  18. Impacts of CLA and dietary concentrate proportion on blood metabolite concentration and proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, M; Meyer, U; Kersten, S; Spilke, J; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented CLA to periparturient dairy cows receiving different concentrate proportions antepartum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on metabolism and immune function. Compared with adapted feeding, high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation postpartum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. A total of 64 pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations based on concentrate and roughage 3 weeks before calving until day 60 p.p. A.p., cows received 100 g/day control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement, either in a low-concentrate (20%, CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (60%, CON-60, CLA-60). P.p., concentrate proportion was adjusted to 50% while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic state p.p. was not achieved and respective impacts of CLA could not be examined. Blood samples for isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected on day -21, 7, 28 and 56 relative to calving. Blood chemistry samples were taken over the entire experimental period. Mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC remained unaffected. Besides serum concentrations of triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and IGF-1, clinical-chemical serum characteristics remained uninfluenced by treatments. No post-supplementation effect could be observed. Measured blood metabolites and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC indicate that all groups had an increased metabolic stress around calving, whereby group CLA-20 was affected more severely. Overall, supplemented CLA did not positively affect metabolism or immune function of periparturient dairy cows. However, feeding CLA in a low-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase liver stress around calving via reduced DMI.

  19. Pros and cons of CLA consumption: an insight from clinical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Prakasan, Priji; Sreedharan, Sajith; Wright, Andre-Denis G; Spener, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded upon human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are clinically proven or not. With a general introduction on the chemistry of CLA, major clinical evidences pertaining to intervention strategies, body composition, cardio-vascular health, immunity, asthma, cancer and diabetes are evaluated. Supposed adverse effects such as oxidative stress, insulin resistance, irritation of intestinal tract and milk fat depression are also examined. It seems that no consistent result was observed even in similar studies conducted at different laboratories, this may be due to variations in age, gender, racial and geographical disparities, coupled with type and dose of CLA supplemented. Thus, supposed promising results reported in mechanistic and pre-clinical studies cannot be extrapolated with humans, mainly due to the lack of inconsistency in analyses, prolonged intervention studies, follow-up studies and international co-ordination of concerted studies. Briefly, clinical evidences accumulated thus far show that CLA is not eliciting significantly promising and consistent health effects so as to uphold it as neither a functional nor a medical food.

  20. Streptococcus induces circulating CLA(+) memory T-cell-dependent epidermal cell activation in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, Marta; Galván, Ana B; Rincón, Catalina; Romeu, Ester R; Sacrista, Marc; Barboza, Erika; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Celada, Antonio; Pujol, Ramon M; Santamaria-Babí, Luis F

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcal throat infection is associated with a specific variant of psoriasis and with HLA-Cw6 expression. In this study, activation of circulating psoriatic cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)(+) memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells occurred only when streptococcal throat extracts were added. This triggered the production of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cytokines, as well as epidermal cell mediators (CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11). Streptococcal extracts (SEs) did not induce any activation with either CLA(-) cells or memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells from healthy subjects. Intradermal injection of activated culture supernatants into mouse skin induced epidermal hyperplasia. SEs also induced activation when we used epidermal cells from nonlesional skin of psoriatic patients with CLA(+) memory T cells. Significant correlations were found between SE induced upregulation of mRNA expression for ifn-γ, il-17, il-22, ip-10, and serum level of antistreptolysin O in psoriatic patients. This study demonstrates the direct involvement of streptococcal infection in pathological mechanisms of psoriasis, such as IL-17 production and epidermal cell activation.

  1. Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA – natural sources and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA, which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3, which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds. The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids.The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer. Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases.

  2. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  3. High dose trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases lean body mass in hamsters, but elevates levels of plasma lipids and liver enzyme biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoran; Joseph, Shama V; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; Jones, Peter J H

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the efficacy of graded doses of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers on body composition, energy expenditure, hepatic and serum lipid liver biomarkers in hamsters. Animals (n = 105) were randomized to seven treatments (control, 1, 2, 3% of c9,t11; 1, 2, 3% of t10,c12) for 28 days. After 28 days treatment, 1-3% of t10,c12 lowered (p CLA isomers. The 2%, 3% t10,c12 groups presented elevated (p CLA lowered (p CLA has less potent actions than t10,c12 CLA. We conclude that the actions of CLA on energy and lipid metabolism are form and dose dependent in the hamster model.

  4. Divergent effects of a CLA-enriched beef diet on metabolic health in ApoE-/- and ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Toomey, Sinead; McBride, Rachael; McMonagle, Jolene; Morine, Melissa J; Belton, Orina; Moloney, Aidan P; Roche, Helen M

    2013-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found naturally in meat and dairy products, and represents a potential therapeutic functional nutrient. However, given the discrepancies in isomer composition and concentration, controversy surrounds its proposed antidiabetic, antiobesity effects. This study focused on the effects of CLA-enriched beef (composed predominantly of c9, t11-CLA) in two separate models of metabolic disease: proatherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice and diabetic, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Animals were fed CLA-enriched beef for 28 days, and markers of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis were assessed. Comprehensive hepatic transcriptomic analysis was completed to understand divergent metabolic effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol and increased adiponectin levels in ob/ob mice. In contrast, plasma lipid profiles and glucose homeostasis deteriorated and promoted atherosclerosis following the CLA-enriched beef diet in ApoE(-/-) mice. Hepatic transcriptomic profiling revealed divergent effects of CLA-enriched beef on insulin signaling and lipogenic pathways, which were adversely affected in ApoE(-/-) mice. This study demonstrated clear divergence in the effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef improved metabolic flexibility in ob/ob mice, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. However, CLA-enriched diet increased expression of lipogenic genes, resulting in inefficient fatty acid storage which increases lipotoxicity in peripheral organs, and led to profound metabolic dysfunction in ApoE(-/-) mice. While CLA may have potential health effects, in some circumstances, caution must be exercised in presenting this bioactive lipid as a potential functional food for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  5. Absorption and metabolism of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and of its oxidation product 9,11-furan fatty acid by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Merkel, Roswitha; Lengler, Imme; Lampen, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    Furan fatty acids (furan-FA) can be formed by auto-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and may therefore be ingested when CLA-containing foodstuff is consumed. Due to the presence of a furan ring structure, furan-FA may have toxic properties, however, these substances are toxicologically not well characterized so far. Here we show that 9,11-furan-FA, the oxidation product of the major CLA isomer cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), is not toxic to human intestinal Caco-2 cells up to a level of 100 μM. Oil-Red-O staining indicated that 9,11-furan-FA as well as c9,t11-CLA and linoleic acid are taken up by the cells and stored in the form of triglycerides in lipid droplets. Chemical analysis of total cellular lipids revealed that 9,11-furan-FA is partially elongated probably by the enzymatic activity of cellular fatty acid elongases whereas c9,t11-CLA is partially converted to other isomers such as c9,c11-CLA or t9,t11-CLA. In the case of 9,11-furan-FA, there is no indication for any modification or activation of the furan ring system. From these results, we conclude that 9,11-furan-FA has no properties of toxicological relevance at least for Caco-2 cells which serve as a model for enterocytes of the human small intestine.

  6. A self-assembling nanomedicine of conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX) with higher drug loading and carrier-free characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ting; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Yang; Duan, Xiao-Chuan; Ren, Wei; Dan Huang; Yin, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the hypothesis that conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX), a novel fatty acid modified anti-cancer drug conjugate, could self-assemble forming nanoparticles. The results indicated that a novel self-assembling nanomedicine, CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 105 nm), with Cremophor EL (CrEL)-free and organic solvent-free characteristics, was prepared by a simple precipitation method. Being the ratio of CLA-PTX:DSPE-PEG was only 1:0.1 (w/w), the higher drug loading CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 90%) possessed carrier-free characteristic. The stability results indicated that CLA-PTX@PEG NPs could be stored for at least 9 months. The safety of CLA-PTX@PEG NPs was demonstrated by the MTD results. The anti-tumor activity and cellular uptake were also confirmed in the in vitro experiments. The lower crystallinity, polarity and solubility of CLA-PTX compared with that of paclitaxel (PTX) might be the possible reason for CLA-PTX self-assembling forming nanoparticles, indicating a relationship between PTX modification and nanoparticles self-assembly. Overall, the data presented here confirm that this drug self-delivery strategy based on self-assembly of a CLA-PTX conjugate may offer a new way to prepare nanomedicine products for cancer therapy involving the relationship between anticancer drug modification and self-assembly into nanoparticles.

  7. Intramuscular Pressure Measurement During Locomotion in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ricard E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of ten volunteers during, treadmill walking, and running using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking (181 +/- 69 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.) and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer in two subjects produced linear relationships (r = 0.97). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-165 Nm/Kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 Nm/Kg during running. IMP results from local muscle tissue deformations caused by muscle force development and thus, provides a direct, practical index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  8. Leg intramuscular pressures during locomotion in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Murthy, G.; Holley, D. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of 10 volunteers during treadmill walking and running by using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking [181 +/- 69 (SE) mmHg] and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer produced linear relationships (n = 2, r = 0.97 for both). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-1.65 N . m/kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 N . m/kg during running. Phasic elevations of IMP during exercise are probably generated by local muscle tissue deformations due to muscle force development. Thus profiles of IMP provide a direct, reproducible index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  9. Aggressive intramuscular hemangiomas in the upper extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Hu; Shen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Intramuscular hemangioma (IMH) is a rare congenital soft tissue tumor. Here, we report a case of IMH patient who had undergone several surgeries and other treatments that were all ineffective before he visited us. Clinical Findings: This IMH patient was a 16-yearold male who was born with a tumor of unknown size in his right hand and forearm. On physical examination, the tumor and skin flap complex was seen with a size of 14 cm_12 cm in his right hand, and the multiple postoperative scars were shown on his right hand and forearm. The patient was not able to raise his right shoulder, and the ranges of motion of his right elbow, wrist, and finger were almost zero degrees. Interventions: Considering that the tumor had been surgically excised for several times and the multiple recurrences had affected adversely his daily life, an amputation of his right hand, forearm, and the part of his right arm was performed. Diagnoses: The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of IMH. Outcomes: After the amputation surgery, the patient gained a functional recovery and the tumor did not recur during the 2 years after the surgery. Conclusion: A treatment of choice should be personalized according to an IMH patient's overall situation. For an IMH patient like our case with a history of multiple tumor recurrences, we suggest that an amputation surgery should be performed as early as possible to avoid the repeated, but ineffective surgical excisions and the unnecessary sufferings. PMID:28099360

  10. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Sciatic nerve palsy, intramuscular injections, children, quinine dil~ ... adverse effects which include ototoxicity resulting .... quinine injection into the gluteal muscles of his right ... to maintain joint movement and avoid damage to.

  11. Improved stability and controlled release of CLA with spray-dried microcapsules of OSA-modified starch and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huizi; Hong, Yan; Gu, Zhengbiao; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-08-20

    The objective of this investigation was to improve the stability of CLA and to allow for its controlled release by encapsulating it with combinations of octenyl-succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and xanthan gum (XG) in three ratios (OSA/XG: 60/1, 80/1, and 100/1, w/w). The wall material was examined using FTIR and TGA. The microcapsules were characterized by laser particle size analysis (LPS) and SEM. Oxidation of the microcapsules was monitored by headspace method. The results revealed that microcapsules created with an OSA/XG ratio of 60/1 provided superior protection to CLA against oxidation. When CLA-microcapsules were subjected to conditions simulating those in the human gastrointestinal system, 12.1%-50.1% of the CLA was released. CLA encapsulation in spray-dried microcapsules of OSA/XG appears to be an effective technique that provides good protection against oxidation and could be useful in the targeted delivery of functional lipids or other bioactive components to the small intestine.

  12. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Karlsmark, Tonny;

    2012-01-01

    by repeated intramuscular injections of anabolic steroids. Conclusions: SEOs cause sclerosing lipogranulomatosis and its progression may lead to lifelong complications. Thorough radiologic evaluation is important to plan surgical revisions in active phases. Also antibiotics, steroids, and compression therapy......BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search...

  13. Growth, carcass characteristics, muscle conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, and response to intravenous glucose challenge in high percentage Wagyu, Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin steers fed sunflower oil-containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, P S; Mir, Z; Kubert, P S; Gaskins, C T; Martin, E L; Dodson, M V; Calles, J A Elias; Johnson, K A; Busboom, J R; Wood, A J; Pittenger, G J; Reeves, J J

    2002-11-01

    The effect of breed and diet on insulin response to glucose challenge and its relation to intramuscular fat deposition was determined in 36 steers with 12 each of greater than 87% Wagyu (referred to as Wagyu), Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin breeds. Weaned steers were blocked by weight into heavy, medium, and light calves and placed in six pens with two pens per weight type and with two steers of each breed per pen. Three pens with steers from each weightclass were fed backgrounding and finishing diets for 259 d, while the other three pens were fed the same diets where 6% of the barley grain was replaced with sunflower oil. Prior to initiation of the finishing phase of the study the intravenous glucose tolerance test (VGTIT) was conducted in all steers. Once steers were judged as carrying adequate 12th-rib fat, based on weight and days on feed, they were harvested and graded and samples of the longissimus muscle were procured for determination of fat content and fatty acid composition. Dietary oil improved (P = 0.011; 0.06) ADG and feed conversion efficiency of steers during the latter part of backgrounding and only ADG during early part ofthe finishing period. Generally percent kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was the only adiposity assessment increased (P = 0.003) by dietary oil. The IVGTT results indicated that insulin response to intravenous glucose was lower in Limousin steers than in Wagyu steers. Dietary oil decreased (P = 0.052) fasting plasma insulin concentration in Wagyu steers compared with Limousin steers. The correlation coefficients among the IVGTT measures and intramuscular fat content or marbling score were less than 0.4, and only a negative trend existed between fasting insulin and USDA marbling scores. However, the carcasses of the Wagyu steers graded US Choice, and 66% of the Wagyu carcasses graded US Prime, which were substantially better than the quality grades obtained for the carcasses from the other breed types. Dietary oil did not affect

  14. CLA Has a Useful Effect on Bone Markers in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaeian, N; Shahram, F; Djalali, M

    2016-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, chronic disease which may increase the risk of osteoporosis. This study was carried out in order to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone markers in rheumatoid arthritis disease which is the most common autoimmune disease. The present study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Subjects included 52 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who were divided into two groups. Group I received standard treatment plus 2 daily 1.25 g capsules (Containing about 2 g of 9-cis 11-trans isomer and 10-cis 12-trans isomer in ratio of 50 -50 CLA in glycerinated form), Group II received standard treatment plus 2 Placebo 1.25 g capsules containing sunflower oil with high oleic acid. Telopeptides C, osteocalcin, and MMP3 were analyzed by ELISA method, PGE2 was done by competitive enzymatic immunoassay method, and IGF-1 was analyzed by the IRMA method based on the sandwich method and ALK-P of bone. Before and after the intervention, the questionnaires about general information, nutrition assessment and medical history were filled out by the subjects. Nutritional assessment was done by a 24-h record questionnaire for the three-day diet. The results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18). There was no significant difference between the groups in enzyme activity of ALK-P of bone, PGE2 and MMP3 variables. However, differences between the two groups in terms of activity of telopeptides C, Osteocalcin, and IGF1 were significant (P rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, in order to study the effect of CLA on bone health in patients with RA and all patients with autoimmune and bone diseases more studies with longer duration and evaluation of bone mass density are required.

  15. Sensing of dietary lipids by enterocytes: a new role for SR-BI/CLA-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Béaslas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestine is responsible for absorbing dietary lipids and delivering them to the organism as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL. It is important to determine how this process is regulated in enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the intestine, as prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis. During the postprandial period, dietary lipids, mostly triglycerides (TG hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes, are combined with bile products and reach the apical membrane of enterocytes as postprandial micelles (PPM. Our aim was to determine whether these micelles induce, in enterocytes, specific early cell signaling events that could control the processes leading to TRL secretion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of supplying PPM to the apex of Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes were analyzed. Micelles devoid of TG hydrolysis products, like those present in the intestinal lumen in the interprandial period, were used as controls. The apical delivery of PPM specifically induced a number of cellular events that are not induced by interprandial micelles. These early events included the trafficking of apolipoprotein B, a structural component of TRL, from apical towards secretory domains, and the rapid, dose-dependent activation of ERK and p38MAPK. PPM supply induced the scavenger receptor SR-BI/CLA-1 to cluster at the apical brush border membrane and to move from non-raft to raft domains. Competition, inhibition or knockdown of SR-BI/CLA-1 impaired the PPM-dependent apoB trafficking and ERK activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first evidence that enterocytes specifically sense postprandial dietary lipid-containing micelles. SR-BI/CLA-1 is involved in this process and could be a target for further study with a view to modifying intestinal TRL secretion early in the control pathway.

  16. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX on B16-F10 melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruo Du,1 Ting Zhong,1 Wei-Qiang Zhang,1 Ping Song,1 Wen-Ding Song,1 Yang Zhao,1 Chao-Wang,1 Yi-Qun Tang,3 Xuan Zhang,1,2 Qiang Zhang1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX. The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes’ cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 µg/g and 4 hours (1.17±0

  17. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  18. Effect of Adding Ca-CLA on Milk Yield and Quality of Lactating Cows%共轭亚油酸钙对奶牛产奶量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞坤; 王亚宾; 王会峰; 郭爽; 韩立强

    2012-01-01

    为研究共轭亚油酸钙对奶牛乳脂肪的影响,选取16头泌乳中期的奶牛饲喂不同日粮,分为对照组(基础日粮)、共轭亚油酸钙低剂量组(基础日粮+ 50g/(头d))、中剂量组(基础日粮+100 g/(头·d))、高剂量组(基础日粮+200g/(头d)),试验共进行14 d,分析乳产量和乳成分.结果表明,日粮中添加共轭亚油酸钙对奶牛的乳产量、乳蛋白和乳糖没有影响,但极显著降低了乳脂肪含量(P<0.01).检测脂肪酸组成发现奶牛的中、短链脂肪酸(C6、C10、C12、C16)含量显著降低(P<0.05),而长链脂肪酸(C18、C18∶1)的含量显著增加(P<0.05);发现添加共轭亚油酸钙显著降低了各种脂肪酸的产量.研究结果显示,奶牛饲料中添加共轭亚油酸钙能够降低乳脂率,改变脂肪酸的组成.%To investigate the effect of Ca-CLA on the milk yield and quality,sixteen lactating cows were selected and allocated randomly into 4 treatments,basal diet plus 0 g/d(control) ,50 g/d(Low group) ,100 g/d(medium group) and 200 g/d(high group) Ca-CLA for two weeks, then the milk yield and composition was analyzed. The results showed that the milk yield,protein content and lactose content had no difference among the 4 treatments,while the milk fat content was significantly reduced in Ca-CLA supplement groups( P <0. 01) .compared with the control. The gas-liquid chromatography analysis of FAME revealed that the fatty acid composition of milk was markedly altered by Ca-CLA treatments. Adding Ca-CLA in the diet of lactating cows decreased significantly the composition of short and midium chain fatty acids( C6 ,C10,C12 and C16) ,but increased significantly the concentration of stearic (C18:0)and linoleic( C18 :2) acids in milk fat( P < 0. 05 ) . The yield of total milk fatty acid reduced significantly in the Ca-CLA supplement treatments. This suggested that the supplement of Ca-CLA in dietary resulted in the reduction of milk fat rate and the alternation of

  19. Influence of different CLA isomers on insulin resistance and adipocytokines in pre-diabetic, middle-aged men with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Diana; Herrmann, Julia; Much, Daniela; Pfeuffer, Maria; Laue, C; Winkler, P; Helwig, Ulf; Bell, Doris; Auinger, Annegret; Darabaneanu, Stephanie; Ruether, Andreas; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are natural PPARγ ligands, which showed conflicting effects on metabolism in humans. We examined metabolic effects of different isomers of CLA in subjects with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphisms. A total of 35 men underwent four intervention periods in a crossover study design: subjects with either genotypes received c9, t11 CLA or t10, c12 CLA, a commercially available 1:1 mix of both isomers or reference oil (linoleic acid (LA)). Adipocytokines, insulin, glucose and triglycerides were assessed in the fasting state and after a standardized mixed meal. Across all genotypes, there was a significant (p = 0.025) CLA treatment effect upon postprandial (pp) HOMA-IR values, with c9, t11 CLA and CLA isomer mix improving, but t10, c12 CLA isomer worsening. In Ala12Ala subjects, the t10, c12 isomer caused weight gain (p = 0.03) and tended to increase postprandial insulin levels (p = 0.05). In Pro12Pro subjects, t10, c12 resulted in reduction in waist circumference (p = 0.03). The comparison of the different genotype groups revealed statistically different changes in fasting and postprandial insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin after intervention. c9, t11 CLA and the commercial CLA mix showed beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity compared with LA, while t10, c12 CLA adversely affects body weight and insulin sensitivity in different PPAR genotypes. CLA isomers have different effects on metabolism in Ala and Pro carriers.

  20. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) on B16-F10 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruo; Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Qiang; Song, Ping; Song, Wen-Ding; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC)-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX). The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes' cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 μg/g) and 4 hours (1.17±0.28 μg/g) was 2.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that of CLA-PTX solution at 1 hour (0.79±0.06 μg/g) and 4 hours (0.58±0.04 μg/g). The value of the area under the curve for the first 24 hours in the tumors of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice was significantly higher than that in the SSL-CLA-PTX and CLA-PTX solution-treated groups (P<0.01). The in vivo antitumor results indicated that iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX significantly inhibited

  1. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) on B16-F10 melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruo; Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Qiang; Song, Ping; Song, Wen-Ding; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC)-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX). The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes’ cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 μg/g) and 4 hours (1.17±0.28 μg/g) was 2.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that of CLA-PTX solution at 1 hour (0.79±0.06 μg/g) and 4 hours (0.58±0.04 μg/g). The value of the area under the curve for the first 24 hours in the tumors of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice was significantly higher than that in the SSL-CLA-PTX and CLA-PTX solution-treated groups (P<0.01). The in vivo antitumor results indicated that iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX significantly

  2. A Multicentre Study of CLa Implant and Sino-implant Expanded Application (two-year follow-up)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方可娟; 关艳敏; 范慧民; 高尔生; 杨丹; 薜丽; 韩耀玲; 刘宝

    1997-01-01

    A multicentre comparative clinical study of CLa implant and Sino-implant was carried out at 100 subcentres in 11 provinces, and a total of 19673 subjects were recruited. Two year follow up has been finished. The follow-up rate at the end of two years was 94,29%. Two-year cumulative continuation rate per 100 women for Sino-implant(89.93) was significantly higher than that for CLa implant (88.89). Two-year cumulative pregnancy rates per 100 women were 0.0462(CLa implant) and 0.281(Sino-implant) respectively; there was statistically significant difference between them. No ectopic pregnancy was recorded among CLa implant users and three ectopic pregnancies were reported among Sino implant users,resulting in an ectopic pregnancy rate of 0.163 per 1000 women years. The incidence of side-effects appeared to diminish with time. The major side effects were the menstrual disturbances, which accounted for more than 90% of the total sideeffects, and the incidence of frequent menstruation, irregular bleeding and spotring was higher than that of infrequentjscanty menstruation and amenorrhea. Use of CLa implant had higher incidence of amenorrhea and infrequentjscanty menstruation than that of Sin-imptant. During two-year follow-up, the number of discontinuation due to menstrual problems contributed 78% of the total number of discontinuation; two year menstrual-related cumulative discontinuation rates were 8.96 per 100 women for CLa implant and 7.84 for Sino-implant; there was statistically significant difference(P< 0.01). Two-year study shows that the two types of implant are similar to Norplant in the incidence of side-effects and contraceptive efficacy as well as two year continuation rates.

  3. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gate diffusion (FS-GDI technique. The proposed CLA implementation utilizes improved full-swing GDI F1 and F2 gates, which are the counterparts of standard CMOS NAND and NOR gates. The basic Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic style suffers from some practical limitations like swing degradation, fabrication complexity in standard CMOS process and bulk connections. These limitations can be overcome by Full swing GDI technique. The proposed technique utilizes a single swing restoration (SR transistor to improve the output swing of F1 and F2 GDI gates. A 16-bit CLA is designed and Simulations are performed by Mentor graphics 130nm CMOS technology ELDO simulator. Simulation results have shown a greater reduction in delay, power dissipation and area.

  4. THE EFFECT OF COTTONSEED AND SOYBEAN SUPPLEMENTATION ON CLA ISOMERS AND OTHER UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmaryan G. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the supplementation effect of different treatments of whole cottonseed and full fat soybean on the diet of dairy ewes and the milk fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content. The results indicate for both diets it is most suitable to use the second treatment in order to increase the level of cis- 9,trans-11 CLA isomer in milk. In the level of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-11 no changes were observed in neither of the diets.

  5. CLA reduces inflammatory mediators from A427 human lung cancer cells and A427 conditioned medium promotes differentiation of C2C12 murine muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraldi, Manuela; Maggiora, Marina; Paiuzzi, Elena; Canuto, Rosa A; Muzio, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is thought to have anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cancer cachexia is unknown. Two effects were here investigated: that of CLA on inflammatory mediator production in human lung cancer cells, and that of reduced mediators on the myogenic differentiation of murine muscle C2C12 cells. The latter cells were grown in medium conditioned by human lung cancer A427 cells, with or without CLA, to mimic only the effect of molecules released from the tumor "in vivo", excluding the effect of host-produced cachectic factors. The results obtained show that CLA was found to reduce the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but had no effect on IL-6 production. The mechanisms underlying the effect of CLA on cytokine or PGE2 release in A427 cells are probably mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, which increased at 24 h CLA treatment. In turn, the reduced content of inflammatory mediators in medium conditioned by A427 cells, in the presence of CLA, allowed muscle cells to proliferate, again by inducing PPAR. The involvement of PPARα was demonstrated by treatment with the antagonist MK-886. The findings demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and myogenic action of CLA and point to its possible application as a novel dietary supplement and therapeutic agent in inflammatory disease states, such as cachexia.

  6. Modulation of oxidative stress by γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer mixture in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Dubick, Michael A; Omaye, Stanley T

    2012-06-01

    Individually, γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC), a dipeptide and precursor of glutathione (GSH), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a trans-fatty acid, exhibit antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to compare effects of co-administration of GGC and CLA to treatment with GGC alone on oxidative stress and GSH synthesis in human endothelial cells. Changes in levels of 8-epi-PGF2α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), GSH, total antioxidants, GSH synthetase (GSS) expression, and transcription factor DNA binding were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with GGC alone (100 μmol/L) or combined with CLA isomer mixture (10, 50, 100 μmol/L) for 24h. Significantly higher levels of TBARS, 8-epi-PGF2α, GSH, and GSS protein were found in cells treated with GGC and 10 μmol/L CLA, compared to cells treated with GGC alone, indicative of prooxidant effects of CLA. Approximately 40% cell death was microscopically observed in cells incubated with GGC and 100 μmol/L CLA. Despite lower levels of GSH, treatment with GGC and 50 μmol/L CLA appeared to be protective from oxidative stress similar to treatment with GGC alone, as indicated by lower levels of TBARS, compared to control cells not treated with GGC and CLA.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by c9, t11-CLA in human endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells via ERα-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihui; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Jing; Ye, Shuhong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Hongzhou; Wang, Han

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can inhibit cancer cells growth and induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CLA, including cis9, trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10, c12-CLA), on apoptosis of human endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells and its related mechanisms. The MTT analysis was used to evaluate the effect of CLA isomers on the viability of endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells. We then estimated the apoptosis by Morphological observation and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry. We also used Western blot analysis to assess the expression of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2 proteins and the activation of Akt/p-Akt and ERα/p-ERα. Propylpyrazole-triol (PPT), a selective ERα agonist was used to confirm the induction of apoptosis by c9, t11 CLA may relate to ERα-mediated pathway. In CLA-treated RL 95-2 cells, we found that c9, t11-CLA inhibited viability and trigged apoptosis, as judged from nuclear morphology and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were significant increased, but no obvious change was observed about Akt and p-Akt in c9, t11-CLA-treated cells. However, the expression of total ERα level in RL 95-2 cells-treated with c9, t11-CLA was unchanged, while in the concentration of 80 mM, c9, t11-CLA down-regulated the protein expression level of p-ERα. Then PPT has the antagonistic action on growth inhibitory effect in RL 95-2 cells incubated with c9, t11-CLA. This study demonstrated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis in RL 95-2 cells, and may involve in ERα-mediated pathway. These results indicated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells and may be potential agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  8. Orchidectomy-induced alterations in volumetric bone density, cortical porosity and strength of femur are attenuated by dietary conjugated linoleic acid in aged guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, Jason R; Mak, Ivy L; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Wykes, Linda J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-04-01

    Age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia are ascribed in part to reductions in anabolic hormones. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) improves lean and bone mass, but its impact during androgen deficiency is not known. This study tested if CLA would attenuate the effects of orchidectomy (ORX)-induced losses of bone and lean tissue. Male guinea pigs (n=40; 70-72 weeks), were randomized into four groups: (1) SHAM+Control diet, (2) SHAM+CLA diet, (3) ORX+Control diet, (4) ORX+CLA diet. Baseline blood sampling and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were conducted, followed by surgery 4 days later with the test diets started 7 days after baseline sampling. Serial blood sampling and DXA scans were repeated 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks on the test diets. Body composition and areal BMD (aBMD) of whole body, lumbar spine, femur and tibia were measured using DXA. At week 16, muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and bone strength were assessed. Body weight declined after SHAM and ORX surgery, with slower recovery in the ORX group. Dietary CLA did not affect weight or lean mass, but attenuated gains in fat mass. Lean mass was stable in SHAM and reduced in ORX by 2 weeks with whole body and femur bone mineral content (BMC) reduced by 4 weeks; CLA did not alter BMC. By week 16 ORX groups had lower free testosterone and myofibrillar FSR, yet higher cortisol, osteocalcin and ionized calcium with no alterations due to CLA. ORX+Control had higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total alkaline phosphatase compared to SHAM+Control whereas ORX+CLA were not different from SHAM groups. Femur metaphyseal vBMD was reduced in ORX+CTRL with the reduction attenuated by CLA. Femur cortical thickness (Ct.Th.) and biomechanical strength were reduced and cortical porosity (Ct.Po.) elevated by ORX and attenuated by CLA. This androgen deficient model with a sarcopenic-osteoporotic phenotype similar to aging men responded to dietary CLA with

  9. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  10. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shari; Goodspeed, Leela; Wietecha, Tomasz; Houston, Barbara; Omer, Mohamed; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Subramanian, Savitha; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Chait, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. Objective We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15–25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. Methods Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured. Results By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation. Conclusions These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter

  11. Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) interferes with lipid droplet accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Tworek, Leslee; Poole, Jenna; Zahradka, Peter

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesize that the biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA, have different effects on early and late stages 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Both c9-t11 and t10-c12CLA stimulated early stage pre-adipocyte differentiation (day 2), while t10-c12CLA inhibited late differentiation (day 8) as determined by lipid droplet numbers and both perilipin-1 levels and phosphorylation state. At day 8, the adipokines adiponectin, chemerin and adipsin were all reduced in t10-c12CLA treated cells versus control cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed perilipin-1 was present solely on lipid droplets on day 8 in t10-c12 treated 3T3-L1 cells, whereas preilipin-1 was also located in the perinuclear region in control and c9-t11 treated cells. The t10-c12CLA isomer also decreased levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and inhibited lipolysis. These findings indicate that the decrease in lipid droplets caused by t10-c12CLA is the result of an inhibition of lipid droplet production during adipogenesis rather than a stimulation of lipolysis. Additionally, treatment with Gö6976 blocked the effect of t10-c12CLA on perilipin-1 phosphorylation, implicating PKCα in perilipin-1 phosphorylation, and thus a regulator of triglyceride catabolism. These data are supported by evidence that t10-c12CLA activated PKCα. These are the first data to show that CLA isomers can affect lipid droplet dynamics in adipocytes through PKCα.

  12. Endothelial cells of intramuscular (infantile) hemangioma express glut1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drut, Ricardo; Altamirano, Eugenia

    2007-04-01

    Glut1 is a marker of infantile hemangioma, and its positivity has resulted in defining this tumor at several sites (eg, skin, breast, salivary glands, liver, and placenta). We herein report on the presence of Glut1 positivity in the endothelial cells of 2 examples of intramuscular hemangioma, a peculiar tumor considered to be most probably congenital. The finding expands the sites where infantile hemangioma may be recognized and suggests that this intramuscular variety should be renamed intramuscular infantile hemangioma. An additional previously unreported finding was the presence of a strong membranous pattern of staining for Glut1 in the intralesional fat cells, a known component of the tumor, which parallels that of another endothelial marker, namely CD34. These findings could prove useful for diagnostic purposes in small biopsies.

  13. Preparation of CLA ascorbyl ester with improved volumetric productivity by an ionic liquid-based reaction system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.L.; Guo, Zheng; Let, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the enzymatic production Of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ascorbyl ester with a remarkably high volumetric productivity (120-200 g L-1) has been developed, in which strong solvation by tOMA-TFA (methyltrioctylammonium trifluoroacetate) enables a high concentration of ascorbic...

  14. Individualized Teaching and Autonomous Learning: Developing EFL Learners' CLA in a Web-Based Language Skills Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihong; Wen, Fuan; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Teaching listening and speaking in English in China has been given top priority on the post-secondary level. This has lead to the question of how learners develop communicative language ability (CLA) effectively in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environments. The authors demonstrate a self-developed language skill learning system with…

  15. ClaR--a novel key regulator of cellobiose and lactose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Stasiak-Różańska, Lidia; Cieśla, Jarosław; Bardowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    In a number of previous studies, our group has discovered an alternative pathway for lactose utilization in Lactococcus lactis that, in addition to a sugar-hydrolyzing enzyme with both P-β-glucosidase and P-β-galactosidase activity (BglS), engages chromosomally encoded components of cellobiose-specific PTS (PTS(Cel-Lac)), including PtcA, PtcB, and CelB. In this report, we show that this system undergoes regulation via ClaR, a novel activator protein from the RpiR family of transcriptional regulators. Although RpiR proteins are widely distributed among lactic acid bacteria, their roles have yet to be confirmed by functional assays. Here, we show that ClaR activity depends on intracellular cellobiose-6-phosphate availability, while other sugars such as glucose or galactose have no influence on it. We also show that ClaR is crucial for activation of the bglS and celB expression in the presence of cellobiose, with some limited effects on ptcA and ptcB activation. Among 190 of carbon sources tested, the deletion of claR reduces L. lactis growth only in lactose- and/or cellobiose-containing media, suggesting a narrow specificity of this regulator within the context of sugar metabolism.

  16. X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering study of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) chloranilic acid (CLA) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, M.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Sobczyk, L.; Pawlukojć, A.; Grech, E.; Wischnewski, A.; Zamponi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The DMP · CLA and DMP · CLA-d 2 crystals below 100 K are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c with four molecules in the unit cells. Infinite chains of hydrogen bonded counterparts are formed with O⋯N distances equal to 2.767(2) and 2.639(2) for non-deuterated DMP · CLA. Deuteration leads to the Ubbelohlde effect particularly well manifested in the second short O-H⋯N bridge (elongation by ca. 0.02 Å). In the IR spectra a Hadži's trio of the broad absorption is observed characteristic of strong hydrogen bonds. In the INS spectra the vibrational density of states and methyl rotational tunnel splittings were determined. The temperature dependence of tunneling bands enabled to make mode assignments and to determine the methyl rotational potentials. Comparison of the results to the pure electron donor DMP was made and the difference found can be almost completely assigned to the steric changes of the environment. A weak isotope effect with deuteration of the OH⋯N bridges of the DMP · CLA complex is assigned to a charge transfer of δe/ e = 0.006.

  17. Supraspinatus Intramuscular Calcified Hematoma or Necrosis Associated with Tendon Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lädermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rotator cuff intramuscular calcification is a rare condition usually caused by heterotopic ossification and myositis ossificans. Case Presentation. We describe a patient with voluminous calcified mass entrapped in supraspinatus muscle associated with corresponding tendon tear. Histological examination corresponded to a calcified hematoma or necrosis. Patient was surgically managed with open excision of the calcified hematoma and rotator cuff arthroscopic repair. At 6 months, supraspinatus muscle was healed, and functional outcome was good. Discussion and Conclusion. We hypothesized that supraspinatus intramuscular calcified hematoma was responsible for mechanical stress on the tendon. This association has never been described.

  18. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance in children based on MAST CLA and ALCAT tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyłko, K; Obarzanowski, T; Rosiak, K; Staśkiewicz, G; Fiszer, A; Chmielewski, S; Kowalczyk, J

    1995-01-01

    Investigations were performed on 56 children (23 girls, 33 boys), aged 0.5-16.0 (mean 7.2 years). After comparison of the ALCAT cytotoxic test results and the provocation diet results using a single blind trial, over two thirds consistency was obtained, which justified the use of the test for further analysis. The high consistency of MAST CLA and SPT suggests that in the investigated group of children IgE specific for nuts, grain, carrot, and soyabean prevailed. Comparison of these data to the ALCAT cytotoxic test gives a different view of products customarily given to allergic children. Tea, apple, coca-cola, and barley proved to be the most frequent cause of food intolerance in children investigated with the ALCAT test.

  19. Effect of pH on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation of linolenic acid biohydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongjae

    2013-08-01

    Conventional beliefs surrounding the linolenic acid (LNA; cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3) biohydrogenation (BH) pathway propose that it converts to stearic acid (SA) without the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as intermediate isomers. However, an advanced study (Lee and Jenkins, 2011) verified that LNA BH yields multiple CLAs. This study utilized the stable isotope tracer to investigate the BH intermediates of (13)C-LNA with different pH conditions (5.5 and 6.5). The (13)C enrichment was calculated as a (13)C/(12)C ratio of labeled minus unlabeled. After 24 h, eight CLA isomers were significantly enriched on both pH treatment, this result verifies that these CLAs originated from (13)C-LNA BH which supports the results of Lee and Jenkins (2011). The enrichment of cis-cis double bond CLAs (cis-9 cis-11 and cis-10 cis-12 CLA) were significantly higher at low pH conditions. Furthermore, the concentration of cis-10 cis-12 CLA at low pH was four times higher than at high pH conditions after a 3 h incubation. These differences support the LNA BH pathways partial switch under different pH conditions, with a strong influence on the cis-cis CLA at low pH. Several mono-, di-, and tri-enoic fatty acid isomers were enriched during 24 h of incubation, but the enrichment was decreased or restricted at low pH treatment. Based on these results, it is proposed that low pH conditions may cause a changed or limited capacity of the isomerization and reduction steps in BH.

