WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil defence

  1. Constructing and Application of Intelligent Call Center of Civil Air Defence%人防智能化呼叫中心的构建及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 王海阔

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,analysis the necessity and feasibility of the intelligence call center used in civil air defence,and thorough discuss the working principle and the function used in civil air defence actions.Based on the research construct an intelligence call center system which adapt to civil air defence characters and focused on the soft-switch technology,then forecast the foreground in the evacuate and conceal actions in wartime and the emergency rescue actions in peacetime.%本文分析了呼叫中心在人防中应用的必要性和可行性,对其工作原理和在人防行动中的作用进行了深入探讨,在此基础上构建了基于软交换技术并适合人防特点的智能化呼叫中心系统,并对其在战时疏散掩蔽行动和平时的应急救援行动中应用前景进行了预测。

  2. Predicting the impact of lava flows at Mount Etna by an innovative method based on Cellular Automata: Applications regarding land-use and civil defence planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; Avolio, M. V.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, G. V.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.; Benhcke, B.; Neri, M.

    2009-04-01

    Forecasting the time, character and impact of future eruptions is difficult at volcanoes with complex eruptive behaviour, such as Mount Etna, where eruptions occur from the summit and on the flanks, affecting areas distant from each other. Modern efforts for hazard evaluation and contingency planning in volcanic areas draw heavily on hazard maps and numerical simulations. The computational model here applied belongs to the SCIARA family of lava flow simulation models. In the specific case this is the SCIARA-fv release, which is considered to give the most accurate and efficient performance, given the extent (567 km2) of the study area and the great number of simulations to be carried out. The model is based on the Cellular Automata computational paradigm and, specifically, on the Macroscopic Cellular Automata approach for the modelling of spatially extended dynamic systems2. This work addresses the problem of compiling high-detailed susceptibility maps with an elaborate approach in the numerical simulation of Etnean lava flows, based on the results of 39,300 simulations of flows erupted from a grid of 393 hypothetical vents in the eastern sector of Etna. This sector was chosen because it is densely populated and frequently affected by flank eruptions. Besides the definition of general susceptibility maps, the availability of a large number of lava flows of different eruption types, magnitudes and locations simulated for this study allows the instantaneous extraction of various scenarios on demand. For instance, in a Civil Defence oriented application, it is possible to identify all source areas of lava flows capable of affecting a given area of interest, such as a town or a major infrastructure. Indeed, this application is rapidly accomplished by querying the simulation database, by selecting the lava flows that affect the area of interest and by circumscribing their sources. Eventually, a specific category of simulation is dedicated to the assessment of protective

  3. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environment 2008-2009. Results of NRPA Radnett and air filter stations and from Civil Defence radiac measure service; Overvaaking av radioaktivitet i omgivelsene 2008-2009. Resultater fra Straalevernets Radnett- og luftfilterstasjoner og fra Sivilforsvarets radiac maaletjeneste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Bredo; Dyve, Jan Erik

    2010-07-01

    The Report summarizes the data from Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and The Norwegian Civil Defence monitoring programs for radioactivity in the environment in 2008 and 2009. A short description of the systems is also presented. (Author)

  4. 某人防医疗救护站工程的通风与空调设计%Design of Ventilation and Air Conditioning for a Medical Aid Station of Civil Air Defence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁飞; 张晨

    2016-01-01

    在新规范的指导下,对某社区卫生服务中心地下人防医疗救护站工程的通风空调设计及平战结合与转换进行了详细介绍,并就设计过程中遇到的难题提出了解决方案及新思路。此外,简要说明了降噪减振等几点值得注意的内容。%Under the guidance of new standard, this paper introduces in detail the design of ventilation and air conditioning for a community health center underground medical aid station of civil air defence. Also, the combination of peacetime and wartime and conversion is introduced. The author puts forward some new ideas and solutions to problems encountered in the process of design. Moreover, noise and vibration reduction measures and several noteworthy issues were briefly explained.

  5. Research for civil defence and disaster control 1975-1985. Festschrift on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of Paul Wilhelm Kolb on August 16, 1985. Forschungen fuer den Zivil- und Katastrophenschutz 1975-1985. Festschrift fuer Paul Wilhelm Kolb zum 65. Geburtstag am 16. August 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The Civil Defence Commission belongs to the Ministry of the Interior, its expert members advising the Ministry 'on all matters concerning the protection of the civilian population in the case of disaster or defence'. Apart from collecting and evaluating relevant information, the Commission carries out experimental and theoretical research on special topics. The Commission consists of eight sub-divisions and presently counts about 150 members. The publication in hand reports on the achievements and activities of the Commission over the last decade. The technical contributions are concerned with: Protection by shelters and other buildings; radioactive fallout; radiation doses and effects; radiation damage and disease; medical service in the case of disaster; pharmacology, toxicology and body protection; epidemiology; psychobiology and behaviour under stress. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Diverse opportunities in defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Working at the UK's defence laboratory gives Gareth Brown the ability to apply his physics and mathematics knowledge to real-world applications - and not necessarily in the ways you might expect. This article is Crown copyright

  7. On the defence notion

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfante, Anne

    2007-01-01

    'Trojan horses', 'logic bombs', 'armoured viruses' and 'cryptovirology' are terms recalling war gears. In fact, concepts of attack and defence drive the world of computer virology, which looks like a war universe in an information society. This war has several shapes, from invasions of a network by worms, to military and industrial espionage ...

  8. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  9. Analysis of the Cost Control and Management of Civil Air Defence Works%浅析人民防空工程全过程造价控制与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海宁

    2014-01-01

    The civil air defense engineering construction project is to assess the stage in the decision-making phase, design phase, bidding phase, construction phase and completion of settlement project accounts, so it is necessary to strengthen the control and management of engineering cost, and control the engineering cost in reasonable range, so as to improve the civil air defense construction economic benefit and social benefit.%人民防空工程的建设项目是在立项决策阶段、设计阶段、招投标阶段以及施工阶段和竣工结算等工程决算后评估阶段,因此就需要我们加强对工程造价的控制与管理,把工程造价控制在合理范围内,以此提高人民防空工程建设的经济效益和社会效益的目的。

  10. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  11. ECONOMIC CHALLENGES FOR EUROPEAN DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CONSTANTINESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of a common European Union (EU defence is on the frontline of political and media discussions, in light of the recent evolutions in the security and defence environment. The main challenge in this respect is related to the realism and feasibility of moving beyond political declarations towards a more concrete implementation of a common defence policy, considering the numerous political, military and economic factors involved. The aim of this paper is to analyse the challenges faced by the concept of a common European defence from an economic point of view, considering the evolution of the defence expenditures in the EU member states, compared to the wider European and the global trend. Also, the paper will focus on the impact the economic crisis and the ensuing austerity measures had on the member states and on their cooperation in developing a common approach on defence, with a view on the ways ahead and recommendations on overcoming the difficult challenges in this respect.

  12. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  13. In Defence of Pashukanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Koen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents an extended defence of the general theory of law formulated by the Bolshevik jurist, Evgeny Pashukanis, and published in his Law and Marxism: A General Theory in 1924. The general theory is a theory of the legal form. Although Pashukanis did not name his theory, it has become known as the commodity form theory of law because of its theorising the legal form as a homologue of the commodity form. However, despite having weighty Marxist and revolutionary Bolshevik credentials, the general theory has been subjected to sustained attack, especially from new left and neo-Marxist circles. This essay identifies and explicates six major objections to Pashukanism from its left critics. These are that the general theory is too abstract to comprehend the reality of legal relations; that it is infused with economic reductionism; that it derives the legal form wrongly from commodity exchange; that it classifies the legal form incorrectly as an attribute of capitalism only; that it lacks the generality required of a general theory of law; and that it is imbricated in the growth of anarchism and Stalinism. Following a brief exegetical exercise, the bulk of the essay is devoted to demonstrating in detail that each of the six objections to the general theory is without merit, and that none makes any serious incursion into its integrity as a theory of the legal form. The central submission of the essay is that the Pashukanist general theory of law is rooted in the first principles of classical Marxism and hence may lay claim legitimately to being the Marxist theory of law.

  14. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendordt, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2008-01-01

    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Self-defence can be approached as a modular concept. The first module involves 'Detection, Classification and Localisation (DCL)'. DCL triggers the second module: the 'evaluator'. This module starts the last m

  15. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  16. The psychiatric defence and international criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of the International Criminal Court (ICC) the mental state of the perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes will become a more important issue in regard to defence and mitigating factors. This article examines how the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in particular has dealt with the mental illness defence to date, and how its judgements can serve as guidance for the ICC as it becomes the major international court of the future. The absence of a mental health defence in the Statutes of the ICTY and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has led to a reliance on the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the two tribunals. There are major difficulties in using the mental health defence as it is defined in the Statutes of the ICC because of a requirement for the destruction of mental capacity as a valid defence. Fitness to plead and the defence of intoxication are also examined.

  17. SELF-DEFENCE IN SPECIAL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya-Diana HĂRĂTĂU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the reality of practical cases and in certain special situations, self-defence may present some complex forms consisting either in accidental amplification of the issue in fact when self-defence is claimed, or in the correlation in fact of self-defence to other cases which remove the criminal nature of act1. For these reasons, we decided to analyse few of such special situations.

  18. A Stronger CSDP: Deepening Defence Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Anne; Drent, Margriet; Landman, Lennart; Zandee, Dick

    2016-01-01

    The role of parliaments is a neglected factor in the development of European defence cooperation. This is clearly in need of rectification as parliaments have a crucial role in making deeper defence cooperation a success. This Clingendael report reflects the main topics of discussion at the high-level Netherlands EU Presidency Seminar on Defence, held on 14 and 15 March 2016. In most of the EU member states, the elected representatives decide about planning, procurement, the deployment of tro...

  19. THE HARBOUR DEFENCE MOTOR LAUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the handiest small craft to emerge from the Second World War was the 72 fet Harbour Defence Motor Launch. It's purpose was to patrol harbours and their approaches and to guard against attack by swimmers or underwater vehicles such as 'chariots' or even submarines. For this task the craft was fitted with a small ASDIC outfit and carried eight depth charges. Surface armament comprised a three-pounder gun on the foredeck, twin Lewis guns on the bridge and a 20 mm Oerlikon aft.

  20. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  1. The Parliamentary Dimension of Defence Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; Drent, Margriet; Landman, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Europe’s unprecedented security challenges call for a step change in the EU’s approach to security and defence. This Clingendael report reflects the main topics of discussion at the high-level Netherlands EU Presidency Seminar on Defence held on 20 and 21 January 2016. The new EU Global Strategy on

  2. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc Tribun

  3. A Stronger CSDP: Deepening Defence Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; Drent, Margriet; Landman, Lennart; Zandee, Dick

    2016-01-01

    The role of parliaments is a neglected factor in the development of European defence cooperation. This is clearly in need of rectification as parliaments have a crucial role in making deeper defence cooperation a success. This Clingendael report reflects the main topics of discussion at the high-lev

  4. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  5. Intellectual Reflection and Civil-Military Relations in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šlekys Deividas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil-military relations in Lithuania have serious deficiencies, which have appeared because of the emulation of a recommended Western model of civilian control. After regaining Independence, Lithuania had the difficult task of creating its armed forces and system of national defence following the Western model. At the same time we had to implement two political programs: to create functioning armed forces and a institutional-legal system of democratic civil-military control. However, this control is not only proper laws and functioning institutions. Equally, an important role must be given to intellectual reflection, which enables the posing of questions such as: what is war; how is the character of war changing; how does this affect Lithuanian defence policies and the perception of threats? Raising such questions inside the armed forces and in wider political and civil society is an essential condition for having effective and flexible civilian control over the military.