  20. CLA isomer t10,c12 induce oxidation and apoptosis in 3t3 adipocyte cells in a similar effect as omega-3 linolenic acid and DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Meadus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA dietary supplements contain an equal mixture of the C18:2 isomers, cis-9trans-11 and trans-10cis-12. Predominantly, CLA-c9t11 occurs naturally in meat and dairy products at ~ 0.5% of total fat , whereas CLA-t10c12 occurs at >0.1%. Recent studies show that CLA-c9t11 generally promotes lipid accumulation but CLA-t10c12 may inhibit lipid accumulation and may also promote inflammation. The omega-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have also been observed to inhibit lipid accumulation and effect inflammation; therefore we examined the effects of the two main isomersof CLA and omega -3 fatty acids C18:3n-3 and DHA at the molecular levelto determine if they are causing similar oxidative stresses.Methods:Purified CLA-c9t11 and CLA-t10c12 were added to 3T3 cells induced into mature adipocyte cultures at 100uM concentrations and compared with 100uM C18:3n-3(α-linolenic acid and 50uM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to observe their effect on growth, gene transcription and general oxidation. The results of multiple separate trials were averaged and compared for significance at levels of P< 0.05, using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test.Results:C18:3n-3, DHA and CLA-t10c12inhibited 3T3 adipose cell growth and caused a significant increase in lipid hydro peroxide activity. CLA-t10c12 and c9t11 increased AFABP, FAS and ACOX1 mRNA gene expression but DHA and C18:3n-3decreased the same mRNAs. CLA-c9t11 but not the t10c12 stimulated adipoQ expression even though; CLA-c9t11 had only a slightly greater affinity for PPARγ than CLA-t10c12, according to TR-FRET assays. The expression of the xenobiotic metabolism genes, aldo-keto reduct as 1c1 (akr1c1, superoxide dismutase (SODand inflammation chemokine secretions of eotaxin (CCL11, Rantes (CCL5, MIG (CCL9 and MCP-1 were increased by DHA, C18:3n-3and CLA-t10c12 but not CLA-c9t11. This correlated with an increase in apoptosis factors

  1. Identification of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers by silver ion-liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry (Ag+-LC/O3-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenxing; Black, Brenna A; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Gänzle, Michael G; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2013-08-06

    A novel method for the identification of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers has been developed in which silver ion liquid chromatography is coupled to in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry (Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS). The mobile phase containing CLA isomers eluting from the Ag(+)-LC column flows through a length of gas-permeable tubing within an ozone rich environment. Ozone penetrating the tubing wall reacts with the conjugated double bonds forming ozonolysis product aldehydes. These, and their corresponding methanol loss fragment ions formed within the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source, were detected by in-line MS and used for the direct assignment of double bond positions. Assignment of positional isomers is based entirely on the two pairs of diagnostic ions seen in the in-line O3-MS mass spectra. In this way, de novo identification of CLA positional isomers, i.e. without requiring comparison to CLA standards, was achieved. The Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS method was applied to the analysis of CLA isomers in a commercial CLA supplement, milk fat, and the lipid extract from a Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1460 culture. The results demonstrate how Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS can be used for the direct and fast determination of CLA isomers at low concentrations and in complex lipid mixtures.

  2. High resolution ultrasonography in isolated soft tissue and intramuscular cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With the advent of high resolution ultrasonography and increased clinical awareness of the isolated soft tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis especially in endemic zone, a more conservative non-invasive approach can be applied both in diagnosis and treatment of these isolated cases of cysticercosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 42-46

  3. Endometrioma in a virgin abdomen masquerading as an intramuscular lipoma

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It has been previously reported in the abdominal wall secondary to gynaecological surgery. We present the case of a 32-year woman with endometrioma of the abdominal wall masquerading as an intramuscular lipoma with no previous surgical history.

  4. Endometrioma in a virgin abdomen masquerading as an intramuscular lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shakarchi, J; Bohra, A

    2015-03-18

    Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. It has been previously reported in the abdominal wall secondary to gynaecological surgery. We present the case of a 32-year woman with endometrioma of the abdominal wall masquerading as an intramuscular lipoma with no previous surgical history.

  5. Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappritz, Julia; Meyer, Ulrich; Kramer, Ronny; Weber, Eva-Maria; Jahreis, Gerhard; Rehage, Jürgen; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-04-01

    The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the

  6. [Prolongation of Bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia by oral and intramuscular Clonidine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubdziela, Włodzimierz; Jałowiecki, Przemysław; Kawecki, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    The effect of oral and intramuscular clonidine premedication on the duration of sensory and motor blockade and postoperative analgesia during bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia was studied in 102 ASA physical status I-II patients scheduled for lower limbs orthopaedic surgery. In all cases one hour before anaesthesia midazolam (0.1-0.15 mg/kg) was applied orally and isotonic saline solution (10 ml/kg) was infused intravenously. The patients were randomly allocated into one of the following groups: oral (A) or intramuscular (B) clonidine premedication (0.15 mg) (n = 33) and oral or intramuscular premedication by placebo (C) (n = 36). All patients received 10-20 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally. Sensory blockade (SB) was evaluated by pinprick and motor blockade (MB) according to Bromage's scale. The following parameters were measured: duration of motor and sensory block, requirement for postoperative analgesia (buprenorfine); systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures; heart rate; oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) and adverse events. As far as sex, body weight, age, height, ASA grade, dose of midazolam and bupivacaine, the onset of sensory and motor blockade, level of sensory analgesia, type of surgery and its average duration between groups were concerned, no differences were observed (p > 0.05). Both oral and intramuscular premedication with clonidine increased significantly the duration of motor (A--185.9 +/- 59.3; B--190.9 +/- 66.3 min) and sensory (A--216.2 +/- 69.4; B--254.2 +/- 76.8 min) blockade in comparison with placebo (MB--141.9 +/- 56.6; SB--156.7 +/- 62.9 min) (p premedication with clonidine intensified the sedative effect of midazolam (p clonidine (A--0.6 +/- 0.2; B--0.5 +/- 0.2 mg) nearly twice as small as than in a control group (1.1 +/- 0.2 mg) (p premedication with 0.15 mg of oral and intramuscular clonidine. The application of clonidine reduces the early postoperative analgesic requirements. The side effects are more pronounced with the

  7. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Sabri; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Infantile hemangiomas demonstrate a pattern of proliferative growth in infancy followed by a slow phase of involution. In contrast a rare type of vascular tumor, intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma, usually presents beyond the period of infancy with nonspecific symptoms and no evidence of involution. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, imaging, histopathological characteristics and management of intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. We performed a retrospective review of a 20-year period to identify children diagnosed with intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. Patient demographics, imaging and histopathological findings were recorded. We included 18 children (10 boys, 8 girls) with histologically proven intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma - and adequate imaging. The mean age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 1 day to 19 years). Twelve lesions involved muscles of the extremities, 4 were located in the trunk and 2 were in the head and neck. MRI had been performed in all children and demonstrated a soft-tissue mass with flow voids, consistent with fast flow. The lesion was well-circumscribed in 16 children and intralesional fat was seen in 14. Doppler US demonstrated a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly isoechoic to surrounding muscle, with enlarged arterial feeders. Enlarged feeding arteries, inhomogeneous blush and lack of arteriovenous shunting were noted on angiography (n = 5). The most common histopathological findings were lobules of capillaries with plump endothelium and at least some adipose tissue. The lesions were excised in six children. Two children were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 10, follow-up MRI studies ranging from 3 months to 10 years showed that the lesion enlarged in proportion to the child (n = 7), demonstrated slow growth (n = 2) or remained stable (n = 1). There was no change in imaging characteristics on follow-up. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor of

  8. Electrochemical performance of C-La3+ codoped LiFePO4 synthesized by microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yan; WANG Miao; GUO Ruisong; XU Zhaohe

    2009-01-01

    La3+ was selected to elevate the lattice electronic conductivity of LiFePO4, and LiFePO4/(C+La3+) cathode powders were synthesized by microwave heating using a domestic microwave oven for 35 min. The microstructures and morphologies of the synthesized materials were investigated by XRD and SEM. The electrochemical performances were evaluated by galvanostatic charge-discharge. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 with different La3+ contents was studied. Results indicated that the initial specific discharge capacity of LiFePO4/(C+La3+) composites with 2% La3+(116.3 mAh/g) was better than that of LiFePO4/C (105.4 mAh/g). The addition of La3+ further improved the electrochemical properties. So the codoping is an effective method to improve the electrochemical performance.

  9. Inclusion of fresh forage in the ration for dairy cows: effects on CLA and trans C18:1 isomers content of milk fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is the richest natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers. The 9-cis, 11-trans CLA isomer (rumenic acid, RA origins from two pathways: as an intermediate of the rumen biohydrogenation process of linoleic acid or as the product of the activity of mammary Stearoyl Co-A desaturase enzyme (SCD with trans-11, C18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA as the precursor, another intermediate in the biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid.

  10. The dietary fatty acid 10E12Z-CLA induces epiregulin expression through COX-2 dependent PGF(2α) synthesis in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Sinha, Raghu; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of dietary fatty acids that are widely marketed as weight loss supplements. The isomer responsible for this effect is the trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10E12Z-CLA) isomer. 10E12Z-CLA treatment during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induces expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2). This work demonstrates that COX-2 is also induced in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after a single treatment of 10E12Z-CLA at both the mRNA (20-40 fold) and protein level (7 fold). Furthermore, prostaglandin (PG)F(2α), but not PGE(2), is significantly increased 10 fold. In female BALB/c mice fed 0.5% 10E12Z-CLA for 10 days, COX-2 was induced in uterine adipose (2 fold). In vitro, pharmacological COX-2 inhibition did not block the effect of 10E12Z-CLA on adipocyte-specific gene expression although PGF(2α) was dose-dependently decreased. These studies demonstrate that PGF(2α) was not by itself responsible for the reduction in adipocyte character due to 10E12Z-CLA treatment. However, PGF(2α), either exogenously or endogenously in response to 10E12Z-CLA, increased the expression of the potent mitogen and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) ligand epiregulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Blocking PGF(2α) signaling with the PGF(2α) receptor (FP) antagonist AL-8810 returned epiregulin mRNA levels back to baseline. Although this pathway is not directly responsible for adipocyte dependent gene expression, these results suggest that this signaling pathway may still have broad effect on the adipocyte and surrounding cells.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling by the upregulation of PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-04-01

    Along with its effect on body fat reduction, dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to improve physical activity and endurance capacity in mice. It has been suggested these effects may in part be due to physiological changes in skeletal muscle, however, the mode of action is not completely understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the relevant mechanisms of CLA isomers for mitochondrial biogenesis, one of the most important adaptive responses in skeletal muscle. Both cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA isomers increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), however, only the t10,c12 isomer, but not c9,t11, increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) compared to the control. Among downstream biomarkers of PGC-1α, the CLA mixed isomer enhanced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ). Both c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers increased expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), while the c9,t11 increased expression of cytochrome c (Cyt C) and t10,c12 CLA increased expression of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), respectively. Both CLA isomers significantly increased mitochondrial DNA copy number compared to that of control. These findings suggest that the individual CLA isomers potentiate mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α-NRF-1-Tfam signaling cascade, although downstream regulation may be isomer dependent.

  12. Pharmacokinetic study of flunixin and its interaction with enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abo-EL-Sooud

    Full Text Available The Pharmacokinetic aspects of flunixin (FL administered alone and in combination with enrofloxacin (EN, were studied in clinically healthy calves. The experiments were performed on two groups: FL alone {2.2 mg/kg,intramuscular (IM}, and combination of FL (2.2 mg/kg, IM and EN {2.5 mg/kg, IM}. Plasma concentrations of FL were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. Moreover, the effects of FL alone or in combination on liver and kidney functions were also assessed. Flunixin was rapidly absorbed intramuscularly with a half-life of absorption (t of 0.094 h and the peak plasma concentration (C was 1.27 g/mL was attained after 1/2ab max 0.49 h (T . Enrofloxacin significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of FL by delaying its absorption and accelerate its max elimination from body. Significant increases (32% in the area under the curve (AUC and (37% in the elimination rate constant (K from the central compartment and a significant decrease (27% in the elimination half-life (t of FL el 1/2el were found following coadministration with EN, compared with administration of FL alone. The maximum plasma drug concentration (C showed significant increase (28% following the coadministration of EN with FL as max compared to that following the administration of FL alone. It was concluded that the combination of FL and EN negatively altered the kinetics of FL and exaggerated the adverse effect on hepato-renal function in calves consequently; the concomitant use of FL and EN should be avoided in calves. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 449-454

  13. The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer groups in milk of two Polish sheep breeds determined by silver ion liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Radzik-Rant, Aurelia; Rant, Witold; Czauderna, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazneńska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01).

  14. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  15. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  16. Primary intramuscular hydatid cyst: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankappa P Sinhasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution and causes health problems in endemic countries. The prevalence of primary muscular hydatid disease is reported to be only 0.5% because muscle is an unfavorable site for infestation as a result of its high levels of lactic acid. Primary intramuscular hydatid cyst presents a diagnostic problem not only because of the unusual location and low prevalence, but also because complicated cysts may imitate solid or complex lesions. We report an unusual case of primary hydatidosis of the calf muscles, in which a wide excision was performed without causing any damage to the cyst wall. Injudicious approach in the management of these rare presentations may be the root cause of severe anaphylactic shock and systemic dissemination. Intramuscular hydatid cysts grow gradually and may mimic a soft tissue tumor; thus, the diagnosis of soft-tissue hydatid cysts needs a high index of suspicion.

  17. Can intramuscular corticosteroid injection cause nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakbak B

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Berker Bakbak, Banu Turgut Ozturk, Sansal Gedik, Bengu Ekinci Koktekir, Saban Gonul Selcuk University Medical Faculty, Department of Ophthalmology, Konya, Turkey Abstract: A 56-year-old man noted a sudden decrease of vision in his right eye 4 hours after intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide (TA injection. A diagnosis of unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION was made, and the patient was counseled to discontinue using TA. Examination for possible risk factors revealed controlled hypertension. Final visual acuity was finger counting at 1 m, and the optic disc was pale in his right eye. This is the first reported case of unilateral NAION that has occurred in a patient after intramuscular corticosteroid injection. Although a cause-and-effect relationship is difficult to prove, the short duration between the TA injection and the NAION is noteworthy. The history of corticosteroid injection should be questioned in cases with predisposing conditions such as hypertension. Keywords: ischemic optic neuropathy, corticosteroids, optic disc edema

  18. Intramuscular Injection of “Site Enhancement Oil”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Louise; Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkær

    2015-01-01

    The use of intramuscular injection of foreign substances for aesthetic purposes is well known. Complications are usually local to the site of injection but can be potentially lethal. Here, we present a case of "site enhancement oil" use in a 42-year-old man who died from asphyxia due to hanging. ....... Macroscopic and microscopic changes as well as computed tomographic changes in injected musculature are described and the potentially lethal adverse effects after site enhancement oil use are warranted....

  19. Development and assessment of learning objects about intramuscular medication administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Mayumi Chinen Tamashiro; Heloisa Helena Ciqueto Peres

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to develop and assess a learning object about intramuscular medication administration for nursing undergraduates and nurses. METHOD: a random, intentional and non-probabilistic sample was selected of nurses from a Brazilian social network of nursing and students from the Undergraduate Program at the University of São Paulo School of Nursing to serve as research subjects and assess the object. RESULTS: the participants, 8 nurses and 8 students, studied the object and answered an as...

  20. Localization and quantification of intramuscular damage using statistical parametric mapping and skeletal muscle parcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Le Troter, Arnaud; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-12-22

    In the present study, we proposed an original and robust methodology which combines the spatial normalization of skeletal muscle images, the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and the use of a specific parcellation in order to accurately localize and quantify the extent of skeletal muscle damage within the four heads of the quadriceps femoris. T2 maps of thigh muscles were characterized before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after 40 maximal isometric electrically-evoked contractions in 25 healthy young males. On the basis of SPM analysis of coregistrated T2 maps, the alterations were similarly detected at D2 and D4 in the superficial and distal regions of the vastus medialis (VM) whereas the proportion of altered muscle was higher in deep muscle regions of the vastus lateralis at D4 (deep: 35 ± 25%, superficial: 23 ± 15%) as compared to D2 (deep: 18 ± 13%, superficial: 17 ± 13%). The present methodology used for the first time on skeletal muscle would be of utmost interest to detect subtle intramuscular alterations not only for the diagnosis of muscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions and clinical treatment strategies.

  1. Liver transcriptome profile in pigs with extreme phenotypes of intramuscular fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramayo-Caldas Yuliaxis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study was the identification of differentially-expressed genes in the liver of Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition using RNA-Seq. Results The liver transcriptomes of two female groups (H and L with phenotypically extreme intramuscular fatty acid composition were sequenced using RNA-Seq. A total of 146 and 180 unannotated protein-coding genes were identified in intergenic regions for the L and H groups, respectively. In addition, a range of 5.8 to 7.3% of repetitive elements was found, with SINEs being the most abundant elements. The expression in liver of 186 (L and 270 (H lncRNAs was also detected. The higher reproducibility of the RNA-Seq data was validated by RT-qPCR and porcine expression microarrays, therefore showing a strong correlation between RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq data (ranking from 0.79 to 0.96, as well as between microarrays and RNA-Seq (r=0.72. A differential expression analysis between H and L animals identified 55 genes differentially-expressed between groups. Pathways analysis revealed that these genes belong to biological functions, canonical pathways and three gene networks related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. In concordance with the phenotypic classification, the pathways analysis inferred that linolenic and arachidonic acids metabolism was altered between extreme individuals. In addition, a connection was observed among the top three networks, hence suggesting that these genes are interconnected and play an important role in lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Conclusions In the present study RNA-Seq was used

  2. Maternal high-fat diet-induced programing of gut taste receptor and inflammatory gene expression in rat offspring is ameliorated by CLA supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation influences later life predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease in offspring. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined, but one potential target that has received scant attention and is likely pivotal to disease progression is that of the gut. The present study examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on offspring metabolic profile and gut expression of taste receptors and inflammatory markers. We speculate that preventing high-fat diet-induced metainflammation improved maternal metabolic parameters conferring beneficial effects on adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA) throughout gestation and lactation. Plasma/tissues were taken at day 24 and RT-PCR was carried out on gut sections. Offspring from HF mothers were significantly heavier at weaning with impaired insulin sensitivity compared to controls. This was associated with increased plasma IL-1β and TNFα concentrations. Gut Tas1R1, IL-1β, TNFα, and NLRP3 expression was increased and Tas1R3 expression was decreased in male offspring from HF mothers and was normalized by maternal CLA supplementation. Tas1R1 expression was increased while PYY and IL-10 decreased in female offspring of HF mothers. These results suggest that maternal consumption of a HF diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring predisposition to obesity and metabolic dysregulation. This may be associated with dysregulation of taste receptor, incretin, and inflammatory gene expression in the gut.

  3. Metabolic and growth inhibitory effects of conjugated fatty acids in the cell line HT-29 with special regard to the conversion of t11,t13-CLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christian; Ecker, Josef; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) exhibit growth inhibitory effects on colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. To investigate whether the anticancerogenic potency depends on number or configuration of the conjugated double bonds, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; C18:2) isomers and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA; C18:3) isomers on viability and growth of HT-29 cells were compared. Low concentrations of CLnAs (t11,t13-CLA≥t9,t11-CLA>c9,t11-CLA. The mRNA expression analysis of important genes associated with fatty acid metabolism showed an absence of ∆5-/∆6-desaturases and elongases in HT-29 cells, which was confirmed by fatty acid analysis. Using time- and dose-dependent stimulation experiments several metabolites were determined. Low concentrations of all trans-CFAs (5-20μM) led to dose-dependent increase of conjugated t/t-C16:2 formed by β-oxidation of C18 CFAs, ranging from 1-5% of total FAME. Importantly, it was found that CLnA is converted to CLA and that CLA is inter-converted (t11,t13-CLA is metabolized to c9,t11-CLA) by HT-29 cells. In summary, our study shows that growth inhibition of human cancer cells is associated with a specific cellular transcriptomic and metabolic profile of fatty acid metabolism, which might contribute to the diversified ability of CFAs as anti-cancer compounds.

  4. Bioconversion of biodiesel refinery waste in the bioemulsifier by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Monteiro Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbial bioemulsifiers was surface active compounds, are more effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The yeasts have been isolated to produce bioemulsifiers from vegetable oils and industrial wastes. Results Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2 is bioemulsifier-producing yeast strain isolated from effluents of the dairy industry, with ability to emulsify different hydrophobic substrates. Bioemulsifier production (mg/L and the emulsifying activity (E24 of this strain were optimized by response surface methodology using mineral minimal medium containing refinery waste as the carbon source, which consisted of diatomaceous earth impregnated with esters from filters used in biodiesel purification. The highest bioemulsifier production occurred in mineral minimal medium containing 75 g/L biodiesel residue and 5 g/L ammonium sulfate. The highest emulsifying activity was obtained in medium containing 58 g/L biodiesel refinery residue and 4.6 g/L ammonium sulfate, and under these conditions, the model estimated an emulsifying activity of 85%. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis suggested a bioemulsifier molecule consisting of monosaccharides, predominantly xylose and mannose, and a long chain aliphatic groups composed of octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid at concentrations of 48.01% and 43.16%, respectively. The carbohydrate composition as determined by GC-MS of their alditol acetate derivatives showed a larger ratio of xylose (49.27%, mannose (39.91%, and glucose (10.81%. 1 H NMR spectra confirmed by COSY suggested high molecular weight, polymeric pattern, presence of monosaccharide’s and long chain aliphatic groups in the bioemulsifier molecule. Conclusions The biodiesel residue is an economical substrate, therefore seems to be very promising for the low-cost production of active emulsifiers in the emulsification of aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and kerosene.

  5. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMERCIAL YOGURTS FROM COLOMBIA CONTENIDO DE ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA Y COMPOSICIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN ALGUNOS YOGURES COMERCIALES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA of the fifteen commercial yogurts corresponding to the main consumption and distribution in the Colombian market was studied, as well as their fatty acid composition. The concentration of CLA, expressed as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/g fat and as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/100 g sample varied between 4.5 and 8.2, and between 7.8 and 25.5, respectively. The higher values of CLA (>6.0 mg/g fat corresponded to those samples containing yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The main fatty acids found in the studied samples were the acids palmitic (10.7-21.2 mg/g fat, oleic (11.9-21.0 mg/g fat, stearic (16.1-37.4 mg/g fat, myristic (3.5-7.8 mg/g fat and butyric (1.6-5.5 mg/g fat. Low PUFA/SFA and MUFA/SFA ratios were found, as typical of milk fat samples.Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa en los yogures evaluados, correspondieron a aquellos que contenían cultivo de yogur (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus y Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus y especies de Bifidobacterium y Lactobacillus. Los principales ácidos grasos encontrados en las muestras estudiadas, fueron los ácidos palmítico (10,7-21,2 mg/g de grasa, oleico (11,9-21,0 mg/g de grasa, esteárico (16,1-37,4 mg/g de grasa, mirístico (3,5-7,8 mg/g de grasa y butírico (1,6-5,5 mg/g de grasa. Bajas relaciones de PUFA/SFA y de MUFA

  6. Effects of Intracerebroventricular Administration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Rats%侧脑室注射共轭亚油酸(CLA)对大鼠糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹子鹏; 王枫; 向雪松; 曹瑞; 张文斌; 史永亮; 高双斌

    2007-01-01

    目的:观察侧脑室注射共轭亚油酸(Conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)对SD大鼠糖脂代谢的影响及其可能的机制.方法:向正常SD大鼠侧脑室内注射共轭亚油酸(CLA).分别于注射后2、4、8、12、24小时采血,试剂盒法测血糖、胰岛素、瘦素、血甘油三脂、血胆固醇、血高密度脂蛋白.48小时后处死,分离动物的脂肪(皮下、内脏、肾周、睾周)进行称重,计算体脂比.结果:与对照组相比,侧脑室注射CLA48小时后,大鼠脂体比、皮下脂肪、睾周脂肪均下降.术后2-12h血糖降低,血清胰岛素浓度也降低,而且持续的时间较长(48h).侧脑室注射CLA对脂代谢有影响,2h时血清甘油三酯升高、胆固醇降低、4h时高密度脂蛋白升高.结论:共轭亚油酸能够通过中枢神经系统调节外周糖脂代谢,这可能与其能减轻体重的机制有关.

  7. Evaluation of Linear Regression Simultaneous Myoelectric Control Using Intramuscular EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of linear regression models to decode patterns of muscle coactivation from intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) and provide simultaneous myoelectric control of a virtual 3-DOF wrist/hand system. Performance was compared to the simultaneous control of conventional myoelectric prosthesis methods using intramuscular EMG (parallel dual-site control)-an approach that requires users to independently modulate individual muscles in the residual limb, which can be challenging for amputees. Linear regression control was evaluated in eight able-bodied subjects during a virtual Fitts' law task and was compared to performance of eight subjects using parallel dual-site control. An offline analysis also evaluated how different types of training data affected prediction accuracy of linear regression control. The two control systems demonstrated similar overall performance; however, the linear regression method demonstrated improved performance for targets requiring use of all three DOFs, whereas parallel dual-site control demonstrated improved performance for targets that required use of only one DOF. Subjects using linear regression control could more easily activate multiple DOFs simultaneously, but often experienced unintended movements when trying to isolate individual DOFs. Offline analyses also suggested that the method used to train linear regression systems may influence controllability. Linear regression myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG provided an alternative to parallel dual-site control for 3-DOF simultaneous control at the wrist and hand. The two methods demonstrated different strengths in controllability, highlighting the tradeoff between providing simultaneous control and the ability to isolate individual DOFs when desired.

  8. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species.

  9. Cisto hidático intramuscular: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiattoni Marcus Klay Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A localização muscular dos cistos hidáticos é incomum (0,5 a 5,4% e geralmente secundária à doença hepática ou pulmonar. Reporta-se um caso de hidatidose intramuscular glútea, chamando-se a atenção para essa localização atípica da doença, que deve ser considerada na prática cirúrgica. A inexistência de cistos concomitantes nas sedes mais comuns confere interesse ainda maior ao caso apresentado.

  10. INCREASING AND PROLONGING BLOOD PENICILLIN CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Favour, C B

    1945-06-29

    (1) Restriction of fluid intake to 1,500 cc and the salt intake to 3 gm a day doubles the penicillin blood level following interrupted intramuscular [See Figure in the PDF file] injections of penicillin. (2) The administration of benzoic acid to a patient on an unrestricted diet Ilay double the penicillin blood level during similar treatment. (3) The combination of these two procedures results in a four- to eight-fold increase in penicillin blood level with a prolonged effective blood concentration.

  11. Effects of dietary CLA on n-3 HUFA score and N-acylethanolamides biosynthesis in the liver of obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Antonio; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that PPAR alpha agonists induce N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) biosynthesis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a known dietary PPAR alpha inducer, may therefore increase OEA and PEA levels and favor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis by enhancing peroxisomal β-oxidation via induction of liver PPARα. To evaluate whether CLA is able to increase DHA, OEA and PEA levels and thereby influencing liver lipid deposition in a model of visceral obesity-induced fatty liver, Zucker rats were fed a background diet rich in saturated fat with or without 1% of CLA for 4 weeks. Our data showed that CLA intake increased DHA, OEA and PEA levels in the liver by 24%, 31% and 36% respectively, and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by 16%. We may conclude that dietary CLA is able to influence not only fatty acid metabolism but also the biosynthesis of bioactive mediators such as OEA and PEA which may contribute to ameliorate fatty liver.

  12. Research Progress of CLA in Ruminant%共轭亚油酸在反刍动物中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 孙满吉

    2011-01-01

    CLA is a natural ingredient in food, which mostly exists in ruminant products. The synthesis of CLA can be affected by animal species, the different fat source of daily grain, the different feeding mode and environment. The addition of CLA in diets can improve the physiological function of ruminant, while milk fat rate and milk yield are also significantly affected. The paper summarized the research progress of CLA at these stage through the synthesis of CLA, influencing factors and the impact on milk fat percentage.%共轭亚油酸(CLA)是食品中的天然成分,主要存在于反刍动物制品中。CLA的合成受到动物种类、日粮中不同的脂肪来源、饲喂方式和环境的影响。CLA的添加在改善反刍动物生理功能的同时,对乳脂率和产奶量也有显著影响。文章概述了CLA的合成、影响因素及对乳脂率等方面的影响,并对现阶段CLA在反刍动物中的研究进展进行了综述。

  13. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Susan K; Volpi-Lagreca, Gabriela; Alende, Mariano; Long, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (Psubcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (Psubcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B) differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05) GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.

  14. ANÁLISIS GENÉTICO DE LA GRASA INTRAMUSCULAR EN CONEJO-GENETIC ANALISYS OF INTRAMUSCULAR FAT IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Zomeño Segado, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis se aborda el estudio de la grasa intramuscular como característica determinante de la calidad de la carne para ser utilizado en programas genéticos. El conejo se plantea no sólo por su interés como especie ganadera sino como modelo en otras especies. Este estudio se divide en tres experimentos, cada uno de ellos representa cada uno de los tres objetivos específicos de esta tesis: 1. Estudiar la variabilidad genética entre líneas de conejo de factores ligados directamente a la...

  15. Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sadariya

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

  16. Contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (cla) y composición de ácidos grasos en algunos yogures comerciales de colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Álvarez, Luis Felipe; Martínez, Jenny Carolina; Barón Núñez, Marby Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa) en los yogure...

  17. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  18. Synthesis and isolation of trans-7,cis-9 octadecadienoic acid and other CLA isomers by base conjugation of partially hydrogenated gamma-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Roach, John A G; Mossoba, Magdi M; Morehouse, K M; Lehmann, Lutz; Yurawecz, Martin P

    2003-05-01

    CLA is of considerable interest because of reported potentially beneficial effects in animal studies. CLA, while not yet unambiguously defined, is a mixture of octadecadienoic acids with conjugated double bonds. The major isomer in natural products is generally considered to be cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (c9,t11), which represents > 75% of the total CLA in most cases. Other isomers are drawing increased attention. The t7,c9 isomer, which is often the second-most prevalent CLA in natural products, has been reported to represent as much as 40% of total CLA in milk from cows fed a high-fat diet. The need for a reference material became apparent in a recent study directed specifically at measuring t7,c9-CLA in milk, plasma, and rumen. A suitable standard mixture was produced by stirring 0.5 g of gamma-linolenic acid (all cis-6,9,12-C18.3) with 100 mL of 10% hydrazine hydrate in methanol for 2.5 h at 45 degrees C. The solution was diluted with H2O and acidified with HCI. The resulting partially hydrogenated FA were extracted with ether/petroleum ether, dried with Na2SO4, and conjugated by adding of 6.6% KOH in ethlylene glycol and heating for 1.5 h at 150-160 degrees C. Approximately 20 mg each of cis-6,trans-8; trans-7,cis-9; cis-9,trans-11; and trans- 10,cis-12 were obtained along with other FA. Methyl esters (FAME) of these four cis/trans isomers were resolved by Ag+ HPLC (UV 233) and partially resolved by GC/(MS or FID) (CP-Sil 88). Treatment of these FAME with 12 yielded all possible cis/trans (geometric) isomers for the four positions 6,8; 7,9; 9,11; and 10,12.

  19. ‘Show me the money!’ An insight into the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its interaction with Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinusha Mendis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper will be to provide a case study of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its inter-action with Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. The paper will begin by introducing and expanding on the concept of higher education institutions and how they have had to adapt to copyright reproduction, especially from the mid twentieth century, with the advent of the photocopy machine. The paper will touch upon the copyright laws that have attempted to regulate copying within HEIs in the UK and consider whether it has been a success or not. The paper will then carry out a study in to CLA and will aim to raise and answer the following question: what really happens to the money that is collected from HEIs by the CLA and distributed through the Authors Licensing and Collecting Society (ALCS and Publishers Licensing Society (PLS? Is the license fee collected from HEIs fairly distributed amongst the right holders? Having looked at both HEIs and collecting societies (CLA specifically, the paper will consider whether collecting societies are the best practical solution we have or whether we are putting up with a system that we have come to know? The UUK v CLA case revealed the dangerous side of collecting societies, especially that of CLA and questioned its motives and aims. In offering a solution, the system in USA will be considered where the US law allows for two or more competing collecting societies in one area. Does competition combat an abuse of a dominant position, which is what we have in the UK and is this the way forward for the UK? Or does competition curtail creativity? Whilst some of these questions have been answered by the author, others have been left open for consideration.

  20. Pharmacokinetic behavior of 16-dehydropregnenolone after intramuscular administration in rats%Pharmacokinetic behavior of 16-dehydropregnenolone after intramuscular administration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Ying Yang; Wen-Meng Zhang; Wen-Wen Yang; Ting Zhao; Li-Xin Sun

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 16-dehydropregnenolone (16-DHP), a sterols compound isolated from Solanum lyratum Thunb., was investigated in rats following a single intramuscular administration (40 mg/kg). The concentration of 16-DHP in rat plasma was determined

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  2. Individual CLA Isomers, c9t11 and t10c12, Prevent Excess Liver Glycogen Storage and Inhibit Lipogenic Genes Expression Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslak, Edyta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Szumny, Antoni; Szczepnski, Wojciech; Franczyk-Zarow, Magdalena; Kopec, Aneta; Chlopicki, Stefan; Leszczynska, Teresa; Kostogrys, Renata B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of individual conjugated linoleic acid isomers, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and systemic endothelial dysfunction in rats fed for four weeks with control or high-fructose diet. The high-fructose diet hampered body weight gain (without influencing food intake), increased liver weight and glycogen storage in hepatocytes, upregulated expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the liver. Both CLA isomers prevented excessive accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Specifically, t10c12-CLA decreased concentration of serum triacylglycerols and LDL + VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol, and affected liver lipid content and fatty acid composition by downregulation of liver SCD-1 and FAS expression. In turn, the c9t11-CLA decreased LDL+VLDL cholesterol in the control group and downregulated liver expression of FAS without significant effects on liver weight, lipid content, and fatty acid composition. In summary, feeding rats with a high-fructose diet resulted in increased liver glycogen storage, indicating the induction of gluconeogenesis despite simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Although both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12) display hepatoprotective activity, the hypolipemic action of the t10c12-CLA isomer proved to be more pronounced than that of c9t11-CLA.

  3. A Comparative Efficacy of Oral Prednisone with Intramuscular Triamcinolone in Acute Exacerbation of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Razi Gholam Abbass Moosavi

    2006-03-01

    We conclude that in adults with acute asthma, oral prednisone is more effective than intramuscular triamcinolone LA in improvement of FEV1, but although efficacy of oral prednisone in improvement of FVC is more than intramuscular triamcinolone LA group, this effect is not significant.

  4. Intramuscular lorazepam in catatonia in patients with acute renal failure: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-En; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2010-01-01

    Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.

  5. Flexible intramuscular micro tube electrode combining electrical and chemical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Chang; Liu, Jing-Quan; Du, Jing-Cheng; Kang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chun-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly developed micromachining technology, various kinds of sophisticated microelectrodes integrated with micro fluidic channels are design and fabricated for not only electrophysiological recording and stimulation, but also chemical drug delivery. As many efforts have been devoted to develop rigid microprobes for neural research of brain, few researchers concentrate on fabrication of flexible microelectrodes for intramuscular electrophysiology and chemical interfacing. Since crude wire electrodes still prevail in functional electrical stimulation (FES) and electromyography (EMG) recording of muscle, here we introduce a flexible micro tube electrode combining electrical and chemical pathway. The proposed micro tube electrode is manufactured based on polymer capillary, which provide circumferential electrode site contacting with electro-active tissue and is easy to manufactured with low cost.

  6. Severe serum sickness reaction to oral and intramuscular penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G

    2006-05-01

    Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery

  7. The intramuscular nerve supply of the human lateral cricoarytenoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, I; Mu, L; Wu, B L; Biller, H F

    1993-09-01

    The lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscle is one of the adductors of the vocal cords; however, some investigators believe that the lateral edge of the muscle may be involved in abduction. The possibility of functionally distinct compartments within the LCA was investigated by observing the pattern of the intramuscular nerve supply. This technique has previously clearly demonstrated neural compartments in the posterior cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. Five adult human larynges were processed by the Sihler's stain which clears all soft tissue while counterstaining the nerves. The results of our study showed that the innervation pattern of the human LCA muscle is composed of a homogenous nerve plexus localized to the middle region of the muscle. This pattern correlates with the location of motor endplates described by prior investigators. The consistent neural pattern suggests that the LCA is composed of a single neuromuscular compartment.

  8. Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Sarcopenia, and Mobility Function in Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT and sarcopenia may adversely impact mobility function and physical activity. This study determined the association of locomotor muscle structure and function with mobility function in older adults. Method. 109 older adults with a variety of comorbid disease conditions were examined for thigh muscle composition via MRI, knee extensor strength via isometric dynamometry, and mobility function. The contribution of strength, quadriceps lean tissue, and IMAT to explaining the variability in mobility function was examined using multivariate linear regression models. Results. The predictors as a group contributed 27–45% of the variance in all outcome measures; however, IMAT contributed between 8–15% of the variance in all four mobility variables, while lean explained only 5% variance in only one mobility measure. Conclusions. Thigh IMAT, a newly identified muscle impairment appears to be a potent muscle variable related to the ability of older adults to move about in their community.

  9. Fatty acid composition of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) during maturation: effect of the lipid modulators trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA) and forskolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, E G; Alves, S P; Marques, C C; Baptista, M C; Horta, A E M; Bessa, R J B; Pereira, R M

    2013-05-01

    The effect of maturation and of two lipid modulators supplementation along in vitro maturation (IVM) on fatty acid (FA) and dimethylacetal (DMA) composition of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were studied. Abattoir-derived immature COC were analyzed for FA and DMA or submitted to IVM as follows: control group; t10,c12 CLA group, t10,c12 CLA supplementation for 44 h; Forskolin group, forskolin supplementation during the initial 2 h; t10,c12 CLA + forskolin group, t10,c12 CLA for 44 h and forskolin for just 2h. Each experimental group had five replicates. FA analysis of oocytes, cumulus cells (CC), follicular fluid, and culture media were performed by gas-liquid chromatography. Oocytes and their CC had different FA composition. Oocytes were richer in saturated FA (SFA) preferentially maintaining their FA profile during maturation. Mature CC had the highest polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content. Five individual and total SFA, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), notably oleic acid (c9-18:1), percentages were lower (P ≤ 0.023) in mature than in immature CC. t10,c12 CLA was accumulated by COC from t10,c12 CLA and t10,c12 CLA + forskolin groups, mostly in CC where MUFA and an eicosatrienoic isomer decreased (P ≤ 0.043). Nevertheless, PUFA or FA and DMA total content were not affected. Arachidonic acid was reduced in t10,c12 CLA + forskolin CC and hexadecanal-DMA-16:0 in t10,c12 CLA CC. Forskolin alone increased (P ≤ 0.043) c9-18:1 in oocytes. In conclusion, maturation process clearly changed porcine COC FA and DMA profiles, mostly of CC, also more susceptible to modifications induced by t10,c12 CLA. This possibility of manipulating COC lipid composition during IVM could be used to improve oocyte quality/cryopreservation efficiency.

  10. Putative regulatory factors associated with intramuscular fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S M Cesar

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is related to insulin resistance, which is an important prediction factor for disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. At the same time, it is an economically important trait, which influences the sensorial and nutritional value of meat. The deposition of IMF is influenced by many factors such as sex, age, nutrition, and genetics. In this study Nellore steers (Bos taurus indicus subspecies were used to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IMF content. This was accomplished by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEG, biological pathways and putative regulatory factors. Animals included in this study had extreme genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV for IMF. RNA-seq analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and co-expression network methods, such as partial correlation coefficient with information theory (PCIT, regulatory impact factor (RIF and phenotypic impact factor (PIF were utilized to better understand intramuscular adipogenesis. A total of 16,101 genes were analyzed in both groups (high (H and low (L GEBV and 77 DEG (FDR 10% were identified between the two groups. Pathway Studio software identified 13 significantly over-represented pathways, functional classes and small molecule signaling pathways within the DEG list. PCIT analyses identified genes with a difference in the number of gene-gene correlations between H and L group and detected putative regulatory factors involved in IMF content. Candidate genes identified by PCIT include: ANKRD26, HOXC5 and PPAPDC2. RIF and PIF analyses identified several candidate genes: GLI2 and IGF2 (RIF1, MPC1 and UBL5 (RIF2 and a host of small RNAs, including miR-1281 (PIF. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fat content and energy balance in muscle and provide important information for the production of healthier beef for human consumption.

  11. Comparison of Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injections vs. Castration in Pigs—Impacts on Behavior and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical castration (PC is painful and stressful for nursing piglets. One alternative to PC is immunological castration (IC, but the pain and stress of handling associated with injections have not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to measure the pain and distress of subcutaneous (SQ and intramuscular (IM injections compared to PC in piglets, and to compare SQ or IM injections in finishing pigs. After farrowing, 3 to 5 d old male piglets were randomly assigned to (control no handling treatment (NO, sham-handling (SHAM, IM, SQ, or PC. Finishing pigs were assigned to NO, SHAM, IM, or SQ. Behavior was monitored for 1 h prior and 1 h post treatment in each age group. Social, feeding behaviors, and signs of pain were recorded. Finishing pigs treated with SQ injections had higher feeding behaviors pre-treatment than they did post-treatment. Overall, physical castrations caused measurable pain-like behaviors and general behavioral dysregulation at a much higher level than the other treatment groups. SQ and IM injections did not cause either significant behavioral or physiological alterations in piglets. SQ injections caused a decrease in finishing pig feed behaviors post treatment ( p = 0.02 and SHAM treated finishing pigs spent significantly more time lying than the other treatment groups. In general IM and SQ injections did not cause any other significant changes in behavior or physiology.

  12. Repeated dose (14 days) rat intramuscular toxicology study of Her1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, A; Casacó, A; Sánchez, B; González, B; Gómez, D; León, A; Bada, A M; Arteaga, M E; González, Y; González, C; Pupo, M; Fuentes, Dasha

    2012-12-01

    Our goal was to assess the toxicity of two strengths (200 and 400 μg) of HER1 cancer vaccine (Center of Molecular Immunology, Cuba), presented in two different formulations, in Sprague Dawley rats after repeated intramuscular administration (14 days). Four groups (5 animals/sex) were established: Control, Placebo (adjuvant), and two Treated groups receiving a dose representing ten times of human total dose (10×), 28.6 and 57.1 μg/kg. Clinical observations, body weight and rectal temperature were measured during the study. Clinical pathology analysis was performed, besides gross necropsy and histological examination of tissues on animals at the end of the assay. The assay ended with a 100% survival. Injection site damage, with the presence of cysts and granulomas, was observed in adjuvant and vaccine treated groups, with most severe cases predominating at higher strength. Administration of Placebo and Her1 vaccine induced increase in polymorphonuclear cells, with relative lymphopenia conditioned by primary neutrophilia. In summary, results suggest that Her1 immunization was capable of inducing an inflammatory effect at the injection site, leading to systemic alterations, more significant at higher strength (400 μg, 57.1 μg/kg), probably affected by the immunizations' schedule used. The vaccine was shown to be well tolerated without any obvious signs of systemic toxicity, with findings largely attributable to the adjuvant used.

  13. Mammary cell turnover and expression of lipogenic genes in response to silage induced CLA and diet energy density in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Baumgard, L H; Nielsen, T Skau

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate possible effects of silage induced differences in milk conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and diet energy density on cell turnover and production capacity in the mammary gland. Cows were given high levels of canola fat and fed either grass or maize...... silage at either a high or a low diet energy density....

  14. Implication of PKS type I gene and chromatographic strategy for the biodiscovery of antimicrobial polyketide metabolites from endosymbiotic Nocardiopsis prasina CLA68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H. C. Yashavantha; Rakshith, Devaraju; Gurudatt, D. M.; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-06-01

    Advanced approach in probing for polyketide antimicrobials requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. An endophytic strain CLA68 was isolated from the root of Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae) collected from the Western Ghats of Southern India. Strain CLA68 was then identified as Nocardiopsis prasina by its characteristic culture morphology and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Biosynthetic polyketide synthase genes were investigated using two pairs of degenerate primers. Ethyl acetate extract of CLA68 exhibited broad spectrum activity against a panel of test human pathogens. PKS type-I gene detection and chromatographic strategy yielded a robust polyketide antimicrobial compound which identified as nocapyrone E. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the purified compound against MRSA and other human pathogens ranged between 25 and 100 μg/ml. The present work highlights the utility of N. prasina CLA68 as potential source for antimicrobial polyketide nocapyrone E which could help to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. This study demonstrates feasibility of PKS type-I gene-based molecular approach and chemical investigation by chromatographic approach is the best method for prediction and rapid discovery of novel polyketides from endosymbiotic actinomycetes. The sequence data of this endosymbiotic actinomycete is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KP269077.

  15. Análise espectral do vento no Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (CLA Spectral analysis of the surface winds at the Alcântara Lauching Center (CLA

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    Roberto Magnago

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se as características espectrais da turbulência atmosférica na região do Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (CLA, que sofre a influência de uma falésia e da brisa marítima provinda do oceano, visando obter informações sobre a estrutura turbulenta do local. Determinaram-se os espectros das 3 componentes do vento (u, v e w na camada limite superficial sobre esse terreno homogêneo, visando aplicações no Projeto e Desenvolvimento dos foguetes de sondagem e do Veículo Lançador de Satélite (VLS realizado pelo IAE. Os dados foram coletados no mês de agosto do ano de 1999 através de um anemômetro sônico tridimensional. Também se obteve resultados envolvendo as relações σu/u*, σv/u* e σw/u*, todos condizentes com os previstos na literatura.In this work is analyzed the spectral characteristics of atmospheric turbulence in the Alcântara Launching Center (CLA, which suffers the influence of a cliff and of the sea breeze coming from the ocean. The atmospheric spectra were determined for the 3 wind components (u, v, and w in the superficial boundary layer, to be used for the Research and Developpment (R&D of sounding rockets and Satellite Launch Vehicle (VLS build by IAE. The data were collected during the month of August, 1999 using a 3D sonic anemometer. Results involving the σu/u*, σv/u* and σw/u* relations are obtained, and are all consistent with those reported in literature.

  16. Role of Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain Containing 1 in Porcine Intramuscular Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Luo, Yanliu; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Zhao, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 (PID1), a recently identified gene involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance, plays an important role in fat deposition. However, its effect on porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation remains poorly understood. In this study, the plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-pPID1 was transfected into porcine intramuscular preadipocytes with Lipofectamine 3000 reagent to over-express porcine PID1 (pPID1). Over-expression of pPID1 significantly promoted porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation. Expression of pPID1 mRNA was significantly increased upon porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation. Indirect fluorescent immunocytochemistry demonstrated that pPID1 protein was localized predominantly in the nucleus of porcine intramuscular preadipocyte. The mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α and lipoprotein lipase were significantly increased by pPID1 over-expression. Over-expression of pPID1 also led to an increase in lipid accumulation which was detected by Oil Red O staining, and significantly increased the intramuscular triacylglycerol content. These results indicate that pPID1 may play a role in enhancing porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Fasting increases palmitic acid incorporation into rat hind-limb intramuscular acylglycerols while short-term cold exposure has no effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synak, M; Zarzeczny, R; Górecka, M; Langfort, J; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Zernicka, Ewa

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols in perfused hind-limb skeletal muscles of different fibre types in rats either fasted for 48 h or exposed to cold (6 °C) for 12 h. Hind-limb preparations of fasted and cold exposed rats were perfused with buffers containing tritium labelled and cold palmitic acid. Palmitic acid incorporation into intracellular lipid pools in the soleus, plantaris, red and white gastrocnemius and red and white quadriceps was measured. It was found that fasting increased approximately 2-fold palmitic acid incorporation in all muscles examined regardless of the fibre type composition of the muscle. On the other hand, exposure to cold had no effect on the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols regardless the muscle fibre type. The increased incorporation of palmitic acid into acylglycerols in fasted animals is in line with data showing that 48 h fasting stimulates the expression of plasma membrane proteins putatively facilitating fatty acid uptake. It appears that although 12 h cold exposure increases the use of fatty acids as energy substrates it does not alter the incorporation of palmitic acid into intramuscular acylglycerols in the perfused rat hind-limb.

  18. Comparison of Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injections vs. Castration in Pigs—Impacts on Behavior and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Guay, Kimberly; Garcia, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Physical castration (PC) of piglets is a painful and stressful procedure and alternatives are being sought to improve animal well-being, such as immunological castration (IC). However, IC requires injections which may also cause pain and stress during handling. In this study, piglets and finishing pigs were placed in the following treatment groups: no handling or treatment (NO), sham-handling (SHAM), intramuscular injection (IM), subcutaneous injection (SQ), or PC on piglets only. Behavior was monitored for 1 h prior and 1 h post treatment in each age group. Social behavior and feeding behavior, and signs of pain were recorded. Physical castration caused measurable pain-like behaviors and general behavioral dysregulation at a much higher level than changes associated with handling associated with IM or SQ injections. Overall, injections did not cause a change in weaning pig behaviors. Finishing pigs given SQ injections showed a lower number of feeding behaviors post treatment but other changes were not observed in the other treatment groups. Abstract Physical castration (PC) is painful and stressful for nursing piglets. One alternative to PC is immunological castration (IC), but the pain and stress of handling associated with injections have not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to measure the pain and distress of subcutaneous (SQ) and intramuscular (IM) injections compared to PC in piglets, and to compare SQ or IM injections in finishing pigs. After farrowing, 3 to 5 d old male piglets were randomly assigned to (control) no handling treatment (NO), sham-handling (SHAM), IM, SQ, or PC. Finishing pigs were assigned to NO, SHAM, IM, or SQ. Behavior was monitored for 1 h prior and 1 h post treatment in each age group. Social, feeding behaviors, and signs of pain were recorded. Finishing pigs treated with SQ injections had higher feeding behaviors pre-treatment than they did post-treatment. Overall, physical castrations caused measurable

  19. Contig-Layout-Authenticator (CLA): A Combinatorial Approach to Ordering and Scaffolding of Bacterial Contigs for Comparative Genomics and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Sabiha; Kumar, Narender; Lankapalli, Aditya K; Tiwari, Sumeet K; Baddam, Ramani; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of genome sequencing platforms have emerged in the recent past. High-throughput platforms like Illumina and 454 are essentially adaptations of the shotgun approach generating millions of fragmented single or paired sequencing reads. To reconstruct whole genomes, the reads have to be assembled into contigs, which often require further downstream processing. The contigs can be directly ordered according to a reference, scaffolded based on paired read information, or assembled using a combination of the two approaches. While the reference-based approach appears to mask strain-specific information, scaffolding based on paired-end information suffers when repetitive elements longer than the size of the sequencing reads are present in the genome. Sequencing technologies that produce long reads can solve the problems associated with repetitive elements but are not necessarily easily available to researchers. The most common high-throughput technology currently used is the Illumina short read platform. To improve upon the shortcomings associated with the construction of draft genomes with Illumina paired-end sequencing, we developed Contig-Layout-Authenticator (CLA). The CLA pipeline can scaffold reference-sorted contigs based on paired reads, resulting in better assembled genomes. Moreover, CLA also hints at probable misassemblies and contaminations, for the users to cross-check before constructing the consensus draft. The CLA pipeline was designed and trained extensively on various bacterial genome datasets for the ordering and scaffolding of large repetitive contigs. The tool has been validated and compared favorably with other widely-used scaffolding and ordering tools using both simulated and real sequence datasets. CLA is a user friendly tool that requires a single command line input to generate ordered scaffolds.

  20. INFLUENCE OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISM IN FABP3 AND LEPR GENES ON INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT IN PIG CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive production conditions, selection directed to increase the percentage of muscle tissue in carcasses and consumer demand have led to a reduction of intramuscular fat content in pig carcasses. Intramuscular fat is a factor affecting the flavor, juiciness and tenderness of pork meat. FABP protein family causes the differences in the content of intramuscular fat in different pig breeds. FABP3 and LEPR gene are candidate genes for intramuscular fat content and their polymorphisms explain the variability that can occur in different pig breeds. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of genes on different intramuscular fat content in pig carcasses due to pigs genotype.

  1. The IDvIP Trial: A two-centre randomised double-blind controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intramuscular pethidine is routinely used throughout the UK for labour analgesia. Studies have suggested that pethidine provides little pain relief in labour and has a number of side effects affecting mother and neonate. It can cause nausea, vomiting and dysphoria in mothers and can cause reduced fetal heart rate variability and accelerations. Neonatal effects include respiratory depression and impaired feeding. There are few large studies comparing the relative side effects and efficacy of different opioids in labour. A small trial comparing intramuscular pethidine with diamorphine, showed diamorphine to have some benefits over pethidine when used for labour analgesia but the study did not investigate the adverse effects of either opioid. Methods The Intramuscular Diamorphine versus Intramuscular Pethidine (IDvIP trial is a randomised double-blind two centre controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and pethidine regarding their analgesic efficacy in labour and their side effects in mother, fetus and neonate. Information about the trial will be provided to women in the antenatal period or in early labour. Consent and recruitment to the trial will be obtained when the mother requests opioid analgesia. The sample size requirement is 406 women with data on primary outcomes. The maternal primary outcomes are pain relief during the first 3 hours after trial analgesia and specifically pain relief after 60 minutes. The neonatal primary outcomes are need for resuscitation and Apgar Score Discussion If the trial demonstrates that diamorphine provides better analgesia with fewer side effects in mother and neonate this could lead to a change in national practice and result in diamorphine becoming the preferred intramuscular opioid for analgesia in labour. Trial Registration ISRCTN14898678 Eudra No: 2006-003250-18, REC Reference No: 06/Q1702/95, MHRA Authorisation No: 1443/0001/001-0001, NIHR UKCRN reference 6895, RfPB grant

  2. Paliperidone Palmitate Intramuscular 3-Monthly Formulation: A Review in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Yvette N; Keating, Gillian M

    2016-10-01

    A 3-monthly formulation of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate (3-monthly paliperidone palmitate) has recently been approved for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients in the EU (Trevicta(®)), following earlier approval in the USA (Invega Trinza(®)). This narrative review discusses the clinical use of 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients and summarizes its pharmacological properties. The efficacy of the 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate formulation as a maintenance treatment for schizophrenia has been demonstrated in well designed, phase III trials. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was more effective than placebo in delaying time to relapse and reducing relapse rates, and was noninferior to 1-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the proportion of patients that remained relapse-free. The 3-monthly formulation was also more effective than placebo in controlling the symptoms of schizophrenia, whilst not differing significantly from the 1-monthly formulation in terms of symptomatic control. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with a tolerability profile consistent with that of the 1-monthly formulation. In conclusion, 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate is a useful treatment option for adult patients with schizophrenia who are adequately treated with the 1-monthly formulation, particularly for those who would prefer, or may benefit from, longer dosing intervals.

  3. INTRAMUSCULAR HYDATID CYST OF PARASPINAL MUSCLE: A RARE LOCATION

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    Bhargava Vardhana Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution and causes health problems in endemic countries. The parasite has a "dog - sheep" cycle with man as an intermediate accidental host. When humans ingest the eggs of the tapeworm, the embryos that emer ge penetrate the intestinal mucosa and are transported via the circulation to various organs. Most commonly they reach the liver, lungs and the other organs are rarely affected. Primary hydatid cyst of skeletal muscle is rare, occurring in 1 - 3% of all case s. (1,2 The prevalence of intramuscular hydatid disease is reported to be less than 0.5% , because muscle is an unfavourable site for infestation because of high levels of lactic acid in muscle. (3 The diagnosis is difficult because of the unusual location, low prevalence and complicated cysts may mimic solid or complex lesions. (4 The differential diagnosis in these cases must include malignant soft - tissue tumors such as myxoid liposarcoma, soft tissue abscesses and chronic hematoma. (5 Hydatid disease of h umans caused by Echinococcus granulosus has been recognized as a major public health problem. It is found in all sheep - raising countries of the world. In India, the highest prevalence is reported from Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. (6 Injudicious approach in the management of these rare presentations may be the root cause of severe anaphylactic shock and systemic dissemination. We report an unusual case of primary hydatidosis of the paraspinal muscles

  4. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular buprenorphine in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L; Messenger, K M; LaFevers, D H; Barlow, B M; Posner, L P

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration in horses. Six horses received i.v. or i.m. buprenorphine (0.005 mg/kg) in a randomized, crossover design. Plasma samples were collected at predetermined times and horses were monitored for adverse reactions. Buprenorphine concentrations were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Following i.v. administration, clearance was 7.97±5.16 mL/kg/min, and half-life (T(1/2)) was 3.58 h (harmonic mean). Volume of distribution was 3.01±1.69 L/kg. Following i.m. administration, maximum concentration (C(max)) was 1.74±0.09 ng/mL, which was significantly lower than the highest measured concentration (4.34±1.22 ng/mL) after i.v. administration (PBuprenorphine has a moderate T(1/2) in the horse and was detected at concentrations expected to be therapeutic in other species after i.v. and i.m. administration of 0.005 mg/kg. Signs of excitement and gastrointestinal stasis may be noted.

  5. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methenitis, Spyridon; Terzis, Gerasimos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fifteen moderately-trained young females performed countermovement jumps as well as an isometric leg press test in order to determine the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Vastus lateralis MFCV was measured with intramuscular microelectrodes at rest on a different occasion. Maximum MFCV was significantly correlated with maximum isometric force (r = 0.66, p rate of force development at 100 ms, 150 ms, 200 ms, and 250 ms (r = 0.85, r = 0.89, r = 0.91, r = 0.92, respectively, p rate of force development than with maximum isometric leg press force. Lower, but significant correlations were found between mean MFCV and countermovement jump power (r = 0.65, p rate of force development than with isometric force, perhaps because conduction velocity is higher in the larger and fastest muscle fibers which are recognized to contribute to explosive actions.

  7. Autoinjectors Preferred for Intramuscular Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions

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    Ronna L. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. We surveyed emergency department (ED healthcare providers regarding two methods of intramuscular (IM epinephrine administration (autoinjector and manual injection for the management of anaphylaxis and allergic reactions and identified provider perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery. Methods: This observational study adhered to survey reporting guidelines. It was performed through a Web-based survey completed by healthcare providers at an academic ED. The primary outcomes were assessment of provider perceptions and identification of the preferred IM epinephrine administration method by ED healthcare providers. Results: Of 217 ED healthcare providers invited to participate, 172 (79% completed the survey. Overall, 82% of respondents preferred the autoinjector method of epinephrine administration. Providers rated the autoinjector method more favorably for time required for training, ease of use, convenience, satisfaction with weight-based dosing, risk of dosing errors, and speed of administration (p<0.001 for all comparisons. However, manual injection use was rated more favorably for risk of provider self-injury and patient cost (p<0.001 for both comparisons. Three participants (2% reported a finger stick injury from an epinephrine autoinjector. Conclusion: ED healthcare providers preferred the autoinjector method of IM epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis or allergic reactions. Epinephrine autoinjector use may reduce barriers to epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis in the ED.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after intravenous and intramuscular administration to ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, José Julio; Rodríguez, Casilda; Waxman, Samanta; González, Fernando; Uriarte, Isabel; San Andrés, Manuel Ignacio

    2005-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration, both at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, in six clinically healthy domestic ostriches. Plasma concentrations of marbofloxacin was determined by a HPLC/UV method. The high volume of distribution (3.22+/-0.98 L/kg) suggests good tissue penetration. Marbofloxacin presented a high clearance value (2.19+/-0.27 L/kgh), explaining the low AUC values (2.32+/-0.30 microgh/mL and 2.25+/-0.70 microgh/mL, after IV and IM administration, respectively) and a short half life and mean residence time (t(1/2 beta)=1.47+/-0.31 h and 1.96+/-0.35 h; MRT=1.46+/-0.02 h and 2.11+/-0.30 h, IV and IM, respectively). The absorption of marbofloxacin after IM administration was rapid and complete (C(max)=1.13+/-0.29 microg/mL; T(max)=0.36+/-0.071 h; MAT=0.66+/-0.22 h and F (%)=95.03+/-16.89).

  9. Intramuscular EMG from the hip flexor muscles during human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E A; Nilsson, J; Thorstensson, A

    1997-11-01

    The purpose was to investigate the activation pattern of five major hip flexor muscles and its adaptation to changing speed and mode of progression. A total of 11 healthy subjects performed walking and running on a motor-driven treadmill at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 6.0 m s-1. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were used to record myoelectric signals from the iliacus, psoas, sartorius, rectus femoris and tensor fascia latae muscles. The basic pattern, with respect to number of activation periods, remained the same irrespective of speed and mode of progression. However, differences in the relative duration and timing of onset of activation occurred between individual muscles. Over the speed range in walking, a progressively earlier onset was generally seen for the activation period related to hip flexion. Changes in EMG amplitude were measured in the iliacus and psoas muscles and showed a marked increase and difference between walking and running at speeds above 2.0 m s-1. Thus, the alternating flexion-extension movements at the hip during locomotion appear to be governed by a rather fixed 'neural program' which normally only needs minor modulations to accomplish the adjustments accompanying an increase in speed of progression as well as a change from walking to running.

  10. A Comparison of Intramuscular Anesthetic Techniques in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Hajighahramani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Administration of anesthetic substances to chickens requires careful consideration for the safe delivery of the agent to the bird. The research objective was to evaluate several drug combinations for intramuscular anesthesia in chickens for physiologic, nutritional, pharmacological and other investigations. Meterial & Methods: Sixty healthy chickens were randomly assigned in six treatment groups and received Ketamine in combination with Xylazine, Midazolam or Acepromazine. Heart and respiratory rate, induction time, duration of surgical anesthesia and light anesthesia were measured. Results: Induction of anesthesia was significantly longer following Acepromazine- Ketamine and Midazolam- Ketamine compared to other groups (P<0.05. Duration of surgical anesthesia was longest with Xylazine- Midazolam- Ketamine and shortest with Midazolam-Ketamine and Acepromazine- Ketamine (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, the most effective drug combinations resulting in longer duration of surgical anesthesia, were Xylazine- Acepromazine- Ketamine and Xylazine- Midazolam- Ketamine. Other combinations did not produce appropriate surgical anesthesia, but they make slight changes in physiological data.

  11. Development and assessment of learning objects about intramuscular medication administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Mayumi Chinen Tamashiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to develop and assess a learning object about intramuscular medication administration for nursing undergraduates and nurses.METHOD: a random, intentional and non-probabilistic sample was selected of nurses from a Brazilian social network of nursing and students from the Undergraduate Program at the University of São Paulo School of Nursing to serve as research subjects and assess the object.RESULTS: the participants, 8 nurses and 8 students, studied the object and answered an assessment instrument that included the following criteria: educational aspects (relevance of the theme, objectives and texts/hypertexts, interface of the environment (navigation, accessibility and screen design and didactic resources (interactivity and presentation of resources. In total, 128 significant answers were obtained, 124 (97% of which were positive, assessed as excellent and satisfactory, considered as a flexible, dynamic, objective resources that is appropriate to the nursing learning process.CONCLUSION: the educational technology shows a clear and easily understandable language and the teaching method could be applied in other themes, contributing to the education and training of nursing professionals, positively affecting nursing teaching, stimulating the knowledge, autonomous and independent learning, aligned with the new professional education requirements.

  12. BIOAVAILABILITY AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF NORFLOXACIN AFTER INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAJEEHA, F. H. KHAN AND I. JAVED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two commercially available preparations of norfloxacin i.e. A (imported and B (locally prepared were determined in six healthy female goats after single intramuscular administration @ 5 mg/kg b.wt following crossover study design. The blood samples collected at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours postmedication were also analysed for drug concentration by microbiological assay. Results revealed that preparation A showed higher (p<0.05 plasma drug levels than the preparation B at 1, 3, 6 and 8 hours after medication. Among bioavailability parameters AUC (g.h/ml and relative bioavailability (F% were higher for preparation A than the preparation B, while other parameters did not differ between the two preparations. Similarly, various pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any statistical difference between preparation A and B. The study revealed comparable elimination kinetics but different bioavailability of two commercial preparations of norfloxacin. It is concluded from the study that for optimal dosage regimen of drugs, the bioequivalence studies and kinetic behavior of the drugs are of paramount importance.

  13. Intramuscular Olanzapine – a UK case series of early cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials assessing efficacy and safety of Intramuscular (IM Olanzapine in acute schizophrenia and acute mania have previously been undertaken in studies required for drug registration in patients who were required to give informed consent. These patients may have less severe forms of psychosis than patients treated in routine practice. Data derived from naturalistic practice following the launch of IM olanzapine may be helpful for clinicians in assessing efficacy and safety of IM olanzapine. The PANSS-EC scale used in the clinical studies may represent a tool that could be used in routine clinical practice. Case presentation We report on an early unselected case series of 7 patients who received IM olanzapine in routine clinical practice settings in the UK. In this case series, olanzapine IM was generally effective, and no adverse events were reported. Adjunctive benzodiazepines were given concomitantly in 1 of the 7 subjects. This is relevant as concomitant benzodiazepines are not recommended for a minimum of 1 hour post IM olanzapine administration. PANSS-EC data was collected in 2 of the 7 subjects. Conclusion Although patients had greater severity of psychosis than clinical trial patients there were no unexpected findings. In addition the PANSS-EC scale is a scale that may be useful in assessing the efficacy of IM antipsychotics in routine clinical practice.

  14. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (pIra rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  15. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  16. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  17. Solitary Giant Intramuscular Myxoid Neurofibroma Resulting in an above Elbow Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururajaparasad Chennakeshaviah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromas are uncommon benign tumours and are still rarer in intramuscular locations. They are not detected until they cause a significant damage to the neighbouring tissues. We present a case of a giant intramuscular myxoid neurofibroma of the left forearm which eroded the radius and ulna, restricting the movements at the elbow and wrist joints and causing wrist drop resulting in an above elbow amputation. It was diagnosed by histopathology and was later confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  18. Solitary Giant Intramuscular Myxoid Neurofibroma Resulting in an above Elbow Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennakeshaviah, Gururajaparasad; Ravishankar, Sunila; Maggad, Rangaswamy; Manjunath, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromas are uncommon benign tumours and are still rarer in intramuscular locations. They are not detected until they cause a significant damage to the neighbouring tissues. We present a case of a giant intramuscular myxoid neurofibroma of the left forearm which eroded the radius and ulna, restricting the movements at the elbow and wrist joints and causing wrist drop resulting in an above elbow amputation. It was diagnosed by histopathology and was later confirmed by immunohistochemistry. PMID:23198230

  19. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differ...

  20. Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Patil; Vivek Rayadurg

    2016-01-01

    We read with interest the article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic and rdquo; by Mohan H et al published in November - December 2015, volume 4 issue 6 of International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology.1 As we read it, we realized that the article is quite similar to another article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analge...

  1. Semiquantification of fibrillation potentials with intramuscular temperature drop using an animal model.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. J.; Kwon, H. K.

    1997-01-01

    It has been reported that the quantity of fibrillation potentials (FP) decreases with drop in the intramuscular temperature. However, the quantitative measurement of the FP with intramuscular temperature changes has not been reported. Under anesthesia of intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital, the sciatic nerve of 6 rats (Sprague-Dawley) was surgically isolated. A 1-cm segment was excised after tying the proximal and distal ends of the nerve segment. A concentric needle electrode and thermomete...

  2. Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in the victims of house fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Moriya, Fumio; Nakanishi, Akinori

    2003-03-01

    Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue is frequently observed in autopsy cases of house fire victims. The meaning of this finding has not yet been fully discussed. We examined 69 autopsy cases of house fire victims and investigated several factors contributing to intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Victims comprised 45 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 1 to 95 years old. Sixty-four cases (93%) involved severely charred bodies, while the remaining five bodies displayed slight burns. Factors studied were age, sex, posture of the body at the scene of the fire, degree of burn injury and carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels in blood. CO-Hb level proved to be the only factor relevant to intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Of 69 autopsy cases, 23 (33%) demonstrated intramuscular bleeding of the tongue (13 cases of slight bleeding, ten cases of severe bleeding). Low concentrations of CO-Hb (fire victims. The burned regions of the body in the early stage of the fire process were unclear due to severe charring in most victims. However, asphyxiation due to neck compression is known to often induce intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Lack of skin elasticity following burns, particularly in the neck, might act in a similar manner to asphyxial neck compression. In conclusion, intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in fire victims may occur as a vital reaction to burns.

  3. Mitochondrial-Targeted Catalase Protects Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance by Decreasing Intramuscular Lipid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Alves, Tiago; Ladiges, Warren; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Jurczak, Michael J; Choi, Cheol Soo; Shulman, Gerald I; Samuel, Varman T

    2017-08-01

    We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. We assessed insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) or underwent an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC-fed MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD-fed MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice. ROS production was decreased in both HFD-fed and lipid-infused MCAT mice and cannot explain the divergent response in insulin action. MCAT mice had subtly increased energy expenditure and muscle fat oxidation with decreased intramuscular diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation, protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) activation, and impaired insulin signaling with HFD. In contrast, the insulin resistance with the acute lipid infusion was associated with increased muscle DAG content in both WT and MCAT mice. These studies suggest that altering muscle mitochondrial ROS production does not directly alter the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. However, the altered energy balance in HFD-fed MCAT mice protected them from DAG accumulation, PKCθ activation, and impaired muscle insulin signaling. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome after the intake of fatty acids n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Mondragón, M.G; Oliart Ros, R. M. ; Angulo Guerrero, J. O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: The metabolic syndrome (MS increa -ses the odds of dying for cardiovascular disease, theworld’s leading cause of death. It has been shown thatpolyunsaturated fatty acids have a protective role in cardiovascular disease and its comorbidities.Objective: To assess the effect of three kinds ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids on the chronic inflammation in MS.Methods: The study group was 45 adults with MSdiagnose according to IDF criteria. Each group of treatment was assigned cuasi-randomly to 15 subjects during six weeks: a 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08 g eicosapentoaenoicacid EPA + 0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid DHA, b 2.0g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11,trans10:cis12, c 40 g/d walnut Juglans regia. The results at the beginning and the end of the essay werecompared in each group, using the t-Student test and p <0.01 as statistical signification value.Results:In the patients supplemented with n-3 fattyacids, significantly decreased the level of IL-6 (from9.81 ±1.28 to 8.47 ±0.81 pg/ml, p=0.002, leptin(from 25.94 ±5.06 ng/ml to 20.53 ±3.96 ng/ml,p=0.003 and homocysteine (from 18.80 ±1.95 to16.72 ±1.99 µmol/l, p=0.007, in erythrocytes decreased the percentage α-linolenic content (from 1.90±0.77 to 1.26 ±0.17 %, p=0.004 and the n6/n3 rate(from 4.48 ±1.06 to 3.11 a ±0.60, p=0.000, while increased the percentage of EPA (from 1.13 ±0.45 to1.58 ±0.42 %, p=0.009 and DHA (from 2.61 ±0.36 to4.64 ±0.91 %, p=0.000. In the group that consumedwalnut declined the levels of TNF-α (from 8.75 ±2.06pg/ml to 6.68 ±0.97 pg/ml, p=0.002 and IL-6 (from10.61 ±1.45 to 8.72 ±0.79 pg/ml, p=0.000, in erythrocytes increased the α-linolenic content (from 1.86±0.65 to 2.62 ±0.72 %, p=0.005. In the group thatconsumed CLA decreased the level of homocysteine(from 18.01 ±2.65 to 15.34 ±2.26 µmol/l, p=0.006.Conclusions: The groups that consumed n-3 fattyacids in supplements (EPA/DHA and in walnut, becameevident the modification in

  5. ANTISEPSIS THROUGH INTRAVENOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR VIA FOR MEDICINE ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Ribeiro Cardoso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The skin shelters vast micro biota, which could penetrate more internal, layers during the medicine application through parenteral via, therefore the importance of antisepsis for this procedure. We aimed to identify the application of antisepsis through intravenous (IV and intramuscular (IM via for medicine administration as measures for the infection prevention. Descriptive study, accomplished with a nursing team, in eight units from an educational hospital in Goiânia’s district. The data was obtained through observation and filling out the check-list. We observed 212 professionals. As far as the administration via, 19,8% of the procedures were accomplished through direct IV via, 72,6% through IV via with an already installed system and 7,6% through IM via. Most of the professionals, 79,2%, did not wash their hands before accomplishing the procedure. From the 154 medications done in the venous system already installed, the disinfection of the rubber injector was not accomplished in 47 (30,5%. As far as the antisepsis, 72,4% of the medications were accomplished through IV via and 27,6% through IM via, but spite the use of the antiseptic in all the situations, only in 40,5% of the IV injections and in 37,5% of the IM were done five or more movements in the same way with soaked cotton with alcohol at 70%, which is the extolled procedure for the accomplishment for the skin antisepsis. After the antisepsis, 25 professionals touched the place, contaminating it, of these just 13 (52,0% made new antisepsis, therefore, there was recontamination in 12 situations. The data reveals that: necessary measures for the infection prevention in the medicine through parenteral via are not always adopted, representing a challenge for the permanent education and for the infection control at the hospital in study. KEYWORDS: Local Anti-infective Agents; Hospital Infection; Primary Nursing Care.

  6. Intramuscular neridronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide; Bertoldo, Francesco; Sartori, Leonardo; Di Munno, Ombretta; Filipponi, Paolo; Marcocci, Claudio; Frediani, Bruno; Palummeri, Ernesto; Fiore, Carmelo Erio; Costi, Daniele; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-11-01

    Compliance to osteoporosis treatment with oral bisphosphonates is very poor. Intermittent intravenous bisphosphonate is a useful alternative, but this route is not readily available. Neridronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that can be given intramuscularly (IM), was tested in a phase 2 clinical trial in 188 postmenopausal osteoporotic women randomized to IM treatment with 25 mg neridronate every 2 weeks, neridronate 12.5 or 25 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo. All patients received calcium and vitamin D supplements. The patients were treated over 12 months with 2-year posttreatment follow-up. After 12-month treatment, all three doses were associated with significant bone mineral density (BMD) increases at both the total hip and spine. A significant dose-response relationship over the three doses was observed for the BMD changes at the total hip but not at the spine. Bone alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly by 40-55% in neridronate-treated patients, with an insignificant dose-response relationship. Serum type I collagen C-telopeptide decreased by 58-79%, with a significant dose-response relationship (P < 0.05). Two years after treatment discontinuation, BMD declined by 1-2% in each dose group, with values still significantly higher than baseline at both the spine and the total hip. Bone turnover markers progressively increased after treatment discontinuation, and on the second year of follow-up the values were significantly higher than pretreatment baseline. The results of this study indicate that IM neridronate might be of value for patients intolerant to oral bisphosphonates and unwilling or unable to undergo intravenous infusion of bisphosphonates.

  7. Intramuscular architecture of the autochthonous back muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Heiko; Fröber, Rosemarie; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-02-01

    Many training concepts take muscle properties such as contraction speed or muscle topography into account to achieve an optimal training outcome. Thus far, the internal architecture of muscles has largely been neglected, although it is well known that parameters such as pennation angles or the lengths of fascicles but also the proportions of fleshy and tendinous fascicle parts have a major impact on the contraction behaviour of a muscle. Here, we present the most detailed description of the intramuscular fascicle architecture of the human perivertebral muscles available so far. For this, one adult male cadaver was studied. Our general approach was to digitize the geometry of each fascicle of the muscles of back proper (Erector spinae) - the Spinalis thoracis, Iliocostalis lumborum, Longissimus thoracis and the Multifidus thoracis et lumborum - and of the deep muscles of the abdomen - Psoas minor, Psoas major and Quadratus lumborum - during a layerwise dissection. Architectural parameters such as fascicle angles to the sagittal and the frontal planes as well as fascicle lengths were determined for each fascicle, and are discussed regarding their consequences for the function of the muscle. For example, compared with the other dorsovertebral muscles, the Longissimus thoracis can produce greater shortening distances because of its relatively long fleshy portions, and it can store more elastic energy due to both its relatively long fleshy and tendinous fascicle portions. The Quadratus lumborum was outstanding because of its many architectural subunits defined by distinct attachment sites and fascicle lengths. The presented database will improve biomechanical models of the human trunk by allowing the incorporation of anisotropic muscle properties such as the fascicle direction into finite element models. This information will help to increase our understanding of the functionality of the human back musculature, and may thereby improve future training concepts.

  8. In vitro diagnostic evaluation of patients with inhalant allergies: summary of probability outcomes comparing results of CLA- and CAP-specific immunoglobulin E test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Backer, Vibeke; DuBuske, Lawrence M; Nolte, Hendrik

    2003-01-01

    For the diagnosis of allergy, presence of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) usually is established either by allergen skin tests or by in vitro allergen-specific IgE measurements. However, in vitro assays of specific IgE often are modified as manufacturers improve allergens or change reagents to optimize test performance, affecting the diagnostic performance of in vitro allergen-specific IgE assays. This investigation compares the diagnostic outcomes of the Hitachi Chemical Diagnostics chemiluminescent assay (CLA) and Pharmacia, capsulated hydrophilic carrier polymer (CAP) in vitro allergen-specific IgE test methods in patients with inhalant allergy to a panel of selected allergens. Sera were obtained from 60 consecutive patients who had a clinical history suggesting inhalant allergy and were evaluated by allergen skin-prick test (SPT). Only patients with clinical findings of allergic asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis were included. Sera from patients with at least one positive SPT, which clinically correlated with the case history, were used for specific IgE measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were defined as conditional probabilities describing performances of the CAP system and the CLA system in reference to a standard composed of a combination of allergen-specific symptoms and a positive SPT. A test concordance of 79% was found between the CLA and CAP test results with a correlation coefficient of 0.8. Allergen-specific IgE assay sensitivity of the CLA and CAP systems was similar and allergen dependent, ranging from 67 to 100%. Assay specificity ranged from 39 to 86% for the CLA system and from 36 to 81% for the CAP system. When comparing the specific IgE results with allergen SPTs, 75% (+/- 3%) of CLApositive patients had a positive SPT, and 92% (+/- 4%) of CAPpositive patients had a positive SPT. Eighty-four percent (+/- 4%) of CLAnegative patients had a negative SPT, whereas 69% (+/- 5%) of CAPnegative patients had a negative SPT. The overall

  9. The cis-9,trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) lowers plasma triglyceride and raises HDL cholesterol concentrations but does not suppress aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic apoE-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul; Fujii, Akihiko; Allen, Terri

    2006-12-01

    Reduction in atherosclerosis has been reported in experimental animals fed mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). In this study, the major naturally occurring CLA isomer (cis-9,trans-11) was tested in an atherosclerosis-prone mouse model. In a model of insulin deficient apoE deficient mice, 16 animals were fed for 20 weeks with supplemental CLA (09.%, w/w) and compared with a similar number of mice of this phenotype. A control comparison was made of metabolic changes in non-diabetic apoE deficient mice that develop little atherosclerosis over 20 weeks. At 20 weeks, plasma lipids were measured and aortic atherosclerosis quantified by Sudan staining in the arch, thoracic and abdominal segments. The diabetic apoE deficient mice developed marked dyslipidemia, primarily as cholesterol-enriched chylomicron and VLDL-sized lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in the aortic arch. However, there were no significant differences between CLA fed and non-CLA fed mice in either phenotype in plasma cholesterol concentration (in diabetic: 29.4+/-7.7 and 29.5+/-5.9 mmol/L, respectively) or in the area of aortic arch atherosclerosis (in diabetic: 24.8+/-10.3 and 27.6+/-7.7%, respectively). However, among diabetic mice the triglyceride concentration in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was significantly lower in those fed CLA (for plasma 2.2+/-0.8 to 1.1+/-0.3 mmol/L; Pdiabetic mice in which HDL cholesterol increased significantly with CLA (0.35+/-0.12-0.56+/-0.15 mmol/L). In this atherosclerosis-prone model, the diabetic apoE deficient mouse, supplemental 0.9% CLA (cis-9,trans-11) failed to reduce the severity of aortic atherosclerosis, although plasma triglyceride concentration was substantially lowered and HDL cholesterol raised.