  6. Platelets: at the nexus of antimicrobial defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Platelets have traditionally been viewed as fragmentary mediators of coagulation. However, recent molecular and cellular evidence suggests that they have multiple roles in host defence against infection. From first-responders that detect pathogens and rapidly deploy host-defence peptides, to beacons that recruit and enhance leukocyte functions in the context of infection, to liaisons that facilitate the T cell-B cell crosstalk that is required in adaptive immunity, platelets represent a nexus at the intersection of haemostasis and antimicrobial host defence. In this Review, I consider recent insights into the antimicrobial roles of platelets, which are mediated both directly and indirectly to integrate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.

  7. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  8. The Harbour Defence IKC2 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Choon Kiat, Tan Defence Science and Technolgy Agency 1 Depot Road #22-01 DefenceTechnology Tower A Singapore 109679 Phone : +65 63732338 Fax...Command Post (Desktop) Mobile Units (PDA) Radar 1 Web Service Radar 2 Web Service Radar 1 Tracks Msg Radar 2 Tracks Msg Web Service Abstraction...was found to be adequate for the mobile forces, providing a relatively constant throughput of 8 kbps throughout the base, though minor service

  9. EDA and EU defence procurement integration

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The chapter reflects upon the ten years since the establishment of the European Defence Agency (EDA) and analyses its role in the process of European integration in the area of defence procurement. The chapter examines the various initiatives undertaken so far by the EDA in the process of Europeanisation of a policy area that has been linked to core functions of the state and for that reason, based upon a decision making process carried out primarily at national level. Contrary to received wi...

  10. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  11. Biotechnology in defence (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazar Mathew

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology, in its present perspective, encompasses activities, such as recombination of genes; cloning, or making genetically identical copies of a living thing; and splicing of genes from DNA of one organism into the genome of unrelated species, to create new, self-reproducing forms of life. The vast potential of biotechnology is being increasingly realised, and efforts are in progress to harness it for improving quality and quantity of bio-weapons, The bio-weapons, as such, are highly attractive because of their non-detection by routine security systems, ease of access, low production cost and easy transportation, A wide range of genetically manipulated organisms and their by-products are considered to have an added advantage, because these genetically manipulated biologics not only accentuate the existing properties of bio-weapons, but also could be made target-specific. Biotechnology, if used prudently, can play a significant role to counter such threats of biologics, viz., by producing (i bio-armoury comprising powerful antibiotics, antisera toxoids and vaccines to neutralise and eliminate a wide range of diseases, and (ii bio-sensors for rapid detection, identification and neutralisation of biological warfare agents. This article elucidates some facets of biological warfare, legal protective strategies emphasised through international consultation, cooperation and adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and discusses how biotechnology could be effectively used to strengthen countries' defence and combat the threat of biological warfare.

  12. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite.

  13. UK photonics in defence and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-10-01

    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  14. Responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Dalanhol, André

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. 1. INTRODUÇÃO - aborda o tema Responsabilidade Civil - Reparação do Dano Moral Ambiental, de forma sucinta, justificando sua aplicabilidade no direito brasileiro, discorrendo acerca de cada etapa do trabalho; 2. MEIO AMBIENTE - CONCEITO - proposta de um conceito mais amplo de meio ambiente, que melhor se coadune com a realidade atual, uma vez que os con...

  15. On Cuneo's Defence of The Parity Premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J.E. Rutten

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In his book 'The Normative Web' Terence Cuneo provides a core argument for a paradigmatic instance of moral realism. At the heart of this instance lies the ontological thesis that there are irreducible moral facts. The parity premise is the first and main premise of Cuneo's core argument. It claims that 'if moral facts do not exist, then epistemic facts do not exist'. In this paper I first introduce and explain Cuneo's core argument. Subsequently I present and interpret his defence of the parity premise. It will be shown that Cuneo's defence, although intriguing, is not adequate and should therefore be refuted.

  16. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation - A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    innovation in product-service management. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Kraljic, P. (1983). Purchasing must become supply management. Harvard Business Review, 61...FMLOG, the Swedish Defence Logistics Organisation (DLO), with the DPA. In the new business model, the DPA will assume responsibility for defence equipment...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 ( Rev . 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ã= dê~Çì

  17. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  18. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results showed...... in a defence for the offence to take advantage of....

  19. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  20. Closing the loop: towards strategic defence management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Spiegeleire; P. van Hooft; C. Culpepper; R. Willems

    2009-01-01

    How do defence-organisations (or organisations with comparable profiles) of other countries map out policy goals and how are policy goals related to activities and capabilities and the required financial means, and finally how does the feedback loop on the performance in all these areas take place?

  1. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy involv

  2. Quality Management System for Defence Aeronautical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian defence aeronautical industry, while becoming a global business, demands a largeeffort to monitor quality management system (QMS and to ensure quality of aeronauticalproducts. An effort is being made to look for an effective QMS for aeronautical industry in India,which will also meet the requirements of the regulatory authority.The essential features of an effective QMS are described and compared with the presentlyavailable QMS standards for defence aeronautical industry such as QCSR: 2002 (DGAQA, India,Def Stan (MOD, UK, ISO, AQAPs (NATO and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE aerospacestandards (AS. Evolution, relevance and review of the existing standards, to meet the requirementsof the industry as well as regulatory authority, have been made to bring out the special featuresand differences. The study leads to the most acceptable standard of SAE-AS-9100 (Rev B.With suitable modifications to include regulatory requirement of assistance for governmentquality assurance in the standard, when complied with, it will fully meet the QMS requirementsof the Indian defence aeronautical supply organisations as well as the requirements of theregulatory authority. Minor reorientation of the regulatory functions and inclusion of the QMSin the defence aeronautical supply orders are also suggested.

  3. Genetics of insect resistance to plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K.M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

      Plants are chemically defended against insect herbivory in various ways. They produce a broad range of secondary metabolites that may be toxic or deterrent to insects. Specialist insects, however, are often capable of overcoming these defences. The yellow striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta nem

  4. Reliability analysis of flood defence systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Lassing, B.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Waarts, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years an advanced program for the reliability analysis of flood defence systems has been under development. This paper describes the global data requirements for the application and the setup of the models. The analysis generates the probability of system failure and the contribution of ea

  5. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independen

  6. Pareto Efficient Solutions of Attack-Defence Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as proba......Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes...... on a new and general formalism for attack-defence trees....

  7. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  8. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L. C. Van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  9. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal...... analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack......-defence trees to two-player stochastic games, and then employ probabilistic model checking techniques to formally analyse these models. This provides a means to both verify formally specified security properties of the attack-defence scenarios and, dually, to synthesise strategies for attackers or defenders...

  10. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    CERN Document Server

    Masys, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  11. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  12. Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.

    2002-04-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

  13. Narcissism, defence and the positive transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, C

    1982-01-01

    Questions concerning the positive transference and its therapeutic use have been raised by the psychology of the self. By drawing upon Freud, Abraham and Sharpe, an attempt is made to test whether classical structural, dynamic and developmental theories still provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding the vicissitudes of the positive transference in patients with significant narcissistic psychopathology. I propose the concept of a narcissistic mechanism of defence which, relying upon the convertibility of object libido into narcissistic libido (and the reverse), utilizes the substitution of activities and inanimate objects for persons in order to compensate for narcissistic injuries and to carry out unconscious aggression motivated by the same injuries. The case of Mrs M reveals that narcissistic transference phenomena, while requiring specific therapeutic interpretation, nevertheless are intrinsically related developmentally to object libidinal conflicts. The patient's narcissistic injuries were found to be intrinsically related to stage specific traumata at the oral, anal and phallic stages. Thus while the narcissistic aspects of these traumata had to be treated therapeutically in their own right, they could not have been successfully treated without the concurrent or sequential treatment of the object libidinal conflicts connected with them. Finally, it is argued that the hypothesis of a narcissistic defence mechanism supported by the hypothesis of pre-oedipal narcissistic projective and introjective identifications with narcissistically divinized or demonized parents within the framework of classical theory can account for the clinical phenomena of narcissistic neuroses.

  14. Study of environmental management systems on defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oglanis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective and sustainable environmental performance of a business is a result of various factors and most important the integrated outcome of the environmental management. Likewise, the integration of environmental protection into the armed forces functions has also gain interest for the military sector internationally. Therefore, the environmental management system (EMS is recognized as one of the most widely used tools. This study provides a review on environmental management issues related to the military activities and their assessment globally. The multitasking characteristics of the defence sector result in the need for the eco-friendly related issues to be directed in a holistic and integrated way, with the help of a certified environmental management system. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO itself and NATO countries, like USA, UK, Canada, Holland, Denmark, Czech Republic, Greece, as well as non-NATO countries like Sweden and Australia have an environmental management system structure in place to assist military environmental management and studies reveal that the armed forces could anticipate positive outcomes from environmental management system. A case-by-case approach, of the above, is examined and based on the results, appropriate recommendations are presented, which may contribute to the environmental management system considerations as the most important tool for effective management framework and most importantly to evaluate its effectiveness as a structure for the defence sector’s activities.

  15. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  16. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  17. Resolving defence mechanisms: A perspective based on dissipative structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Ben-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Theories and classifications of defence mechanisms are not unified. This study addresses the psychological system as a dissipative structure which exchanges information with the external and internal world. When using defence mechanisms, the cognitive-affective schema of an individual could remain stable and ordered by excluding psychological entropy, obtaining psychological negentropy or by dissipating the energy of self-presentation. From this perspective, defences can be classified into three basic types: isolation, compensation and self-dissipation. However, not every kind of defence mechanisms can actually help the individual. Non-adaptive defences are just functioning as an effective strategy in the short run but can be a harmful approach in the long run, while adaptive defences could instead help the individual as a long-term mechanism. Thus, we would like to suggest that it is more useful for the individual to use more adaptive defence mechanisms and seek out social or interpersonal support when undergoing psychic difficulties. As this model of defences is theoretical at present, we therefore aim to support and enrich this viewpoint with empirical evidence.

  18. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  19. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    , one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  20. An Annotated Bibliography of Defence, Disarmament, and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    of United States Defence Spending on Employment and Output, International Labour Review , Vol 124 (6), November-Decem- ber 1985, pp 677-697. Examines...BALL, N. Converting the Workforce: Defence Industry Conversion in the Industrialised Countries, International Labour Review , Vol 125 (4), July-August

  1. Commonwealth Defence Science Organisation (CDSO Food Study Group (FSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Watts

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The Food Study Group (FSG under Commonwealth Defence Science Organisation was established in 1962 to review major items of Defence research programmes and exchange scientific information in the commonwealth countries. This paper gives an insight into the set-up, terms of reference, membership and the way research programmes are conceived and dealt with.

  2. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  3. Some Methods for Scenario Analysis in Defence Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenarios are an important tool in the strategic planning process, and are increasingly used in both the Defence and business world. This paper...illustrated with small examples. We also demonstrate a single, flexible approach to combining these methods using a typical Defence strategic planning problem

  4. Costs and benefits of hormone-regulated plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, I.A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Van Wees, S.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants activate defence responses to protect themselves against microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects. However, induction of defences comes at a price, as the associated allocation costs, auto-toxicity costs and ecological costs form fitness penalties. Upon pathogen or insect attack, resources

  5. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  6. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera...

  7. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  8. Raise your defence: a baseline for security

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always.   In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...

  9. Fungi Encountered on Footwear and Defence Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents footwear and books ankle in comparison to ladies footwear. All these fungi were grouped as (i active (15 isolates, (iimoderate (15 isolates and (iii slow leather deteriogens (8 isolates on the basis of screening.

  10. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  11. EUROPEIZAREA DREPTULUI PROCESUAL CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union increases the judiciary cooperation in civil and comercial cases with trans-border incidence, based on the principle of mutual recognition of judiciary rulings. The aim of adopting frame-legislation is to ensure the developement of civil procedures. The Council Regulations no. 44/2001 on the competence, the recognition and the enforcement of judiciary rulings in civil and commercial cases is a “real” Code of civil procedure in this matter, to be applied in the member states, thus ensuring the free circulation of the judiciary rulings according to the principles of mutual recognition, mutual trust and reinforcement of juridical security in the union. The community civil procedural code prevails over the national procedural code. The Regulations ensure the administration of the community justice and through their rules avoid the pronunciation, in the member states, of rulings that are irreconcilable with each other, the direct beneficiaries being legal and natural persons.

  12. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version......Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  13. Optimal design of snow avalanche passive defence structure using reliability approach to quantify buildings vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, P.; Bertrand, D.; Eckert, N.; Naaim, M.

    2012-04-01

    To protect elements at risk (humans, roads, houses, etc.) against snow avalanches, civil engineering structures, such as dams or mounds, are used. The design of such defence structures is done following a deterministic approach which considers European regulation. The minimization of expected total losses is an interesting alternative that generalizes cost-benefit approach to a continuous decision variable. For this purpose, not only the hazard magnitude but also the buildings vulnerability must be evaluated carefully. The aim of this work is therefore to combine state of the art sub-models for the probabilistic description of avalanche flows and the numerical evaluation of damages to buildings. We defined the risk as the expectation of the cost consequences of avalanches activity. Disposal consequences are quantified thanks to reliability methods. In this formulation, the accuracy of both the hazard estimation and the vulnerability calculation has to be consistent according to precision and computational costs. To do so, a numerical approach has been developed to evaluate the physical vulnerability of concrete buildings submitted to avalanche loadings. The ensuing application illustrates our approach. A reinforced concrete slab is considered to model the building with a finite element method. Reliability approach enables to produce a response spectrum of the structure against avalanche impact. Finally, vulnerability curves are built. Outcomes of the risk calculation are examined to find sensitivity on the optimal design of snow defence structures.

  14. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Arteaga, Pedro; Ueber, Alexandra; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Santos, Rui; Molis, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory

  15. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Martínez-Crego

    Full Text Available Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food, but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and

  16. The Strange Death of UK Civil Defence Education in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    In the cold war, the United Kingdom government devised a number of public education campaigns to inform citizens about the precautions that they should undertake in the event of a nuclear attack. One such campaign, Protect and Survive, was released to the general public and media in May 1980. The negative publicity this publication received is…

  17. CORRECTING MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE IN THE CIVIL PROCEDURE BEING A COMPONENT TO THE RIGHT TO DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Vitalyevna BLAZOMIRSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered miscarriage of justice, i.e. an adjudi-cation being wrong judgment in effect containing either denial of defense within the actual (scope of right(s or defending the unlisted right for, for instance, while an in-nocent convict or an acquitted criminal. The dominant fea-tures of miscarriage of justice are the following: 1 A mis-carriage of justice appeared at the final adjudication; 2 A miscarriage of justice was presumed; 3 An agent commis-sioned to operate by a specific ruling would ascertain and eliminate a miscarriage of justice; 4 A specific way of proving a miscarriage of justice; 5 Actual miscarriage of justice has not been subsequent upon the fault / negli-gence having been let / tolerated / omitted by the judge who passed the final adjudication. Eliminating a miscar-riage of justice by the superior court should be one of three steps required for judicial defense. The first step shall be referring to the court and the hearing of the case by the court of first instance with the final disposition of the case that should be mandatory. The second and third steps shall be eliminating a miscarriage of justice and enforcing the court‟s disposition, – should be secured by the State as the effective remedies of judicial defense, and the party con-cerned may involve these when required.

  18. Transnational Policies of Emancipation or Colonization? Civil society promotion in post-communist Albania

    OpenAIRE

    CHIODI, Luisa

    2007-01-01

    Defence date: 3 April 2007 Examining board: Prof. Donatella della Porta, EUI/Supervisor ; Prof. Philippe Schmitter, EUI ; Prof. Stefano Bianchini, Università di Bologna ; Prof. Helena Flam, Universität Leipzig The thesis discusses whether the western aid policy of Civil Society Promotion (CSP) in postcommunist Albania constituted a policy of colonization with its direct penetration of the local public sphere or one of emancipation that pluralized the local and the international public s...

  19. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  20. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  1. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  2. Chemical antipredator defence is linked to higher extinction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many attributes of species may be linked to contemporary extinction risk, though some such traits remain untested despite suggestions that they may be important. Here, I test whether a trait associated with higher background extinction rates, chemical antipredator defence, is also associated with current extinction risk, using amphibians as a model system—a group facing global population declines. I find that chemically defended species are approximately 60% more likely to be threatened than species without chemical defence, although the severity of the contemporary extinction risk may not relate to chemical defence. The results confirm that background and contemporary extinction rates can be predicted from the same traits, at least in certain cases. This suggests that associations between extinction risk and phenotypic traits can be temporally stable over long periods. The results also provide novel insights into the relevance of antipredator defences for species subject to conservation concerns. PMID:28018657

  3. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik;

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists...

  4. Cellular Metals and Ceramics for Defence Applications (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol A. Gokhale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Among cellular metals, aluminium foams are the most commonly produced, and provide a unique combination of properties such as: very low density, high energy absorption under static and dynamic compressions, blast amelioration, sound absorption, and flame resistance. Applications in automotive and defence sectors have been reported. Foams based on high melting point metals such as nickel and its alloys are also under active development throughout the world for applications requiring corrosion and oxidation resistance coupled with high temperature strength and relatively high thermal conductivity. Ceramic foams were developed elsewhere in the world primarily for biomedical applications, but are also suitable for defence applications for high temperature insulation. These cellular materials will provide new materials options to designers of aerospace, transport, and other defence systems.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(6, pp.567-575, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.640

  5. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  6. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    which guarantee or optimise some quantitative property, such as the probability of a successful attack, the expected cost incurred, or some multi-objective trade-off between the two. We implement our approach, building upon the PRISM-games model checker, and apply it to a case study of an RFID goods...... analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack......-defence trees to two-player stochastic games, and then employ probabilistic model checking techniques to formally analyse these models. This provides a means to both verify formally specified security properties of the attack-defence scenarios and, dually, to synthesise strategies for attackers or defenders...

  7. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  8. Method of defence of solder surface from oxidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Compositions are developed for defence of fusion solder from oxidization on the basis of mixture of glycerin, urea and powders of refractory oxides, carbides (Al2O3, TiO2, SIC, graphite. The offered compositions can be used for defence of fusion of solder from oxidization in the process of soludering and tinning of explorers, and also electric conclusions of elements of radio electronic apparatus by the method of immersion in stationary baths.

  9. A Review of Enterprise Architecture Use in Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Architecture. A review was undertaken to gain insight into the perceived value that various Stakeholders within Defence were realising from the use...perceived value that various Stakeholders within Defence were realising from the use of enterprise architectures to assist with the realisation of the...of enterprise architectures to assist with the realisation of the integrated networked force. The report distils lesson learned over this period

  10. Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.331-339, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2756

  11. Crohn's disease-Defect in innate defence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Gersemann; Jan Wehkamp; Klaus Fellermann; Eduard Friedrich Stange

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease may prinicipally involve the whole gastrointestinal tract. Most commonly, the inflammation occurs in the small intestine and/or in the colon with stable disease location over the years. The pathogenesis of both disease phenotypes is complex, the likely primary defect lies in the innate rather than adaptive immunity, particularly in the chemical antimicrobial barrier of the mucosa Crohn's ileitis is associated with a reduced expression of the Wnt signalling pathway transcription factor T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) ,which is regulating Paneth cell differentiation. As a result, the alpha-defensins and principal Paneth cell products HD5 and HD6 are deficiently expressed in ileal disease, independent of current inflammation. In contrast, Crohn's colitis is typically associated with an impaired induction of the beta-defensins HBD2 and HBD3 caused by fewer gene copy numbers in the gene locus of the beta-defensins on chromosome 8. This ileal and colonic defect in innate defence mediated by a deficiency of the protective alpha- and betadefensins may enable the luminal microbes to invade the mucosa and trigger the inflammation. A better understanding of the exact molecular mechanisms behind ileal and colonic Crohn's disease may give rise to new therapeutic strategies based on a stimulation of the protective innate immune system.(C)2008 The WJG Press. All fights reserved.

  12. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  13. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  14. History and Undergraduate Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Peter

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that a traditional, historically-oriented course in 17th- and 18th-century French civilization continues to be an appropriate and effective approach for undergraduate French study, in preparation for later, more sophisticated cultural analysis. Four course components are discussed: class lectures; literary text selection; textbook…

  15. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  16. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...... decreases in formation of appressoria as well as accumulation of H2O2, HRGPs and phytoalexins. Concomitant with these inducible responses, fungal growth was stopped during or just after penetration in genotypes SC146 and SC326. High levels of H2O2 accumulating at late infection stages (5 days after...

  17. Civility in Classes and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  18. Exploring Civilizations with 'Seven Wolves'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.

  19. The Limitation of Western Civilization And the Revival of Oriental Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Hao

    2014-01-01

    <正>In the distribution of modem world civilizations,the Oriental civilization and Western civilization are the two major civilization systems.Western civilization is often represented by the Christian civilization in Europe and North America on both sides across the North Atlantic.Oriental civilization appears more diversified,among which the Chinese civilization,India civilization and Islamic civilization are the most influential

  20. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  1. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  2. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.

  3. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the communicative practice of a Tanzanian NGO, Femina. Based on a tripartite model of engagement (Madianou, 2012) integrating speech, action and understanding, and drawing on fieldwork on the communication practices of Femina, I critically assess the forms of civic engagement...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  4. Standardization for Defence Procurement - European Handbook, recommendations Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, F.B.J.; Malabiau, R.

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) would like to improve the competitiveness of the European Defence Industry. The large number of (national) standards, more than 10.000, is recognised by EC as a major constraint and cost driver [1]. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and more generally Electromagnetic E

  5. Exploiting Modelling and Simulation in Support of Cyber Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Boltjes, B.; Croom-Jonson, S.; Jonat, F.; Çankaya, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly evolving environment of Cyber threats against the NATO Alliance has necessitated a renewed focus on the development of Cyber Defence policy and capabilities. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group is looking for ways to leverage Modelling and Simulation experience in research, analysis

  6. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species.

  7. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    on an intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting...

  8. The plant proteolytic machinery and its role in defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der R.A.L.; Jones, J.D.G.

    2004-01-01

    The diverse roles of plant proteases in defence responses that are triggered by pathogens or pests are becoming clearer. Some proteases, such as papain in latex, execute the attack on the invading organism. Other proteases seem to be part of a signalling cascade, as indicated by protease inhibitor s

  9. Briefing: Lessons learned from failures of flood defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    Failure of flood defences during extreme events can lead to enormous damage and loss of life. This paper presents lessons learned from investigations of flood events over recent years, including the 2005 flooding in New Orleans, USA, caused by hurricane Katrina. Based on these findings, new developm

  10. Gastropod skeletal defences: land, freshwater, and sea compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a primary agency of natural selection affecting the evolution of skeletal form in gastropods. The nature of antipredatory defence depends on how predators attack their prey as well as on the types and quantities of resources that are available to the potential victims. Here I review the

  11. Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP in 1999 has led to the creation of a whole range of bureaucratic bodies in Brussels and the national capitals. These bodies support the crisis management operations of the European Union. This review article presents the state of the art of academic research on the role of bureaucracy in this recent policy area. It argues that the growing institutional complexity and the constant interaction between actors at the national and European level require scholars to go beyond the dominant approaches of International Relations. Using insights from comparative politics, public administration and multi-level governance, this article considers four important questions: who these civil servants are, why they matter, how they interact, and how they are controlled politically and democratically.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Sonic Defences in Bombycoidea Caterpillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Veronica L.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators. PMID:27510510

  13. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  14. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  16. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  17. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  18. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  19. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  20. Distributed Computing and its Scope in Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. George

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed computing is one of the paradigms in the world of information technology. Middleware is the essential tool for implementing distributed computing for overtaking theheterogeneity of platform and language. DRDO’s intranet, DRONA, has the potential of hosting distributed applications across the network. This paper deals with the essentials of distributed computing, architecture of DRONA network, and the scope of distributed computing in Defence applications. It also suggests a few possible applications of distributed computing.