  10. Modulation of Oxidative Stress by Gamma-Glutamylcysteine (GGC) and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomer Mixture in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    treatment and pooled. Then, cells were suspended and lysed with a hypotonic buffer and 10% (w/v) Nonidet P - 40 . After spinning, the cell pellet was re...imately 40 % cell death was microscopically observed in cells incubated with GGC and 100 lmol/L CLA. Despite lower levels of GSH, treatment with GGC... p < 0.05 were considered to be sta- tistically significant. All results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. 3. Results 3.1. Cell viability

  11. Effect of feeding sows on rations enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and the growth capacity and survival of their piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hadaš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the effect of supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA given to pregnant and lactating sows on the phenotypic manifestation of their reproductive performance and on the birth and weaning weight of piglets was performed under conditions of a commercial herd of pigs. The experiment involved altogether 40 hybrid sows divided into two equal groups, i.e. Controls with 20 sows and Experimental Group with also 20 sows. Experimental Group received within the time interval from the 108th day of pregnancy to the 28th day after the parturition a supplement of 2 % of CLA. In individual litters the following performance parameters were recorded: number of all newborn piglets, number of piglets born alive, number of stillbirths, number of weaned piglets and individual weights of newborn piglets and weaned piglets. Obtained results concerning numbers of all newborn piglets in Controls and Experimental Group (i.e. 12.20 ± 2.09 and 11.85 ±2.58, respectively indicate that supplementing of the feeding ration with CLA in the last stage of pregnancy does not influence the size of litter. In Controls, numbers of piglets born alive were higher by 0.4 animals per litter; this difference, however, was statistically insignificant. Also the weights of newborn and weaned piglets were not influenced by the supplement of CLA. Statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 were found out between Controls and Experimental Group in numbers of weaned piglets, viz. 9.75 ± 1.68 vs. 8.35 ± 1.39, respectively, and between corresponding losses until weaning, viz. 0.95± 1.39 vs. 2.60 ± 1.93 in Controls and Experimental Group, respectively (P ≤ 0.01.

  12. Free fatty acid and triacylglycerol forms of CLA isomers are not incorporated equally in the liver but do not lead to differences in bone density and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, Jason R; Weiler, Hope A

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have compared differences between conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in triacylglycerol (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) form. This study assessed differences in liver incorporation, mineral mass balance, bone density, and biomarkers of bone metabolism between FFA and TG CLA diets. Rats (n=36) were fed a control (CTRL) or 1% CLA diet in FFA or TG form (1:1 mixture c9, t11: t10, c12). Liver content of c9, t11 CLA from FFA was greater than TG form and CTRL (FFA: 0.05±0.01 vs. TG: 0.02±0.01 vs. CTRL: 0.001±0.001% total fatty acids, PCLA did not differ among groups (P=0.11). No diet differences among groups for growth, bone biomarkers or mass nor mineral balance were found. These findings suggest that c9, t11 CLA in FFA form is preferentially incorporated in the liver but fatty acid forms of CLA do not affect bone or mineral outcomes.

  13. T-cell population of primary and secondary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas does not express the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, R M; Hausmann, G; Estrach, T; Cid, M C; Palou, J; Herrero, C; Mascaro, J M

    1997-05-01

    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL) are a group of malignant lymphomas with apparently distinct clinicopathological and immunophenotypical features. As in other B-cell lymphomas, the accompanying benign cell population in CBCL includes a variable number of T lymphocytes whose role is not well understood. In the present study we characterized the immunophenotype of these T cells and compared it with that of the reactive T-cell population in specific skin involvement by noncutaneous B-cell malignancies. Our results indicated that most T cells in both primary and secondary B-cell lymphomas were CLA+ memory/effector helper T cells which differed from the currently known CLA+ memory/effector helper T lymphocytes of the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) system. However, the endothelial CLA ligand, E-selectin, was expressed on dermal vessels. These results suggest that a B cell environment and/or a lack of epidermal involvement promote(s) the recruitment into the skin of a different, apparently less specific, subset of memory helper T cells from those seen in T-cell-mediated dermatoses.

  14. 植物乳杆菌转化生成CLA的研究%Study on CLA production by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴秋儿; 张中义; 刘萍; 苗士达; 孙君社

    2005-01-01

    从酸菜汁中分离出的一株植物乳杆菌Lactobacillus plantarum LT2-6能将亚油酸转化成共轭亚油酸.该菌株在MRS培养基中经0.03%(w/v)的亚油酸诱导培养后,所获得的洗涤细胞具有很强的转化能力.在厌氧环境下利用L. plantarum LT2-6的洗涤细胞进行转化生成CLA的反应.结果表明,适宜反应条件为:温度30℃、pH7.0(0.1mol/L的磷酸盐缓冲系统)、细胞浓度20%(w/v)、游离亚油酸浓度1.5%(w/v)、反应时间64h,获得CLA最高产量为7.87mg/mL,产物为c9、t11/t9、c11-CLA.

  15. Efficacy and safety of transdermal diclofenac patch versus intramuscular diclofenac injections in postoperative patients of inguinal hernia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pranjit Narzaree; Mahavir S. Griwan; Janardhan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of diclofenac transdermal patch with intramuscular diclofenac injections in postoperative patients of inguinal hernia. Methods...

  16. Early Therapeutic Intervention for Crush Syndrome: Characterization of Intramuscular Administration of Dexamethasone by Pharmacokinetic and Biochemical Parameters in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murata, Isamu; Goto, Mai; Komiya, Masahiro; Motohashi, Risa; Hirata, Momoko; Inoue, Yutaka; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    .... We demonstrated the utility of intramuscular administration of dexamethasone (DEX) in disaster medical care by using a model of CS to characterize the pharmacokinetics and biochemical parameters...

  17. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit.

  18. Midazolam premedication in children: a pilot study comparing intramuscular and intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation.

  19. Application of hyperspectral imaging for characterization of intramuscular fat distribution in beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a hyperspectral imaging system in the spectral region of 400-1000 nm was used for visualization and determination of intramuscular fat concentration in beef samples. Hyperspectral images were acquired for beef samples, and spectral information was then extracted from each single sample from the fat and non-fat regions. The intramuscular fat content was chemically extracted and quantified for the same samples. Chemometrics including analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spectral similarity measures involving spectral angle measure (SAM), and Euclidian distance measure (EDM) were then used to analyze the data. An ANOVA analysis indicates that the two selected spectral variables (e.g., 650.4-736.4 nm) are effective to generate ratio image for visualization of the intramuscular fat distribution in beef. The spectral similarity analysis methods, which is based on the quantifying the spectral similarities by using predetermined endmember spectrum vector, provided comparable results for characterization and detection of intramuscular fat in beef. In term of overall classification accuracy, spectral similarity measure methods outperformed the ratio image of selected bands based on the result of ANOVA analysis. The results demonstrate that proposed technique has a potential for fast and nondestructive determination of intramuscular fat in beef.

  20. Midazolam Premedication in Children: A Pilot Study Comparing Intramuscular and Intranasal Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation. PMID:16048152

  1. FDG PET/CT and MR imaging of intramuscular myxoma in the gluteus maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor which may be mistaken for other benign and low-grade malignant myxoid neoplasms. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with an asymptomatic intramuscular myxoma discovered incidentally on a whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography. PET images showed a mild FDG uptake (maximum standardized uptake value, 1.78 in the left gluteus maximus. Subsequent magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed a well-defined ovoid mass with homogenous low signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences and markedly high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. Contrast-enhanced MR images showed heterogeneous enhancement throughout the mass. The diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma was confirmed on histopathology after surgical excision of the tumor. The patient had no local recurrence at one year follow-up. Our case suggests that intramuscular myxoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oval-shaped intramuscular soft tissue mass with a mild FDG uptake.

  2. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab

    2016-02-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance.

  3. 日粮添加油葵籽和亚麻籽对奶牛乳脂CLA和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of the Sunflower Seed and the Flaxseed on Milk CLA and Composition of Milk Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉斌; 王强; 吴建平

    2013-01-01

    本文主要研究了奶牛日粮添加植物油籽引起原料乳脂肪酸组成情况及CLA含量变化的影响,初步探讨改善牛奶脂肪酸构成、提高乳脂中CLA含量的途径.选取45头泌乳期荷斯坦牛,分为3组,以不添加油籽为对照组,以添加油葵籽和亚麻籽作为两个试验处理组,采用完全随机试验设计,测定乳脂中脂肪酸含量.结果显示,日粮中添加油葵籽和亚麻籽实能显著提高乳脂中CLA、EPA、DHA和PUFA的含量(P<0.05),降低月桂酸(C12:0)、棕榈酸(C16:0)、硬酯酸(C18:0)等饱和脂肪酸水平,多不饱和与饱和脂肪酸(PUFA/SFA)之比显著高于对照组(P<0.05),分别提高92.32%和36.37%.乳脂中CLA(c9t11t,10t12c)比例油葵籽和亚麻籽两个处理组依次比对照组提高了161.01% (P<0.05)和53.18% (P<0.05);油葵籽组的EPA、DHA含量分别较对照组提高80.91%和196.20%,亚麻籽组的EPA、DHA含量分别较对照组提高143.32%和255.84%.日粮中添加植物油料籽实,优化了乳脂肪酸的构成,油葵籽对乳脂中CLA的提高效果比亚麻籽更好.%Forty-five Chinese Holstein lactating cows were used to study the effects of adding the sunflower seed and the flaxseed of oil plants on CLA content and composition of bovine milk fatty acids. Experimental design used a randomly design ( control group, sunflower seed group, and flaxseed group) . The results showed that, feeding oil seeds riched in linoleic or linolenic acids would alter the bovine milk fatty acids ratio, increased the content of CLA, EPA, DHA and PUFA significantly(P<0.05), and decreased concentration of C12:0, C16:Oand C18:0. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid(PUFA/SFA) was increased by 92.32% in oil sunflower seed group, and 36.37% in flaxseed group respectively, significantly higher than that in control group(P<0.05). Compared with the control group, CLA content in oil sunflower seed group was significantly increased by

  4. Triacilglicerol intramuscular: um importante substrato energético para o exercício de endurance Triacilglicerol intramuscular: un importante substrato energético para el ejercicio de endurance Intramuscular triacylglycerol: an important energetic substrate for endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Aparecida Belmonte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos são uma importante fonte de energia para exercício de endurance. Os ácidos graxos plasmáticos encontram-se disponíveis para as fibras musculares sob a forma de ácidos graxos associados à albumina ou agregados à molécula de triacilglicerol (TAG encontrada nas lipoproteínas. Entretanto, além dessas fontes plasmáticas, a hidrólise do TAG encontrado no músculo também pode contribuir com a oferta de ácidos graxos durante o exercício de endurance. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma extensa revisão da literatura sobre a importância do TAG intramuscular como substrato energético. A revisão da literatura sugere que a contribuição dos estoques endógenos de TAG durante a realização do exercício de endurance é bastante relevante. Além disso, pode-se concluir que uma adaptação induzida pelo treinamento de endurance é o aumento dos estoques intramusculares de TAG. Após o treinamento de endurance, também é observado aumento na capacidade de utilização desses estoques. Apesar de parecer importante, a contribuição do TAG intramuscular ainda é motivo de controvérsia na literatura. Essa discrepância de resultados está relacionada às metodologias empregadas para estimar a sua oxidação no exercício. A fim de esgotar este assunto de maneira apropriada, mais pesquisas, com novos métodos (ex.: utilização de isótopos, ressonância magnética nuclear e microscopia eletrônica, precisam ser conduzidas.Los ácidos grasos son una fuente importante de energía para el ejercicio de endurance. Los ácidos grasos plasmáticos se encuentran disponibles en las fibras musculares bajo la forma de ácido graso asociado a la albúmina o agregados a la molécula del triacilglicerol (TAG encontrados en las lipoproteínas. Sin embargo, además de estos fuentes plasmáticas, la hidrólisis de los TAG encontrados en el músculo pueden contribuir también con la oferta de ácidos grasos durante el ejercicio

  5. Pain and intramuscular release of algesic substances in the masseter muscle after experimental tooth-clenching exercises in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas; Ghafouri, Bijar; Gerdle, Björn; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Ernberg, Malin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether experimental tooth clenching leads to a release of algesic substances in the masseter muscle. Thirty healthy subjects (16 females, 14 males) participated. During two sessions, separated by at least 1 week, intramuscular microdialysis was performed to collect masseter muscle 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and glutamate as well as the metabolic markers pyruvate and lactate. Two hours after the start of microdialysis, participants were randomized to a 20-min repetitive experimental tooth-clenching task (50% of maximal voluntary contraction) or a control session (no clenching). Pain and fatigue were measured throughout. The Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analyses. No alterations were observed in the concentrations of 5-HT, glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate over time in the clenching or control session, or between sessions at various time points. Pain (P pain and fatigue developed with this experimental tooth-clenching model, but they were not associated with an altered release of 5-HT, glutamate, lactate, or pyruvate. More research is required to elucidate the peripheral release of algesic substances in response to tooth clenching.

  6. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  7. Intramuscular Injection Abscess Due to VRSA: A New Health Care Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Sambandam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abscess formation following intramuscular injections is rare and they are most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. In this case series we present a cohort of three patients presented to us in a critically ill condition with an abscess due to intramuscular injection. Vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus was isolated from all three patients. These patients posed a major challenge to the healthcare system and the treating physician because of the: severity of illness, virulence and resistance of the organism, rarity of the situation, immune state of the patient, and lack of supporting evidence to properly guide management in the use of health resources. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report available in the English literature on vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus associated with intramuscular injection abscess.

  8. Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2015-02-26

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure.

  9. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Dena dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada, em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12 e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos. Como dieta utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada, com 29% PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg de ração. Ao final do experimento, todos os peixes foram utilizados para avaliação do desempenho, da composição química e do perfil de ácidos graxos no fígado e nos filés. A taxa de eficiência protéica, o rendimento de carcaça, o índice hepatossomático e a gordura visceral não diferiram com a adição de CLA a dieta. A adição de CLA a dieta promoveu melhora no ganho de peso, aumento no consumo e melhora na conversão alimentar. Os peixes alimentados com dietas com adição de CLA apresentaram aumento na composição de ácidos graxos saturados e redução dos ácidos graxos n-6 nos filés. Houve também aumento na composição de ácidos graxos n-3 e de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados totais no fígado. Houve aumento da proteína nos filés de tilápias alimentadas com dietas enriquecidas com CLA. O uso do CLA melhora variáveis de desempenho produtivo, afeta o metabolismo e a proporção dos ácidos graxos nos filés e fígados e aumenta proteína nos filés em tilápia-do-nilo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of CLA in the diet on Nile tilapia productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition. Eighty reversed fish with 109 ± 10 g were used, distributed in eight tanks (0.8 m³ each in density of ten fishes/tank, during 90 days. It was evaluated the inclusion in the diets of 2% of CLA (Luta

  10. MicroRNAome comparison between intramuscular and subcutaneous vascular stem cell adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxue Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an important factor affecting meat quality, intramuscular fat (IMF content is a topic of worldwide concern. Emerging evidences indicate that microRNAs play important roles in adipocyte differentiation. However, miRNAome has neither been studied during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation, nor compared with subcutaneous preadipocytes. The objectives of this study were to identify porcine miRNAs involved in adipogenesis in primary preadipocytes, and to determine whether intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes differ in the expression and regulation of miRNAs. RESULTS: miRNAomes in primary intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes during differentiation were first sequenced using the Solexa deep sequencing method. The sequences and relative expression levels of 224 known (98.2% in miRbase 18.0 and 280 potential porcine miRNAs were identified. Fifty-four of them changed in similar pattern between intramuscular vascular stem cells (IVSC and subcutaneous vascular stem cells (SVSC differentiation, such as miR-210, miR-10b and miR-99a. Expression levels of 10 miRNAs were reversely up-or down-regulated between IVSC and SVSC differentiation, 19 were up-or down-regulated only during IVSC differentiation and 55 only during SVSC differentiation. Additionally, 30 miRNAs showed fat-depot specific expression pattern (24 in cells of intramuscular origin and 6 in cells of subcutaneous origin. These adipogenesis-related miRNAs mainly functioned by targeting similar pathways in adipogenesis, obesity and syndrome. CONCLUSION: Comparison of miRNAomes in IVSC and SVSC during differentiation revealed that many different miRNAs are involved in adipogenesis, and they regulate SVSC and IVSC differentiation through similar pathways. These miRNAs may serve as biomarkers or targets for enhancing IMF content, and uncovering their function in IMF development will be of great value in the near future.

  11. Effect of Doll Injection Display on Pain Intensity due to Intramuscular Injection in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Irani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pains caused by the invasive actions such as intramuscular injection lead to the physical and mental tensions in the children. Therefore, such pains should be given relief. One of the main priorities in the nursing is to notice methods that reduce pains due to the invasive actions in the children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of injection displayed on a doll on the pain intensity due to the intramuscular injection in the preschool children. Materials & Methods: In the randomized controlled clinical trial, 62 kids aged between 4 and 6 years with pharyngitis were studied in the clinic of the health network of Khalil-abad Township in 2015. The intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 was administrated for the kids. The subjects, selected by simple lottery, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=31 per group. Data was collected using a demographic characteristic collecting form and Oucher standard pain assessment tool. In experimental group, the kid watching, one intramuscular injection was displayed on a doll by a nurse; then, the kid underwent an intramuscular injection. In control group, the routine injection method was done. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Mann-Whitney, independent T, and Chi-square tests. Findings: Mean pain intensity after injection in experimental group (3.22±0.90 was significantly lower than control group (4.19±0.83; p<0.001. Conclusion: The injection displayed on a doll before the intramuscular injection might lead to pain reduction in the preschool kids.

  12. Coordinated gene expression between skeletal muscle and intramuscular adipose tissue in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S L; Lancaster, P A; DeSilva, U; Horn, G W; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-09-01

    Previous research indicates that metabolism and fiber type of skeletal muscle is related to intramuscular lipid content. It is hypothesized that changes in skeletal muscle gene expression influence adipose tissue development. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the metabolism and intercellular signaling of skeletal muscle fibers within the same muscle group that could be responsible for the initiation of intramuscular adipose tissue development and differentiation. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected from steers ( = 12; 385 d of age; 378 kg BW) grazing wheat pasture. Longissimus muscle samples were dissected under magnification and sorted into 3 categories based on visual stage of adipose tissue development: immature intramuscular adipose tissue (MM), intermediate intramuscular adipose tissue (ME), and mature intramuscular adipose tissue (MA). Additionally, muscle fibers lying adjacent to each intramuscular adipose tissue (IM) category and those not associated with IM tissue were collected and stored separately. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine relative fold change in genes involved in metabolism, angiogenesis, formation of extracellular matrix, and intercellular signaling pathways in both LM and IM samples. Gene expression data were analyzed using a GLM that included the fixed effect of tissue. Pearson correlation coefficients were also computed between gene expression in LM and IM tissue samples that were at the same stage of development. and γ mRNA expression were 3.56- and 1.97-fold greater ( development categories. Genes associated with metabolism and angiogenesis in LM tissue showed no differences among stages of development. Myostatin expression did not change in LM tissue; however, expression of and mRNA decreased ( tissue had a strong positive correlation ( ≥ 0.69) with angiogenic growth factors in LM associated with MM IM; however, no correlation was observed in ME or MA IM. These data indicate a

  13. Fibrous Myopathy as a Complication of Repeated Intramuscular Injections for Chronic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Burnham

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of fibrous myopathy associated with repeated, long-term intramuscular injections for treatment of chronic temporomandibular joint pain and chronic headache, respectively, are described. Both patients developed severe, function-limiting contractures in upper and lower extremity muscles used as injection sites. In one of the cases, the contractures were painful. Electrophysiological testing, magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy results were all consistent with myopathy and replacement of skeletal muscle with noncontractile fibrous tissue. These cases are presented to increase awareness of fibrous myopathy and to promote surveillance for this serious potential complication of long-term intramuscular injections in chronic headache and other pain patients.

  14. Effect of genotype on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 Celta breed pigs were used to investigate the effect of genotype (Barcina, Carballiña and Santiaguesa lines on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular (IMF and subcutaneous fat (SF. The total IMF content was influenced by genotype (P Un total de 45 cerdos de raza Celta fueron usados para estudiar el efecto del genotipo (líneas Barcina, Carballiña y Santiaguesa sobre la composición de ácidos grasos de la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. El contenido en grasa intramuscular estuvo influenciado por el genotipo (P < 0.05; la Barcina presentó los mayores valores (5.21% vs 1.99 y 3.59 para las líneas Santiaguesa y Carballiña respectivamente. Los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular de la línea Santiaguesa mostraron mayores contenidos de PUFA que las otras dos líneas. Los índices nutricionales también se vieron influenciados por el genotipo; la línea Santiguesa presentó los menores valores de los índices aterogénico y trombogénico y los mayores de la relación entre ácidos grasos hipo e hipercolesterolémicos. En los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular se obtuvieron mayores valores de MUFA y menores de PUFA (P < 0.05 que en la grasa subcutánea. En los lípidos polares, las muestras de grasa intramuscular presentaron los mayores valores de PUFA (entre 37–44%. Finalmente, la grasa subcutánea mostró valores superiores de MUFA y SFA que la intramuscular (P < 0.05. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa intramuscular y de espesor de grasa subcutánea implica que su deposición puede estar regulada por diferentes mecanismos.

  15. Seasonal Variation in Compositions and Fatty Acids Profile (with Emphasis on CLA in Iranian Buffalo’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reza Yazdi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the seasonal variations of milk compositions and fatty acids profile with emphasis on Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and vaccinic acid (VA concentrations of buffalo’ s Milk in North of Iran was investigating. In each season (2006we had 30 samples (10 samples for each month of milk from bulk milk and sent them to laboratory for determination of It’s Compositions .Then fatty acids profile of milk fat was determined by Gas Chromatograph. The mean of Data from 120 samples for 4 seasons of year (2006 were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with an alpha of 5% and the results show that: The range of total solids (TS in milk samples were 16.15 – 18.93 percent so that high percent of TS was in April to July. There was no significant difference in amount of lactose in each of the seasons and it, S range was 4.93 –5.12 percent. The range of milk protein was 3.60 – 3.88 percent, there was significant difference between seasons so that the high content of protein was in April to July and the low content of it was in December to March. There was significant difference in content of milk fat in samples of various season .It was 6.78 – 9.25 percent, so that the high percent of milk fat was in December to June. The content of Unsaturated fatty acids was 50.50 to 58.23 percent of total milk fat .The content of Unsaturated fatty acids (C14 – C18 were higher in Spring season .These Data show That season of Year can influence on milk compositions and fatty acids profile of milk via the type and quality of forages that buffalos use it in grazing or feeding, the amount and kind of supplementation of used diet.

  16. INTRAMUSCULAR VERSUS INTRADERMAL HEPATITIS B REVACCINATION IN HEALTHY NON-RESPONDER CHILDREN:A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Guihua; Yan Hong; Wang Xueliang; Wu Qian; Wang Lirong; Gao Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective With the same times of injection to compare low-dose intradermal regimen with routine-dose intramuscular inoculation in revaccination of non-responders to hepatitis B vaccine. Methods 40 healthy non-responder children collected by screening were administrated a three-dose revaccination randomly by intramuscular or intradermal route (10 vs 2 g per dose), and regularly tested for serologic markers up to five years. By the end of follow-up, a booster dose (5 μg) was given to those who had lost anti-HBs of ≥10 mIU/mL (seroprotection) and anamnestic response was estimated thereafter. Results All 17 intramuscular and 22 of 23 intradermal children effected seroprotection after revaccination. Intradermal children lost seroprotection over time significantly rapider compared with intramuscular children (Log Rank test, P= 0.029). In year 5, 50% of intramuscular but only 18.2% of intradermal children still maintained seroprotection (P=0.075). 12-14 days after the booster dose, all the eight intramuscular children developed an anamnestic response with anti-HBs titer increasing greater, but two of the 18 intradermal children failed to mount seroprotective level. Conclusion Three-routine-dose intramuscular revaccination was significantly effective than low-dose intradermal one with the same times of injection, especially in long-term immunity. We recommend routine-dose intramuscular protocol in revaccination of non-responders.

  17. Aplicación de cloprostenol intramuscular vs. vulvomucosal en cerdas - Intramuscular vs. vulvomucosal application of cloprostenol in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé Hernandez, Abel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el fin de comparar la eficacia de la aplicación de la sal sódica deD- cloprostenol por las vías Intramuscular (IM y vulvomucosal (IVpara inducir el parto en cerdas, se realizó el presente trabajo con 30cerdas híbridas divididas aleatoriamente en 5 tratamientos: 1.Control, con inyección IM de 2 ml de solución salina, 2. IM inyecciónde 125 µg de cloprostenol, 3. IMOT, IM seguida de 10 UI deoxitocina, 4.IVM 70 µg de cloprostenol vía vulvomucosal y 5. IVMOT,IVM más 10 UI de oxitocina, y su efecto sobre el intervalo aplicaciónal parto, duración del mismo, número de lechones muertos en elparto y peso de los mismos. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticasen el peso de los lechones entre el tratamiento IV y el testigo(1309.43 + 55.59 vs. 1526.98 + 41.29. La duración del parto fuesimilar entre los tratamientos y el testigo (3.04+0.18. El intervaloentre inyección y parto fue similar entre los tratamientos, perodiferentes al control (Testigo 63.57+17.16, IM 11.28+2.85, IM+OT10.41+0.50, IV 26.19+4.82, IV+OT 15.66+4.82. Aún cuando no haydiferencia entre tratamientos en el intervalo inyección-parto, lamenor dispersión pertenece al tratamiento IM más oxitocina.SummaryAssistance throughout birth and in the first hours of a piglet´s life isparamount in reducing pre-weaning mortality. Predetermining thesow´s farrowing date, cross fostering as well as hygiene factors alsoincrease efficiency, reducing the frequency of post partumcomplications. To induce birth in sows, analogues of prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α are widely used, through intra muscular injection: (IM.Another practice is to use half of the usual IM dosis by vulvomucosalapplication (IV. Within this study, 30 multiparous crossbred sowsunderwent 5 treatments: 1.control, injected with 2 ml saline IM, 2.IMinjected with 125 µg of cloprostenol 3. IMOT, IM followed with 10 UIof oxitocine IM 4.IV cloprostenol vulvomucosal injection, 70 µg and5.IV followed with 10 UI of oxitocine

  18. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF

  19. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  20. Isomer-specific effects of CLA on gene expression in human adipose tissue depending on PPARγ2 P12A polymorphism: a double blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler P

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ is a key regulator in adipose tissue. The rare variant Pro12Ala of PPARγ2 is associated with a decreased risk of insulin resistance. Being dietary PPARγ ligands, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs received considerable attention because of their effects on body composition, cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity and inflammation, although some effects were only demonstrated in animal trials and the results in human studies were not always consistent. In the present study effects of CLA supplementation on genome wide gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies from 11 Ala12Ala and 23 Pro12Pro men were investigated. Subjects underwent four intervention periods (4 wk in a randomized double blind cross-over design receiving 4.25 g/d of either cis-9, trans-11 CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, 1:1 mixture of both isomers or a reference linoleic acid oil preparation. After each intervention biopsies were taken, whole genome expression microarrays were applied, and genes of interest were verified by realtime PCR. Results The following genes of lipid metabolism were regulated by CLA: LDLR, FASN, SCD, FADS1 and UCP2 were induced, while ABCA1, CD36 and CA3 were repressed. Transcription factors PPARγ, NFAT5, CREB5 and EBF1, the adipokine NAMPT, members of the insulin signaling cascade SORBS1 and IGF1 and IL6ST were repressed, while the adipokine THBS1 and GLUT4 involved in insulin signaling were induced. Compared to trans-10,cis-12 CLA and the CLA mixture the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer exerted weaker effects. Only CD36 (-1.2 fold and THBS1 (1.5 fold were regulated. The CLA effect on expression of PPARγ and leptin genes depends on the PPARγ2 genotype. Conclusion The data suggest that the isomer specific influence of CLA on glucose and lipid metabolism is genotype dependent and at least in part mediated by PPARγ. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN91188075

  1. MMR vaccine in 14 months old children, intramuscular versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AF; Klis FRM van der; Marzec AHJO; Labadie J; Ommen R van; Strieder TG; Berbers GAM; Utrecht Stichting Thuiszorg; Amersfoort Stichting Thuiszorg Eemland (STE),; LVO

    2001-01-01

    In this study we compared the recommended subcutaneous administration of the RIVM MMR vaccine with the intramuscular administration for both safety and immunogenicity. Study subjects were 14 months old children, living in Amersfoort or Utrecht, who were eligible for their first MMR vaccination. The

  2. In situ microdialysis of intramuscular prostaglandin and thromboxane in contracting skeletal muscle in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamouzis, M; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2001-01-01

    .97 +/- 0.75 (exercise), P response to intermittent static exercise. TXB2 decreased during intermittent static exercise, whereas intramuscular PGI2 (6-keto-PGF1alpha) concentration did not change with intermittent static exercise. The present study demonstrates measurable...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline after intramuscular administration with lidocaine in sheep, comparison with a conventional formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, L; Serrano, J M; Guimerá, M E; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in 11 sheep after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dosage of 20 mg kg(-1) bodyweight. A conventional formulation was injected by the intravenous route and two different preparations were administered by the intramuscular route: a conventional formulation (T-100) and an aqueous solution of OTC with lidocaine (1 per cent) (OTC-L). The objective was to determine whether there are differences between both formulations in the disposition kinetics of OTC after intramuscular administration to sheep. After intravenous administration of the conventional formulation, plasma oxytetracycline concentrations were best fitted to an open two-compartment model. Mean apparent volume of distribution was 0.77+/-0.02 litre kg(-1) and the harmonic mean half-life was three hours. The OTC transfer process between central and peripheral compartments was fast and that did not influence the elimination process. After intramuscular administrations of both formulations, half-lives were longer than after intravenous administration (mean values of 14.1 and 58.2 hours for T-100 and OTC-L respectively). In both cases, a biphasic absorption, a 'flip-flop' model and a complete bioavailability were found. OTC-L provided therapeutic plasma concentrations over 0.5 microg ml(-1) (the minimum inhibitory concentration for most susceptible pathogens) for a longer period of time than T-100 (72 hours compared with 36 or 48 hours).

  4. Role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of intramuscular cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Orthopedics, Chandigarh (India); Friarage Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Northallerton (United Kingdom); Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Akkina, Narendranadh; Hampannavar, Aravind; Tahasildar, Naveen [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Orthopedics, Chandigarh (India); Limaye, Rajiv [Friarage Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Northallerton (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    Nonspecific clinical presentations often lead to misdiagnosis of focal cysticercal myositis. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis. Six patients with persistent post-traumatic isolated muscular swelling were treated with analgesic and antibiotics, but the swelling did not subside. Radiographs showed soft tissue swelling with no bony abnormalities. Laboratory markers were inconclusive. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed typical features of intramuscular cysticercosis. Clinical, radiological, and fundoscopic evaluation of brain and eyes could not isolate any cysticercosis focus in these organs. Patients were treated with 3 weeks albendazole therapy. The identifying sonographic features of intramuscular cysticercosis, as evident from this case series, included an intramuscular elliptical or oval anechoic lesion with echogenic intralesional focus likely to be scolex. Magnetic resonance images showed orientation of the cyst along the direction of muscle fibers with T2W hyperintense signal and post-contrast perilesional enhancement. All patients responded to medical treatment. Cysticercosis may manifest as isolated muscular swelling without neurological or ocular involvement. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical condition to avoid misdiagnosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are good diagnostic aids to establish soft tissue cysticercosis. (orig.)

  5. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy sows (n=126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x label dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intramuscular (IM) injection using 3 separate patterns (treatments) of drug administration (42 sows per treatment). Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s...

  6. Intramuscular versus ultrasound-guided intratenosynovial glucocorticoid injection for tenosynovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll-Danielsen, Mads; Østergaard, Mikkel; Fana, Viktoria;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intramuscular versus ultrasound (US)-guided intratenosynovial glucocorticoid injection in providing disease control after 2, 4 and 12 weeks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA) with tenosynovitis. METHODS: Fifty patients with RA...

  7. mRNA abundance of genes involved in mammary lipogenesis during fish oil- or trans-10,cis-12 CLA-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2017-04-01

    Milk fat depression (MFD) caused by trans-10,cis-12 18:2 is known to be mediated in cows and ewes by downregulation of mammary lipogenic genes. However, transcriptional mechanisms underlying marine lipid-induced MFD have not been well defined yet and the few available studies in ovine are not consistent. This trial was conducted to directly compare changes in animal performance, milk fatty acid composition, and particularly mammary mRNA abundance of candidate lipogenic genes and transcription factors in response to the inclusion of fish oil or trans-10,cis-12 18:2 in the dairy sheep diet. To meet this objective, 12 lactating Assaf ewes (on average, 64 days in milk, producing 1.72 kg of milk/d with 5.17% of fat) were divided into 3 groups and offered a total mixed ration without supplementation (control) or supplemented with 2.4% dry matter of fish oil (FO treatment) or 1% dry matter of a commercial product rich in trans-10,cis-12 18:2 (CLA treatment) for 39 d. Measurements and samplings were conducted before starting the treatments and at the end of the trial. Milk samples were used for RNA extraction from somatic cells. Feed intake was not affected by lipid supplements, and as designed, reductions in milk fat concentration (-31%) were similar in the 2 treatments, although the unpredicted increase in milk production with FO counteracted the anticipated reduction in milk fat yield. Nevertheless, this did not preclude the detection of FO-induced decreases in the mRNA abundance of candidate lipogenic genes [e.g., acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and lipin 1 (LPIN1)], thus supporting the hypothesis that transcriptional regulation would be a relevant component of this type of MFD in sheep. Expected CLA-induced downregulation of some genes, such as FASN or sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), could not be detected in our samples, which might be related, at least in part, to high inter

  8. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid in dairy products%影响乳制品中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国萍; 霍贵成; 李庆章

    2005-01-01

    概述了共轭亚油酸(CLA)的形成方式、影响乳制品中CLA含量的因素及如何提高乳中CLA含量的方法.动物的种类、饲料的成分、喂养方式、季节等对原料乳产生的影响,以及加工方法、贮存条件、发酵菌种等对乳制品中CLA的含量的影响.

  9. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  10. Premedication with midazolam in intellectually disabled dental patients: Intramuscular or oral administration? A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... provided by Member States to the European Commission. Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 consist of approximately 80 % of the two CLA isomers c-9,t-11 and t-10,c-12 (1:1). The applicants suggested a daily intake of CLA of 3 g (3.75 g Clarinol®) and 3.5 g (4.5 g Tonalin® TG 80), respectively. The Panel considers...

  12. Yogurt funcional alto CLA

    OpenAIRE

    Massa Grilli, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de compuestos bioactivos en la grasa láctea ha despertado gran interés ya que se le atribuyen efectos preventivos frente a enfermedades de alto impacto en la población. Se ha demostrado que los sistemas de alimentación basados en pastoreo incrementan la presencia de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y específicamente del acido linoleico conjugado, obteniéndose un alimento funcional que presenta propiedades beneficiosas sobre la salud. El objetivo del presente ...

  13. DFT calculations of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (CLA): Comparison to INS, IR and Raman vibration spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukojć, A.; Sobczyk, L.; Prager, M.; Bator, G.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2008-12-01

    The inelastic neutron scattering (INS), infrared and Raman spectra of crystalline 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (26DMP·CLA) were measured. Simultaneously the DFT calculations of the molecular structures and frequencies of the normal vibrations were performed by using various functionals. The INS spectra were simulated in the energy range up to 1200 cm -1, on the basis of the calculated frequencies. A very good conformity was obtained between experimental and calculated data with respect to the structure as well as to frequencies, with exception, however, of the CH 3 torsional modes. The structural analysis based on the deviation from the sum of the van der Waals radii showed that the packing of the methyl groups in the 26DMP·CLA complex was markedly stronger than that in the neat 26DMP. However, the DFT calculations overestimated the role of this effect that may be due to a limitation of the applied methods. In addition the anharmonicity of the rotational potential led to the librational energies different from those obtained using a harmonic potential.

  14. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    downregulated (P<0.05 in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.Keywords: adipocytes, longissimus muscle, lipogenesis, insulin level, serum, fatty acid

  15. Review of the clinical pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin following intravenous, intramuscular, oral or rectal administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Chang-Sik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artesunate (AS is a clinically versatile artemisinin derivative utilized for the treatment of mild to severe malaria infection. Given the therapeutic significance of AS and the necessity of appropriate AS dosing, substantial research has been performed investigating the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA. In this article, a comprehensive review is presented of AS clinical pharmacokinetics following administration of AS by the intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM, oral or rectal routes. Intravenous AS is associated with high initial AS concentrations which subsequently decline rapidly, with typical AS half-life estimates of less than 15 minutes. AS clearance and volume estimates average 2 - 3 L/kg/hr and 0.1 - 0.3 L/kg, respectively. DHA concentrations peak within 25 minutes post-dose, and DHA is eliminated with a half-life of 30 - 60 minutes. DHA clearance and volume average between 0.5 - 1.5 L/kg/hr and 0.5 - 1.0 L/kg, respectively. Compared to IV administration, IM administration produces lower peaks, longer half-life values, and higher volumes of distribution for AS, as well as delayed peaks for DHA; other parameters are generally similar due to the high bioavailability, assessed by exposure to DHA, associated with IM AS administration (> 86%. Similarly high bioavailability of DHA (> 80% is associated with oral administration. Following oral AS, peak AS concentrations (Cmax are achieved within one hour, and AS is eliminated with a half-life of 20 - 45 minutes. DHA Cmax values are observed within two hours post-dose; DHA half-life values average 0.5 - 1.5 hours. AUC values reported for AS are often substantially lower than those reported for DHA following oral AS administration. Rectal AS administration yields pharmacokinetic results similar to those obtained from oral administration, with the exceptions of delayed AS Cmax and longer AS half-life. Drug interaction studies conducted with oral AS

  16. Review of the clinical pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin following intravenous, intramuscular, oral or rectal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carrie A; Duparc, Stephan; Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle; Jung, Donald; Shin, Chang-Sik; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-09-13

    Artesunate (AS) is a clinically versatile artemisinin derivative utilized for the treatment of mild to severe malaria infection. Given the therapeutic significance of AS and the necessity of appropriate AS dosing, substantial research has been performed investigating the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In this article, a comprehensive review is presented of AS clinical pharmacokinetics following administration of AS by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), oral or rectal routes. Intravenous AS is associated with high initial AS concentrations which subsequently decline rapidly, with typical AS half-life estimates of less than 15 minutes. AS clearance and volume estimates average 2 - 3 L/kg/hr and 0.1 - 0.3 L/kg, respectively. DHA concentrations peak within 25 minutes post-dose, and DHA is eliminated with a half-life of 30 - 60 minutes. DHA clearance and volume average between 0.5 - 1.5 L/kg/hr and 0.5 - 1.0 L/kg, respectively. Compared to IV administration, IM administration produces lower peaks, longer half-life values, and higher volumes of distribution for AS, as well as delayed peaks for DHA; other parameters are generally similar due to the high bioavailability, assessed by exposure to DHA, associated with IM AS administration (> 86%). Similarly high bioavailability of DHA (> 80%) is associated with oral administration. Following oral AS, peak AS concentrations (Cmax) are achieved within one hour, and AS is eliminated with a half-life of 20 - 45 minutes. DHA Cmax values are observed within two hours post-dose; DHA half-life values average 0.5 - 1.5 hours. AUC values reported for AS are often substantially lower than those reported for DHA following oral AS administration. Rectal AS administration yields pharmacokinetic results similar to those obtained from oral administration, with the exceptions of delayed AS Cmax and longer AS half-life. Drug interaction studies conducted with oral AS suggest that AS does not

  17. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrón, M J; Antequera, T; Muriel, E; Tejeda, J F; Ventanas, J

    2004-02-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the linear hydrocarbons content (n-alkane and n-alkene) in intramuscular lipids (biceps femoris muscle) of dry-cured Iberian ham considering "feeding system" (Montanera: fed on acorns and pasture and concentrate feed) and "genotype" (hams from Iberian pure pigs and hams from Iberian crossbreed with Duroc in a 50%). The linear hydrocarbons from n-C(14) to n-C(32) range were present in the four studied groups. n-Alkenes fraction (60-76 mg/kg of intramuscular fat) was higher than n-alkanes fraction (34-38 mg/kg). The most abundant n-alkane and n-alkene were the shortest chain ones. Feeding and genotype did not influence linear hydrocarbons content (neither n-alkanes nor n-alkenes).