  1. Anosognosia as motivated unawareness: the 'defence' hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Solms, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia has seen a century of almost continuous research, yet a definitive understanding of its mechanism remains elusive. Essentially, anosognosic patients hold quasi-delusional beliefs about their paralysed limbs, in spite of all the contrary evidence, repeated questioning, and logical argument. We review a range of findings suggesting that emotion and motivation play an important role in anosognosia. We conclude that anosognosia involves (amongst other things) a process of psychological defence. This conclusion stems from a wide variety of clinical and experimental investigations, including data on implicit awareness of deficit, fluctuations in awareness over time, and dramatic effects upon awareness of psychological interventions such as psychotherapy, reframing of the emotional consequences of the paralysis, and first versus third person perspectival manipulations. In addition, we review and refute the (eight) arguments historically raised against the 'defence' hypothesis, including the claim that a defence-based account cannot explain the lateralised nature of the disorder. We argue that damage to a well-established right-lateralised emotion regulation system, with links to psychological processes that appear to underpin allocentric spatial cognition, plays a key role in anosognosia (at least in some patients). We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice.

  2. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  3. Radio Frequency Microelectromechanical Systems in Defence and Aerospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.K. Sastry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For all onboard systems applications, it is important to have very low-loss characteristics and low power consumption coupled with size reduction. The controls and instrumentation in defence and aerospace continually calls for newer technologies and developments. One such technology showing remarkable potential over the years is radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS which have already made their presence felt prominently by offering replacement in radar and communication systems with high quality factors and precise tunability. The RF MEMS components have emerged as potential candidates for defence and aerospace applications. The core theme of this paper is to drive home the fact that the limitations faced by the current RF devices can be overcome by the flexibility and better device performance characteristics of RF MEMS components, which ultimately propagate the device level benefits to the final system to attain the unprecedented levels of performance.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(6, pp.568-567, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1561

  4. Codificación civil

    OpenAIRE

    Verdera Server, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho

  5. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  6. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  7. Código civil colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Secretaria del Senado Colombia

    2005-01-01

    El Código Civil como lo indica su articulo primero,comprende las disposiciones legales sustantivas que determinan especialmente los derechos de los particulares, por razón del estado de las personas, de sus bienes, obligaciones, contratos y acciones civiles.

  8. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  9. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  10. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  11. The Ambivalences of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kaare Nielsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the conceptual heterogeneity in the field of ‘civil society’ in the light of a distinction between positions that reflect civil society as a democratic-emancipatory category and positions that consider civil society from the perspective of the state: as an instrumental resource for the technocratic planning of the competitive nation state.The article discusses the implications and perspectives in these two different strategic scenarios for conceptualizing civil society. The argument is made that civil society in relation to democratic citizenship should basically rather be understood as a concept for specific, communicative principles for institutionalizing societal relations and organizing public experience than as an overall concept for third sector organizations.

  12. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  13. How persistent is civilization growth?

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions will continue to grow exponentially at an average rate of about 2.3% per year.

  14. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  15. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swadhin Swain; Nidhi Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2015-03-01

    A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1 (cdd1) is an exception. The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene expression profile between cdd1 and wild-type plants as obtained by microarray hybridization. Expression of several defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA insertion mutant lines of selected genes, for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant defence against bacterial pathogens.

  16. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  17. Credit and civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tim

    2003-09-01

    This paper analyses financial credit in order to re-examine the work of Norbert Elias, particularly his association of interdependency complexity with social discipline, and his approach to contradiction. Following a discussion of these issues, the paper examines Elias's writing on money and explores the emergence of financial credit networks in early modern England. Attention is paid to credit networks and social discipline, to credit and the state, and to the contradictory images associated with the transition to modern cash economies. From one perspective, early modern credit networks might be read as a confirmation of Elias, particularly his argument that interdependency complexity, changing power balances and self-restraint are interwoven. Yet the development of modern cash money raises questions, not just in relation to Elias's treatment of money, but also with regard to his assumptions about social discipline and his approach to ambivalence and contradiction. Drawing on the foregoing discussion, the paper argues that the relation between interdependency complexity and social discipline is contingent and variable, and that interdependency complexity may simultaneously encourage contradictory processes, such as those of civilizing and barbarity.

  18. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    The article questions how strong Europeanisation is as an explanation of administrative changes in EU member states. Denmark has an opt-out from the European cooperation on defence, and, therefore, its defence administration represents a critical or a less likely case to test the Europeanisation...... thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...

  19. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  20. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  1. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  2. Photosynthesis, photorespiration, and light signalling in defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Neukermans, Jenny; Li, Shengchun; Aro, Eva-Mari; Noctor, Graham

    2012-02-01

    Visible light is the basic energetic driver of plant biomass production through photosynthesis. The constantly fluctuating availability of light and other environmental factors means that the photosynthetic apparatus must be able to operate in a dynamic fashion appropriate to the prevailing conditions. Dynamic regulation is achieved through an array of homeostatic control mechanisms that both respond to and influence cellular energy and reductant status. In addition, light availability and quality are continuously monitored by plants through photoreceptors. Outside the laboratory growth room, it is within the context of complex changes in energy and signalling status that plants must regulate pathways to deal with biotic challenges, and this can be influenced by changes in the highly energetic photosynthetic pathways and in the turnover of the photosynthetic machinery. Because of this, defence responses are neither simple nor easily predictable, but rather conditioned by the nutritional and signalling status of the plant cell. This review discusses recent data and emerging concepts of how recognized defence pathways interact with and are influenced by light-dependent processes. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential roles of the chloroplast, photorespiration, and photoreceptor-associated pathways in regulating the outcome of interactions between plants and pathogenic organisms.

  3. Mutualistic ants as an indirect defence against leaf pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens.

  4. Manic Defences in Contemporary Society. The Psychocultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko; Jakovljevic, Miro; Marcinko, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the impact of contemporary culture on the individual's personality. We used the "psychocultural" approach whose key feature is the amalgamation of theories and methods belonging to psychodynamic and psychosocial studies, as well as those used in the field of media and cultural studies. The idea of a potentially therapeutic effect of culture (therapy culture) can already been seen in Freud's and Lacan's texts, and it is often used in critical analyses of contemporary corporate culture, which is more or less developed in some parts of the world. In their criticisms, many contemporary authors emphasize that modern societies have a tendency towards the weakening of basic commitment, or lack thereof, to a social equivalent of Winnicott's concept of environmental provisions as an inalienable democratic right essential for human emotional and mental progress or emotional well-being. The article describes frequent resorting to the so-called manic defences that defensively distort, deny and obscure the awareness that a human being is not the omnipotent source of life, but instead depends on other human beings, and often tries to compensate for loss through various activities. The article describes excessive shopping as an activity that often serves as an attempt to find what was lost, i.e. to fill an emotional void. This solution (resorting to manic defences) is encouraged by contemporary culture, especially through promotional material (e.g. advertising). The main theses of this article are supported by quotations and data from world literature.

  5. Basic Directive on the Planning of Civil Defence in response to Radiological Risk; La Directriz Basica de Planificacion de Proteccion Civil ante el Riesgo Radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin Cuartero, M.; Vega Riber, R. de la

    2012-11-01

    The approval of this directive completes the basic set of standards governing nuclear and radiological emergencies applicable in Spain, in the implementation of which the Nuclear Safety Council plays a role defined in the Action Plan. (Author) 14 refs.

  6. Converting old shore protection structures into softer defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzini, Enzo

    2010-05-01

    Beach erosion has been affecting several developed countries since the middle of 19th century, which led to the construction of many different protection structures. These frequently proved to be ineffective locally, while being negative for downdrift coastal segments. In addition, such defence structures modified the coastal morphology, often transforming a sandy beach into a rocky coast. Softer shore protection projects have been developed in the past years, mostly accompanied by beach nourishment that uses quarried material or shelf sediments. This proved to be efficient in defending the beach, without negative fallouts on unprotected sectors. These techniques can be easily applied to beaches where no "archeaostructures" had been realized before. On the other hand, difficulties arise when such "old style" structures are to be replaced with softer techniques, since traditional hard defences usually cause such changes to beach profile that innovative ones become "too soft". Due to profile deepening in front of reflective structures, wave shoaling is reduced and energy dissipation concentrated in a narrow beach band. Restoring a milder profile needs a large amount of sediments and fine sands are not stable under those conditions. The new challenge for coastal engineers, coastal geomorphologists and coastal planners is managing the transition from old archaeostructures to new soft shore protection techniques. This process requires years of progressive adaptation - an unsuitable timing for politicians who demand fast results to be sold during the next elections. In Italy, along the Tuscany coast, where more than two kilometres of breakwaters protect each kilometre of coast, such a process has been initiated after a long phase of stakeholder participation in order to overcome public scepticism towards "invisible" defences. Detached breakwaters were lowered below sea level at Follonica and Marina di Pisa, while the number of groins is to be reduced at Marina di Massa

  7. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); P. van Baarlen (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to h

  8. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  9. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  10. Intraspecific variation in a generalist herbivore accounts for differential induction and impact of host plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, M.R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and herbivores are thought to be engaged in a coevolutionary arms race: rising frequencies of plants with anti-herbivore defences exert pressure on herbivores to resist or circumvent these defences and vice versa. Owing to its frequency-dependent character, the arms race hypothesis predicts t

  11. NRT/PTR transporters are essential for translocation of glucosinolate defence compounds to seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Burow, Meike;

    2012-01-01

    In plants, transport processes are important for the reallocation of defence compounds to protect tissues of high value, as demonstrated in the plant model Arabidopsis, in which the major defence compounds, glucosinolates, are translocated to seeds on maturation. The molecular basis for long-dist...

  12. Estimating the ROI for Recruitment Marketing and Advertising Expenditure for the Australian Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    OF RECRUITMENT MARKETING AND ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE FOR THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE by Christopher D. Kitchin March 2012 Thesis...ROI for Recruitment Marketing and Advertising Expenditure for the Australian Defence Force 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher D. Kitchin... advertising expenditure was found to have no effect on enlistments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Marketing and Advertising Expenditure, Recruitment 15

  13. Inhibition of lipoxygenase affects induction of both direct and indirect plant defences against herbivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Broekhoven, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, M.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant defences influence the behaviour of insects associated with the plant. For biting–chewing herbivores the octadecanoid signal-transduction pathway has been suggested to play a key role in induced plant defence. To test this hypothesis in our plant—herbivore—parasitoid tritroph

  14. Genetic dissection of basal defence responsiveness in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, S.; Hulten, M. van; Martin, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Ton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance involves a multitude of pathogen- and herbivore-inducible defence mechanisms, ranging from localized callose deposition to systemic defence gene induction by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). In this study, we have explored and dissected genetic variation in the responsive

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Defence Mechanisms Used in Psychotherapy by Adults Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D. W.; Beail, N.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: A significant concept in psychodynamic theory and practice is that of defence mechanisms. The identifications of defences is a key task of the therapist and these are then used in the formulation and form part of the therapist's interventions. Case studies of psychotherapy with adults who have intellectual disabilities (IDs) suggest that…

  16. Plant defence against nematodes is not mediated by changes in the soil microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurst, S.; Beersum, van S.; Wagenaar, R.; Bakx-Schotman, J.M.T.; Drigo, B.; Janzik, I.; Lanoue, A.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Indirect plant defence, the recruitment of antagonists of herbivores, is well-known above the ground. In spite of various soil microorganisms acting as antagonists to root herbivores, it is still largely unknown whether plants can promote antagonistic microorganisms as an indirect defence mechani

  17. To Gain the Academic Capital: The Conflict and Solution in the Dissertation Proposal Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningning, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Doctor candidates get the academic identity and academic capital in his field by the thesis writing. The dissertation proposal defence hold on the public field promotes the state of academic and legalizes the discipline of the academic community. During the dissertation proposal defence, doctor candidates may face three conflicts. The first is…

  18. Computational intelligence methods for the efficient reliability analysis of complex flood defence structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingston, Greer B.; Rajabalinejad, Mohammadreza; Gouldby, Ben P.; Gelder, van Pieter H.A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    With the continual rise of sea levels and deterioration of flood defence structures over time, it is no longer appropriate to define a design level of flood protection, but rather, it is necessary to estimate the reliability of flood defences under varying and uncertain conditions. For complex geote

  19. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  20. Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part I : Studies in High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Ramaswamy

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Our troops have to operate under a variety of adverse environments including hypoxic, dry cold/wet cold conditions of high altitudes, hot dry/humid conditions in the plains, high noise levels from machinery, engines in ships and aircraft, gunfire, etc. Professor DS Kothari, the first Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Defence, could foresee as early as the late forties that it was only a scientific understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms that would lead to solutions which would ensure the optimal operational efficiency of men under such trying environments. He sowed the seeds of defence physiology as a major discipline in the then Defence Science Organisation, which developed into the Defence Research and Development organisation. As a result, there have been outstanding contributions by the defence physiologists as well in the direct applications of their work in optimizing the operational efficiency of our defence personnel. This paper reviews the wide spectrum of problems relevant to defence physiology studied over the last four decades, the significant findings, and their practical applications. Part I reviews in detail work on the most pressing problem in our current geopolitical context, viz. high altitude physiology. Part II discusses studies on thermal stress, bioclimatology, noise exposure hazards, physical work capacity, effects of ageing on physical and mental capacities, and toxicology. In addition, the contributions of defence scientists towards the rationalisation of service ration scales, and resource development efforts are dealt with.

  1. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to have evolved

  2. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-01-30

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity.

  3. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  4. Differential phenotypic and genetic expression of defence compounds in a plant-herbivore interaction along elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana L; Suchan, Tomasz; Pellissier, Loïc; Rasmann, Sergio; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Alvarez, Nadir

    2016-09-01

    Elevation gradients impose large differences in abiotic and biotic conditions over short distances, in turn, likely driving differences in gene expression more than would genetic variation per se, as natural selection and drift are less likely to fix alleles at such a narrow spatial scale. As elevation increases, the pressure exerted on plants by herbivores and on arthropod herbivores by predators decreases, and organisms spanning the elevation gradient are thus expected to show lower levels of defence at high elevation. The alternative hypothesis, based on the optimal defence theory, is that defence allocation should be higher in low-resource habitats such as those at high elevation, due to higher costs associated with tissue replacement. In this study, we analyse variation with elevation in (i) defence compound content in the plant Lotus corniculatus and (ii) gene expression associated with defence against predators in the specific phytophagous moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Both species produce cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) such as lotaustralin and linamarin as defence mechanisms, with the moth, in addition, being able to sequester CNglcs from its host plant. Specifically, we tested the assumption that the defence-associated phenotype in plants and the gene expression in the insect herbivore should covary between low- and high-elevation environments. We found that L. corniculatus accumulated more CNglcs at high elevation, a result in agreement with the optimal defence theory. By contrast, we found that the levels of expression in the defence genes of Z. filipendulae larvae were not related to the CNglc content of their host plant. Overall, expression levels were not correlated with elevation either, with the exception of the UGT33A1 gene, which showed a marginally significant trend towards higher expression at high elevation when using a simple statistical framework. These results suggest that the defence phenotype of plants against herbivores, and subsequent

  5. Differential phenotypic and genetic expression of defence compounds in a plant–herbivore interaction along elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana L.; Suchan, Tomasz; Pellissier, Loïc; Rasmann, Sergio; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

    2016-01-01

    Elevation gradients impose large differences in abiotic and biotic conditions over short distances, in turn, likely driving differences in gene expression more than would genetic variation per se, as natural selection and drift are less likely to fix alleles at such a narrow spatial scale. As elevation increases, the pressure exerted on plants by herbivores and on arthropod herbivores by predators decreases, and organisms spanning the elevation gradient are thus expected to show lower levels of defence at high elevation. The alternative hypothesis, based on the optimal defence theory, is that defence allocation should be higher in low-resource habitats such as those at high elevation, due to higher costs associated with tissue replacement. In this study, we analyse variation with elevation in (i) defence compound content in the plant Lotus corniculatus and (ii) gene expression associated with defence against predators in the specific phytophagous moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Both species produce cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) such as lotaustralin and linamarin as defence mechanisms, with the moth, in addition, being able to sequester CNglcs from its host plant. Specifically, we tested the assumption that the defence-associated phenotype in plants and the gene expression in the insect herbivore should covary between low- and high-elevation environments. We found that L. corniculatus accumulated more CNglcs at high elevation, a result in agreement with the optimal defence theory. By contrast, we found that the levels of expression in the defence genes of Z. filipendulae larvae were not related to the CNglc content of their host plant. Overall, expression levels were not correlated with elevation either, with the exception of the UGT33A1 gene, which showed a marginally significant trend towards higher expression at high elevation when using a simple statistical framework. These results suggest that the defence phenotype of plants against herbivores, and subsequent

  6. Defence Industrial Policies and Their Impact on Acquisition Outcomes: A Comparative Analysis of the United Kingdom and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the JORN configuration items had passed the critical design review stage (ANAO, 1996: xiv). This and other evidence that Telstra lacked the skills...prompted by increasing pressure on defence budgets; consolidation of the UK defence industry; “ globalisation ” of UK defence companies & threat of exit

  7. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  8. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  9. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...... related to sustainability – a Workshop on Traffic. The workshop discussed traffic prognoses and the way they are used in the preparation of urban transport and traffic strategies. Civil engineer Jonas Eliasson spoke about the experience in Sweden of developing a database for traffic prognoses. The main...... to develop a technically advanced form of aesthetics. The Master Class in low energy buildings was led by civil engineer, Svend Svendsen, a Professor at DTU Byg. Together with colleagues and students, he has achieved an extensive knowledge of Integrated Design. In fact, the situation is that our knowledge...

  10. Mother-son incest as a defence against psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K M; Bossi, J

    1993-09-01

    In the following, a case of mother-adult son incest is described and explained from a psychoanalytical viewpoint. Two theories are put forward: (a) Mother-son incest may occur as a defence against psychosis, and (b) the incest represents an unconscious search for triangulation, a process in which external authorities (such as, for example, a court of law) may function as surrogates for persons who have been missed in the pre-oedipal past. It is therefore possible to understand mother-son incest symbolically as an indicator of pre-oedipal needs of the son and of the mother's longing for the absent partner. The incest is, however, not only a cry for help; it is also to be regarded as an attempt to solve the problem for both people involved. Looked at in this way, new ways of understanding and new possibilities for therapy emerge.

  11. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...... foreign policy establishment and industrial-military complexes reluctant to cede control over a vital technology and production base - particular to neighbouring countries which in a not to distant past were rivals rather then partners. The latter will be linked to recent work on the nature and impacts...

  12. Target Detection: Remote Sensing Techniques for Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Chaudhuri

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.

  13. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  14. Brood parasitism selects for no defence in a cuckoo host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver

    2011-09-22

    In coevolutionary arms races, like between cuckoos and their hosts, it is easy to understand why the host is under selection favouring anti-parasitism behaviour, such as egg rejection, which can lead to parasites evolving remarkable adaptations to 'trick' their host, such as mimetic eggs. But what about cases where the cuckoo egg is not mimetic and where the host does not act against it? Classically, such apparently non-adaptive behaviour is put down to evolutionary lag: given enough time, egg mimicry and parasite avoidance strategies will evolve. An alternative is that absence of egg mimicry and of anti-parasite behaviour is stable. Such stability is at first sight highly paradoxical. I show, using both field and experimental data to parametrize a simulation model, that the absence of defence behaviour by Cape bulbuls (Pycnonotus capensis) against parasitic eggs of the Jacobin cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) is optimal behaviour. The cuckoo has evolved massive eggs (double the size of bulbul eggs) with thick shells, making it very hard or impossible for the host to eject the cuckoo egg. The host could still avoid brood parasitism by nest desertion. However, higher predation and parasitism risks later in the season makes desertion more costly than accepting the cuckoo egg, a strategy aided by the fact that many cuckoo eggs are incorrectly timed, so do not hatch in time and hence do not reduce host fitness to zero. Selection will therefore prevent the continuation of any coevolutionary arms race. Non-mimetic eggs and absence of defence strategies against cuckoo eggs will be the stable, if at first sight paradoxical, result.

  15. Tendencias del Derecho civil (2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2002-01-01

    Durante el año 2.002 han dado a luz, en el campo del Derecho Civil, un conjunto de leyes que suponen una importante actualización normativa ante determinadas necesidades presentadas por la dinámica realidad socio-económica de España, en un contexto de acelerada tecnificación, creciente vitalidad y fluidez de tejido social, y de progresiva armonización legislativa con los países de nuestro entorno. Para este informe de Derecho Civil hemos preferido seguir, por razón de mejor carácter sistemáti...

  16. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites.

  17. Independent Effects of a Herbivore’s Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Heike; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Lamers, Mart M.; Wybouw, Nicky; Groot, Astrid T.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant’s response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant’s defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly. PMID:28106771

  18. Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Göran M.; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  19. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible

  20. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  1. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  2. Etica civile e beatitudini evangeliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colaianni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, riproduce il testo dell’intervento nel dibattito a due voci (con il presidente della Corte costituzionale, Gaetano Silvestri a conclusione del convegno “La Bibbia sulle strade dell’uomo” (Messina, 23 novembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. L’etica civile come etica costituzionale – 2. L’etica evangelica – 3. Irriducibilità? – 4. La promessa e il terzo – 5. La libertà – 6. Il tratto di cammino insieme.  Civil Ethic and Evangelical Beatitudes ABSTRACT The differences between civil ethic and religious ethic, that the Author defines as constitutional principles and evangelic Beatitudes, are well known: it’s common knowledge that the ones are effective in the earthly life while the others are oriented to the eternal life. Nevertheless the Author argues that they both have a common feature before that last analysis: they cross as principles of continuing opposition to unjust society, to “unlawful law”, to spreading apart between the constitutional and evangelic must be and the legislative being of positive law.KEY-WORDS: Civil Ethic – Constitution – Evangelical Beatitudes – Differences - Common Feature.

  3. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  4. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  5. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  6. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by verdict, decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920...

  8. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor...

  9. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), and the NASA implementing regulations (14 CFR parts 1250... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  12. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination...