  18. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrón, M J; Tejeda, J F; Muriel, E; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    2005-01-01

    Branched hydrocarbons from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of intramuscular fat from Iberian dry-cured hams were analyzed. Thirty-four hams were distributed into four groups according to the feed system of the pigs (extensive system "Montanera" and intensive system "Pienso") and genotype (Iberian and Iberian×Duroc). A total of 35 different hydrocarbons were identified in this study. Some differences were found in the levels of branched, cyclical and unsaturated hydrocarbons as a function of the diet of the pigs (3-hexyl-1,1-dimethyl cyclopentane, p<0.05; 3-octadecene, p<0.01; neophytadiene, p<0.001; 1-ethylundecyl benzene, p<0.01; cyclohexadecane, p<0.001; cyclotriacontane, p<0.05). However, the genotype had a limited effect in the level of branched hydrocarbons found. The study of branched hydrocarbons in intramuscular fat from dry-cured Iberian ham allows differentiation between the pigs management systems.

  19. Radiological Characteristics and Management of Intramuscular Myxoma of the Temporal Muscle: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIGASHIDA, Tetsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 51-year-old male with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, asymptomatic, subcutaneous mass in the left temporal region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined extracranial lesion with heterogeneous enhancement and without invasion of the skull. A variety of soft tissue tumors were included in the differential diagnosis. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor, and a diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma was confirmed histologically. There was no evidence of recurrence at 6-month follow-up. The present case is the first characterization of the radiological appearance of intramuscular myxoma in the temporal muscle. I emphasize that increased awareness of this rare lesion and a careful clinical and radiological preoperative assessment are crucial in determining an appropriate treatment strategy for patients with a soft tissue tumor of the head. PMID:24418787

  20. Radiological characteristics and management of intramuscular myxoma of the temporal muscle: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Tetsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 51-year-old male with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, asymptomatic, subcutaneous mass in the left temporal region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined extracranial lesion with heterogeneous enhancement and without invasion of the skull. A variety of soft tissue tumors were included in the differential diagnosis. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor, and a diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma was confirmed histologically. There was no evidence of recurrence at 6-month follow-up. The present case is the first characterization of the radiological appearance of intramuscular myxoma in the temporal muscle. I emphasize that increased awareness of this rare lesion and a careful clinical and radiological preoperative assessment are crucial in determining an appropriate treatment strategy for patients with a soft tissue tumor of the head.

  1. Intramuscular distribution of botulinum toxin--visualized by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwischger, K; Kasprian, G; Weber, M; Meyerspeer, M; Linder, C; Auff, E; Prayer, D; Sycha, T; Kranz, G

    2014-09-15

    A precise knowledge of the spread of botulinum toxin (BoNT) in muscle tissue is required to efficiently access endplate zones and increase BoNT's therapeutic efficacy. Here, we aimed to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of BoNT distribution in skeletal muscle and its modulating factors, such as injected volume and exercise after injection. To visualize distribution in muscle tissue, sagittal, dynamic, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) MRI imaging was performed during injection of 1 ml BoNT/NaCl bolus in spastic biceps brachii muscles (SBB, n=4), and 1 ml NaCl in the right and 2 ml NaCl in the left healthy biceps brachii (HBB, n=6), with or without successive muscle exercise. The pattern of extracellular fluid distribution was evaluated by T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. BFFE indicated an immediate increase in hyperintensity, parallel to the muscle fibers, in the shape of a long (5.3±1.7 cm) and thin (0.52±1.3 cm) layer in HBB. The layer in SBB was shorter (3.25±0.6 cm, p=0.01) and tended to be thicker (0.74±2.9 cm, p=0.27). In HBB, an increase in volume (2 ml) resulted in an increase in thickness (0.95±0.2 cm, p=0.015), but a consistent length (5.67±1.3 cm, p=0.54). DTI visualized a change of diffusion, which exceeded the bolus region by approximately 0.5 cm. Redistribution occurred 10 min after injection and was more prominent in HBB, compared to SBB. Additional muscle activity did not alter the diffusion pattern or bolus distribution. Injecting BoNT at different depths perpendicular to the direction of the muscle fiber might optimize the efficacy of BoNT treatment. Additional sites along muscle fibers should be considered in SBB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Concurrent emphysematous pyelonephritis and thigh necrotizing fasciitis after intramuscular administration of diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Shamekhi Amiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis (NF is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infec-tion. NF may result from any injury to the skin or from hematogenous spread. However, con-current emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh has not been reported. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh after intramuscular administration of diclofenac that improved with aggressive management including broad-spectrum antibiotics, nephrectomy and surgical intervention.

  3. Vaccine-induced myositis with intramuscular sterile abscess formation: MRI and ultrasound findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Dabak, Nevzat [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Ulu, Esra Meltem Kayahan [Samsun Medical Park Hospital, Department of Radiology, Samsun (Turkey)

    2015-12-15

    Although limb swelling is a well-known complication of vaccination, its rarity and wide band of differential diagnosis of limb swelling make it a diagnostic challenge. In this case report, we describe three cases of vaccine-induced myositis with intramuscular sterile abscess formation in patients with limb swelling and their magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography findings. Both radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this rare entity, its clinical and imaging spectrum, and follow-up strategies. (orig.)

  4. Decrease in intramuscular lipid droplets and translocation of HSL in response to muscle contraction and epinephrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Clara; Donsmark, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    A better understanding of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is needed to identify the molecular mechanisms relating intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) to muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity. An increasing number of proteins have been reported to be associated with intracellular triglyceride (...... show a decrease in IMTG in response to both lipolytic stimuli. Furthermore, we identify two PAT family proteins, ADRP and TIP47, associated with IMTG. Finally, we demonstrate HSL translocation to IMTG and ADRP after stimulation with epinephrine or contraction....

  5. Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Maddock, R J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles from the beef round: biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor (AD). At 48 h postmortem, the BF, ST, SM, and AD were dissected from either the left or right side of ten carcasses, vacuum packaged, and aged for an additional 8 d. Each muscle was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. Steaks were broiled on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. Location-specific cores were obtained from each cooked steak, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was evaluated. Definable intramuscular shear force variation (SD = 0.56 kg) was almost twice as large as between-animal shear force variation (SD = 0.29 kg) and 2.8 times as large as between-muscle variation (SD = 0.20 kg). The ranking of muscles from greatest to least definable intramuscular shear force variation was BF, SM, ST, and AD (SD = 1.09, 0.72, 0.29, and 0.15 kg, respectively). The BF had its lowest shear force values at the origin (sirloin end), intermediate shear force values at the insertion, and its highest shear force values in a middle region 7 to 10 cm posterior to the sirloin-round break point (P 0.05). These data indicate that definable intramuscular tenderness variation is substantial and could be used to develop alternative fabrication and(or) merchandising methods for beef round muscles.

  6. Effect of oral versus intramuscular Vitamin D replacement in apparently healthy adults with Vitamin D deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Gupta; Khalid J Farooqui; Chandar M Batra; Raman K Marwaha; Ambrish Mithal

    2017-01-01

    Context: A number of controversies exist regarding appropriate treatment strategy for Vitamin D deficiency. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of equivalent doses of oral cholecalciferol (60,000 IU weekly for 5 weeks) versus intramuscular (IM) cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) in correcting Vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy volunteers working in a hospital. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized open-label single institution study. Subjects and Methods: This ...

  7. Concurrent emphysematous pyelonephritis and thigh necrotizing fasciitis after intramuscular administration of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi; Foroughi, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infection. NF may result from any injury to the skin or from hematogenous spread. However, con-current emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh has not been reported. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh after intramuscular administration of diclofenac that improved with aggressive management including broad-spectrum antibiotics, nephrectomy and surgical intervention.

  8. Optimization of mucosal responses after intramuscular immunization with integrase defective lentiviral vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Rossi

    Full Text Available Many infectious agents infiltrate the host at the mucosal surfaces and then spread systemically. This implies that an ideal vaccine should induce protective immune responses both at systemic and mucosal sites to counteract invasive mucosal pathogens. We evaluated the in vivo systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune response induced in mice by intramuscular administration of an integrase defective lentiviral vector (IDLV carrying the ovalbumin (OVA transgene as a model antigen (IDLV-OVA, either alone or in combination with sublingual adjuvanted OVA protein. Mice immunized intramuscularly with OVA and adjuvant were compared with IDLV-OVA immunization. Mice sublingually immunized only with OVA and adjuvant were used as a positive control of mucosal responses. A single intramuscular dose of IDLV-OVA induced functional antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in spleen, draining and distal lymph nodes and, importantly, in the lamina propria of the large intestine. These results were similar to those obtained in a prime-boost regimen including one IDLV immunization and two mucosal boosts with adjuvanted OVA or vice versa. Remarkably, only in groups vaccinated with IDLV-OVA, either alone or in prime-boost regimens, the mucosal CD8+ T cell response persisted up to several months from immunization. Importantly, following IDLV-OVA immunization, the mucosal boost with protein greatly increased the plasma IgG response and induced mucosal antigen-specific IgA in saliva and vaginal washes. Overall, intramuscular administration of IDLV followed by protein boosts using the sublingual route induced strong, persistent and complementary systemic and mucosal immune responses, and represents an appealing prime-boost strategy for immunization including IDLV as a delivery system.

  9. Quantification of β-Cell Mass in Intramuscular Islet Grafts Using Radiolabeled Exendin-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espes, Daniel; Selvaraju, Ramkumar; Velikyan, Irina; Krajcovic, Martin; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Eriksson, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in alternative implantation sites to the liver for islet transplantation. Intramuscular implantation has even been tested clinically. Possibilities to monitor β-cell mass would be of huge importance not only for the understanding of islet engraftment but also for the decision of changing the immunosuppressive regime. We have therefore evaluated the feasibility of quantifying intramuscular β-cell mass using the radiolabeled glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4. Methods One hundred to 400 islets were transplanted to the abdominal muscle of nondiabetic mice. After 3 to 4 weeks, 0.2 to 0.5 MBq [177Lu]DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 was administered intravenously. Sixty minutes postinjection abdominal organs and graft bearing muscle were retrieved, and the radioactive uptake measured in a well counter within 10 minutes. The specific uptake in native and transplanted islets was assessed by autoradiography. The total insulin-positive area of the islet grafts was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Intramuscular islet grafts could easily be visualized by this tracer, and the background uptake was very low. There was a linear correlation between the radioactivity uptake and the number of transplanted islets, both for standardized uptake values and the total radiotracer uptake in each graft (percentage of injected dose). The quantified total insulin area of surviving β cells showed an even stronger correlation to both standardized uptake values (R = 0.96, P = 0.0002) and percentage of injected dose (R = 0.88, P = 0.0095). There was no correlation to estimated α cell mass. Conclusions [177Lu]DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 could be used to quantify β-cell mass after experimental intramuscular islet transplantation. This technique may well be transferred to the clinical setting by exchanging Lutetium-177 radionuclide to a positron emitting Gallium-68.

  10. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 B.O.N intramuscular injection in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Intramuscular injection of vitamin D3 200,000 IU was superior to placebo in terms of its impact on serum 25(OHD concentrations, and is considered to be safe and effective in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency.

  11. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can A.; Koopman, Bart H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, Henk J.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to al

  12. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to

  13. Intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI has limited value for predicting time to return to play following acute hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L

    2017-09-13

    Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with <50%, 50%-99% and 100% disruption of tendon cross-sectional area had a mean time to RTP of 24.0±9.7, 25.3±8.6 and 31.6±10.9 days, respectively. Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  14. Intramuscular manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma: Prevalence, clinical signs, and computed tomography features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Behrmann, Curd (Dept. of Radiology, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)), e-mail: alex.surow@medizin.uni-halle.de; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen (Dept. of Hematology/Oncology, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)); Arnold, Dirk (Dept. of Pathology, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)); Schmidt, Joerg (Dept. of Medical Statistics and Controlling, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Intramuscular manifestations of malignant immuno proliferative diseases (IMMID) are very rare. Purpose: To determine the prevalence and the clinical features of IMMID in a large series of patients, and to analyze their radiological appearances. Material and Methods: Between 1997 and 2007, 20 patients with IMMID (non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], n=14, and myeloma, n=6) were identified. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT). In five cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was additionally performed. Results: Clinically, 16 patients presented with local pain and soft-tissue swelling. In four patients, IMMID was found incidentally. The most common site was the erector spinae muscle, followed by the iliopsoas and pelvic muscles. In 13 cases of IMMID, diffuse mass-forming muscle infiltration was found. Focal intramuscular masses were identified in seven cases. Conclusion: NHL mostly manifests as diffuse muscle enlargement, whereas myelomas form focal intramuscular masses. Nevertheless, CT and MR appearances are nonspecific and can be misinterpreted as muscle sarcoma or inflammatory disease. Although rare, muscle involvement should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscle disorders in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma

  15. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined.

  16. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel PLGA-PEG-PLGA as a vaccine delivery system for intramuscular immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yu; Xue, Wei; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Liu, Zonghua

    2016-11-25

    In this work, we explored the potential of thermo-sensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA with sol-gel transition temperature around 32℃ as an intramuscular vaccine delivery system by using ovalbumin as a model antigen. First, in vitro release test showed that the PLGA-PEG-PLGA-deriving hydrogels could release ovalbumin in vitro in a more sustainable way. From fluorescence living imaging, 50-200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations could release antigen in a sustainable manner in vivo, suggesting that the PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogel worked as an antigen-depot. Further, the sustainable antigen release from the PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogels increased antigen availability in the spleens of the immunized mice. The intramuscular immunization results showed that 50-200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations promoted significantly more potent antigen-specific IgG immune response. In addition, 200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulation significantly enhanced the secretion of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. From in vitro splenocyte proliferation assay, 50-200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA formulations all initiated significantly higher splenocyte activation. These results indicate that the thermo-sensitive and injectable PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogels (particularly, 200 mg/mL of PLGA-PEG-PLGA-based hydrogel) own promising potential as an intramuscular vaccine delivery system.

  17. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, Pcyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Shalviri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To inform healthcare professionals of a rare serious reaction leading to leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran and report comments for preventing such reactions.A case of leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran reported to Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center was reviewed. Patient and reaction data was collected by assessing the reported yellow card, patient chart review and interviewing with patient and physicians. World Health Organization definition for serious reactions was used to determine the seriousness of the reaction. Naranjo algorithm was used to determine probability scale. The probability of the reaction was determined based on questionnaire of Schumock et al. The studied case is classified as a rare and serious but preventable reaction induced by intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman. The probability of the reaction is appeared to be “probable” based on Naranjo algorithm. It seems that Iron dextran could cause serious and life threatening adverse effects. It is necessary for healthcare professionals to be informed of such rare but serious reaction in order to apply preventive actions.

  19. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Jamdade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID, and onset and duration of analgesia. Tolerability assessment was done by global evaluation and adverse events in each group. Results. Dexketoprofen showed superior efficacy in terms of number of responders (P=.007, PID at 8 hours (P=.02, and SAPID 0–8 hours (P<.0001. It also showed faster onset of action (42 minutes and longer duration of action (6.5 hours. The adverse events were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. Single dose of dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg given intramuscularly provided faster, better, and longer duration of analgesia in postoperative patients of hernia repair surgery than diclofenac 50 mg, with comparable safety.

  20. Efficacy of Doramectin Via Intramuscular Injection in Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonairo Manuel Herrera Benavides

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to test the effectiveness of doramectin by intramuscular administration against nematodes of horses, as it is evacuated, observed in the reduction in egg counts per gram of feces (epg. To this end, six donkeys and ten mestizo horses of different sexes and ages were used, all naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: 1 (control, three donkeys and four horses that didn’t receive anthelmintic treatment; and 2 (treated, three donkeys and six horses treated with doramectin at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg by intramuscular administration, single dose, applied on the neck. At days 5, 12, 16, 24, 34, 41, 47, 56, 60 and 140 post-treatment all animals were subjected to stool tests, allowing to define epg values by McMaster technique. The results determined that doramectin by intramuscular administration was highly effective in controlling nematodes in field conditions and in animals subjected to continual reinfestation.

  1. Spinal epidural abscess as a result of dissemination from gluteal abscess secondary to intramuscular analgesic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, Mehdi; Aydin, Ozlem; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir; Ercelen, Omur

    2009-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is a collection of suppurative material that forms between the dura mater and the ligamentum flavum. If not recognized early and treated correctly, it can lead to life-threatening sepsis. Here we report the case of a female patient, 51 years of age, with difficulty walking and bilateral leg pain after having had degenerative discogenic pain for many years. The patient had occasionally received intramuscular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug injections. The current report is that of an unusual case of epidural abscess that formed following multiple dose of intramuscular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug over a 1-year period. Hematogenous or direct dissemination is the suspected cause. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis is essential. Patients with localized back pain who are at risk for developing such epidural spinal abscesses should receive a magnetic resonance imaging scan with contrast enhancement without delay. The existence of predisposing factors such as intramuscular injections should be considered in the assessment of suspected spinal epidural abscess.

  2. Repeatability of phasic muscle activity: performance of surface and intramuscular wire electrodes in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaba, M P; Wootten, M E; Gainey, J; Cochran, G V

    1985-01-01

    Repeatability is an important consideration for gait analysis data that are being used as an adjunct to clinical decision making. An index of repeatability may be based on a statistical criterion (variance ratio) that reflects similarity of wave forms over a number of identical cycles. The purpose of this study was to use the variance ratio to assess the repeatability of phasic muscle activity recorded with surface and bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes during gait on 10 normal subjects. Variance ratios were calculated using rectified and smoothed electromyographic data recorded simultaneously from the two types of electrodes. Three measures of repeatability (reproducibility, reliability, and constancy--defined as the cycle-to-cycle, run-to-run, and day-to-day repeatability of phasic muscle activity) were used to compare the performance of the two electrode techniques. Results show that the reproducibility and reliability were better for surface electrodes than for intramuscular wire electrodes, and constancy was good for surface electrodes and poor for intramuscular wire electrodes. Repeatability improved with increasing smoothing window lengths but was better for surface electrodes than wire electrodes, irrespective of the smoothing window. This study indicates that surface electrode data represent a more consistent measure of activity of superficial muscles, if comparisons are to be made between gait data from different test days.

  3. A case of human intramuscular adrenal gland transplantation as a cure for chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodstein, E; Hardy, M A; Goldstein, M J

    2010-02-01

    Intramuscular endocrine gland transplantation has been well described as it pertains to parathyroid autotransplantation; however, transplantation of the adrenal gland is less well characterized. While adrenal autotransplantation in the setting of Cushing's disease has been described, intramuscular adrenal allotransplantation as a cure for adrenal insufficiency to our knowledge has not been previously carried out. Current treatment for adrenal insufficiency leaves patients without diurnal variation in cortisol release and susceptible to the detrimental effects of chronic hypercortisolism. We describe here the case of a 5-year-old girl with renal failure who had adrenal insufficiency following fulminant meningococcemia that led to requirements for both stress-dose steroid and mineralocorticoid replacement. Ten months after the onset of her disease, she received a simultaneous renal and adrenal gland transplant from her mother. The adrenal gland allograft was morselized into 1 mm(3) segments and implanted into three 2 cm pockets created in her rectus abdominis muscle. Three years after surgery, her allograft remains fully functional, responding well to adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation and the patient does not require any steroid or mineral-corticoid supplementation. We believe this case represents the first description of successful functional intramuscular adrenal allograft transplantation with long-term follow up as a cure for adrenal insufficiency.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination were studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg kg(-1) bodyweight) to 50 pigeons. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 1.77 litres kg(-1) and 1.30 litres kg(-1) respectively. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 1.22 (0.09) hour and 1.52 (0.09) hour respectively, and those of clavulanic acid were 1.15 (0.08) hour and 1.49 (0.08) hour. After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P or =0.5 mg litre(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentration of most susceptible pathogens).

  5. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to turkeys and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1995-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination was studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg/kg body weight) to 15 turkeys and 15 chickens. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between turkeys and chickens in the disposition kinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model in turkeys and chickens. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in turkeys were significantly slower than in chickens. The elimination half-life of amoxicillin was similar in turkeys (1.12 +/-0.09 h) and chickens (1.03 +/-0.11 h) after intravenous administration, but that of clavulanic acid differed significantly (P<0.05) between turkeys (1.12 +/-0.03 h) and chickens (0.98 +/- 0.05 h). After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P<0.05) in turkeys and chickens than that after the intravenous treatment. The bioavailability after the intramuscular injection was high and similar with both drugs, but higher values were obtained for chickens than turkeys.

  6. Variability within intramuscular fat content of pigs as measured by gravimetry, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, R; Decanniere, C; Villé, H; Van Hecke, P; Bosschaerts, L

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine in vivo intramuscular fat content of pigs' biceps femoris, three methods were compared. Gravimetry and FTIR spectroscopy after total fat extraction from a biopsy (about 400 mg skeletal muscle tissue) and in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy after imaging and volume of interest selection were used. Mean values (g fat/100 g fresh tissue) were, respectively, 1·47 ± 0·35 (gravimetry), 1·26 ± 0·33 (FTIR) and 0·51 ± 0·19 (NMR); but NMR-values represented only triglycerides. Within an intramuscular fat range from 1·1 to 2·7 g per 100 g fresh muscle tissue, possible to estimate a calibration line between the in vitro and in vivo data for hybrid piglets of about 18 kg. Repeated in vivo NMR measurements on the same muscle volume showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5·5 ± 2·7%. The coefficient of variation of measurements on different volumes within the same muscle was 14 ± 10%. The mean intramuscular fat content of 18 kg or 100 kg pigs was, respectively, 1·64 ± 0·46 (biceps femoris) and 1·32 ± 0·1 (longissimus dorsi) g per 100 g fresh muscle tissue.

  7. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling.

  8. Intramuscular administration of morphine reduces mustard-oil-induced craniofacial-muscle pain behavior in lightly anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung R; Lee, Min K; Lim, Koang H; Yang, Gwi Y; Jeon, Hye J; Ju, Jin S; Yoon, Young W; Kim, Sung K; Ahn, Dong K

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the role of peripheral opioid receptors in mustard oil-induced nociceptive behavior and inflammation in the masseter muscles of lightly anesthetized rats. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 400 g. After initial anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.), one femoral vein was cannulated and connected to an infusion pump for the intravenous infusion of sodium pentobarbital. The rate of infusion was adjusted to provide a constant level of anesthesia. Mustard oil (MO, 30 microl) was injected into the mid-region of the left masseter muscle via a 30-gauge needle. Intramuscularly-administered morphine significantly reduced shaking behavior but not MO-induced inflammation. Intramuscular pretreatment with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, reversed antinociception produced by intramuscularly-administered morphine, while intracisternal administration of naloxone did not affect the antinociception of peripheral morphine. Pretreatment with d-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu opioid receptor antagonist, but not naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, nor norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, reversed intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception. These results indicate that intramuscularly-administered morphine produces antinociception in craniofacial muscle nociception and that this intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception is mediated by a peripheral mu opioid receptor. Our observations further support the clinical approach of administering opioids in the periphery for the treatment of craniofacial muscle nociception.

  9. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  10. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Barth, James F; Ortiz, Ramon A; Nichols, Donald K; Zak, Samantha E; Stonier, Spencer W; Muhammad, Majidat A; Bakken, Russell R; Prugar, Laura I; Olinger, Gene G; Groebner, Jennifer L; Lee, John S; Pratt, William D; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I; Smith, Jonathan F; Hart, Mary Kate; Dye, John M

    2013-05-01

    There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine.

  11. Comparison of Intramuscular and Intravaginal Progesterone for Luteal Phase Support in IVF Cycles: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayon Berjis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was designed to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular progesterone and vaginal progesterone to support luteal phase in IVF cycles. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 182 infertile patients between 20-40 years old were selected for rapid ZIFT cycles. In order to support luteal phase Cyclogest suppository (400 mg BID was used for 77 cases and the rest used intramuscular progesterone (100 mg daily. Pregnancy and abortion rates were compared between two groups.Results: Chemical pregnancy rate (positive ß-HCG was %27.3 in Cyclogest group and %30.6 in intramuscular progestrone group (P = 0.7. Clinical pregnancy (gestational sac visible by transvaginal ultrasound was observed in %22.1 of cases in Cyclogest group and %27.1 of cases in intramuscular progestrone group (P = 0.4. Ongoing pregnancy rate (fetal heart action visible by transvaginal ultrasound was %15.6 in Cyclogest group and %18.8 in intramuscular progesterone group (P = 0.6.Conclusion: Chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates were similar in vaginal and intramuscular progestrone groups.

  12. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  13. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  14. Determination of α-tocopherol in pork with high intramuscular fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey, A.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of α-tocopherol from pork samples with low (3% (LF or high (9% (HF amount of intramuscular fat have been carried out by three different methods, two of them based in saponification plus extraction of α-tocopherol and the other one without saponification. All samples were spiked with five different amount of α-tocopherol prior to analysis. In LF samples, recovery was in the range 85-95% in all cases, with not significant differences between methods. Recovery was much lower in HF samples when using methods which involve prior saponification of muscle samples (50-60%. Changes in KOH concentration did not improve markedly the recovery. The method based on direct extraction provided much better recovery in HF samples (85- 92% and consequently is recommended for samples high in fat.

    Se han utilizado tres métodos de cuantificación de α-tocoferol en muestras de tejido muscular de cerdos con un contenido en grasa intramuscular del 3% (LF y del 9% (HF. Dos de los métodos saponifican la muestra antes de extraer el α-tocoferol, y el tercero utiliza una extracción directa con solventes. Antes del análisis se añadieron cinco cantidades de α-tocoferol en cada caso. La recuperación del α-tocoferol en las muestras de bajo contenido en grasa intramuscular fue en todos los casos alrededor del 85-95%, sin encontrarse diferencias según el método utilizado. En las muestras con alto contenido en grasa intramuscular la recuperación fue mucho menor cuando se utilizaron los métodos que saponifican la muestra (50-60%. Al añadir mayor concentración de KOH no se mejoró sustancialmente la recuperación. El método basado en extracción directa con solventes proporcionó una recuperación superior (85-92% y es por tanto el que se recomienda para muestras con alto contenido en grasa intramuscular.

  15. MRS培养基的无机盐改进生产共轭亚油酸%CLA Production in MRS Medium via Modification by Mineral Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿保鑫

    2014-01-01

    以德式乳杆菌保加利亚亚种为研究对象,采用单因素试验和响应面方法,确定无机盐对MRS培养基的添加量,进而改进MRS成分,优化共轭亚油酸(CLA)生产条件.结果表明,在试验范围内各种无机盐对培养基的影响依次为磷酸氢二钾>乙酸钠>硫酸镁;最佳添加量分别为乙酸钠添加量5.525g/L,磷酸氢二钾添加量2.81g/L,硫酸镁添加量0.325 g/L,CLA产量最优值为0.241 mg/mL.

  16. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C

    2012-03-01

    Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the

  17. Neonatal intramuscular injection of plasmid encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 affects anxiety behaviour and expression of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor in adolescent rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huitao Fan; Lina Wang; Feng Guo; Shi Wei; Ruqian Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Early-life endocrine intervention may programme hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and cause psychiatric disorders in later life. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been implicated in the regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioural responses, but it is yet to be determined whether and how neonatal GLP-1 overexpression may modify hippocampal GR expression and thus programme adolescent behaviour in rats. Two-dayold pups were injected intramuscularly with vacant plasmid (VP) or plasmid DNA encoding secretory GLP-1 (GP). Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test at 8 weeks of age. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Protein and mRNA levels were determined by western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The DNA methylation status of the GR exon 17 promoter was determined by bisulphate sequencing PCR (BSP). GP rats exhibited anxiolytic behaviour compared with their VP counterparts. Hippocampal GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and GR mRNA expression were significantly elevated in GP rats without a significant difference in plasma corticosterone. Significant reduction in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression was observed in GP rats disconnected with alterations in DNA methylation of the GR exon 17 promoter. Nevertheless, mRNA expression of nerve growth factor-inducible protein A (NGFI-A) was significantly elevated in GP rats. These results suggest that neonatal intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA encoding GLP-1 affects anxiety behaviour in adolescent rats, probably through NGFI-A-activated upregulation of hippocampal GR expression.

  18. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Taiane S; Sanglard, Letícia M P; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L; Rennó, Luciana N; Serão, Nick V L; Silva, Fabyano F; Guimarães, Simone E F; Ladeira, Márcio M; Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  19. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiane S Martins

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05. No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05 in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05 However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05. A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05. No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05. These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  20. Intramuscular nerve damage in lacerated skeletal muscles may direct the inflammatory cytokine response during recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Barry P; Tan, Bee Leng; Han, Hwan Chour; Zou, Yu; Aung, Khin Zarchi; Leong, David T

    2012-07-01

    The expression of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in surgically repaired lacerated muscles over a 12-week recovery phase was investigated. We hypothesized that these expression levels are influenced by both neural and muscular damage within lacerated muscles. Microarrays were confirmed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and histology of biopsies at the lesion of three simulated lacerated muscle models in 130 adult rats. The lacerated medial gastrocnemius with the main intramuscular nerve branch either cut (DN), crushed but leaving an intact nerve sheath (RN); or preserved intact (PN) were compared. At 4 weeks, DN had a higher number of interleukins up-regulated. DN and RN also had a set of Bmp genes significantly expressed between 2 and 8 weeks (P ≤ 0.05). By 12 weeks, DN had a poorer and slower myogenic recovery and greater fibrosis formation correlating with an up-regulation of the Tgf-β gene family. DN also showed poorer re-innervation with higher mRNA expression levels of nerve growth factor (Ngf) and brain-derived neurotrophin growth factor (Bdnf) over RN and PN. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory response over 12 weeks in lacerated muscles may be directed by the type of intramuscular nerve damage, which can influence the recovery at the lesion site. Inflammatory-related genes associated to the type of intramuscular nerve damage include Gas-6, Artemin, Fgf10, Gdf8, Cntf, Lif, and Igf-2. qPCR also found up-regulation of Bdnf (1-week), neurotrophin-3 (2w), Lif (4w), and Ngf (4w, 8w) mRNA expressions in DN, making them possible candidates for therapeutic treatment to arrest the poor recovery in muscle lacerations (250).

  1. Real-time simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric prostheses use electromyographic (EMG) signals to control movement of prosthetic joints. Clinically available myoelectric control strategies do not allow simultaneous movement of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs); however, the use of implantable devices that record intramuscular EMG signals could overcome this constraint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the real-time simultaneous control of three DOFs (wrist rotation, wrist flexion/extension, and hand open/close) using intramuscular EMG. Approach. We evaluated task performance of five able-bodied subjects in a virtual environment using two control strategies with fine-wire EMG: (i) parallel dual-site differential control, which enabled simultaneous control of three DOFs and (ii) pattern recognition control, which required sequential control of DOFs. Main results. Over the course of the experiment, subjects using parallel dual-site control demonstrated increased use of simultaneous control and improved performance in a Fitts’ Law test. By the end of the experiment, performance using parallel dual-site control was significantly better (up to a 25% increase in throughput) than when using sequential pattern recognition control for tasks requiring multiple DOFs. The learning trends with parallel dual-site control suggested that further improvements in performance metrics were possible. Subjects occasionally experienced difficulty in performing isolated single-DOF movements with parallel dual-site control but were able to accomplish related Fitts’ Law tasks with high levels of path efficiency. Significance. These results suggest that intramuscular EMG, used in a parallel dual-site configuration, can provide simultaneous control of a multi-DOF prosthetic wrist and hand and may outperform current methods that enforce sequential control.

  2. Divergent selection on intramuscular fat in rabbits: Responses to selection and genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvaro, M; Hernández, P; Blasco, A

    2016-12-01

    A divergent selection experiment on intramuscular fat (IMF) was performed in rabbits. The aim of this study is to estimate the response to selection, the correlated responses in carcass and meat quality traits, and their genetic parameters. Selection criterion was the averaged phenotypic value of IMF measured at 9 wk of age in 2 full-sibs of the candidate. Traits considered were IMF, BW, chilled carcass weight, reference carcass weight, scapular and perirenal fat weights, carcass and meat color, pH, protein and fatty acid composition of meat. Total direct response to selection for IMF was 2.6 phenotypic SD of the trait, around 5% of the mean (1.09 g/100 g) per generation, with both lines following a symmetrical trend. Heritability of IMF was high (0.54), and in general, all traits related to carcass fat depots and IMF fatty acid composition showed high heritabilities (dissectible fat of the carcass, 0.70; MUFA percentage, 0.61; PUFA percentage, 0.45; and PUFA:SFA ratio, 0.42), except SFA percentage (0.09). The other carcass and meat quality traits showed moderate to low heritabilities. Intramuscular fat and dissectible fat percentage showed a low genetic correlation (0.34). Intramuscular fat was positively correlated with MUFA percentage (0.95) and negatively correlated with PUFA percentage (-0.89) and PUFA:SFA ratio (-0.98), corroborated with high correlated responses to selection. The rest of the traits did not show any substantial correlated response except protein content, which was greater in the high-IMF line than in the low-IMF line.

  3. Some pharmacokinetic parameters of ampicillin/sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuny, A; Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1996-12-01

    Some pharmacokinetic parameters of an ampicillin/sulbactam (2:1) combination were studied in six goats, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open two-compartment model. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.34 +/- 0.04 l/kg and 0.45 +/- 0.15 l/kg, respectively, and the total body clearances were 0.72 +/- 0.11 and 0.38 +/- 0.07 l/kg.h. The half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32 +/- 0.04 h and 0.71 +/- 0.14 h, respectively. For sulbactam the half-lives were 0.79 +/- 0.18 h and 1.13 +/- 0.21 h after administration by the same routes. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar for both drugs (98.29% for ampicillin and 101.84% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma levels of ampicillin (0.43 +/- 0.27 h) and sulbactam (0.34 +/- 0.14 h) were reached at a similar time, and peak concentrations were also similar and non-proportional to the dose of the products administered (11.02 +/- 3.11 mg/l of ampicillin and 9.5 +/- 0.98 mg/l of sulbactam).

  4. Myristic Acid (MA) Promotes Adipogenic Gene Expression and the Differentiation of Porcine Intramuscular Adipocyte Precursor Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Nai-sheng; ZHANG Yong-liang; JIANG Qing-yan; SHU Gang; XIE Qiu-ping; ZHU Xiao-tong; GAO Ping; ZHOU Gui-xuan; WANG Song-bo; WANG Li-na; XI Qian-yun

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is considered to be a key factor that affects the marbling, tenderness, juiciness and lfavor of pork. To investigate the effects of myristic acid (MA) on the differentiation of porcine intramuscular adipocytes, cells were isolated from longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) and treated with 0, 10, 50 or 100μmol L-1 MA. The results showed that MA signiifcantly promotes the differentiation of intramuscular adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. MA also led to a parallel increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ(PPARγ) and adipose-related genes, such as glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2), fatty acid translocase (FAT), acetyl-CoA carboxylaseα(ACCα), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). However, no signiifcant effects of MA were observed on the expression of CAAT enhancer binding protein-α(C/EBPα) or hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) was increased by MA during the early stages of differentiation (day 1-3). In addition, MA also increased the absolute content of C14 (P<0.001) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P<0.05) to varying degrees, but no effects were observed on other fatty acids. These results suggest that MA might be able to enhance the IMF content of pork and increase the accumulation of myristic and myristoleic acid in muscle, which might have beneifcial implications for human health.

  5. POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA WITH TRANSDERMAL DICLOFENAC VERSUS INTRAMUSCULAR DICLOFENAC – A COMPARATIVE STU DY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The search for an ideal drug for postoperative anal gesia is ongoing. Diclofenac is commonly used drug for this purpose i n different routes. AIMS: To compare the efficacy of transdermal diclofenac with intramuscul ar diclofenac for postoperative analgesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This prospective comparative study was conducted i n the department of anaesthesiology in a medical college & general hosp ital. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study subjects were 200 patients of both sexes between 18 -50 years of age who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic, gynaecological & orthopaedic surgeries on limb. They divided into two groups. Group I received intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium (75mg & Group II received transdermal diclofenac diethylamine patch (200mg pe r 75 sq.cm postoperatively. The outcome measures were pain intesity, changes in vital param eters, requirment for rescue analgesia & adverse effects. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Parametric data were analysed by using student t-te st (unpaired. Non parametric data were analysed by us ing test of association (chi-square test. RESULTS: The mean pain score was significantly high in intra muscular diclofenac group (Group I in laparoscopic & gynaecological surgeries (P = 0.0 02. Though the mean pain score was different among two groups in orthopaedic surgeries it was no t statistically significant (P = 0.377. There were no significant differences in vital parameters & adverse reactions in between two groups. The requirment of rescue anlgesia was significantly mor e in intramuscular diclofenac group (Group I. CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal diclofenac is more effective in reducing the intens ity of postoperative pain following laparoscopic & gynaecological surgeries but the eff ect is similar to intramuscular diclofenac in orthopedic limb surgeries

  6. Caracterización de la grasa intramuscular del toro de lidia sacrificado en primavera

    OpenAIRE

    Horcada Ibáñez, Alberto Luis (Coordinador); Criado, M; Polvillo Polo, Oliva; Juárez Dávila, Manuel María; Alcalde Aldea, María Jesús

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se han estudiado las características de la grasa intramuscular de 32 toros de Lidia sacrificados en los festejos taurinos de la Feria de Abril de Sevilla de 2006. Los animales fueron criados de acuerdo al sistema tradicional en la dehesa andaluza donde dispusieron de hierba fresca de primavera y de alimento concentrado en los meses previos a su suerte. El perfil lipídico de este depósito graso se corresponde con el de los bovinos adultos, caracterizado por su elevado conte...

  7. Lamb meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition as affected by concentrates including different legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Pennisi; Daniela Maria Rita Brogna; Renato Pagano; Marco Bella; Massimiliano Lanza; Carla Fabro; Manuel Scerra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum) on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas); FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean); SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal)...

  8. Neuro-Ophthalmological Manifestations after Intramuscular Medroxyprogesterone: A Forme Fruste of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahall, Mandreker; Reyes, Antonio Jose; Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Hosein, Nadeem; Seegobin, Karan; Bahall, Krishni; Sharma, Hiranyadeva; Dhansingh, Stephanie; Mahabir, Amanda

    2016-09-30

    We report a case of a 22-year-old female student nurse who presented to hospital with an acute neuro-ophthalmological syndrome characterized by papilledema, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and headache after a single first time use of 150 mg medroxyprogesterone intramuscular injection. Clinical, laboratory, radiological and ophthalmological investigations were in keeping with the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension but lumbar puncture did not show a raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure suggesting a forme fruste of this entity. Her neuro-ophthalmological clinical features responded well to acetazolamide and diagnostic/therapeutic lumbar puncture. Full recovery was achieved three months after medroxyprogesterone usage. Health care providers must be aware of this adverse drug reaction.

  9. Contraction mode and whey protein intake affect the synthesis rate of intramuscular connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Klejs Rahbek, Stine; Farup, Jean

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the impact of whey protein hydrolysate and maltodextrin (WPH) intake on intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) after maximal shortening and lengthening contractions. METHODS: Twenty young men were randomized...... to receive either WPH or maltodextrin [carbohydrate (CHO)] immediately after completion of unilateral shortening and lengthening knee extensions. Ring-(13) C6 -phenylalanine was infused, and muscle biopsies were obtained. IMCT protein FSR was measured at 1-5, as well as 1-3 and 3-5 hours after contractions...

  10. Anti-sepsia para administração de medicamentos por via endovenosa e intramuscular

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Ribeiro Cardoso; Lara Solana Pereira; Adenícia Custódia Silva e Souza; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple; Milca Severino Pereira; Ana Luiza Neto Junqueira

    2006-01-01

    A pele abriga vasta microbiota, que poderá penetrar camadas mais internas durante a aplicação de medicamentos por via parenteral, daí a importância da anti-sepsia para este procedimento. Objetivamos identificar a utilização da anti-sepsia para a administração de medicamentos por via endovenosa e intramuscular como medida de prevenção de infecção. Estudo descritivo, realizado com a equipe de enfermagem, em oito unidades de um hospital de ensino do município de Goiânia-Go. Os dados foram obtido...