  13. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  14. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  15. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  16. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1968, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) has collected data on key education and civil rights issues in our nation's public schools for use by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), other Department offices, other federal agencies, and by policymakers and researchers outside of the Department. The CRDC has…

  17. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Index About Us Filing with OCR Civil Rights Health Information Privacy Newsroom HHS Home > Office for Civil ... Civil Rights Filing with OCR File a civil rights or health information privacy complaint. Newsroom Read the latest OCR ...

  18. Catalan historians and the Civil War: a step forwards is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis MARTIN RAMOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much of it communicational and even propagandistic in nature, there is now an abundance of Catalan literature on the Civil War. The study of the war in Catalonia has obviously made progress, in particular through a larger exploitation of primary sources, and has overcome its over-reliance on personal memoirs, recollections and oral testimonies. However, there is still a predominant focus on the period ending in May 1937. The consequence is a significant lack of scientific knowledge on what happened from that date until the end of the war. Moreover, some recurring stereotypes subsist, such as the notion that the Civil War was not truly an internal, civil confrontation but rather an act of aggression against Catalonia. There exists also the “moral excuse” for so-called “revolutionary violence” during the first months of the war, as opposed to the unreserved condemnation of the institutional repression carried out by the Government of the Republic in legitimate self-defence.

  19. El proceso civil de "civil law": Aspectos fundamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Taruffo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo el autor analiza los sistemas procesales civiles de civil law y de common law desmarcándose de las tradicionales contraposiciones que la doctrina ha acostumbrado utilizar para la explicación de las diferencias fundamentales existentes entre uno y otro modelo. En efecto, a partir de la constatación de la insuficiencia y en ocasiones inutilidad de estas explicaciones para describir la situación actual de ambos modelos procesales, ensaya el autor un discurso que termina por dar luz a la evolución experimentada por estos sistemas y que, como bien apunta, se ha traducido en un acercamiento que se manifiesta de diversas formas como se ocupa de explicarIn this article the author analyses the procedural law systems of civil law and common law outlining the traditional objections that the doctrine is accustomed to using to explain the existing fundamental differences between one and the other model. In fact, it is from the constatation of the insufficiency and, in occasion the uselessness of these explanations in describing the actual situation of both procedural models, that the author attempts a discourse that in the end sheds light on the evolution experienced by these systems and, as he clearly indicates, has translated into an approximation that manifests in different forms

  20. Service to Science and Service to Defence : Moseley in the Light of the Centenary Year of his Landmark Publications in Defence of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mukherjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three words ‘Moseley, Soldier & Science’ in which the last two are so deeply associated with the name of the English scientist Moseley that these have become virtually synonyms of Moseley in the context of remembrance of the professional contribution and character of the unique soldier-scientist Moseley because these two words are very special for him in the sense that they often are essential to understand the personality of iconic Moseley. His keen interest in the service of Science as researcher and on the other hand, his involvement in the Defence services as soldier is really unique example of personification of total commitment to the cause of defence of his country and his deep dedication for the cause of unfolding the scientific truth towards building up a way forward to enrich human history. Moseley’s dual personalities as a scientist and as a soldier rest on the framework of Science & Defence in which the ideas and appeal of Science is universal whereas the ideals of a soldier in Defence is purely national and personal; and that was manifested in his attitude and approach - so intimate and so intense that it would not be inappropriate to say that ‘Service to Science’ and ‘Service to Defence’ for this real world, as Moseley exemplified were in a way virtually two sides of the same coin. Thus, Moseley is truly a composite personality which can be understood from his passion for Science as essentially meant for global cause but his zeal as soldier for Defence was pristine and core to his heart. In fact, often such deeply motivated men contribute for creation of history of this real composite world.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(4, pp.343-345, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4873

  1. Intraclonal variation in defence substances and palatability: a study on Carex and lemmings

    OpenAIRE

    Bråthen, KA; Agrell, Jep; Berteaux, D.; Jonsdottir, IS

    2004-01-01

    Clonal sedges consist of integrated ramets at different development stages. Many of these sedges are important food for herbivores, yet differences in herbivore preferences and defence allocation between ramet development stages have not previously been evaluated. In this study we investigated intraclonal ramet variation in level of plant defence and nutrient compounds and intraclonal ramet preferences by lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) in field samples of a rhizomatous sedge (Carex stans). P...

  2. Littoral Infrared Ship Self Defence Technology Studies (Autodefense cotiere infrarouge des navires etudes technologiques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Modeling Radiometry Ship signature control Surveillance 14. Abstract Task Group Number 51 (RTG-51/SET-088), titled “Littoral Infrared Ship...Centre Renaissancelaan 30, 1000 Bruxelles Armaments Department ITALIE 9-11, Drumul Taberei Street CANADA Centro Gestione Conoscenza Sector 6...Distribučné a Defence R&D Canada informačné stredisko STO Department of National Defence ITALY Demänová 393 305 Rideau Street, 9th Floor Centro Gestione

  3. UK Defence Acquisition Process for NEC: Transaction Governance within an Integrated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    a PhD candidate in his second year at MBS, researching UK defence acquisition applying a transaction cost approach. Ermias Kebede Centre for...Williamson’s (1975,1985) work on transaction cost economics (TCE) as a model of understanding managers’ behaviour in an economic environment...modernisation programme is a gradual change in the structure of the defence sector. In the governance level section, we use a transaction cost approach

  4. Being gay in the management echelon of the South African Department of Defence: a life history.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the absence of scientific knowledge of leadership behaviour among gays in the management echelon of the South African Department of Defence and provides some tangible knowledge in this regard. This valuable knowledge was obtained through an in-depth qualitative research design, namely a life story of one South African citizen, who is gay, male and white, and who held a senior management position in the Department of Defence (DOD) for a number of years. Themes and hypothes...

  5. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  6. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  7. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  8. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.

  9. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  10. Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology for Defence and Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Appa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot isostatic pressing (HIP technology has been established for the development of AISI-304 stainless steel and nickel base superalloy Inconel 718 integral turbine rotors, for liquid propulsion engine of Prithvi missile, and cryoengine of geostationary satellite launch vehicle (GSLV, respectively. Before making the full size rotors, the structure – property relationships in hot isostatic pressed (HIPed 304 stainless steel and superalloy 718 were established. The HIPed steel and superalloy have shown near 100 per cent theoretical density, homogeneous, and fine grained microstructure. Their mechanical properties were found to be in agreement with those specified for the integral turbine rotors and hence, development of full size near net shaped integral turbine rotors was undertaken. The HIPed steel rotors subjected to the static engine tests have shown a satisfactory performance, and therefore a large number of rotors could be produced to fulfill the requirement of target labs. The HIP technology for the integral turbine rotors was found to be cost effective (about 50 per cent over the conventional fabrication method which involves forging, machining, and welding of blades to the disk. The processing, structure, and properties of the HIPed 304 stainless steel and superalloy 718 in relation to the performance of integral turbine rotors for missile and space vehicle applications are discussed in this paper.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.73-80, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.372

  11. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  12. PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY: A STRATEGY FOR THE SA DEFENCE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eberlein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the SA Defence Force (SADF has been bombarded with a variety of methods and approaches to the improvement of productivity, financial savings and, most recently, for quality of work life or quality assurance. Various approaches have included the concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM, Quality Circles (and variants in the guise of Triads and others, Methodology, Unit Management Systems, Cost Control Systems, Deterministic Productivity Accounting and the Iike. There have been many benefits to be found in these various approaches, each of which concentrates on certain aspects of productivity. That there have been great achievements in productivity in the SADF is a matter of record, a record which is reflected in a National Award for Productivity, a smaller more efficient SADF, and a reputation for submitting more recommendations for improvements than other departments in the Public Service. At a more personal level though, the writer has gained the impression that no or very little attempt has been made to integrate selected aspects of these approaches into an overall "productivity” strategy acceptable to the SADF. That there is a need for such an overall strategy is clear from the sentiments expressed recently by the members of the SADF's Productivity Co-ordination Committee when attempting to indicate the way ahead to even greater productivity in the SADF (Meeting, January 1991. In this paper a strategy for the improvement of productivity and the quality of work life which is acceptable to the SADF is proposed.

  13. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  14. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  15. Competition induces allelopathy but suppresses growth and anti-herbivore defence in a chemically rich seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasher, Douglas B; Hay, Mark E

    2014-02-22

    Many seaweeds and terrestrial plants induce chemical defences in response to herbivory, but whether they induce chemical defences against competitors (allelopathy) remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether two tropical seaweeds induce allelopathy in response to competition with a reef-building coral. We also assessed the effects of competition on seaweed growth and seaweed chemical defence against herbivores. Following 8 days of competition with the coral Porites cylindrica, the chemically rich seaweed Galaxaura filamentosa induced increased allelochemicals and became nearly twice as damaging to the coral. However, it also experienced significantly reduced growth and increased palatability to herbivores (because of reduced chemical defences). Under the same conditions, the seaweed Sargassum polycystum did not induce allelopathy and did not experience a change in growth or palatability. This is the first demonstration of induced allelopathy in a seaweed, or of competitors reducing seaweed chemical defences against herbivores. Our results suggest that the chemical ecology of coral-seaweed-herbivore interactions can be complex and nuanced, highlighting the need to incorporate greater ecological complexity into the study of chemical defence.

  16. The Celestial Basis of Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  17. System Choice for Data Processing, Analysis and Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Rajan

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of a suitable system for image data processing, analysis and applications in Defence is governed by users' requirements during peace time and prehostility/hostility period. The users need timely information and image products for decision-making. The product specifications in terms of their scale, geometrical accuracy, information content, and turnaround time among other things are crucial for the design of systems. The systems are not complete without efficient software for information extraction and analysis and for aiding decision-making process. Usually, the base data is from high resolution remote sensing systems, both airborne and spaceborne, and also from conventional sources, like topomap and other intelligence gathering mechanisms. The database thus evolved is basic and vital for a decision support system. The sensors providing input to the database creation could be airborne high resolution camera systems, high resolution synthetic aperture radar systems and thermal imaging systems operating from a stand-off range of 50 to 100 km, or from high resolution spaceborne panchromatic optical and synthetic aperture radar imagery. High resolution stereo data from airborne and spaceborne sensors are also increasingly needed for image interpretation and analysis. The digital elevation data is another important information, derived from either existing topographic maps or high resolution space stereo imagery. The system also should cater to a large information archival/retrieval system and data dissimination system for the users spread far and wide. This may call for to and fro traffic between central operational system and units spread over different locations, preferably, through high speed satellite communication channels. Finally, the total system should have reliability, data security, adequate redundancy, user-friendliness and be efficient enough to provide timely information transfer for the decision makers. This paper discusses

  18. Eales′ disease: Oxidant stress and weak antioxidant defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eales′ disease (ED is an idiopathic retinal periphlebitis characterized by capillary non-perfusion and neovascularization. In addition to the existing system, a new staging system has been proposed by Saxena et al . Immunological, molecular biological and biochemical studies have indicated the role of human leucocyte antigen, retinal S antigen autoimmunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, free radical damage and possibly hyperhomocysteinemia in its etiopathogenesis, which appears multifactorial. Oxidant stress has been shown by increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid oxidation in the vitreous, erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. A decrease in vitamins E and C both in active and healed vasculitis, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase showed a weakened antioxidant defence. Epiretinal membrane from patients of ED who underwent surgery showed, by immunolocalization, presence of carboxy methyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product formed by glycoxidation and is involved in angiogenesis. OH· free radical accumulation in monocytes has been directly shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radical damage to DNA and of protein was shown by the accumulation of 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine (in leucocytes and nitrotyrosine (in monocytes, respectively. Nitrosative stress was shown by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in monocytes in which levels of iron and copper were increased while those of zinc decreased. A novel 88 kDa protein was found in serum and vitreous in inflammatory condition and had antioxidant function. Platelet fluidity was also affected. Oral, methotrexate in low dosage (12.5 mg/week for 12 weeks as well as oral vitamin E (400 IU and C (500 mg daily for 8 weeks are reported to have beneficial effects.

  19. Neisseria meningitidis, pathogenetic mechanisms to overcome the human immune defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2012-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is hosted only by humans and colonizes the nasopharynx; it survives in the human body by reaching an equilibrium with its exclusive host. Indeed, while cases of invasive disease are rare, the number of asymptomatic Neisseria meningitides carriers is far higher. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current knowledge of survival strategies of Neisseria meningitides against the human immune defences. Neisseria meningitidis possesses a variety of adaptive characteristics which enable it to avoid being killed by the immune system, such as the capsule, the lipopolysaccharide, groups of proteins that block the action of the antimicrobial proteins (AMP), proteins that inhibit the complement system, and components that prevent both the maturation and the perfect functioning of phagocytes. The main means of adhesion of Neisseria meningitides to the host cells are Pili, constituted by several proteins of whom the most important is Pilin E. Opacity-associated proteins (Opa) and (Opc) are two proteins that make an important contribution to the process of adhesion to the cell. Porins A and B contribute to neisserial adhesion and penetration into the cells, and also inhibit the complement system. Factor H binding protein (fhbp) binds factor H, allowing the bacteria to survive in the blood. Neisserial adhesin A (NadA) is a minor adhesin that is expressed by 50% of the pathogenic strains. NadA is known to be involved in cell adhesion and invasion and in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Neisserial heparin binding antigen (NHBA) binds heparin, thus increasing the resistance of the bacterium in the serum.

  20. A putative viral defence mechanism in archaeal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidun Lillestøl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of regularly spaced direct repeats, separated by unconserved spacer sequences, are ubiquitous in archaeal chromosomes and occur in some plasmids. Some clusters constitute around 1% of chromosomal DNA. Similarly structured clusters, generally smaller, also occur in some bacterial chromosomes. Although early studies implicated these clusters in segregation/partition functions, recent evidence suggests that the spacer sequences derive from extrachromosomal elements, and, primarily, viruses. This has led to the proposal that the clusters provide a defence against viral propagation in cells, and that both the mode of inhibition of viral propagation and the mechanism of adding spacer-repeat units to clusters, are dependent on RNAs transcribed from the clusters. Moreover, the putative inhibitory apparatus (piRNA-based may be evolutionarily related to the interference RNA systems (siRNA and miRNA, which are common in eukarya. Here, we analyze all the current data on archaeal repeat clusters and provide some new insights into their diverse structures, transcriptional properties and mode of structural development. The results are consistent with larger cluster transcripts being processed at the centers of the repeat sequences and being further trimmed by exonucleases to yield a dominant, intracellular RNA species, which corresponds approximately to the size of a spacer. Furthermore, analysis of the extensive clusters of Sulfolobus solfataricus strains P1 and P2B provides support for the presence of a flanking sequence adjoining a cluster being a prerequisite for the incorporation of new spacer-repeat units, which occurs between the flanking sequence and the cluster. An archaeal database summarizing the data will be maintained at http://dac.molbio.ku.dk/dbs/SRSR/.

  1. Constitutive immune defences correlate with life-history variables in tropical birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K A; Wikelski, M; Robinson, W D; Robinson, T R; Klasing, K C

    2008-03-01

    1. It has been suggested that immune defences are shaped by life history and ecology, but few general patterns have been described across species. We hypothesized that 'fast' life-history traits (e.g. short development times, large clutch sizes) would be associated with developmentally inexpensive immune defences, minimizing the resource demands of young animals' immune systems during periods of rapid growth. Conversely, 'slow' life histories should be associated with well developed antibody-mediated defences, which are developmentally costly. 2. We therefore predicted that 'fast-living' species would exhibit higher levels of complement proteins, a component of non-specific innate defence, but lower levels of constitutive ('natural') antibodies. Additionally, we predicted that constitutive immune defences in general would be higher in species with ecological characteristics that might increase exposure to pathogens, such as open nests, omnivorous diets, gregariousness, and closed forested habitat. 3. Across 70 Neotropical bird species, we found a strongly positive relationship between incubation period and natural antibody levels in adult birds, suggesting that longer developmental times might allow the production of a more diverse and/or more reactive adaptive immune system. Complement activity was positively, although weakly, correlated with clutch size, providing some support for the hypothesis that faster-living species rely more on innate defences, such as complement. Unexpectedly, solitary species had higher natural antibody titres than species that frequently join flocks. 4. Our results suggest that, despite probably widespread differences in the intensity and diversity of pathogen exposure, species-level variation in constitutive immune defences is understandable within the context of life-history theory.

  2. Variation in Pseudonocardia antibiotic defence helps govern parasite-induced morbidity in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Michael; Cafaro, Matías J.; Erhardt, Daniel P.; Little, Ainslie E. F.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Tebbets, Brad; Klein, Bruce S.; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Host–parasite associations are potentially shaped by evolutionary reciprocal selection dynamics, in which parasites evolve to overcome host defences and hosts are selected to counteract these through the evolution of new defences. This is expected to result in variation in parasite-defence interactions, and the evolution of resistant parasites causing increased virulence. Fungus-growing ants maintain antibiotic-producing Pseudonocardia (Actinobacteria) that aid in protection against specializ...

  3. Uncovering Ultrastructural Defences in Daphnia magna – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Assess the Predator-Induced Fortification of the Carapace

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: ...

  4. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15

  5. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  6. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, M.; I. Semenchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  7. Gandhi, Civilization, Non-Violence and Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Söyler

    2010-01-01

    How should we understand Gandhi’s commitment to nonviolence?After discussing and refuting the idea that Gandhi’s conceptionof non-violence can be treated merely as a method to stand up toaggression, its embedment in a concept of true civilization is examined. It is argued that the important nuances between the definitions of civilization in the Gujarati and the English versions of Gandhi’s seminal work Hind Swaraj (1909) reveal Gandhi’s conception of civilization.

  8. Institutionalised cooperation and policy convergence in European defence: lessons from the relations between France, Germany and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier; Pannier, Alice

    2014-01-01

    international forums, their defence budgets, the structure of their armed forces and their willingness to use force. Second, we study each of the bilateral relations between the three states to qualitatively analyse their degree of institutionalisation and the convergence of their defence policies. This article......What are the prospects for trilateral concord among Britain, France and Germany in terms of defence policies? Would more institutionalised links among them lead to more convergence of their defence policies? To answer these interrogations, this article investigates the relation between policy...

  9. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  10. "New Sport" in the street: self-defence, security and space in belle epoque Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundschuh, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Near the turn of the twentieth century, traditional self-defence methods (for example, jiu-jitsu) were revamped into a more accessible and practical set of techniques and tactics for everyday use in urban public space. Framed as a "new sport" with broad public utility, early urban self-defence developed against the backdrop of heightening fears of violent crime and a burgeoning politics of security, as well as tensions provoked by the increasingly common appearance of unchaperoned, middle-class women in public. Self-defence masters pitched their innovations in an inclusive rhetoric, always with separate lessons for men and women and their respective spaces of risk. This article places modern self-defence practices in tension with historical transformations in the urban landscape, arguing that urban self-defence posited a certain subjective relation to the city that tapped simultaneously into the desire for empowerment, fantasies of criminal danger and a law-and-order tone that shaded into urban vigilantism.

  11. A herbivorous mite down-regulates plant defence and produces web to exclude competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Renato A; Lemos, Felipe; Dias, Cleide R; Kikuchi, Wagner T; Rodrigues, Jean C P; Pallini, Angelo; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Herbivores may interact with each other through resource competition, but also through their impact on plant defence. We recently found that the spider mite Tetranychus evansi down-regulates plant defences in tomato plants, resulting in higher rates of oviposition and population growth on previously attacked than on unattacked leaves. The danger of such down-regulation is that attacked plants could become a more profitable resource for heterospecific competitors, such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Indeed, T. urticae had an almost 2-fold higher rate of oviposition on leaf discs on which T. evansi had fed previously. In contrast, induction of direct plant defences by T. urticae resulted in decreased oviposition by T. evansi. Hence, both herbivores affect each other through induced plant responses. However, when populations of T. evansi and T. urticae competed on the same plants, populations of the latter invariably went extinct, whereas T. evansi was not significantly affected by the presence of its competitor. This suggests that T. evansi can somehow prevent its competitor from benefiting from the down-regulated plant defence, perhaps by covering it with a profuse web. Indeed, we found that T. urticae had difficulties reaching the leaf surface to feed when the leaf was covered with web produced by T. evansi. Furthermore, T. evansi produced more web when exposed to damage or other cues associated with T. urticae. We suggest that the silken web produced by T. evansi serves to prevent competitors from profiting from down-regulated plant defences.

  12. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.

  13. Bacterial Colonization and the Development of Intestinal Defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ning Shi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, intestinal defences develop during gestation and, at full term, have the capacity to respond in an appropriate manner to infectious agents and foreign antigens. Before an active protective response can occur, however, the gut must first be exposed to colonizing bacteria. Colonization with diverse intestinal microbes is necessary for the development of important gut defenses such as the synthesis and secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A and the generation of a balanced T helper (Th cell response. Insights into normal immune physiological development of the gut have been made by studying the germ-free animal and intestinal defenses. These studies have provided insights into the physiology of immune responses. Two important immunological functions are the secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A to protect the intestinal surface against harmful stimuli and inhibition of the systemic response to commensal bacteria and food proteins (eg, oral tolerance to prevent chronic inflammation. Neither function exists in the germ-free state, but rapidly develops after conventionalization (colonization of the germ-free animal. In the present review, the importance of bacterial colonization on the appearance of normal mucosal immune function and to the clinical consequences of inadequate colonization to the development of disease will be discussed. For example, excessive Th2 activity can lead to atopy, whereas Th1 predominance is found in conditions such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Crohn's disease. With the eradication of infectious diseases in developed countries in the past three decades, the incidence of atopic and autoimmune diseases has increased. This epidemiological observation has been explained by the 'hygiene hypothesis', which suggests that a reduction in microbial burden by public health measures has contributed to an immunological imbalance in the intestine. A family of pattern recognition receptors (Toll-like receptors on gut

  14. Comparative Assessment of Soil Quality at the Defence Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder K. Brar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to adjudge the soil quality of two sites at the defence establishments in India. Various soil samples were collected from the surface and up to 20 cm depth (subsurface as per apportioned gridding method. These samples were subjected to air drying for 15 days and were characterised for various parameters. The soil is clayey and loamy with granular blocky structure on both the sites.  The pH ranged from 7.1 to 7.72 0.1 for site I and from 5.5 to 8.0 f 0.1 for site 11; salinity and bulk density ranged from 0.1 per cent to 8 per cent and from 1.2 glcm3 to 1.5 g/cm3, respectively and soil moisture was about 0.4 f 1 per cent for both the sites. Similarly, total Kjeldahl nitrogen ranged from 1100 mg kg-' to 1900 mg kg-' for site I and 1700 mg kg-' to 9000 mg kg ' for site I1 and total organic carbon ranged from 18 mg g-' to 75 mg g ' for both the sites. A good correlation between nitrate concentration and various explosive process activities has been observed which gives substantial evidence in terms of contamination of the soil. High performance liquid chromatography analysis, which shows varied concentrations of RDX-HMX, NB, DNB, DNT, and TNT in the respective ranges 0.003-2.300 rng g-1, 0.002-0.350 mg g~1, 0.002-0.550 mg g-1, 0.004-0.041 mg g-1 and 0.010- 0.050 mg g-1 for site 1 and 0.002 - 0.013 mg g-1, 0.005 - 0.350 mg g-1, 0.003 - 0.080 mg g-1, 0.001- 0.100 mg g-1, 0.0001- 0.044 mg g ~a1n d 6*10-6- 0.080 mg g-1 for sites I1 has also indicated the contamination of soil by nitro-organics. These results serve as a valuable database for an ongoing project on the development of phytoremediation technology to detoxify such sites.