  11. An unusual case of an intramuscular lipoma of the biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrach, Kamal; el Kadi, Khalid Ibn; Mezzani, Amine; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign neoplasms consisting of mature fatty tissue. They are usually of roundish or ovoid shape and are situated in a single anatomical region. They most frequently occur on the back and in the extremities. Most lipomas are subcutaneous and require no imaging evaluation. When deep, large and unusual in location, MRI can identify and localise these tumours and is the best exploration to differentiate lipoma and lipo-sarcoma. We describe a case of a patient with an intramuscular lipoma of the biceps brachii.

  12. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  13. Case report 557: Solitary intramuscular myxoma in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass-Royal, M.C.; Nelson, M.C.; Albert, F.; Lack, E.E.; Bogumill, G.P. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Medical Center)

    1989-08-01

    We report a case of solitary intramuscular myxoma in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and pigmented macules. MR played an important role in the patient's pre-operative evaluation. It has been demonstrated in a review of the literature that a definite relationship exists between myxoma of soft tissues and fibrous dysplasia of the skeleton. Multiple myxomas in a patient with fibrous dysplasia are common and a relationship also exists between myxoma of the soft tissues and the McCune-Albright syndrome. (orig./GDG).

  14. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T T N; Blanton, J R; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F; Thompson, L D

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from the LM of 3 divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n = 9), Brahman (BR, n = 7), and Romosinuano (RM, n = 11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished 129 d before slaughter in one year and 157 d in the next year. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from each carcass between the 10th and 13th ribs, trimmed of external fat, frozen in liquid nitrogen, homogenized, and used for fat extraction, using a modified Folch procedure. Extracted fat was analyzed for FA by using a GLC system with an HP-88 capillary column. Fatty acid composition was expressed using both a normalized percentage (%) and gravimetric calculation (mg/g of fresh muscle tissue) in relation to degree of saturation, which was determined using a saturation index (ratio of total SFA to total unsaturated FA). Crude fat determination revealed that LM from AN purebred cattle had the greatest amount of intramuscular fat (7.08%; P = 0.001). Although intramuscular fat of LM from RM contained a reduced percentage of total SFA (P = 0.002) compared with AN, it had the greatest percentage of total PUFA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). The percentages of total MUFA were similar among the 3 breeds (P = 0.675). The gravimetric calculation, a measure of actual FA concentration, showed significantly greater concentrations of SFA (26.67 mg/g), MUFA (26.50 mg/g), and PUFA (2.37 mg/g) in LM from AN cattle, as compared with LM from BR and RM cattle (P < 0.001). Interestingly, BR purebreds had the least PUFA concentration (1.49 mg/g; P intramuscular fat content was similar to that of RM (P = 0.924). Regardless of breed, the MUFA proportion was always the greatest (47.58%; P

  15. Clinical development of intramuscular electroporation: providing a "boost" for DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir S; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective vaccines has helped to eradicate or control the spread of numerous infectious diseases. However, there are many more diseases that have proved more difficult to eliminate using conventional vaccines. The recent innovation of DNA vaccines may provide a "boost" to the development efforts. While the early efforts of DNA vaccines in the clinic were disappointing, the use of in vivo electroporation has helped to provide some basis for optimism. Now, there are several ongoing clinical studies of vaccines against such diseases as malaria, HIV, hepatitis C, and even various types of cancer. This review will highlight three recently published clinical studies using intramuscular DNA administration with electroporation.

  16. Diamorphine for pain relief in labour : a randomised controlled trial comparing intramuscular injection and patient-controlled analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hillan, Edith; Clark, Diana; Gilmour, Harper

    2004-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of diamorphine administered by a patient-controlled pump (patient-controlled analgesia) with intramuscular administration for pain relief in labour. Randomised controlled trial. The South Glasgow University Hospitals NHS Trust. Primigravidae and multigravidae in labour at term (37-42 weeks). Women were randomised in labour to the study (patient-controlled analgesia) or control group (intramuscular). Randomisation was achieved through a random permuted block design stratified by parity. Study group women were given a loading dose of 1.2 mg diamorphine intravenously and then attached to the pump. Control group women received intramuscular diamorphine as per hospital protocol. Participants were also given 3 mg of buccal Stemetil. Data were collected throughout labour and at six postnatal weeks. Analgesia requirements during labour and women's satisfaction with the method of pain relief. Women in the study group (patient-controlled analgesia) used significantly less diamorphine than women in the control group (intramuscular) but were significantly more likely to state that they were very dissatisfied with their use of diamorphine and were significantly more likely to opt out of the trial before the birth of the baby. The majority of women in both groups used other analgesia concurrent with diamorphine such as Entonox, aromatherapy or TENS. Patient-controlled analgesia administration of diamorphine for the relief of pain in labour offers no significant advantages over intramuscular administration. The results also suggest that diamorphine is a poor analgesic for labour pain irrespective of the mode of administration.

  17. Aplicación de cloprostenol intramuscular vs. Intravulvomucosal para inducir el parto en cerdas (Short Note: Intramuscular vs. Intravulvomucosal application of cloprostenol to induce parturition in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé Hernandez, Abel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenAplicación de cloprostenol intramuscular vs. Intravulvomucosal para inducir el parto en cerdas. ttp://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n080809/080903.pdf1 Con el fin de comparar la eficacia de la aplicación de sal sódica de Dcloprostenol por vía intravulvomucosal para inducir el parto en las cerdas, se realizó el presente trabajo. La asistencia en el parto en las primeras horas de vida del lechón es importante para reducir la mortalidad antes del destete. Predeterminar la fecha del parto permite manejos como adopciones cruzadas y limpieza de instalaciones, reduciendo la frecuencia de complicaciones post parto. Para inducir el parto en las cerdas, se han utilizado análogos de la prostaglandina f2 alfa (PGF2 α, por vía intramuscular (IM. Otra práctica es utilizar la mitad de la dosis de mi usual por vía Intravulvo mucosal (IVM. Treinta cerdas fureon divididas en 5tratamientos (n=6: (1 Control, inyección de 2ml de solución salina mi; (2IM con 125 µg de cloprostenol, (3 IMOT, IM mas 10 UI de oxitocina; (4 IVM inyección intravulvomucosal de 70 µg de PGF2 α y (5 IVM seguido de 10 UI de oxitocina. Todos los tratamientos se comenzaron el día 112 de gestación. Se evaluaron el periodo entre inyección y parto, duración del parto, y su relación con el número de crías muertas al parto. Se analizaron por medio de un ANOVA con el programa SPSS 15.0. La duración del parto fué similar en ambos tratamientos y el control, (3.04 Mean + 0.18 SE;P>0.05. El intervalo entre inyección y parto no muestra diferencias estadísticas cuando se utiliza el cloprostenosl, pero si contra el control (P0.05. The time between injection and farrowing does not show statistical differences when cloprostenol was used, however, all the treatments differed from control (P< 0.05 Even when there is no difference between treatments on injection– farrowing mean interval, the birthing time was lower in IMOT treatment (10.41 + 0.50 than in control group

  18. Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Araujo Felzemburgh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 day. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results showed a change in the macroscopic sample with discoloration of the liver tissue heterogeneously. There were no changes consistent with embolic effect under the microscope. CONCLUSION: The option of performing a technique of fat grafting with a less traumatic surgical procedure can be considered protective against embolic events, with no impact to late embolic events on the tissues.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da embolia gordurosa em órgãos como pulmão e fígado. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à enxertia autóloga intramuscular de gordura em coxa direita após lipoaspiração. Os grupos foram determinados conforme os dias pós-operatórios (DPO em que ocorreu a eutanásia: 60 DPO, 90DPO, 120 DPO. Em seguida, o pulmão e o fígado foram ressecados e encaminhados ao laboratório de histopatologia para análise em busca de lesão tardia secundária a evento de embolia gordurosa prévia nos tecidos. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma alteração na amostra a analise macroscópica com alteração da coloração do tecido hepático de forma heterogênea. Não houve alterações compatíveis com repercussão de processo embólico à microscopia. CONCLUSÃO: A opção pela realização de uma técnica de lipoenxertia menos traumática e com pequeno tempo cirúrgico pode ser considerada protetora para eventos embólicos, não havendo repercussão embólica a tardiamente.

  19. Drug Survival and reasons for discontinuation of intramuscular methotrexate: a study of 212 consecutive patients switching from oral methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Drug survival and reasons for discontinuation of intramuscular methotrexate: a study of 212 consecutive patients switching from oral methotrexate.Linde L, Hetland ML, Ostergaard M. Department of Rheumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. louiselinde......@dadlnet.dk OBJECTIVES: To assess the drug survival and reasons for discontinuation of intramuscular methotrexate (imMTX) in rheumatological patients who had switched to imMTX from oral methotrexate (oMTX). METHODS: Data from 212 consecutive patients who switched from oMTX to imMTX therapy at our outpatient clinic...... had stopped oMTX because of adverse events, 22% also withdrew from imMTX because of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Half of the patients benefited from switching from oral to intramuscular methotrexate for at least 6 months, but only a minority adhered to the treatment for years. Lack of efficacy...

  20. Effects of Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation Using Inversely Placed Electrodes on Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Shoulder: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Sukumar; Mathias, Lawrence; Thakur, Ajay; Kumar, Dhanesh

    2016-04-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the common musculoskeletal conditions of the shoulder which may develop sensory-motor and autonomic dysfunctions at the various level of the neuromuscular system. The pain and dysfunction caused by MPS were primarily treated with physical therapy and pharmacological agents in order to achieve painfree movements. However, in recent years intramuscular electrical stimulation (IMES) with conventional electrode placement was used by researchers to maximise therapeutic values. But, in this study an inverse electrode placement was used to deliver electrical impulses intramuscularly to achieve neuro-modulation at the various level of the nervous system. Nine patients with MPS were treated with intramuscular electrode stimulation using inversely placed electrodes for a period of three weeks. All nine subjects recovered from their shoulder pain and disability within the few weeks of intervention. So, this inverse electrode placement may be more appropriate for chronic pain management.

  1. No protection in chickens immunized by the oral or intra-muscular immunization route with Ascaridia galli soluble antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    In chickens, the nematode Ascaridia galli is found with prevalences of up to 100% causing economic losses to farmers. No avian nematode vaccines have yet been developed and detailed knowledge about the chicken immune response towards A. galli is therefore of great importance. The objective...... of this study was to evaluate the induction of protective immune responses to A. galli soluble antigen by different immunization routes. Chickens were immunized with a crude extract of A. galli via an oral or intra-muscular route using cholera toxin B subunit as adjuvant and subsequently challenged with A....... galli. Only chickens immunized via the intra-muscular route developed a specific A. galli antibody response. Frequencies of γδ T cells in spleen were higher 7 days after the first immunization in both groups but only significantly so in the intra-muscularly immunized group. In addition, systemic...

  2. Dietary effects on stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids in polar and neutral fraction of intramuscular fat of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Katryna A; Camin, Federica; Jerónimo, Eliana; Vasta, Valentina; Prenzler, Paul D; Ryan, Danielle; Bessa, Rui J B

    2017-10-03

    In this study we measured 13C values of the main fatty acids (FA) present in neutral and polar intramuscular lipids of meat samples from 24 lambs, fed with four different diets supplemented with sunflower and linseed oil and the tanniferous shrub Cistus ladanifer L. The objective was to understand if the increase in intramuscular fat observed in lambs fed simultaneously C. ladanifer and oil was explained mostly by incorporation of diet derived FA or by increased de novo FA synthesis. De novo FA synthesis was evaluated by 13C enrichment (‰) of 16:0 in intramuscular lipids compared to bulk diet or compared to dietary 16:0. Oil reduced 13C enrichment of 16:0 in muscle lipid, but had no effect when the diet included C. ladanifer (P value < 0.01). Thus dietary C. ladanifer blocked the inhibitory effects of lipid supplementation on de novo FA synthesis.

  3. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke.

  4. Testicular biodistribution of silica-gold nanoparticles after intramuscular injection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Forest, Valérie; Boudard, Delphine; Martini, Matteo; Pourchez, Jérémie; Blanchin, Marie-Geneviève; Cottier, Michèle

    2015-08-01

    With the continuing development of nanomaterials, the assessment of their potential impact on human health, and especially human reproductive toxicity, is a major issue. The testicular biodistribution of nanoparticles remains poorly studied. This study investigated whether gold-silica nanoparticles could be detected in mouse testes after intramuscular injection, with a particular focus on their ability to cross the blood-testis barrier. To that purpose, well-characterized 70-nm gold core-silica shell nanoparticles were used to ensure sensitive detection using high-resolution techniques. Testes were collected at different time points corresponding to spermatogenesis stages in mice. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy were used for nanoparticle detection, and nanoparticle quantification was performed by atomic emission spectroscopy. All these techniques showed that no particles were able to reach the testes. Results accorded with the normal histological appearance of testes even at 45 days post sacrifice. High-resolution techniques did not detect 70-nm silica-gold nanoparticles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. These results are reassuring about the safety of nanoparticles with regard to male human reproduction, especially in the context of nanomedicine.

  5. A successfully treated case of necrotizing fasciitis with complicated sepsis due to intramuscular steroid injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Karakas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrotising fasciitis is a devastating soft tissue infection which characterised by rapidly progressing necrosis involving mainly fascia and subcutaneous tissues. A 66-year old male patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to our hospital with fever, pain and swelling in the right thigh and right leg, difficulty in walking, dry mouth and weakness. There was a single dose intramuscular steroid injection story in his anamnesis. Physical examination revealed swelling, hyperemia and pain in the right gluteal region spreading through the right femur and popliteal fossa. He was diagnosed necrotizing fasciitis complicated with sepsis. We administered the supportive therapy and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in addition to the surgical debridement, vacuum assisted closure and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient was discharged after six months of the follow-up period in hospital. In conclusion, Health-care personnel should be careful when the intramuscular injections planned for patients at the risk of development of necrotizing fasciitis reason of their chronic illnesses or immunosuppressive conditions. In patients who developed necrotizing fasciitis despite everything, we want to strongly emphasise the advantageous hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an additional therapy to the broad spectrum antibiotherapy and surgical debridement [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 787-791

  6. Tolerability of intramuscular and intradermal delivery by CELLECTRA® adaptive constant current electroporation device in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Malissa C; Lee, Jessica C; Daniels, Stephen E; Tebas, Pablo; Khan, Amir S; Giffear, Mary; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Bagarazzi, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccines are being developed as a potentially safe and effective immunization platform. However, translation of DNA vaccines into a clinical setting has produced results that have fallen short of those generated in a preclinical setting. Various strategies are being developed to address this lack of potency, including improvements in delivery methods. Electroporation (EP) creates transient increases in cell membrane permeability, thus enhancing DNA uptake and leading to a more robust immune response. Here, we report on the safety and tolerability of delivering sterile saline via intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) injection followed by in vivo electroporation using the CELLECTRA® adaptive constant current device in healthy adults from two open-label studies. Pain, as assessed by VAS, was highest immediately after EP but diminishes by about 50% within 5 min. Mean VAS scores appear to correlate with the amount of energy delivered and depth of needle insertion, especially for intramuscular EP. Mean scores did not exceed 7 out of 10 or 3 out of 10 for IM and ID EP, respectively. The majority of adverse events included mild to moderate injection site reactions that resolved within one day. No deaths or serious adverse events were reported during the course of either study. Overall, injection followed by EP with the CELLECTRA® device was well-tolerated and no significant safety concerns were identified. These studies support the further development of electroporation as a vaccine delivery method to enhance immunogenicity, particularly for diseases in which traditional vaccination approaches are ineffective. PMID:24051434

  7. Intramuscular Anabolic Signaling and Endocrine Response Following Resistance Exercise: Implications for Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function is critical for disease prevention, mobility and quality of life, and whole-body metabolism. Resistance exercise is known to be a major regulator for promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass accretion. Manipulation of exercise intensity, volume, and rest elicit specific muscular adaptations that can maximize the magnitude of muscle growth. The stimulus of muscle contraction that occurs during differing intensities of resistance exercise results in varying biochemical responses regulating the rate of protein synthesis, known as mechanotransduction. At the cellular level, skeletal muscle adaptation appears to be the result of the cumulative effects of transient changes in gene expression following acute bouts of exercise. Thus, maximizing the resistance exercise-induced anabolic response produces the greatest potential for hypertrophic adaptation with training. The mechanisms involved in converting mechanical signals into the molecular events that control muscle growth are not completely understood; however, skeletal muscle protein synthesis appears to be regulated by the multi-protein phosphorylation cascade, mTORC1 (mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1). The purpose of this review is to examine the physiological response to resistance exercise, with particular emphasis on the endocrine response and intramuscular anabolic signaling through mTORC1. It appears that resistance exercise protocols that maximize muscle fiber recruitment, time-under-tension, and metabolic stress will contribute to maximizing intramuscular anabolic signaling; however, the resistance exercise parameters for maximizing the anabolic response remain unclear.

  8. [Prediction of optimal gluteal intramuscular needle length by skinfold thickness measurements in Korean adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Won; Sohng, Kyeoung-Yae; Kim, Bum-Soo

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess optimal needle length for gluteal intramuscular injections (IM) via simple skinfold thickness (SFT). For this study, 190 healthy adults were recruited and grouped into eight groups according to gender and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m²). The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity criteria defines a BMI under 20 as underweight, 20.1-22.9 as normal, 23-24.9 as overweight and over 25 as obese. For each participant, the SFT of dorsoguteal (DG) and ventrogluteal (VG) sites were measured using a caliper. Subcutaneous tissue thickness was acquired through ultrasonic images. For men in the overweight and obese groups at the DG site, for the obese group at the VG site, and for women in the normal weight, overweight and obese groups at both sites, the mean subcutaneous tissue thickness exceeded 1.84 cm, the minimal length for a 1 inch needle used for IM. At the DG site, optimal intramuscular needle length (OINL) was 1.4 times in women and 1.0 times in men compared to SFT. At the VG site, OINL was 1.3 times in women and 0.9 times in men compared to SFT. The results of this study suggest that SFT is a reliable index to determine optimal needle length with minimal effort prior to IM.

  9. Early biochemical and hematological response to intramuscular cyanocobalamin therapy in vitamin B(12)-deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, M Azam; Stea, Tonje Holte; Schneede, Jørn; Reine, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Data on early biochemical and hematological responses to cobalamin therapy in vitamin B12-deficient patients are scarce. Therefore, we investigated whether cobalamin injections would include prompt biochemical and hematological responses in vitamin B12-deficient patients. Seven female patients (mean age: 69.4 years, range: 61-78) with a mean serum cobalamin level of 104 ± 38 pmol/l mean ± SD and 7 male patients (mean age: 67.0 years, range: 53-78) with a mean serum cobalamin level of 84 ± 40 (±SD) participated in the study. They were administered 1 mg i.m. cyanocobalamin per week for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after cobalamin injection. The concentrations of plasma aminothiols and serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively, and hematological parameters were determined with a hematological analyzer. Already 1 day after intramuscular Cobalamin injections, the concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and plasma total cysteine were significantly increased while the concentrations of serum folate, plasma total homocysteine and serum MMA were decreased. Mean cell volume was also significantly decreased first after 14 days of therapy. Intramuscular cobalamin administration causes swift and significant changes in plasma aminothiols, whereas the first change in hematological parameters was detected only after 14 days. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of oral transmucosal and intramuscular dexmedetomidine combined with buprenorphine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, N; de Rooster, H; Bosmans, T; Baert, K; Cherlet, M; Croubels, S; De Backer, P; Polis, I

    2015-04-01

    Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of their combination in healthy adult cats were compared. According to a crossover protocol (1-month washout), a combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was given OTM (buccal cavity) or i.m. (quadriceps muscle) in six female neutered cats. Plasma samples were collected through a jugular catheter during a 24-h period. Plasma dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. For dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax ) were significantly lower following OTM than following i.m. administration. For buprenorphine, time to reach Cmax was also significantly longer after OTM administration than after i.m. injection. Data suggested that dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) combined with buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) is not as well absorbed from the buccal mucosa site as from the intramuscular injection site.

  11. Miniature optical fiber pressure microsensors for in vivo measurement of intramuscular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottler, P. S.; Blevins, D.; Averett, J.; Wavering, T. A.; Morrow, D. A.; Shin, A. Y.; Kaufman, K. R.

    2007-02-01

    An innovative fiber optic pressure microsensor has been developed that is based upon on Luna Innovations' patented extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) technique. The basic physics governing the operation of these sensors makes them relatively tolerant or immune to the effects of high-temperature, high-EMI, and highly-corrosive environments. Luna's pressure microsensor is extremely small, with an outer diameter of only 200 microns and a length of less than 1mm. The pressure microsensor has a high sensitivity that allows for sub-mmHg resolution over a dynamic range of 0-300 mmHg. The combination of these features makes this pressure microsensor ideal for medical applications where small size, high sensitivity and accuracy, EMI immunity, biocompatibility, and survivability (e.g. sterilizable - steam, ethylene oxide) are important. One example medical application of the pressure microsensor has been to adapt the microsensor for measurement of intramuscular pressure in vivo during active and passive muscle activation. Clinically it is difficult to study the in vivo mechanical properties of individual skeletal muscles for a variety of reasons. Initial experiments have demonstrated a correlation between intramuscular pressure and force. Such measurements can be a useful diagnostic tool for clinicians assessing muscular deficits in patients.

  12. Inflammatory responses following intramuscular and subcutaneous immunization with aluminum-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Maeda, Mika; Kawashima, Hisashi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-06-05

    Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines are administered through an intramuscular injection (IM) in the US and EU, however, a subcutaneous injection (SC) has been recommended in Japan because of serious muscle contracture previously reported following multiple IMs of antibiotics. Newly introduced adjuvanted vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, have been recommended through IM. In the present study, currently available vaccines were evaluated through IM in mice. Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induced inflammatory nodules at the injection site, which expanded into the intra-muscular space without any muscle degeneration or necrosis, whereas non-adjuvanted vaccines did not. These nodules consisted of polymorph nuclear neutrophils with some eosinophils within the initial 48h, then monocytes/macrophages 1 month later. Inflammatory nodules were observed 6 months after IM, had decreased in size, and were absorbed 12 months after IM, which was earlier than that after SC. Cytokine production was examined in the injected muscular tissues and AS04 adjuvanted HPV induced higher IL-1β, IL-6, KC, MIP-1, and G-CSF levels in muscle tissues than any other vaccine, but similar serum cytokine profiles were observed to those induced by the other vaccines. Currently available vaccines did not induce muscular degeneration or fibrotic scar as observed with muscle contracture caused by multiple IMs of antibiotics in the past.

  13. Pharmacokinetic profiles of meloxicam in turtles (Trachemys scripta scripta) after single oral, intracoelomic and intramuscular administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, A; Giorgi, M; Catanzaro, A; Deli, G; della Rocca, G

    2016-02-01

    Meloxicam is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug used to treat many pathological conditions in turtles. With the aim to fill the lack of data about its pharmacokinetic in this species, eighteen turtles (Trachemys scripta scripta) were divided in three groups and treated with a single dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) by intramuscular, intracoelomic and oral route, respectively. At scheduled time points, blood samples were collected and meloxicam concentrations were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the obtained concentration-time curves. After intramuscular treatment, a plasma peak of meloxicam equal to 1590.03 ± 1845.32 ng/mL (mean ± SD) and a Tmax of 1.17 ± 0.45 h were reached, indicating a quick absorption of the drug. The intracoelomic administration brought to the largest AUC (12621.04 ± 6203.79 h*ng/mL) and to a Cmax and a Tmax equal to 1154.52 ± 662.78 ng/mL and 2.82 ± 1.39 h, respectively. Following oral treatment, the plasma concentrations of meloxicam were very low indicating a scarce absorption. Further studies are warranted to determine the effective plasma concentration of meloxicam in turtles and, consequently, the dosage regimen.

  14. Efficacy of intramuscular diclofenac and fluid replacement in prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Altug Senol; Ulku Saritas; Halil Demirkan

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To assess the efficacy of intramuscular diclofenac and fluid replacement for prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis.METHODS:A prospective,placebo-controlled study was conducted in 80 patients who underwent ERCP.Patients were randomized to receive parenteral diclofenac at a loading dose of 75 mg followed by the infusion of 5-10 mL/kg per hour isotonic saline over 4 h after the procedure,or the infusion of 500 mL isotonic saline as placebo.Patients were evaluated clinically,and serum amylase levels were measured 4,8 and 24 h after the procedure.RESULTS:The two groups were matched for age,sex,underlying disease,ERCP findings,and type of treatment.The overall incidence of pancreatitis was 7.5% in the diclofenac group and 17.5% in the placebo group (12.5% in total).There were no significant differences in the incidence of pancreatitis and other variables between the two groups.In the subgroup analysis,the frequency of pancreatitis in the patients without sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) was significantly lower in the diclofenac group than in the control group (P=0.047).CONCLUSION:Intramuscular diclofenac and fluid replacement lowered the rate of pancreatitis in patients without SOD.

  15. INFLUENCE OF INTRAMUSCULAR APPLICATION OF AUTOLOGOUS CONDITIONED PLASMA ON SYSTEMIC CIRCULATING IGF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Schippinger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP to increase levels of platelets and growth factors has been used for the treatment of sports injuries suggesting to improve healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential especially for elite athletes. However, the insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency and, in addition, there may be a possible link between increased levels of IGF-1 and cancer risk. Aim of the study was to evaluate a systemic increase of IGF-1 after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young healthy moderately trained male subjects. Blood samples were drawn and PRP preparation was performed by means of centrifugation. Enriched plasma was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as after 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. IGF-1 analysis was performed applying an ELISA test kit. No significant systemic increase of mean IGF-1 was found after the PRP injection. Only one subject showed an increase after 24 h, but all IGF-1 values were found within reference limits. We conclude that a single intramuscular application of PRP does not significantly increase systemic IGF-1 levels. Therefore, a single application of PRP is safe with respect to systemic IGF-1 response and cancer risk and this should be allowed for treatment of muscle injuries in elite athletes

  16. Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We read with interest the article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic and rdquo; by Mohan H et al published in November - December 2015, volume 4 issue 6 of International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology.1 As we read it, we realized that the article is quite similar to another article and ldquo;Intravenous paracetamol infusion versus intramuscular tramadol as an intra-partum labor analgesic and rdquo; by Lallar M et al.2 Although the authors quote this article as their reference, the degree of similarity between the two articles is beyond our acceptance. Hence we would like to bring it to your notice. We know that any original research should be encouraged to be published, but the authenticity in style of writing the same should be maintained and plagiarism to such a high extent is not acceptable. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3268-3268

  17. Immediate effect of percutaneous intramuscular stimulation during gait in children with cerebral palsy: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlin, Margo N; Pierce, Samuel R; Stackhouse, Carrie Laughton; Smith, Brian T; Johnston, Therese; Shewokis, Patricia A; McCarthy, James J

    2005-10-01

    The feasibility of percutaneous intramuscular functional electrical stimulation (P-FES) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) for immediate improvement of ankle kinematics during gait has not previously been reported. Eight children with CP (six with diplegia, two with hemiplegia; mean age 9 years 1 month [SD 1 y 4 mo; range 7 y 11 mo to 11 y 10 mo]) had percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted into the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of their involved limbs. Stimulation was provided during appropriate phases of the gait cycle in three conditions (GA only, TA only, and GA/TA). immediately after a week of practice for each stimulation condition, a gait analysis was performed with and without stimulation. A significant improvement in peak dorsiflexion in swing for the more affected extremity and dorsiflexion at initial contact for the less affected extremity were found in the GA/TA condition. Clinically meaningful trends were evident for improvements in dorsiflexion kinematics for the more and less affected extremities in the TA only and GA/TA conditions. The results suggest that P-FES might immediately improve ankle kinematics in children with CP.

  18. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  19. Treatment for Intramuscular Lipoma Frequently Confused with Sarcoma: A 6-Year Restrospective Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intramuscular lipoma is a very rare form of lipoma, known to be categorized as an infiltrating lipoma due to its tendencies to infiltrate the muscle or the synovium. Contrary to other subcutaneous lipomas, even after surgical removal, the rate of local recurrence ranges at a high rate from 50∼80% and differential diagnosis with liposarcoma is very difficult. Patients and Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted for a total of 27 patients. Before performing a surgery based on the types of mass, a radiologic imaging study was performed. An intraoperative frozen biopsy was performed on every patient and the results were compared. The progress was monitored every 3 to 6 months for recurrence or struggles with rehabilitation. Results. There were 13 male and 14 female patients with an average age of 54.6. The average tumor size was 8.2 cm (1.1 cm∼31.6 cm. Excision was performed using a wide excision. All 27 individuals were initially diagnosed as intramuscular lipoma; however, 1 of the patients was rediagnosed as liposarcoma in the final checkup. The patients had an average of 3 years and 1 month of follow-up and did not suffer recurrences. Conclusion. Thus, it is essential that a frozen biopsy is performed during the surgery in order to identify its malignancy. And a wide excision like malignant tumor operation is a principle of treatment.

  20. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  1. Proteomic analysis of bovine omental, subcutaneous and intramuscular preadipocytes during in vitro adipogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Ramanna Valmiki; Heo, Gang-Nyung; Park, Mi-Rim; Nam, Jin-Seon; Kim, Nam-Kuk; Yoon, Duhak; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2010-09-01

    Given the substantial rise in obesity, depot-specific fat accumulation and its associated diseases like diabetes, it is important to understand the molecular basis of depot-specific adipocyte differentiation. Many studies have successfully exploited the adipocyte differentiation, but most of them were not related to depot-specificity, particularly using freshly isolated primary preadipocytes. Using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with sequencing mass spectrometry, we searched and compared the proteins differentially expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated preadipocytes from bovine omental, subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose depots. Our proteome mapping strategy to identify differentially expressed intracellular proteins during adipogenic conversion revealed 65 different proteins that were found to be common for the three depots. Further, we validated the differential expression for a subset of proteins by immunoblotting analyses. The results demonstrated that many structural proteins were down-regulated during differentiation of preadipocytes from all the depots. Most up-regulated proteins like Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase complex core protein I (UQCRC1), ATP synthase D chain, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1), Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) and Heat-shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) across the three depots were found to be associated with lipid metabolism and metabolic activity. Further, all the up-regulated proteins were found to have higher protein expression in omental than subcutaneous or intramuscular depots.

  2. Letter: Localized cutaneous reaction to intramuscular vitamin K in a patient with acute fatty liver of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tatiana; Hunter, Lindsey; Petitt, Matthew; Wilkerson, Michael George

    2010-12-15

    Vitamin K1 is frequently used in the treatment and prevention of hypoprothrombinemia and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. It also serves as an antidote to anticoagulants. Erythematous, indurated, pruritic plaques uncommonly occur in adults after intramuscular injection with vitamin K1. We present a case of a localized cutaneous reaction to intramuscular vitamin K1 in a peripartum patient with acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The history and clinical presentation of our case is presented with a discussion of the pathogenesis pathogenesis of vitamin K1 and available treatment for this condition.

  3. [Nicolau syndrome induced by intramuscular injection of a hexavalent vaccine in a 6-month-old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Paola C; Garello, Mónica; Nolte, María F; Lamy, Patricia; Giglio, Norberto; Castellano, Vanesa; Gentile, Ángela

    2017-02-01

    Nicolau syndrome, also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or livedo-like dermatitis, is a sudden tissue necrosis, a rare complication of intramuscular injection of some drugs. We report a case of a 6-month-old girl who received intramuscularly the third dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP- HVB-IPV/HIb), and immediately presented a livedoid lesion around the injection site, progressing to necrosis. We reinforce the importance of early diagnosis to perform a suitable treatment and clinical follow-up to avoid ischemic secondary complications.

  4. Dynamics and chemistry of vortex remnants in late Arctic spring 1997 and 2000: Simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konopka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution simulations of the chemical composition of the Arctic stratosphere during late spring 1997 and 2000 were performed with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS. The simulations were performed for the entire northern hemisphere on two isentropic levels 450 K (~18 km and 585 K (~24 km. The spatial distribution and the lifetime of the vortex remnants formed after the vortex breakup in May 1997 display different behavior above and below 20 km. Above 20 km, vortex remnants propagate southward (up to 40°N and are "frozen in'' in the summer circulation without significant mixing. Below 20 km the southward propagation of the remnants is bounded by the subtropical jet. Their lifetime is shorter by a factor of 2 than that above 20 km, owing to significant stirring below this altitude. The behavior of vortex remnants formed in March 2000 is similar but, due to an earlier vortex breakup, dominated during the first 6 weeks after the vortex breakup by westerly winds, even above 20 km. Vortex remnants formed in May 1997 are characterized by large mixing ratios of HCl indicating negligible, halogen-induced ozone loss. In contrast, mid-latitude ozone loss in late boreal spring 2000 is dominated, until mid-April, by halogen-induced ozone destruction within the vortex remnants, and subsequent transport of the ozone-depleted polar air masses (dilution into the mid-latitudes. By varying the intensity of mixing in CLaMS, the impact of mixing on the formation of ClONO2 and ozone depletion is investigated. We find that the photochemical decomposition of HNO3 and not mixing with NOx-rich mid-latitude air is the main source of NOx within the vortex remnants in March and April 2000. Ozone depletion in the remnants is driven by ClOx photolytically formed from ClONO2. At the end of May 1997, the halogen-induced ozone deficit at 450 K poleward of 30°N amounts to ~12% with ~10% in the polar vortex and ~2% in well-isolated vortex remnants

  5. The inhibitory effect of CLA on mice forestomach neoplasia induced by B(a)P%轭型亚油酸对B(a)P诱导小鼠前胃癌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赟; 邱隽; 陈炳卿; 刘瑞海

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory effect of CLA on the postinitiation phase of forestomach neoplasia formation induced by B(a)P and explore its possible mechanism of anticarcinogenesis.Methods Kunming mice were divided into five groups, i.e.salad oil control group, CLA control group, B(a)P group, B(a)P+high dose CLA group and B(a)P+low dose CLA group.The experimental period was 23 weeks, and the endpoints included cell proliferation, expression of Pan-ras P21 and some enzymes.Results Short term CLA treated significantly inhibited the forestomach neoplasia formation induced by B(a)P at postinitiation phase.The incidence of tumor in the groups of B(a)P, B(a)P+high dose CLA and B(a)P+low dose CLA was 100%, 60% and 69% respectively (P<0.05).The possible mechanism of this anticarcinogenic effect may be related to the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of the activities of GSH-Px, GST and SOD, irrespective of the regulation of expression of Pan-ras P21.Conclusion CLA is a promising chemopreventive agent, and its anticarcinogenic effect may involve its effects on the redox system.%目的研究共轭型亚油酸(CAL)的抑癌作用,并为进一步探讨CLA的抑癌机制提供线索。方法以B(a)P诱导建立小鼠前胃癌动物模型,观察CLA对小鼠前胃癌促长阶段的抑制效果,共分5组,即色拉油阴性对照组、CLA阴性对照组、B(a)P阳性对照组、B(a)P+CLA高剂量实验组和B(a)P+CLA低剂量实验组。整个实验期为23周,检测细胞增殖、Pan-ras P21蛋白表达和氧化还原酶等指标。结果短期给予CLA对B(a)P诱导的小鼠前胃癌促长阶段具有明显的抑制作用,B(a)P阳性对照组、B(a)P+CLA高剂量实验组和B(a)P+CLA低剂量实验组的肿瘤发生率分别为100%、60%和69%。其抑癌机制与其对细胞增殖活力的抑制及对机体GSH-Px、GST和SOD酶活力的诱导作用有关,而并不依赖于对Pan-ras P21蛋白表达的调节

  6. Effects of two supplementation levels of linseed combined with CLA or tallow on meat quality traits and fatty acid profile of adipose and different muscle tissues in slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, G; Jacot, S; Guex, G; Biolley, C

    2008-05-01

    Dietary linseed supply efficiently elevates the linolenic acid concentration of pork. The main problem of increasing the n-3 fatty acid tissue levels arises from a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Increasing the saturation level of tissue lipids by the dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) or tallow might prevent oxidation. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of dietary CLA or tallow supplementation combined with extruded linseed on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of muscles (longissimus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) and subcutaneous fat (SF). The enzyme activity of the de novo lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in the SF was also assessed. From 18 to 104 kg BW, 32 Swiss Large White barrows were fed a diet supplemented with either: (1) 2% linseed (L2); (2) 3% linseed (L3); (3) 2% linseed + 1% CLA (L2-C) or (4) 2% linseed + 1% tallow (L2-T). The linolenic and eicosatrienoic acid concentrations were higher (P 0.05) affected by the dietary fats, whereas Δ9-desaturase activity was depressed (P tallow, combined with extruded linseed enhanced the oxidative stability of pork probably by lowering the degree of unsaturation of the lipids without affecting the improved ∑n-6/∑n-3 ratio.

  7. Hydrogen bonded NHO chains formed by chloranilic acid (CLA) with 4,4‧-di-t-butyl-2,2‧-bipyridyl (dtBBP) in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bator, G.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Sobczyk, L.; Owczarek, M.; Pawlukojć, A.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2012-01-01

    In crystalline state 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid, CLA) forms with 4,4'-di-t-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (dtBBP) the hydrogen bonded chains along the b-axis. From one side of the CLA molecule the proton transfer takes place and the hydrogen bond length is very short (2.615 Å). A continuous infrared absorption is observed for dtBBP·CLA in the wavenumber range between 3100 and 800 cm -1 also indicating the strong hydrogen bonds. The DSC measurements show a weak, close to continuous, phase transition at 414 K. The complex dielectric permittivity for a single crystal sample was measured in the temperature range 100-440 K and at frequencies between 200 Hz and 2 MHz. The dielectric response is a combination of semiconducting properties and a relaxation process most probably connected with the proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds. The mechanism of the structural phase transition is discussed.

  8. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced by enzyma......In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced...... by enzymatic interesterification with caprylic acid. Oxidative stability was compared in the five lipids themselves and in milk drinks containing 5% of the different SL. During storage, samples were taken for chemical and physical analyses. Moreover, sensory assessments were performed on milk drinks....... The oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  9. Genetic analyses and quantitative trait loci detection, using a partial genome scan, for intramuscular fatty acid composition in Scottish Blackface sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamichou, E; Richardson, R I; Nute, G R; Gibson, K P; Bishop, S C

    2006-12-01

    Genetic parameters for LM fatty acid composition were estimated in Scottish Blackface sheep, previously divergently selected for carcass lean content (LEAN and FAT lines). Furthermore, QTL were identified for the same fatty acids. Fatty acid phenotypic measurements were made on 350 male lambs, at approximately 8 mo of age, and 300 of these lambs were genotyped across candidate regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 14, 18, 20, and 21. Fatty acid composition measurements included in total 17 fatty acids of 3 categories: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Total i.m. fat content was estimated as the sum of the fatty acids. The FAT line had a greater i.m. fat content and more oleic acid, but less linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) than did the LEAN line. Saturated fatty acids were moderately heritable, ranging from 0.19 to 0.29, and total SFA were highly heritable (0.90). Monounsaturated fatty acids were moderately to highly heritable, with cis-vaccenic acid (18:1 n-7) being the most heritable (0.67), and total MUFA were highly heritable (0.73). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were also moderately to highly heritable; arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) and CLA were the most heritable, with values of 0.60 and 0.48, respectively. The total PUFA were moderately heritable (0.40). The QTL analyses were performed using regression interval mapping techniques. In total, 21 chromosome-wide QTL were detected in 6 out of 8 chromosomal regions. The chromosome-wide, significant QTL affected 3 SFA, 5 MUFA, and 13 PUFA. The most significant result was a QTL affecting linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) on chromosome 2. This QTL segregated in 2 of the 9 families and explained 37.6% of the phenotypic variance. Also, 10 significant QTL were identified on chromosome 21, where 8 out of 10 QTL were segregating in the same families and detected at the same position. The results of this study demonstrate that altering carcass fatness will simultaneously change i.m. fat

  10. TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Intramuscular fat deposition in ruminants and pigs: A transcriptomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, B P; Guo, B

    2017-05-01

    The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies. However, the genes encoding the synthesis enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase; the fatty acid binding protein 4; the potential signaling protein thyroid hormone responsive; and the regulators C/EBPα, PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 are supported by 5 or more of the 90 studies. By combining the results of all the studies, complete pathways for long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) and triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis are identified, as are a number of genes encoding proteins probably associated with the storage of TAG and genes encoding a number of known and potential adipokines. In contrast, support for the association of lipolytic pathways with IMF percentage is less strong. Differences in experimental design-in particular, the age of the animals, the rate of IMF deposition at sampling, the past nutritional history of the animals used, and the complexities of using a tissue with mixed cell types-have contributed to the differences in results and interpretation. Biomarkers predictive of future IMF percentage, facilitating reaching optimal IMF content at slaughter, may have industry utility, but to be useful in animal biopsy and postslaughter samples, where multiple cell types are present, genes must be carefully chosen to ensure that they are informative about the expected processes. Despite these problems, candidate biomarkers for estimation of de novo

  11. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis.

  12. On the combined use of scratch tests and CLA profilometry for the characterization of polyester powder coatings: Influence of scratch load and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Lusvarghi, L.; Bolelli, G.; Rubino, G.

    2008-09-01

    The prediction of the mechanical properties of polyester powder coatings is of paramount importance, as they have to undergo a wide variety of forces and deformations during their service life. Determine the response of polymeric coatings to the actual loading conditions can be, however, very troublesome as their properties are function of the material physical state, rate-dependence and yield and break behaviour. Further, the characterization of soft, contaminated organic surfaces such as polymers can often cause severe problems with reliability and imaging accuracy due to instrumental artefacts. This is therefore the context in which this paper investigates the capability of multiple parameters scratch tests joined with non-contact CLA profilometry and FE-SEM to detect the scratch response of polyester powder coatings for protective and decorative outdoor applications. Scratch tests with blunt contact geometry were used to evaluate the response of polyester coatings baked at different time-temperature programs and, so, at different stages of their curing process. In particular, being such coatings highly non-linear in their response to mechanical stress or strain, the influence from scratch load and speed was carefully taken into account. Analytical evaluations of the experimental results led to good correlations between the extent of the deformed zone after scratch, scratch parameters and curing operational settings. This allows mapping the scratch response of the polyester topcoats to broad ranges of both scratch parameters and curing conditions.

  13. Salt and intramuscular fat modulate dynamic perception of flavour and texture in dry-cured hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt and intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of two different types of dry-cured hams (Iberian and Serrano) using the time-intensity (TI) method. All studied TI parameters of flavour attributes (overall flavour, saltiness, cured and rancid flavours) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by variations in the salt and/or IMF content. However, regarding texture attributes only the maximum intensity (Imax) of hardness was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the salt content of hams. Compared to Iberian dry-cured hams, the dynamic perception of the flavour and texture of Serrano dry-cured hams was less influenced by variations in salt and/or IMF content. The dynamic sensory techniques may be helpful to guarantee the quality of dry-cured products subjected to strategies of salt and fat reduction.

  14. Changes in intramuscular lipids during ripening of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    1999-02-01

    Thirty-one thighs were obtained from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and were processed during 22 months in the traditional dry-curing process. Lipolysis affecting intramuscular fat during the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been analyzed by studying the changes of glycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids in lipids from Biceps femoris muscle. Little change affected the fatty acid composition of glycerides during processing. A double-phased increase in the acidity values and a decrease in the quantity of fatty acids of phospholipids during the processing were observed. There seems to be a relationship between the extension of the lipolysis taking place during the maturing and the processing conditions and raw material used.

  15. Tissue Response to, and Degradation Rate of, Photocrosslinked Trimethylene Carbonate-Based Elastomers Following Intramuscular Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Amsden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical elastomers were prepared through the UV-initiated crosslinking of terminally acrylated, 8,000 Da star-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-ε-caprolactone and star-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-D,L-lactide. These elastomers were implanted intramuscularly into the hind legs of male Wistar rats to determine the influence of the comonomer on the weight loss, tissue response, and change in mechanical properties of the elastomer. The elastomers exhibited only a mild inflammatory response that subsided after the first week; the response was greater for the stiffer D,L-lactide-containing elastomers. The elastomers exhibited weight loss and sol content changes consistent with a bulk degradation mechanism. The D,L-lactide-containing elastomers displayed a nearly zeroorder change in Young’s modulus and stress at break over the 30 week degradation time, while the ε-caprolactone-containing elastomers exhibited little change in modulus or stress at break.

  16. Liquid chromatographic determination and depletion profile of oxytetracycline in milk after repeated intramuscular administration in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletouris, Dimitrios J; Papapanagiotou, Elias P; Nakos, Dimitrios S

    2008-12-01

    A simple, rapid and specific ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for the routine determination of the marker residue of oxytetracycline in sheep milk, at levels as low as 20 microg/kg, has been developed. Milk samples were acidified and extracted with acetonitrile. The extracts were purified by treatment with ammonium sulphate and concentrated into diluted phosphoric acid. Separation was carried out isocratically on a Nucleosil C(18) column using a mobile phase that contained both positively and negatively charged pairing ions. The in-house validated method gave overall recoveries and overall relative standard deviations better than 86% and 4.6%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to study the depletion of oxytetracycline in sheep milk and to estimate the withdrawal period after intramuscular administration of a commercial oxytetracycline formulation.

  17. Treatment of malabsorption vitamin D deficiency myopathy with intramuscular vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaarubi, Saif; Rodd, Celia

    2005-07-01

    A nearly 5 year-old boy presented with proximal muscle weakness, reduced muscle bulk, a positive Gower sign and Trendelenburg gait. He was known to have cholestatic liver disease. Investigations revealed markedly low serum total calcium, elevated alkaline phosphatase, very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and radiographs consistent with active rickets despite the ongoing administration of a water-soluble preparation of vitamin D. Only i.v. calcitriol acutely corrected the hypocalcemia, despite trying several oral preparations, suggesting that malabsorption secondary to chronic liver disease was the cause of his rickets. Intramuscular calciferol quickly corrected his muscle weakness and X-ray findings. Myopathy secondary to vitamin D deficiency is an uncommon diagnosis in children. Intermittent calciferol is an inexpensive and practical treatment for vitamin D deficiency, especially if associated with malabsorption.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of a florfenicol-tylosin combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-04-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of a commercial florfenicol-tylosin (2:1) combination product was conducted in six beagle dogs after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration at doses of 10 mg/kg (florfenicol) and 5 mg/kg (tylosin). Serum drug concentrations were determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using UV detection. A rapid and nearly complete absorption of both drugs with a mean IM bioavailability of 103.9% (florfenicol) and 92.6% (tylosin), prolonged elimination half-life, and high tissue penetration with steady state volume of distribution of 2.63 l/kg (florfenicol) and 1.98 l/kg (tylosin) were observed. Additional studies, including pharmacodynamic and toxicological evaluation are required before recommendations can be made regarding the clinical application of the product in dogs.

  19. Neuro-ophthalmological manifestations after intramuscular medroxyprogesterone: a forme fruste of idiopathic intracranial hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandreker Bahall

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 22-year-old female student nurse who presented to hospital with an acute neuro-ophthalmological syndrome characterized by papilledema, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and headache after a single first time use of 150 mg medroxyprogesterone intramuscular injection. Clinical, laboratory, radiological and ophthalmological investigations were in keeping with the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension but lumbar puncture did not show a raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure suggesting a forme fruste of this entity. Her neuro-ophthalmological clinical features responded well to acetazolamide and diagnostic/ therapeutic lumbar puncture. Full recovery was achieved three months after medroxyprogesterone usage. Health care providers must be aware of this adverse drug reaction.

  20. Prediction of intramuscular fat levels in Texel lamb loins using X-ray computed tomography scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Conington, J; Maltin, C; Knott, S; Lambe, N R

    2014-10-01

    For the consumer, tenderness, juiciness and flavour are often described as the most important factors for meat eating quality, all of which have a close association with intramuscular fat (IMF). X-ray computed tomography (CT) can measure fat, muscle and bone volumes and weights, in vivo in sheep and CT predictions of carcass composition have been used in UK sheep breeding programmes over the last few decades. This study aimed to determine the most accurate combination of CT variables to predict IMF percentage of M. longissimus lumborum in Texel lambs. As expected, predicted carcass fat alone accounted for a moderate amount of the variation (R(2)=0.51) in IMF. Prediction accuracies were significantly improved (Adj R(2)>0.65) using information on fat and muscle densities measured from three CT reference scans, showing that CT can provide an accurate prediction of IMF in the loin of purebred Texel sheep.

  1. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma...... concentration profiles of tetracycline. All dosing regimens result in a clear growth advantage for resistant strains. Short treatment duration was found to be preferable, since it allowed less time for resistant strains to outcompete the susceptible ones. Dosing frequency appeared to be ineffective at reducing...

  2. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma......High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...

  3. COMPARISON OF INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT IN THE FIRST FARROWING GILTS AND IN THE FATTENING GILTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDRA JELIŃSKA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the slaughter value and meat quality of the first farrowing gilts with normal fattening gilts. The study was carried out on 30 primiparous gilts (A and 39 fattening gilts (B. Age of A gilts at slaughter was 371.03 days and that of B gilts was two times lower and attained 179.64 days. However carcass fatness of the younger B gilts was higher than of primiparous gilts (P < 0.05 and carcass lean content was high in both gilt groups. Meat characteristics were determined in longissimus lumborum muscle. Some differences between the compared gilt groups were stated in muscle colour, WHC, protein and intramuscular fat content. Higher IMF content was found in primiparous gilts (1.88 ± 0.50 versus 1.19 ± 0.39%; P< 0.01.

  4. [Surface analysis of intramuscular bioglass ceramic implants using pro ton-induced x-ray emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, A; Schwabe, F; Thieme, V; Hofmann, H; Berger, G

    1984-01-01

    The method of the proton induced x-ray emission ( PIXE ) was used for the investigation of ion exchange processes on the surface of intramuscularly implanted Bioglass-Ceramics. This method allows a simultaneous analysis free from destruction in concentrations ranges of ppm for several elements. The measurements were carried out with different proton energy, in that manner a relative quantity analysis was possible in different layers. A durable two-layered surface already originates in a short time after the implantation on the implant interface. This one consists of a layer rich in calcium and phosphorus as well as a second zone rich in silicon. The meaning of this two-layered surface for the bio-activity and the bio-stability of the material is discussed.

  5. Quantitative intramuscular myoelectric activity of quadratus lumborum during a wide variety of tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, S; Juker, D; Kropf, P

    1996-04-01

    Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes monitored the electromyographic activity of quadratus lumborum in four young adults. A wide variety of tasks were performed including flexion tasks, lateral bending, twisting, extension, and lifting tasks. Heavy lifts of barbell weights up to 70 kg activated the quadratus lumborum 74% of their maximum on average while surface recording of erector spinae (L(3)) were only 62% of their maximum activation. The quadratus lumborum was more active (54%) than other muscles during isometric side support postures where the body is held horizontally almost parallel to the floor as the subjects supported themselves on one elbow on the floor together with both feet. Furthermore, it increased activation in response to increasing compression in static upright standing postures. RELEVANCE:--Electromyographic evidence, together with architectural features make the quadratus lumborum a better stabilizer of the spine than psoas. Use of horizontal 'side support' exercise to train this muscle would appear to be a wise choice.

  6. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...... 500 mug digoxin showed a significant rise in CK, which lasted for 48 hours, and 6 of them had CK values exceeding the upper normal limit. Pentazocine in a dose of 30 mg given to 9 patients caused a significant rise in CK and LDH isoenzyme 1, but in no case did the level exceed the upper normal limit....... No rise in ASAT or total LDH was found after digoxin and pentazocine injections. No changes in enzymes were discovered after bumetanide or isotonic sodium chloride. In the diagnostic evaluation of acute myocardial infarction, a moderate rise in CK must be assessed with caution when the patients have...

  7. The Effect of the Timing of Intramuscular Oxytocin Injection on Maternal Bleeding during the Third Stage of Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Mohamadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The third stage of labour is one of the most troublesome stages of child delivery. The basic principle of the third stage management is administrating prophylactic uterotonics. However, the time of its administration varies in different hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effect of intramuscular oxytocin injection after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion on bleeding in the third stage of labour. Methodology: This clinical trial was conducted on 100 pregnant women with gestational age of 38-42 weeks, and singleton pregnancies. Subjects were selected using convenience sampling and were then randomly assigned to intervention (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder and control (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after placental expulsion groups. Blood was collected in containers and weighed with a weighing scale.  A checklist was used to record labor and delivery related data. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5, using Chi-square and t-test. Findings: The mean amount of bleeding during the third stage of labour was 183.4 ± 145.8 and 202.2 ±208.8 ml in intervention and control group, respectively. No significant difference was found between two groups in terms of maternal bleeding. Conclusion: Injection of intramuscular oxytocin either after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion does not affect the amount of maternal bleeding during the third stage of labour.

  8. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  9. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid c...

  10. The correlation of intramuscular fat content between muscles of the lamb carcass and the use of computed tomography to predict intramuscular fat percentage in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-07-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) % contributes positively to the juiciness and flavour of lamb and is therefore a useful indicator of eating quality. A rapid, non-destructive method of IMF determination like computed tomography (CT) would enable pre-sorting of carcasses based on IMF% and potential eating quality. Given the loin muscle (longissimus lumborum) is easy to sample, a single measurement at this site would be useful, providing is correlates well to other muscles. To determine the ability of CT to predict IMF%, this study used 400 animals and examined 5 muscles from three sections of the carcass: from the fore-section the m. supraspinatus and m. infraspinatus, from the saddle-section the m. longissimus lumborum and from the hind-section the m. semimembranosus and m. semitendinosus. The average CT pixel density of muscle was negatively associated with IMF% and can be used to predict IMF% although precision in this study was poor. The ability of CT to predict IMF% was greatest in the m. longissimus lumborum (slope -0.07) and smallest in the m. infraspinatus (slope -0.02). The correlation coefficients of IMF% between the five muscles were variable, with the highest correlation coefficients evident between muscles of the fore section (0.67 between the m. supraspinatus and the m. infraspinatus) and the weakest correlations were between the muscle of the fore and hind section. The correlation between the m. longissimus lumborum to the other muscles was fairly consistent with values ranging between 0.34 and 0.40 (partial correlation coefficient). The correlation between the proportion of carcass fat and the IMF% of the five muscles varied and was greatest in the m. longissimus lumborum (0.41).

  11. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

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    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  12. Sedentary aging increases resting and exercise-induced intramuscular free radical formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Damian M; McEneny, Jane; Mathieu-Costello, Odile; Henry, Robert R; James, Philip E; McCord, Joe M; Pietri, Sylvia; Young, Ian S; Richardson, Russell S

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondrial free radical formation has been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying degenerative senescence, although human data are lacking. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine if resting and exercise-induced intramuscular free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation is indeed increased across the spectrum of sedentary aging. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis in six young (26 + or - 6 yr) and six aged (71 + or - 6 yr) sedentary males at rest and after maximal knee extensor exercise. Aged tissue exhibited greater (P < 0.05 vs. the young group) electron paramagnetic resonance signal intensity of the mitochondrial ubisemiquinone radical both at rest (+138 + or - 62%) and during exercise (+143 + or - 40%), and this was further complemented by a greater increase in alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone adducts identified as a combination of lipid-derived alkoxyl-alkyl radicals (+295 + or - 96% and +298 + or - 120%). Lipid hydroperoxides were also elevated at rest (0.190 + or - 0.169 vs. 0.148 + or - 0.071 nmol/mg total protein) and during exercise (0.567 + or - 0.259 vs. 0.320 + or - 0.263 nmol/mg total protein) despite a more marked depletion of ascorbate and uptake of alpha/beta-carotene, retinol, and lycopene (P < 0.05 vs. the young group). The impact of senescence was especially apparent when oxidative stress biomarkers were expressed relative to the age-related decline in mitochondrial volume density and absolute power output at maximal exercise. In conclusion, these findings confirm that intramuscular free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation is elevated at rest and during acute exercise in aged humans.

  13. Postmortem redistribution of olanzapine following intramuscular administration of olanzapine pamoate in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jason T; Everly, Amy G; Kpakima, Felicia E Frazier; Detke, Holland C

    2015-12-01

    The potential for postmortem redistribution of olanzapine was investigated in beagle dogs. Olanzapine pamoate monohydrate was administered once every 14 days by intramuscular injection for 3 months to fed male dogs (n=15) at a dose of 20 mg/kg olanzapine (equivalent to 46 mg/kg olanzapine pamoate monohydrate). Blood samples were collected after the fifth (Day 57) and sixth (Day 71) doses to determine olanzapine and N-oxide olanzapine concentrations. On Day 71 at 72 h postdose, dogs were euthanized and placed on their backs without additional manipulation and held for postmortem blood, urine, and tissue collection at room temperature for up to 168 h postdose (96 h after euthanasia). Concentrations of olanzapine and N-oxide olanzapine were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Postmortem olanzapine concentrations in blood increased up to seven-fold compared to the last quantified antemortem blood concentration. Olanzapine concentrations in vein tissue samples (surrogates for peripheral blood) also increased, whereas other tissue concentrations, such as myocardium, lung, liver, and kidney decreased over the postmortem period. An increase in blood concentration of olanzapine after death was observed in all but one animal, suggesting that postmortem redistribution may occur in dogs following biweekly intramuscular administration of olanzapine pamoate monohydrate. The rise in olanzapine concentrations in blood after death in this study may potentially be attributed to diffusion from multiple tissues to blood and, to a lesser extent, reduction of the N-oxide olanzapine metabolite back to olanzapine. However, the generalizability of these results to humans cannot be confirmed by the present study.

  14. Intramuscular leukemic relapse: clinical signs and imaging findings. A multicentric analysis

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    Surov, Alexey [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Kiratli, Hayyam [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara (Turkey); Im, Soo Ah [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Manabe, Yasuhiro [National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Okayama (Japan); O' Neill, Alibhe; Shinagare, Atul B. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Spielmann, Rolf Peter [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany)

    2014-09-26

    Leukemia is a group of malignant diseases involving peripheral blood and bone marrow. Extramedullary tumor manifestation in leukemia can also occur. They more often involve lymph nodes, skin, and bones. Intramuscular leukemic relapse (ILR) is very unusual. The aim of this analysis was to summarize the reported data regarding clinical signs and radiological features of ILR. The PubMed database was searched for publications related to ILR. After an analysis of all identified articles, 20 publications matched the inclusion criteria. The authors of the 20 publications were contacted and provided imaging of their cases for review. The following were recorded: age, gender, primary diagnosis, clinical signs, pattern, localization and size of the intramuscular leukemic relapse. Images of 16 patients were provided [8 computer tomographic (CT) images and 15 magnetic resonance images, MRI]. Furthermore, one patient with ILR was identified in our institutional database. Therefore, images of 17 patients were available for further analysis. Overall, 32 cases with ILR were included in the analysis. In most cases acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed. Most ILRs were localized in the extremities (44 %) and in the extraocular muscles (44 %). Clinically, ILR manifested as local pain, swelling and muscle weakness. Radiologically, ILR presented most frequently with diffuse muscle infiltration. On postcontrast CT/MRI, most lesions demonstrated homogeneous enhancement. ILRs were hypo-/isointense on T1w and hyperintense on T2w images. ILR manifests commonly as focal pain, swelling and muscle weakness. ILR predominantly involved the extraocular musculature and the extremities. Radiologically, diffuse muscle infiltration was the most common imaging finding. (orig.)

  15. Intramuscular pressure: A better tool than EMG to optimize exercise for long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Styf, J.; Kahan, N.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    A serious problem experienced by astronauts during long-duration space flight is muscle atrophy. In order to develop countermeasures for this problem, a simple method for monitoring in vivo function of specific muscles is needed. Previous studies document that both intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) provide quantitative indices of muscle contraction force during isometric exercise. However, at present there are no data available concerning the usefulness of IMP versus EMG during dynamic exercise. Methods: IMP (Myopress catheter) and surface EMG activity were measured continuously and simultaneously in the tibalis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles of 9 normal male volunteers (28-54 years). These parameters were recorded during both concentric and eccentric exercises which consisted of plantarflexon and dorsiflexon of the ankle joint. A Lido Active Isokinetic Dynamometer concurrently recorded ankle joint torque and position. Results: Intramuscular pressure correlated linearly with contraction force for both SOL (r exp 2 = 0.037) and TA (R exp 2 = 0.716 and r exp 2 = 0.802, respectively). During eccentric exercises, SOL and TA IMP also correlated linearly with contraction force (r(exp 2) = 0.883 and r(exp 2) = 0.904 respectively), but SOL and TA EMG correlated poorly with force (r(exp 2) = 0.489 and r(exp 2) = 0.702 respectively). Conclusion: IMP measurement provides a better index of muscle contraction force than EMG during concentric and eccentric exercise. IMP reflects intrinsic mechanical properties of individual muscles, such as length tension relationships. Although invasive, IMP provides a more powerful tool and EMG for developing exercise hardware and protocols for astronauts exposed to long-duration space flight.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of spiramycin after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, P; Moulin, G; Guillot, P; Dagorn, M; Perjant, P; Delepine, B; Gaudiche, C; Mourot, D

    1992-03-01

    Spiramycin is a macrolide antibiotic that is active against most of the microorganisms isolated from the milk of mastitic cows. This work investigated the disposition of spiramycin in plasma and milk after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration. Twelve healthy cows were given a single injection of spiramycin at a dose of 30,000 IU/kg by each route. Plasma and milk were collected post injection. Spiramycin concentration in the plasma was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography method, and in the milk by a microbiological method. The mean residence time after intravenous administration was significantly longer (P less than 0.01) in the milk (20.7 +/- 2.7 h) than in plasma (4.0 +/- 1.6 h). An average milk-to-plasma ratio of 36.5 +/- 15 was calculated from the area concentration-time curves. Several pharmacokinetic parameters were examined to determine the bioequivalence of the two extravascular routes. The dose fraction adsorbed after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration was almost 100% and was bioequivalent for the extravascular routes, but the rates of absorption, the maximal concentrations and the time to obtain them differed significantly between the two routes. Spiramycin quantities excreted in milk did not differ between the two extravascular routes but the latter were not bioequivalent for maximal concentration in the milk. However, the two routes were bio-equivalent for the duration of time the milk concentration exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various pathogens causing infections in the mammary gland.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam versus rectal diazepam in controlling status epilepticus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Azizi Malamiri, Reza; Nikkhah, Ali; Jafari, Maryam; Fayezi, Abbas; Riahi, Kourosh; Maraghi, Elham

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam in controlling convulsive status epilepticus in children, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. In this randomized trial, 100 children (50 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus aged 1 month to 16 years were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 0.3 mg/kg intramuscular midazolam or 0.5 mg/kg rectal diazepam. Main outcome measure was stopping of all motor activity after drug administration. Another measures were times between patient's arrival to emergency department till drug administration, between drug administration to seizure cessation, and between patient's arrival to seizure cessation. Both medication were effective for seizure control and no significant difference was found between successful treatments after administering the medication (P = 0.061). In the midazolam group, in 96% (48/50) of cases treatment was successful and in the diazepam group, in 94% (47/50) of cases treatment was successful. Time from arrival to administering the medication was significantly shorter in midazolam group (P = 0.017). The majority of seizures in midazolam group were stopped in less than 66 s (median) compared to 130 s (median) for diazepam group, (P midazolam is not superior but may be at least as effective as rectal diazepam for controlling of status epilepticus in children. Midazolam via IM route could be one of the choices in children with convulsive status seizures who have difficult IV access. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced daytime intramuscular blood flow in patients with restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Eva; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Ulfberg, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible signs of impairment of the microcirculation in the lower extremities of female patients suffering from primary restless legs syndrome (RLS)/Willis-Ekbom disease. This study was performed in eight female patients, mean age 48 years (range 21-65), diagnosed with primary RLS but otherwise healthy. Eight healthy female control subjects, mean age 47 years (range 27-64), were also included in the study. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to determine intramuscular blood flow by placing an optical single fiber in the tibialis anterior muscle belly. The studies were performed between 08.00 and 10.00 hours and 20.00 and 22.00 hours. Blood flow was expressed in perfusion units. The median intramuscular blood flow in the RLS patients' tibialis anterior muscles, recorded from both legs, was significantly higher in the morning, at 17.9 perfusion units, than in the evening, at 12.1 perfusion units (P = 0.004). Corresponding values for the healthy controls were 13.1 perfusion units and 12.0 perfusion units, a non-significant difference. The relative fold changes of microcirculation in the RLS group compared to healthy age-matched controls were 0.7 ± 0.3 and 1.1 ± 0.6, respectively (P = 0.04). Our results suggest that in female patients with primary RLS, the microcirculation in the tibialis anterior muscle is higher in the morning compared with in the evening. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  20. Intramuscular nerve distribution patterns of anterior forearm muscles in children: a guide for botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangjiu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xie, Xiadan; Yang, Shengbo; Xu, Yan; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) can relieve muscle spasticity by blocking axon terminals acetylcholine release at the motor endplate (MEP) and is the safest and most effective agent for the treatment of muscle spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. In order to achieve maximum effect with minimum effective dose of BoNT, one needs to choose an injection site as near to the MEP zone as possible. This requires a detailed understanding about the nerve terminal distributions within the muscles targeted for BoNT injection. This study focuses on BoNT treatment in children with muscle spasms caused by cerebral palsy. Considering the differences between children and adults in anatomy, we used child cadavers and measured both the nerve entry points and nerve terminal sense zones in three deep muscles of the anterior forearm: flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), flexor pollicis longus (FPL), and pronator quadratus (PQ). We measured the nerve entry points by using the forearm midline as a reference and demonstrated intramuscular nerve terminal dense zones by using a modified Sihler's nerve staining technique. The locations of the nerve entry points and that of the nerve terminal dense zones in the muscles were compared. We found that all nerve entry points are away from the corresponding intramuscular nerve terminal dense zones. Simply selecting nerve entry points as the sites for BoNT injection may not be an optimal choice for best effects in blocking muscle spasm. We propose that the location of the nerve terminal dense zones in each individual muscle should be used as the optimal target sites for BoNT injection when treating muscle spasms in children with cerebral palsy.

  1. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA) on mRNA expression of bone metabolism related markers of bone marrow cells%共轭亚油酸c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA对大鼠骨髓细胞骨代谢相关基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亦堃; 李丽婷; 郗光霞; 史书红; 李兴; 赵宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA) on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ2 (PPARγ2),receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ( RANKL),alkaline phosphatase ( ALP),osteoprotegerin ( OPG),receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) of bone marrow cells,and study the effect of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA on bone metabolism.Methods Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were cultured in vitro and then the cells were cultured in DMEM with c9,t11-CLA or t10,c12-CLA at different concentrations (the final concentration was 0,12.5,25.0,50.0 μmol/L,respectively) for 24 h.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the mRNA expression of PPARγ2,RANKL,ALP,OPG,RANK and TRAP.Results Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that c9,t11-CLA down-regulated the mRNA expression of RANK and TRAP in a dose-dependent manner,and statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison (P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of RANKL,ALP,OPG and PPARγ2.The results also showed that t10,c12-CLA up-regulated the mRNA expression of RANKL and OPG in a dose-dependent manner and down-regnlated the mRNA expression of RANK,TRAP and PPARγ2 in a dose-dependent manner,statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison ( P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of ALP.Conclusion Our findings suggest that c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA can suppress the expression of osteoclastogenesis genes and t10,c12-CLA can also promote the expression of osteogenic genes,which suggests a possible benecial effect on bone formation.%目的 观察c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA干预后,大鼠骨髓细胞过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体2(PPARγ2)及核因子(NF)-κB活化受体配体(RANKL)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、骨保护素(OPG)、NF-κB活化受体(RANK)、

  2. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of an Intramuscular Monoclonal Antibody (SB 209763) against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in Infants and Young Children at Risk for Severe RSV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H. Cody; Groothuis, Jessie R.; Rodriguez, William J.; Welliver, Robert C.; Hogg, Geoff; Gray, Peter H.; Loh, Richard; Simoes, Eric A. F.; Sly, Peter; Miller, Ann K.; Nichols, Alice I.; Jorkasky, Diane K.; Everitt, Daniel E.; Thompson, Kathleen A.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody against a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (SB 209763) to evaluate its safety, pharmacokinetics, and fusion inhibition and neutralization titers. Forty-three infants who were either delivered prematurely (≤35 weeks’ gestation) or exhibited bronchopulmonary dysplasia were administered either single or repeat (two doses, 8 weeks apart) intramuscular injections of SB 209763 at a concentration of 0.25, 1.25, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg or of a placebo. Four of 229 adverse events were considered related to the study drug, including purpura (n = 3) and thrombocytosis (n = 1). No subject developed a detectable level of anti-SB 209763 antibody. Approximately 1 week after administration of the second dose of SB 209763 at 10 mg/kg, the mean plasma concentration (n = 9) was 68.5 μg/ml. The terminal half-life (T1/2) determined by noncompartmental analysis ranged from 22 to 50 days. The population pharmacokinetics for SB 209763 following intramuscular administration was appropriately described by a one-compartment model with first-order input and elimination. Higher values for clearance and volume of distribution at steady state were observed for younger patients, with values decreasing to 0.143 (ml/h)/kg and 161 mL/kg, respectively, by a mean age of 298 days (∼10 months). The mean T1/2 of SB 209763 for the study population was 32.5 days. No other factor (dose, weight, gender, race, premature birth, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia) was observed to alter the population pharmacokinetics of SB 209763 in this study of infants and young children. The mean neutralization titer on day 6 was 286, and the mean fusion inhibition titer was 36. At least 57% of subjects dosed at 1.25 to 10.0 mg of SB 209763 per kg of body weight who were seronegative at baseline experienced a fourfold or greater increase in fusion inhibition titer. Nine RSV infections were documented

  3. Hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer effects on the femoral and intramuscular nerve in a canine model of lower limb ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqin Ha; Bin Liu; Zhen Qian; Tongde Lü; Ling Hui; Guanxian He; Qiang Yin; Tingxian Niu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in gene therapy have provided new methodology for treating ischemia in lower extremities. Gene transfer of angiogenic factors to ischemic tissues may promote local proliferation of new vessels and form collateral circulation. OBJECTIVE: To observe histopathological changes in the femoral and intramuscular nerve three months after intramuscular injection of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) into the peripheral skeletal muscle in a canine model of lower limb ischemia. DESIGN: Randomized occlusion modelled and verification animal study. SETTING: Experimental Center, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA. MATERIALS: This study was performed at Animal Experimental Center, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from September to November 2006. A total of eight male mongrel dogs, weighing 12-15 kg and 1.5-3 years of age, were selected for this study. This experimental study was in accordance with local ethics standards. Recombinant plasmid carrying HGF (pUDKH) and occlusion model plasmid (pUDK) were provided by the Third Laboratory of Radiation Medical Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA. METHODS: Grouping and model establishment: under anesthesia, complete vascular occlusion models were established on the left lower extremities. The experimental dogs were randomly divided into a model group and a pUDKH treatment group, with four dogs in each group. Dogs in the pUDKH group were injected with 0.15 mg/kg pUDKH. Ten minutes later, intramuscular injections were performed at three spots into the peripheral skeletal muscle of the left hind limb, as well as lateral injections at two spots. The injection volume at each spot was 0.2 mL. Dogs in the model group were injected with pUDK, and dosage and injection method were identical to the treatment group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Histopathological changes in the femoral nerve, as well as internal and external

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  5. The combination of resveratrol and CLA does not increase the delipidating effect of each molecule in 3T3-L1 adipocytes La combinación de resveratrol y CLA no incrementa el efecto hipolipemiante de cada molécula en adipocitos 3T3-L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and resveratrol have been shown to reduce TG content in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocyte acting on different pathways. In recent years, the method of simultaneously targeting several signal transduction pathways with multiple natural products in order to achieve additive or synergistic effects has been tested. However, the combined effect of both molecules on lipid metabolism has not been described before. Objective: The aim of the present work was to analyze the effect of the combination of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and resveratrol on TG accumulation as well as on FAS, HSL and ATGL expression in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes, in order to assess a potential interaction between both molecules. Methods: For this purpose, 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes were treated with the two molecules, both separately and combined, in 10 and 100 μM for 20 hours. TG content and FAS, ATGL and HSL expression were measured by spectrophotometry and Real Time RT-PCR respectively. Results: Both doses of CLA and 100 M resveratrol decreased TG content in mature adipocytes. The combination of both molecules reduced TG accumulation to the same extent as each one separately. No change in FAS and HSL mRNA levels after CLA and resveratrol treatment was observed. ATGL was not modified by CLA but it was increased by resveratrol and by the combination. This combination did not increase the effect caused by resveratrol on its own. Conclusion: Lipolysis increase via ATGL is involved in the TG reduction induced by resveratrol and the combination of both molecules. The combination of these two molecules does not increase the efficacy of each molecule separately in mature adipocytes and thus it does not represent an advantage for obesity treatment or prevention.Introducción: Se ha demostrado que el ácido linoleico trans-10, cis-12 conjugado (ALC y el resveratrol reducen el contenido de TG en el adipocito 3T3-L1 cultivado actuando sobre

  6. Assessment of malignancy risk in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with intramuscular interferon beta-1a: retrospective evaluation using a health insurance claims database and postmarketing surveillance data

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    Bloomgren G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gary Bloomgren, Bjørn Sperling, Kimberly Cushing, Madé WentenBiogen Idec Inc., Weston, MA, USABackground: Intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a, a multiple sclerosis (MS therapy that has been commercially available for over a decade, provides a unique opportunity to retrospectively assess postmarketing data for evidence of malignancy risk, compared with relatively limited data available for more recently approved therapies. Postmarketing and claims data were analyzed to determine the risk of malignancy in MS patients treated with intramuscular IFNβ-1a.Materials and methods: The cumulative reporting rates of suspected adverse drug reactions coded to malignancy in the intramuscular IFNβ-1a global safety database were compared with malignancy incidence rates in the World Health Organization GLOBOCAN database. In addition, using data from a large US claims database, the cumulative prevalence of malignancy in MS patients treated with intramuscular IFNβ-1a was compared with non-MS population controls, MS patients without intramuscular IFNβ-1a use, and untreated MS patients. Mean follow-up was approximately 3 years for all groups, ie, 3.1 years for the intramuscular IFNβ-1a group (range 0.02–6.0 years, 2.6 years for non-MS population controls (range 0–6.0 years, 2.6 years for the intramuscular IFNβ-1a nonuse group (range 0.01–6.0 years, and 2.4 years for the untreated MS group (range 0.01–6.0 years.Results: An estimated 402,250 patients received intramuscular IFNβ-1a during the postmarketing period. Cumulative reporting rates of malignancy in this population were consistent with GLOBOCAN incidence rates observed within the general population. The claims database included 12,894 MS patients who received intramuscular IFNβ-1a. No significant difference in malignancy prevalence was observed in intramuscular IFNβ-1a users compared with other groups.Conclusion: Results from this evaluation provide no evidence of an increased risk of

  7. Clinical comparison of preanaesthetic intramuscular medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, S B; Boller, M; Kutter, A; Akens, M K; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2001-10-01

    Medetomidine and its active d-enantiomer, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective alpha-2 agonists with potent sedative, anaesthetic-sparing and analgesic effects. These properties make them an ideal pre-anaesthetic medication for noxious surgical procedures. However, sheep can develop adverse hypoxaemic effects after intravenous alpha-2 agonists. Objective of the present study was to compare intramuscular injection of medetomidine or dexmedetomidine at equipotent doses as preanaesthetic medication prior to isoflurane anaesthesia in sheep. Nineteen healthy, adult, non-pregnant, female sheep of various breeds were used. The study was carried out as a randomised, blind trial. Group A received 15 micrograms/kg bwt dexmedetomidine and group B received 30 micrograms/kg bwt medetomidine intramuscularly (i.m.) 30 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with ketamine (2.0 mg/kg bwt i.v.) and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. End expired anaesthetic concentration (FEiso), respiratory frequency (fR), direct arterial blood pressures and heart rates (HR) were measured. Arterial blood samples were taken at intervals. Data were averaged over time (sum of measurements/number of measurements) and tested for differences between groups by independent t-tests, and ANOVA for repeated measures followed by Bonferroni corrected t-tests. There were no differences in demographic data between the groups. Duration of anaesthesia [A: 170 (42) minutes, B: 144 (33) minutes] and duration of surgery [A: 92 (32) minutes, B: 85 (31) minutes] were similar in both groups. Average FEiso concentrations required to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia were not significantly different between groups [A: 0.82 (0.14)%; B: 1.00 (0.25)%]. Mean average fR, did not differ between groups [A: 31 (14), B: 37 (15)]. Heart rates were significantly lower in group B over the course of the anaesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAP) were not significantly different between

  8. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefyalew, Takele; Kebede, Zelalem; Getachew, Dawit; Mukanga, David; Awano, Tessema; Tekalegne, Agonafer; Batisso, Esey; Edossa, Wasihun; Mekonnen, Emebet; Tibenderana, James; Baba, Ebenezer Sheshi; Shumba, Constance; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-10-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples' region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Key findings from this study are: (1) provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2) with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe malaria using intramuscular artesunate where referral is

  9. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  10. Prophylaxis of hepatitis C with intramuscular immunoglobulin: clinical and economic appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, M; Sagliocca, L; Tosone, G; Guadagnino, V; Stazi, M A; Orlando, R; Borgia, G; Rosa, D; Abrignani, S; Palumbo, F; Manzin, A; Clementi, M

    1999-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects millions of individuals worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection progresses to chronic liver disease and, subsequently, to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is transmitted by the parenteral route, for example by transfusion of blood or blood products, injection during drug abuse, etc., and by the inapparent parenteral route (penetration of the virus through difficult-to-identify microlesions present on the skin or mucosae), for example, sexual exposure or household exposure to infected contacts, etc. The cost of chronic hepatitis C and its sequelae is high in both financial and human terms. At present, only anti-HCV screening of blood/organ/tissue donors and universal precautions for the prevention of blood-borne infections are recommended for HCV prevention. Before the discovery of the main aetiological agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis (HCV), several randomised controlled clinical trials demonstrated that standard intramuscular immunoglobulin exerted a preventive effect on post-transfusional and sexual and /or horizontal transmission of non-A, non-B hepatitis. When serological tests for HCV infection became available, bimonthly inoculation of standard unscreened intramuscular immunoglobulin (prepared from plasma pools containing about 2% of anti-HCV-positive units) was demonstrated to significantly prevent sexually transmitted HCV infection. The immunoglobulin used contained high titres of anti-HCV neutralising antibodies (anti-E2 neutralisation of binding assay), whereas currently available commercial screened immunoglobulin (prepared from anti-HCV-negative blood units) did not. This finding suggested that anti-HCV neutralising antibodies are concentrated only in anti-HCV-positive units (which are currently discarded). Thus, anti-HCV hyperimmune globulin (HCIg) can be produced only from anti-HCV-positive units. The neutralising titre can be increased by the exclusive use of units with higher titres of neutralising

  11. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in pigs and broilers following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral single-dose applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H Z; Yang, G X; Huang, X H; Chen, Z L; Zeng, Z L

    2008-06-01

    Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in pigs and broilers after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), or oral (p.o.) administration at a single dose of five (pigs) or 10 mg/kg (broilers). Plasma concentration profiles were analyzed by a compartmental pharmacokinetic method. Following i.v., i.m. and p.o. doses, the elimination half-lives (t(1/2beta)) were 17.14 +/- 4.14, 25.79 +/- 8.10, 16.67 +/- 4.04 (pigs) and 6.11 +/- 1.50, 5.64 +/- 0.74, 8.20 +/- 3.12 h (broilers), respectively. After single i.m. and p.o. administration, difloxacin was rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 1.77 +/- 0.66, 2.29 +/- 0.85 (pigs) and 2.51 +/- 0.36, 1.00 +/- 0.21 microg/mL (broilers) attained at t(max) of 1.29 +/- 0.26, 1.41 +/- 0.88 (pigs) and 0.86 +/- 0.4, 4.34 +/- 2.40 h (broilers), respectively. Bioavailabilities (F) were (95.3 +/- 28.9)% and (105.7 +/- 37.1)% (pigs) and (77.0 +/- 11.8)% and (54.2 +/- 12.6)% (broilers) after i.m. and p.o. doses, respectively. Apparent distribution volumes(V(d(area))) of 4.91 +/- 1.88 and 3.10 +/- 0.67 L/kg and total body clearances(Cl(B)) of 0.20 +/- 0.06 and 0.37 +/- 0.10 L/kg/h were determined in pigs and broilers, respectively. Areas under the curve (AUC), the half-lives of both absorption and distribution(t(1/2ka), t(1/2alpha)) were also determined. Based on the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters determined, multiple dosage regimens were recommended as: a dosage of 5 mg/kg given intramuscularly every 24 h in pigs, or administered orally every 24 h at the dosage of 10 mg/kg in broilers, can maintain effective plasma concentrations with bacteria infections, in which MIC(90) are <0.25 microg/mL and <0.1 microg/mL respectively.

  12. The optimal choice of medication administration route regarding intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing-fen; Zhu, Ling-ling; Chen, Meng; Xu, Hui-min; Wang, Hua-fen; Feng, Xiu-qin; Zhu, Xiu-ping; Zhou, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) are the three most frequently used injection routes in medication administration. Comparative studies of SC versus IV, IM versus IV, or IM versus SC have been sporadically conducted, and some new findings are completely different from the dosage recommendation as described in prescribing information. However, clinicians may still be ignorant of such new evidence-based findings when choosing treatment methods. Methods A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Sciences™ Core Collection to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of SC, IV, and IM administration in head-to-head comparative studies. Results “SC better than IV” involves trastuzumab, rituximab, antitumor necrosis factor medications, bortezomib, amifostine, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant interleukin-2, immunoglobulin, epoetin alfa, heparin, and opioids. “IV better than SC” involves ketamine, vitamin K1, and abatacept. With respect to insulin and ketamine, whether IV has advantages over SC is determined by specific clinical circumstances. “IM better than IV” involves epinephrine, hepatitis B immu-noglobulin, pegaspargase, and some antibiotics. “IV better than IM” involves ketamine, morphine, and antivenom. “IM better than SC” involves epinephrine. “SC better than IM” involves interferon-beta-1a, methotrexate, human chorionic gonadotropin, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, hydrocortisone, and morphine. Safety, efficacy, patient preference, and pharmacoeconomics are four principles governing the choice of injection route. Safety and efficacy must be the preferred principles to be considered (eg, epinephrine should be given intramuscularly during an episode of systemic anaphylaxis). If the safety and efficacy of two injection routes are equivalent, clinicians should consider more about patient preference and

  13. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration of marbofloxacin after intravenous and intramuscular administration in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Sileshi; Awji, Elias Gebru; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Seung-Chun

    2015-03-01

    1.The aim of the present study was to determine the PKs of marbofloxacin in beagle dogs after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration, the ex vivo and in vitro PK/PD indices of marbofloxacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and the ex vivo AUC/MIC ratios associated with different levels of antibacterial activity. 2.After i.v. of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg), the mean ± SEM values of AUC, t1/2β, Vss, and CL were 8.47 ± 3.51 h µg/mL, 8.08 ± 6.25 h, 2.32 ± 1.00 L/kg and 0.23 ± 0.06 L/kg/h and corresponding values after intramuscular injection were 11.37 ± 3.07 h µg/mL, 7.51 ± 3.70, 1.80 ± 0.90 L/kg and 0.17 ± 0.04 L/kg/h. After i.m. administration, a Cmax of 1.76 ± 0.09 µg/mL was achieved at Tmax of 0.47 ± 0.08 h. The ex-vivo AUC/MIC ratios required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal action and elimination of S. pseudintermedius were 65.03, 97.02 and 136.84 h. 3.The in vivo AUC/MIC ratios obtained after i.v. and i.m. administration of 2 mg/kg marbofloxacin (67.76 ± 1.23 and 91.18 ± 2.61) were below the ex vivo AUC/MIC ratios required for bactericidal activity and bacterial elimination (97.02 ± 9.24 2 mg/kg and 136.21 ± 7.58), suggesting that the recommended daily dosage (2 mg/kg) may not suffice to kill and eradicate S. pseudintermedius strains encountered in clinical area.

  14. Concomitant intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin preserves spermatogenesis in men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tung-Chin; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-02-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy results in decreased serum gonadotropins and intratesticular testosterone, and impairs spermatogenesis, leading to azoospermia in 40% of patients. However, intratesticular testosterone can be maintained during testosterone replacement therapy with co-administration of low dose human chorionic gonadotropin, which may support continued spermatogenesis in patients on testosterone replacement therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the records of hypogonadal men treated with testosterone replacement therapy and concomitant low dose human chorionic gonadotropin. Testosterone replacement consisted of daily topical gel or weekly intramuscular injection with intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin (500 IU) every other day. Serum and free testosterone, estradiol, semen parameters and pregnancy rates were evaluated before and during therapy. A total of 26 men with a mean age of 35.9 years were included in the study. Mean followup was 6.2 months. Of the men 19 were treated with injectable testosterone and 7 were treated with transdermal gel. Mean serum hormone levels before vs during treatment were testosterone 207.2 vs 1,055.5 ng/dl (p testosterone 8.1 vs 20.4 pg/ml (p = 0.02) and estradiol 2.2 vs 3.7 pg/ml (p = 0.11). Pretreatment semen parameters were volume 2.9 ml, density 35.2 million per ml, motility 49.0% and forward progression 2.3. No differences in semen parameters were observed during greater than 1 year of followup. No impact on semen parameters was observed as a function of testosterone formulation. No patient became azoospermic during concomitant testosterone replacement and human chorionic gonadotropin therapy. Nine of 26 men contributed to pregnancy with the partner during followup. Low dose human chorionic gonadotropin appears to maintain semen parameters in hypogonadal men on testosterone replacement therapy. Concurrent testosterone replacement and human chorionic gonadotropin use may preserve fertility in hypogonadal males

  15. Lipid composition of covering and intramuscular fat in pigs at different slaughter age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Santoro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To study age-related variations in fatty acid composition of covering and intramuscular fat (IMF, 60 half siblings, Pic X Camborough, of the same age, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, chosen from 10 litters were used. Groups of 20 subjects each, 10 castrated males and 10 females, balanced for litter, were sacrificed at 6, 8.5 and 9.5 months of age, corresponding to the common slaughter age of the three Italian pig production types, at live weights averaging approximately 90, 145 and 160 kg, respectively. Samples of backfat and longissimus thoracis (LT muscle, taken at the last rib, were analysed. On LT samples, moisture, fat content and drip loss were determined. Fatty acid composition was determined in lipids from subcutaneous adipose tissue and in lipid fractions from LT. Further, backfat lipids were submitted to iodine value (I.V. determination. The data were evaluated by means of analysis of variance with age at slaughter and sex as the independent variables. As age increased (6, 8.5 and 9.5 months, higher contents of saturated fatty acids (SFA (36.36, 39.08 and 39.19%, respectively; P<0.01 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (41.78, 43.44 and 44.37%, respectively; P<0.01 were observed in backfat, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content, PUFA/SFA ratio and I.V. lowered (P<0.01. As total IMF is concerned, by increasing age, MUFA content increased (43.30; 46.76 and 47.28%, respectively; P<0.01, PUFA content decreased (18.63, 15.14 and 14.82%, respectively; P<0.01 and PUFA/SFA decreased as well (P<0.05; neutral lipids followed the same pattern, while an opposite trend was observed in polar lipids. IMF content (1.65% was modified neither by sex nor age. The study shows that fatty acids composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular fats differs among the 3 slaughtering ages typical of the Italian pig industry. The variations observed, which could be ascribed to the increase of carcass fatness at increasing slaughter age, can affect both the

  16. THE LNDUCEMENT BY N+ LON BEAM LMPLANTATION AND SCREENING OF A CLA PRODUCING LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM P8%产CLA植物乳杆菌P8的离子束诱变与筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慈志敏; 赵国芬; 陈剑; 包秋华; 张和平

    2011-01-01

    The initial lactobacillus plantarum P8 was treated by N+ ions implantation of 50 keV with doses of 30,50,70,90,110, 130,150,170,190x2.6 x 1013N Vcm2.The survival curve showed asaddle model,and the high survival rate was 21 % -50 % from the treatments of 70 x 2.6 x 1013N+/cm2 and 110 x2.6 x 10l3N"Vcm2 implantation. Considering the survival rate , positive mutation and range of mutation rate , N + implantation of 90 x 2.6 x 1013 N * /cm2 was recommended for mutation breeding of lactobacillus plantarum. After the strain was induced by N + ion beam, the total number of positive mutants is 36 and the total number of negative mutants is 66, in which the most CLA productive mutant, the CLA concentration is 0.2751 mg/ml , the LA conversion rate is 27. 51 % o in which the lowest CLA productive mutant, the CLA concentration is 0. 0330 mg/ml, the LA conversion rate of them is 3.30%. Genetic stability of the mutants are further identified, if possible, it will be able to lay the foundation for studying the molecular mechanism of lactobacillus plantarum producing CLA and producing higher nutritional value and health food.%本实验以植物乳杆菌P8为出发菌株,采用N+离子注入的方法进行诱变处理,注入能量为50keV,注入剂量为30、50、70、90、110、130、150、170、190 ×2.6×1013N+/cm2.结果显示,菌体的存活率随离子注入剂量的增加呈“马鞍型”曲线,“鞍脊”出现在70×2.6×1013N+/cm2 ~ 110×2.6 × 1013N +/cm2之间,此时菌体的存活率在21%~50%之间.综合考虑存活率、总突变率和突变幅度等因素,推荐90 ×2.6×1013N+/cm2作为离子注入植物乳杆菌P8的适宜诱变剂量.此菌株经N+离子束诱变,得到产共轭亚油酸(Conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)正突变菌株共36株,负突变菌株共66株,其中最高产CLA正突变菌株CLA浓度为0.2751 mg/ml,转化率为27.51%.最低产CLA负突变株CLA浓度为0.0330mg/ml,转化率为3.30%.菌株的遗传稳定性正在进一步鉴

  17. Unusual Initial Manifestation of Acquired Hemophilia A: A Normal Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, Intramuscular Hematoma and Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyama, Nobuaki; Ichiba, Toshihisa; Naito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of acquired hemophilia A with a normal activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT), intramuscular hematoma and cerebral hemorrhage occurring in a 73-year-old man. The patient visited our emergency department with gait disturbance, pain and swelling in his right leg. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed intramuscular hematoma and intracranial hemorrhage. The results of initial coagulation studies were normal, but repeated coagulation studies revealed an isolated prolongation of the aPTT. Additional laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A. If the initial aPTT is normal, we should therefore repeat the aPTT and also perform other coagulation studies including a mixing study, factor VIII level and inhibitor, to investigate the underlying diseases in elderly patients with spontaneous hemorrhaging of unknown etiology. PMID:27853081

  18. 'Serious thigh muscle strains': beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-02-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'.

  19. The use of EMG biofeedback for learning of selective activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Mork, P J; Andersen, L L

    2010-01-01

    Motor control and learning possibilities of scapular muscles are of clinical interest for restoring scapular muscle balance in patients with neck and shoulder disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate whether selective voluntary activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus...... anterior can be learned with electromyographical (EMG) biofeedback, and whether the lower serratus anterior and the lower trapezius muscle comprise the lower scapula rotation force couple by synergistic activation. Nine healthy males practiced selective activation of intra-muscular parts within...... to selectively activate the lower serratus anterior, and two subjects learned to selectively activate the upper serratus anterior. During selective activation of the lower serratus anterior, the activity of this muscle part was 14.4+/-10.3 times higher than the upper serratus anterior activity (P

  20. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......Intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies. We investigated the causality of this association by examining if a high intake of TFA impairs measures of glucose homeostasis and induces intramuscular...... markers of glucose homeostasis and 4 markers of lipolysis were derived from glucose, insulin, C-peptide, nonesterified fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations during a 3-hour frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test. Intramuscular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Forty...

  1. ProClaT, a new bioinformatics tool for in silico protein reclassification: case study of DraB, a protein coded from the draTGB operon in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Elisa Terumi; Raittz, Roberto Tadeu; Coimbra, Nilson Antonio da Rocha; Gehlen, Michelly Alves Coutinho; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira

    2016-12-15

    Azopirillum brasilense is a plant-growth promoting nitrogen-fixing bacteria that is used as bio-fertilizer in agriculture. Since nitrogen fixation has a high-energy demand, the reduction of N2 to NH4(+) by nitrogenase occurs only under limiting conditions of NH4(+) and O2. Moreover, the synthesis and activity of nitrogenase is highly regulated to prevent energy waste. In A. brasilense nitrogenase activity is regulated by the products of draG and draT. The product of the draB gene, located downstream in the draTGB operon, may be involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity by an, as yet, unknown mechanism. A deep in silico analysis of the product of draB was undertaken aiming at suggesting its possible function and involvement with DraT and DraG in the regulation of nitrogenase activity in A. brasilense. In this work, we present a new artificial intelligence strategy for protein classification, named ProClaT. The features used by the pattern recognition model were derived from the primary structure of the DraB homologous proteins, calculated by a ProClaT internal algorithm. ProClaT was applied to this case study and the results revealed that the A. brasilense draB gene codes for a protein highly similar to the nitrogenase associated NifO protein of Azotobacter vinelandii. This tool allowed the reclassification of DraB/NifO homologous proteins, hypothetical, conserved hypothetical and those annotated as putative arsenate reductase, ArsC, as NifO-like. An analysis of co-occurrence of draB, draT, draG and of other nif genes was performed, suggesting the involvement of draB (nifO) in nitrogen fixation, however, without the definition of a specific function.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a long-acting chloramphenicol formulation administered by intramuscular and subcutaneous routes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, P; Guillot, P; Mourot, D

    1988-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of a long-acting formulation of chloramphenicol were determined in six yearling cattle after a single intravenous (i.v.) administration (40 mg/kg body weight) and after two sequential subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administrations (90 mg/kg/48 h). The two extravascular routes were studied during a crossover trial for a bioequivalence test. After i.v. administration, the plasma concentration-time graph was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. Mean values were a half-life of 4.1 h, a volume of distribution of 0.86 l/kg and a body clearance of 0.128 l/kg/h. Plasma concentrations of chloramphenicol following i.m. and s.c. administrations increased slowly to a broad peak at 10-15 micrograms/ml between 9 and 12 h. Bioavailability was 19.1% after i.m. injection and 12.4% after s.c. administration. The extent of absorption from the two routes did not differ significantly. The rate of absorption was significantly lower after s.c. application than it was after i.m. injection. The time necessary for the plasma concentration to exceed 5 micrograms/ml was the same for the two routes. Thus, i.m. and s.c. routes are bioequivalent.

  3. Robust decomposition of single-channel intramuscular EMG signals at low force levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marateb, Hamid R.; Muceli, Silvia; McGill, Kevin C.; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a density-based method to automatically decompose single-channel intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) signals into their component motor unit action potential (MUAP) trains. In contrast to most previous decomposition methods, which require pre-setting and (or) tuning of multiple parameters, the proposed method takes advantage of the data-dependent strategies in the pattern recognition procedures. In this method, outliers (superpositions) are excluded prior to classification and MUAP templates are identified by an adaptive density-based clustering procedure. MUAP trains are then identified by a novel density-based classifier that incorporates MUAP shape and discharge time information. MUAP trains are merged by a fuzzy system that incorporates expert human knowledge. Finally, superimpositions are resolved to fill the gaps in the MUAP trains. The proposed decomposition algorithm has been experimentally tested on signals from low-force (muscles. Comparison with expert manual decomposition that had been verified using a rigorous statistical analysis showed that the algorithm identified 80% of the total 229 motor unit trains with an accuracy greater than 90%. The algorithm is robust and accurate, and therefore it is a promising new tool for decomposing single-channel multi-unit signals.

  4. Active Mycobacterium Infection Due to Intramuscular BCG Administration Following Multi-Steps Medication Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rafati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is indicated for treatment of primary or relapsing flat urothelial cell carcinoma in situ (CIS of the urinary bladder. Disseminated infectious complications occasionally occur due to BCG as a vaccine and intravesical therapy.  Intramuscular (IM or Intravenous (IV administrations of BCG are rare medication errors which are more probable to produce systemic infections. This report presents 13 years old case that several steps medication errors occurred consequently from physician handwriting, pharmacy dispensing, nursing administration and patient family. The physician wrote βHCG instead of HCG in the prescription. βHCG was read as BCG by the pharmacy staff and 6 vials of intravesical BCG were administered IM twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The patient experienced fever and chills after each injection, but he was admitted 2 months after first IM administration of BCG with fever and pancytopenia. Unfortunately four month after using drug, during second admission duo to cellulitis at the sites of BCG injection the physicians diagnosed the medication error. Using handwritten prescription and inappropriate abbreviations, spending inadequate time for taking a brief medical history in pharmacy, lack of verifying name, dose and wrote before medication administration and lack of considering medication error as an important differential diagnosis had roles to occur this multi-steps medication error.

  5. Relationship between muscle stress and intramuscular pressure during dynamic muscle contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samuel R; Davis, Jennifer; Kaufman, Kenton R; Lieber, Richard L

    2007-09-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) has been used to estimate muscle stress indirectly. However, the ability of this technique to estimate muscle stress under dynamic conditions is poorly characterized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which IMP is a valid surrogate for muscle stress during dynamic contractions. IMP and muscle stress were compared under steady-state isotonic conditions and during complex dynamic length changes. During concentric contractions the shape of the IMP-velocity curve mimicked the basic shape of the force-velocity curve but with much higher variability. For eccentric contractions, a precipitous drop in IMP was observed despite increased muscle stress. The dissociation between muscle stress and IMP during dynamic contractions was partially explained by sensor movement. When the muscle was not moving, IMP explained 89% +/- 5% of the variance in muscle force. However, when transducer movement occurred the linear relationship between IMP and stress was no longer observed. These findings demonstrate the difficulty in interpreting IMP under dynamic conditions when sensor movement occurs. They also illustrate the need to control transducer movement if muscle stress is to be inferred from IMP measurements such as might be desired during clinical gait testing.

  6. Intramuscular and surface EMG power spectrum from dynamic and static contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H; Søgaard, K; Jensen, B R; Finsen, L; Sjøgaard, G

    1995-03-01

    During sustained static contractions an increase in the root mean square (rms) amplitude and a decrease in mean power frequency (MPF), or median power frequency (MF) of the electromyographic (EMG) signal are indicators for the development of muscle fatigue. However, when studying dynamic contractions the interpretation of these variables has been questioned. Therefore, the purpose was to compare the EMG variables recorded from a non-fatigued muscle during a slow low level dynamic contraction to those during a static contraction of similar force level. Surface and intramuscular EMG registrations were obtained from the brachial biceps muscle during: (a) a static isotonic contraction, (b) a dynamic contraction and (c) a static anisotonic contraction. During contractions (a) and (b) the recruitment pattern was analysed using the precision decomposition method. No differences in rms, MPF or MF between the dynamic and static contractions or between the concentric and eccentric phase of the dynamic contraction were found. Furthermore 60% of the identified motor units were active both in the concentric and the eccentric phase. This indicates that motor control during a slow dynamic contraction at low force level does not influence the power spectrum. We suggest that in occupational studies a possible muscle fatigue development with time can be estimated using EMG recordings from the work tasks.

  7. THE EFFICACY OF ORAL GLUCOSE FOR RELIEVING PAIN FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION IN TERM NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sajedi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pain in neonates can be associated with various risks and it seems essential to find a simple and acceptable method for relieving pain. Pharmacologic agents are not recommended in neonates for pain relief in minor procedures but orally administered glucose solution is found to be effective. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral 30% glucose during intramuscular injection in term neonates. Sixty-four healthy term neonates were recruited for this study during 1 month. The inclusion criteria were gestational age 37-42 weeks, birth weight 2500-4000 gr, and Apgar score > 7. The intervention consists of administration of either 2 ml of oral 30% glucose or 2ml of sterile water 2 minutes before injection. The primary out come measure was the cumulative Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection. Thirty-two neonates received 30% glucose and 32 neonates received sterile water. The cumulative NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.000 lower than for neonates given sterile water. The heart rate immediately after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.002 lower than for neonates given sterile water. Oral 30% glucose given 2 minutes before injection was effective in reducing neonatal pain following injection. It is a simple, safe and fast acting analgesic and should be considered for minor invasive procedures in term neonates.

  8. Testicular biodistribution of 450 nm fluorescent latex particles after intramuscular injection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J-P; Boudard, D; Cadusseau, J; Palle, S; Forest, V; Pourchez, J; Cottier, M

    2013-06-01

    The significant expansion in the use of nanoparticles and submicron particles during the last 20 years has led to increasing concern about their potential toxicity to humans and particularly their impact on male fertility. Currently, an insufficient number of studies have focused on the testicular biodistribution of particles. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of 450 nm fluorescent particles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. To this end, testes were removed from 5 groups of 3 mice each at 1 h (H1), 4 days (D4), 21 days (D21), 45 days (D45) and 90 days (D90) after the injection of 7.28 × 10⁹ particles in the tibialis anterior muscles of each mouse. We examined histological sections from these samples by epifluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy and identified testicular biodistribution of a small number of particles in groups H1, D4, D21, D45 and D90. Using CD11b immunostaining, we showed that particles were not carried into the testis by macrophages. The intratesticular repartition of particles mainly followed testicular vascularization. Finally, we found some particles in seminiferous tubules but could not determine if the blood-testis barrier was crossed.

  9. INTRAMUSCULAR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MID-POINT AND PERIPHERAL EFFECTIVE RADIATING AREA WITH ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michale G. Miller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether uniform intramuscular heating is achieved throughout a treatment area 2 times the transducer head at both 1 and 3 MHz. Seven male and three female subjects (Age: 23.6 ± 1.0 yrs, Weight: 83.8 ± 23.2 kg, Site Skinfold: 13.9 ± 7.3 mm underwent two ultrasound treatments (1 and 3 MHz in the triceps surae muscle group. Thermocouples were inserted at the midpoint and periphery of the treatment area. Ten minute baseline temperatures were recorded followed by a ten minute ultrasound treatment. Two (site X 10 (time repeated measures ANOVAs were separately used to determine significance for 1 and 3 MHz treatments. Post-hoc testing was performed using the Bonferroni adjustment. A significant site-by-time interaction was observed for both the 1 and 3 MHz treatments. From baseline to the end of the treatment, temperature increased approximately 2.62°C and 1.58°C for the midpoint and periphery of the 1 MHz treatment and 5.88°C and 3.64°C for the 3 MHz treatment. The differences in temperature suggest that uniform heating does not occur throughout the treatment area

  10. Gluteus minimus: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior and posterior segments during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semciw, Adam I; Green, Rodney A; Murley, George S; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-02-01

    Gluteus minimus is believed to consist of two structurally and functionally unique segments (anterior and posterior); however there is a lack of electromyography (EMG) research that attempts to verify current theoretical knowledge of this muscle. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the function of gluteus minimus during gait, and to determine whether anterior and posterior segments are functionally independent. Bipolar fine wire intramuscular EMG electrodes were inserted into anterior and posterior gluteus minimus segments of fifteen healthy volunteers (9 males) according to previously verified guidelines. Participants completed a series of four walking trials, followed by maximum voluntary isometric contractions in five different positions. Temporal and amplitude variables for each segment were compared across the gait cycle with independent t-tests. The relative contribution of each segment to the maximum resisted trials was compared with Mann-Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Anterior and posterior segments were contracting at different relative intensities for three of the five maximum resisted trials (effect size = 0.39 to 0.62, P gait cycle (effect size = 0.96 to 1.03, P phase (effect size = 0.83, P = 0.034). Gluteus minimus is therefore composed of functionally independent segments. These results build on contemporary theoretical knowledge and may signify hip stabilising roles for each segment across different phases of the gait cycle.

  11. Comparison of the adipogenesis in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes from Bamei and Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo Hua; Lu, Jian Xiong; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Yong Qing; Guo, Peng Hui; Yang, Ju Tian; Zang, Rong Xin

    2014-08-01

    Fat deposition is a complex process involving proliferation, differentiation, and lipogenesis of adipocytes. Bamei and Landrace are considered to represent fat- and lean-type pig breeds. Subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) pre-adipocytes were cultured to compare the proliferation and lipogenesis in these breeds. The differentiated adipocytes were exposed to glucose or insulin to evaluate their effects on lipogenesis and lipogenic gene expression. Pre-adipocytes proliferated dramatically faster in SC vs. IM cells, and in Bamei vs. Landrace breeds. Lipogenesis and lipogenic gene expression had a greater increase in Bamei than in Landrace, and in SC vs. IM in the process of differentiation. Glucose markedly promoted lipogenesis and lipogenic gene expression in differentiated adipocytes. The stimulation of high-glucose levels on lipogenesis and ChREBP and lipogenic gene expression was higher in SC than IM adipocytes, and in Bamei vs. Landrace. Insulin largely increased SREBP-1c expression, however it modestly stimulated lipogenesis and lipogenic gene expression, and there was no difference between cell populationsor between breeds. These data demonstrated that regional and varietal differences obviously existed in the development of porcine adipocytes. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of pre-adipocytes, and the adipocyte lipogenesis stimulated by glucose, are stronger in Bamei than Landrace, and in SC vs. IM adipocytes independent of breed.

  12. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of flumequine in pigs after single intravenous and intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, R; Cagnardi, P; Acocella, F; Massi, P; Anfossi, P; Asta, F; Carli, S

    2005-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics and intramuscular (IM) bioavailability of flumequine (15 mgkg(-1)) were investigated in healthy pigs and the findings related to published minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for susceptible bacteria of animal origin, and to experimentally determined MICs for susceptible strains of porcine origin. We found MICs for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Pasteurella spp. and Bordetella spp. in the range 0.5 to >64 microg mL(-1) isolated from infected pigs in the Forli area of Italy; only the Pasteurella multocida strains were sensitive (MIC(90)=0.5 microg mL(-1)). After intravenous (IV) injection, flumequine was slowly distributed and eliminated (t(1/2lambda(1))1.40+/-0.16 h and t(1/2lambda(2))6.35+/-1.69 h). The distribution volume at steady state (V(dss)) was 752.59+/-84.03 mL kg(-1) and clearance (Cl(B)) was 237.19+/-17.88 mL kg(-1)h(-1). After IM administration, peak serum concentration (4.99+/-0.92 microg mL(-1)) was reached between the 2nd and the 3rd hour. The results on MIC of isolated bacteria, although only indicative, suggest that the efficacy of flumequine on Gram-negative bacteria may be impaired by the emergence of less sensitive or resistant strains.

  13. Effect of divergent selection for intramuscular fat on sensory traits and instrumental texture in rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvaroi, M; Penalba, V; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2016-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the main parameters affecting meat quality. This work analyzes the effect of selection for IMF on sensory attributes and instrumental texture parameters in rabbit meat. A total of 115 rabbits after 6 generations of divergent selection for IMF were slaughtered at 9 or 13 wk (57 and 58 animals, respectively). For each animal, the left longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) was analyzed by near-infrared spectroscopy to measure IMF whereas the right LD was used for the sensory or instrumental texture analysis. Sensory attributes measured were rabbit odor, liver odor, rabbit flavor, liver flavor, aniseed flavor, hardness, juiciness, and fibrousness. The instrumental texture parameters maximum shear force, shear firmness, and total work to cut the sample were measured by a Warner-Bratzler shear test. The line selected for high IMF showed 58% greater IMF than the line selected for low IMF. This divergence affected firmness that was 9.9% greater in the low-IMF line, although no effect was found for the other instrumental texture traits. No effect of selection was observed in any odor or flavor, except for aniseed flavor, which was greater in the high-IMF line than in the low-IMF line. Age had an effect on IMF, instrumental texture parameters, and sensory attributes. Rabbits at 13 wk showed greater IMF and instrumental and sensory hardness and more intense odor and flavor and lower juiciness than rabbits at 9 wk.

  14. Effects of balanced selection for intramuscular fat and abdominal fat percentage and estimates of genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M; Fan, W L; Xing, S Y; Wang, J; Li, P; Liu, R R; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Cui, H X; Wen, J; Zhao, G P

    2017-02-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content contributes to meat flavor and improves meat quality. Excessive abdominal fat, however, leads to a waste of feed resources. Here, an independent up-selection for IMF was used as a control (Line C), and a balanced selection program, with up-selection for IMF and down-selection AFP (Line B), was studied in JingXing yellow chickens. The mean of IMF and AFP within a family was the phenotypic value upon which selection was based. The selective pressures of IMF in line B and line C were the same in each generation. At G5, the IMF was significantly higher (P  0.05). IMF increased by 11.4% and AFP decreased by 1.5% in Line B compared with the G0 generation. In contrast, the IMF increased by 17.6%, but was accompanied by an 18.7% increase in AFP, in control Line C. Of 10 other traits measured, body weight at 56 d age (BW56) and the percentages of eviscerated weight (EWP) showed a significant difference between the 2 lines (P IMF and AFP, estimated by the DMU package, were 0.16 and 0.32, respectively. A moderate positive correlation existed between IMF and AFP (0.35). A balanced selection program for increasing IMF while controlling AFP (Line B) is shown here to be effective in practical chicken breeding. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Identification of genes related to intramuscular fat content of pig using genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sohyoung; Jung, Jaehoon; Park, Eungwoo; Kim, H B

    2017-06-27

    The aim of this study is to identify SNPs and genes related to pig IMF and estimate the heritability of IMF. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 704 inbred Berkshires was performed for intramuscular fat content (IMF). To consider the inbreeding among samples, associations of the SNPs with IMF were tested as random effects in a mixed linear model using the genetic relationship matrix by GEMMA. Significant genes were compared with reported pig IMF QTL regions and functional classification of the identified genes were also performed. Heritability of IMF was estimated by GCTA tool. Total 365 SNPs were found to be significant from a cutoff of p-value IMF QTL regions. BMPER, FOXO1, EDAR, RNF149, CD40, PTPN1, SOX9, MYC, MIF were related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which regulates the differentiation to adipocytes. These genes and the genes mapped on QTLs could be the candidate genes affecting IMF. Heritability of IMF was estimated as 0.52, which was relatively high, suggesting that a considerable portion of the total variance of IMF is explained by the SNP information. Our results can contribute to breeding pig with better IMF and therefore, producing pork with better sensory qualities.

  16. Disposition kinetics of tylosin tartrate administered intravenously and intramuscularly to normal and water-deprived camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G; Creveld, C V; Ben-Zvi, Z; Glickman, A; Yagil, R

    1995-08-01

    The disposition kinetics of tylosin tartrate administered intravenously (i.v.) at 10 mg/kg and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 20 mg/kg were studied in normal camels and in the same camels at the end of a 14 day water-deprivation period. After i.v. treatment, serum tylosin concentrations in the water-deprived camels were significantly higher, rate of drug elimination was slower, the volume of distribution was significantly smaller, and total body clearance was significantly slower than in the normal camels. On the other hand, serum drug concentrations were lower in the water deprived camels after i.m. dosing, the mean absorption time was significantly shorter and the i.m. availability was significantly smaller than in the normal camels. Water-deprivation was thought to cause reduced rate of tylosin elimination by the liver, as was shown for antipyrine--a drug which is eliminated from the body exclusively by the liver. Redistribution of tylosin in tissues concomitant with a greater proportion of drug in blood and extracellular fluid of water-deprived camels was suggested as a partial explanation for the higher serum drug levels seen after i.v. dosing. The low i.m. availability observed in the water-deprived camels implies that i.v. is the route of choice for tylosin administration to ill, dehydrated camels.

  17. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H; Momcilovic, M

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7566605) is linked to lipid metabolism, and this study assessed its potential influence on fat in the upper arm following arm training. Twenty healthy sedentary volunteers (22.0 ± 1.1 years, body mass index 25.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2......) ; mean ± standard deviation) carried out a 12-week two-arm elbow extensor training (10 maximal extensions with 1 min recovery between bouts) five times per day, five times per week. For 17 volunteers, upper arm muscle and adipose tissue [subcutaneous (SCAT) and intramuscular (IMAT)] volumes were...... evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging before, immediately after, and 12 months after training and variables were related to the subjects' INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 genotype. Muscle volume and SCAT for the upper arm, as the decrease in IMAT during training were not related to INSIG2 SNP rs7566605: GG: %IMAT 1...

  18. Decrease in intramuscular lipid droplets and translocation of HSL in response to muscle contraction and epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Clara; Donsmark, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Londos, Constantine; Sztalryd, Carole; Holm, Cecilia; Galbo, Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil

    2006-11-01

    A better understanding of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is needed to identify the molecular mechanisms relating intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) to muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity. An increasing number of proteins have been reported to be associated with intracellular triglyceride (TG), among them the PAT family members: perilipin, ADRP (for adipocyte differentiation-related protein), and TIP47 (for tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa). Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is thought to be the major enzyme responsible for IMTG hydrolysis in skeletal muscle. In adipocytes, regulation of HSL by intracellular redistribution has been demonstrated. The existence of such regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle has long been hypothesized but has never been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to characterize the PAT family proteins associated with IMTG and to investigate the effect of epinephrine stimulation or muscle contraction on skeletal muscle TG content and HSL intracellular distribution. Rat soleus muscles were either incubated with epinephrine or electrically stimulated for 15 min. Single muscle fibers were used for morphological analysis by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. We show a decrease in IMTG in response to both lipolytic stimuli. Furthermore, we identify two PAT family proteins, ADRP and TIP47, associated with IMTG. Finally, we demonstrate HSL translocation to IMTG and ADRP after stimulation with epinephrine or contraction.

  19. The comparative effects of transdermal and intramuscular diclofenac on postlaparoscopic surgery pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabayirli, Safinaz; Demircioğlu, Rüveyda Irem; Muslu, Bünyamin; Usta, Burhanettin; Sert, Hüseyin; Gözdemir, Muhammet

    2012-08-01

    Postlaparoscopic surgery pain management can reduce the discharge and recovery time. Thus conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids have been used for this purpose. The aim of this trial was to compare the analgesic and opioid-sparing efficacy of diclofenac sodium intramuscular (IM) with diclofenac transdermal patch in the management of postlaparoscopy pain. Patients were randomized to receive IM diclofenac 75 mg (n=30) 15 minutes before anesthesia or transdermal diclofenac (n=30) 3 hours before laparoscopic surgery. Transdermal or IM diclofenac were reapplied 12 hours later. All patients were administered tramadol intravenously before surgery. Postoperative pain management was maintained with tramadol using a patient-controlled analgesia device. Postoperative visual analogue pain scores (VAS, 0 to 10 cm) and adverse reactions were recorded over a 24-hour period. If VAS values were >4, 25 mg tramadol was given intravenously as a rescue analgesic. In both groups, VAS scores were higher in the first 4 hours. There were no significant differences in postoperative pain between the 2 groups. The postoperative tramadol consumption, and rescue analgesic needs of the patients between both groups were not statistically significant. Injection pain was observed in the IM diclofenac group, but for both groups no skin reactions were observed at the application sites of the drugs. Diclofenac transdermal patch provided pain relief for postoperative laparoscopic surgery as effectively as IM diclofenac and can be used.

  20. Maternal butyrate supplementation induces insulin resistance associated with enhanced intramuscular fat deposition in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-02-21

    Maternal nutrition is important for the risk of the offspring to develop insulin resistance and adiposity later in life. The study was undertaken to determine effects of maternal butyrate supplementation on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the offspring skeletal muscle. The offspring of rats, fed a control diet or a butyrate diet (1% sodium butyrate) throughout gestation and lactation, was studied at weaning and at 60 days of age. The offspring of dams fed a butyrate diet had higher HOMA-insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with elevated mRNA and protein expressions of lipogenic genes and decreased amounts of lipolytic enzyme. Simultaneously, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H3 lysine 27 modification on the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of adult offspring was observed. Higher concentration of serum insulin and intramuscular triglyceride in skeletal muscle of offspring from the butyrate group at weaning were accompanied by increasing levels of lipogenic genes and enrichment of acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27. Maternal butyrate supplementation leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of offspring, indicating the importance of short chain fatty acids in the maternal diet on lipid metabolism.

  1. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, Plambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  2. Enantioselective pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in calves after intramuscular administration of a racemic mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessers, E; Watteyn, A; Wyns, H; Pardon, B; De Baere, S; De Backer, P; Croubels, S

    2015-08-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of ketoprofen were determined in 4-week-old calves after intramuscular (i.m.) injection of a racemic mixture at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight. Due to possible enantioselective disposition kinetics and chiral inversion, the plasma concentrations of the R(-) and S(+) enantiomer were quantified separately, using a stereospecific HPLC-UV assay. A distinct predominance of the S(+) enantiomer was observed, as well as significantly different pharmacokinetic parameters between R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen. More in specific, a greater value for the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0→∞)) (46.92 ± 7.75 and 11.13 ± 2.18 μg·h/mL for the S(+) and R(-) enantiomer, respectively), a lower apparent clearance (Cl/F) (32.8 ± 5.7 and 139.0 ± 25.1 mL/h·kg for the S(+) and R(-) enantiomer, respectively) and a lower apparent volume of distribution (V(d)/F) (139 ± 14.7 and 496 ± 139.4 mL/kg for the S(+) and R(-) enantiomer, respectively) were calculated for the S(+) enantiomer, indicating enantioselective pharmacokinetics for ketoprofen in calves following i.m. administration.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline after a single intravenous, oral or intramuscular dose in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Zhao, Z S; Wang, G Y; Wang, M F

    2015-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in ducks were investigated after a single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) or oral (PO) dose at 20 mg/kg body weight. 2. The concentrations of doxycycline in plasma samples were assayed using a high performance liquid chromatography method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model. 3. After IV administration, doxycycline had a mean (±SD) distribution volume (Vz) of 1761.9 ± 328.5 ml/kg and was slowly eliminated with a terminal half-life (t₁/₂λz) of 21.21±1.47 h and a total body clearance (Cl) of 57.51 ± 9.50 ml/h/kg. Following PO and IM administration, doxycycline was relatively slowly absorbed - the peak concentrations (Cmax) were 17.57 ± 4.66 μg/ml at 2 h and 25.01 ± 4.18 μg/ml at 1.5 h, respectively. The absolute bioavailabilities (F) of doxycycline after PO and IM administration were 39.13% and 70.71%, respectively. 4. The plasma profile of doxycycline exhibited favourable pharmacokinetics characteristics in Muscovy ducks, such as wide distribution, relatively slow absorption and slow elimination, though oral bioavailability was low.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of Musculus longissimus dorsi in two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF deposition is a physiological process in cattle and is highly variable among breeds suggesting a large influence of genetic factors besides environmental factors. In order to elucidate molecular pathways underlying the genetic variation in this trait we compared transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD in steers of Japanese Black and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds fed a high energy diet typically applied in Japan to achieve maximum IMF content. We identified a total of 569 differentially expressed genes (DEGs with the majority (433 up-regulated in Japanese Black cattle. This breed is characterized by an extreme capacity for IMF deposition. Subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA revealed a gene network linking parameters of cell morphology and maintenance with lipid metabolism. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75348. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in fat depositi