  15. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  16. Mediare conflitti o resistere alla crisi? Servizio civile all’estero, tra “Obiezione di coscienza” e “Garanzia giovani”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Miele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In line with the Conscientious Objection, the Voluntary Civilian Service (Italian Law 64/2001 comes as a means of Civil disobedience and nonviolent defence. It aims to promote solidarity, cooperation and education to peace through the mediation of the conflicts. Lately it’s becoming to be rather perceived as a means of countering the youth unemployment and "staff shortages" of different institutions. After a brief historical overview, the paper focuses the analysis on people recently holding their Service abroad. Special attention is devoted to a sort of anthropological dimension that seems positively characterize this experience in recent years.

  17. Improvement interventions: To what extent are they manifestations of social defences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremias J. de Klerk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The statistical record of change and improvement interventions to deliver on expectations is notoriously poor. Yet, new interventions are started constantly.Research purpose: The aim is to provide an explanation to the lure behind interventions and to contribute to building a theory on plausible systems psychodynamic drivers and mechanisms of recurrent change interventions.Motivation for the study: This study provides insights into social defences in ways that did not receive much attention previously; specifically how defence mechanisms act as drivers for new change and improvement interventions.Research design, approach and method: A literature study, consisting of a literature review and a phenomenological analysis. The study was conducted from the systems psychodynamic approach.Main findings: Improvement interventions often represent defences that serve to contain anxieties or maintain fantasies. Four specific themes emerged: interventions defend the perception of being in control, they maintain the fantasy that one is busy with worthy actions to overcome challenges, they are defences against boredom or contain anxieties about incompetence, and they maintain the fantasy of being heroic leaders.Practical/managerial implications: The findings can assist leaders to understand their own defences in order to avoid embarking on non-essential interventions. This can free up much time, energy and effort to spend on other priorities, assisting organisations to achieve better results.Contribution/value-add: The study refutes the notion that improvement interventions are always rational coping mechanisms and highlights the role of improvement interventions as defences to reduce anxiety, even though they may contribute little to organisational survival in real terms.

  18. Growth and reproductive costs of larval defence in the aposematic lepidopteran Pieris brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Andrew D; Delf, Jon; Ruxton, Graeme D; Speed, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    1. Utilization of plant secondary compounds for antipredator defence is common in immature herbivorous insects. Such defences may incur a cost to the animal, either in terms of survival, growth rate or in the reproductive success. 2. A common defence in lepidopterans is the regurgitation of semi-digested material containing the defensive compounds of the food plant, a defence which has led to gut specialization in this order. Regurgitation is often swift in response to cuticular stimulation and deters predators from consuming or parasitizing the larva. The loss of food and other gut material seems likely to impact on fitness, but evidence is lacking. 3. Here, we raised larvae of the common crop pest Pieris brassicae on commercial cabbage leaves, simulated predator attacks throughout the larval period, and measured life-history responses. 4. We found that the probability of survival to pupation decreased with increasing frequency of attacks, but this was because of regurgitation rather than the stimulation itself. There was a growth cost to the defence such that the more regurgitant that individuals produced over the growth period, the smaller they were at pupation. 5. The number of mature eggs in adult females was positively related to pupal mass, but this relationship was only found when individuals were not subjected to a high frequency of predator simulation. This suggests that there might be cryptic fitness costs to common defensive responses that are paid despite apparent growth rate being maintained. 6. Our results demonstrate a clear life-history cost of an antipredator defence in a model pest species and show that under certain conditions, such as high predation threat, the expected relationship between female body size and potential fecundity can be disrupted.

  19. Active Center of Islamic Dialogue Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Moghimi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that an essay have introduced about Dialogue Civilizations, at first must be start with a definition about it. Obviously, this simple definition is almost difficult. Defining of Dialogue Civilizations is complex and difficult as far as it need to a vast range of definitions. In this essay will argue that how ever definition of Dialogue Civilization is different, can only seek as specific of intemporall and special situations that are in real-life. As well as this essay emphasize to practice of environmental (realm in Islamic countries. The philosophy of this essay is that, what is the share of Islamic environments with regard to looking at Civilizations special phenomena. The first attitude is that Islamic civilization includes different spaces around the globe. The second attitude is that Islamic Civilization includes developing of other Civilizations realm. The third is that in the realm of Islamic Civilization live different human life and this is an important starting point for Cultural Dialogue in the Islamic countries together. The fourth is that, there are expanding (space, population, political systems, organs and economic is different, that we will describe them in this essay.

  20. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For...

  1. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  2. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner,...

  3. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  4. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  5. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  6. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits and on equal employment opportunity including 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b; and 45 CFR part 90, as... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations...

  8. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the approval of the President (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to...

  9. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...

  10. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thereunder, 43 CFR part 17. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative...

  11. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on...

  12. 38 CFR 21.7310 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... Rights Act of 1964; (2) Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, as amended; (3) Section...

  13. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1901, subpart E. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer...

  14. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rights. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies and recipient agencies shall comply with the Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21...

  15. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty....

  16. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that...

  17. Public health and the civilizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudsblom, J

    1986-01-01

    Since the Middle Ages, European society has passed through two successive stages in the "civilizing process." Each has been attended by profound changes in psychological and social codes. These are examined in relation to a greater concern with health and hygiene in response to four waves of epidemics: leprosy, plague, syphilis, and cholera. Speculations are offered about AIDS and the "civilizing process".

  18. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil penalties. UFA takes into account the statutory penalty factors under 49 U.S.C. 521(b)(2)(D). The evaluation will... will impose a minimum civil penalty that is calculated by UFA. In many cases involving small...

  19. Host defence peptides: antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity and potential applications for tackling antibiotic-resistant infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The rapidly increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant infections and the alarmingly low rate of discovery of conventional antibiotics create an urgent need for alternative strategies to treat bacterial infections. Host defence peptides are short cationic molecules produced by the immune systems of most multicellular organisms; they are a class of compounds being actively researched. In this review, we provide an overview of the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of natural host defence peptides, and discuss strategies for creating artificial derivatives with improved biological and pharmacological properties, issues of microbial resistance, and challenges associated with their adaptation for clinical use.

  20. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  1. Degradation of the plant defence hormone salicylic acid by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Franziska; Ajami-Rashidi, Ziba; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant defence hormone which plays an important role in local and systemic defence responses against biotrophic pathogens like the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Here we identified Shy1, a cytoplasmic U. maydis salicylate hydroxylase which has orthologues in the closely related smuts Ustilago hordei and Sporisorium reilianum. shy1 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of development but not required for virulence during seedling infection. Shy1 activity is needed for growth on plates with SA as a sole carbon source. The trigger for shy1 transcriptional induction is SA, suggesting the possibility of a SA sensing mechanism in this fungus.

  2. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  3. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los más desarrollados en la cultura jurídica “neorománica”.

  4. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  5. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los m...

  6. Expanding advanced civilizations in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, C

    2005-01-01

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way \\cite{Webb}. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  7. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  8. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several ty...

  9. Down-regulation of plant defence in a resident spider mite species and its effect upon con- and heterospecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Diogo P; Janssen, Arne; Dias, Teresa; Cruz, Cristina; Magalhães, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous spider mites occurring on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cope with plant defences in various manners: the invasive Tetranychus evansi reduces defences below constitutive levels, whereas several strains of T. urticae induce such defences and others suppress them. In the Mediterranean region, these two species co-occur on tomato plants with T. ludeni, another closely related spider mite species. Unravelling how this third mite species affects plant defences is thus fundamental to understanding the outcome of herbivore interactions in this system. To test the effect of T. ludeni on tomato plant defences, we measured (1) the activity of proteinase inhibitors, indicating the induction of plant defences, in those plants, and (2) mite performance on plants previously infested with each mite species. We show that the performance of T. evansi and T. ludeni on plants previously infested with T. ludeni or T. evansi was better than on clean plants, indicating that these two mite species down-regulate plant defences. We also show that plants attacked by these mite species had lower activity of proteinase inhibitors than clean plants, whereas herbivory by T. urticae increased the activity of these proteins and resulted in reduced spider mite performance. This study thus shows that the property of down-regulation of plant defences below constitutive levels also occurs in T. ludeni.

  10. Politicization of Senior Civil Servants in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea NAHTIGAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the civil service system reform, the new normative framework adopted in 2002 introduced a new management arrangement in public administration, whose consequence was the transition of senior positions within ministries, bodies within ministries, and government offices from political officials to positional civil servants with a limited term of office, who have thus become the most senior civil servants, called administrative managers. Based on extensive empirical research and statistical data, this article provides an in-depth analysis of the status and position of administrative managers, which is intended to serve as a test whether the apex of the Slovenian administrative system is politicized and in what form. In the so-called new democracies, politicization most often is manifested as a violation of the principles of political neutrality characteristic of a professional civil service, through personalized and biased appointments of senior civil servants and in the low degree of protection against lay-offs of civil servants on political grounds. Administrative managers thus often have to decide between political susceptibility and trustworthiness versus professionalism and professional accountability, for their tasks belong to the administrative and political realms. This poses a question about the degree of influence politicians exert on administrative managers and the rate of success with which administrative managers manage to retain their professionalism and independence, which should represent the key characteristics of a senior civil servant.

  11. Competencies Framework for Civil Engineer in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanudej Kudngaongarm

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability and the talent that civil engineers apply in the development process. A competency framework defines a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that professionals must have to excel in their careers. A competency framework facilitates the identification of training needs and guides the design of a professional development program. In this paper we propose a competency framework for civil engineers, whose design is based on the activities and interactions that they perform during the civil development process. Thus, competency framework for civil engineers defines a set of knowledge, abilities and key behaviors, with special emphasis in the soft skills. The organization that adopts this framework must define and integrate the specific competencies needed by for civil engineers to allow them to fulfill their goals.

  12. Differential contribution of transcription factors to Arabidopsis thaliana defence against Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSchweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defence genes. Although the jasmonate (JA pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defence against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defence gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. However, compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis and showed only minor gene expression changes at the whole genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defence.

  13. Dynamic Plant-Plant-Herbivore Interactions Govern Plant Growth-Defence Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Jorad; Evers, Jochem B.; Poelman, Erik H.

    2017-01-01

    Plants downregulate their defences against insect herbivores upon impending competition for light. This has long been considered a resource trade-off, but recent advances in plant physiology and ecology suggest this mechanism is more complex. Here we propose that to understand why plants regulate an

  14. In defence of constructive empiricism: Maxwell’s master argument and aberrant theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past years, in books and journals (this journal included), N. Maxwell launched a ferocious attack on B. C. van Fraassen’s view of science called Constructive Empiricism (CE). This attack has been totally ignored. Must we conclude from this silence that no defence is possible and that a fort

  15. In Vitro Activities against Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens of Synthetic Host Defence Propeptides Processed by Neutrophil Elastase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desgranges, Stephane

    2011-02-22

    The antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of a host defence peptide can be controlled by modification as a propeptide of reduced net charge which can be processed by neutrophil elastase, a serine protease involved in chronic airway inflammation and infections associated with cystic fibrosis.

  16. Artificial intelligence and finite element modelling for monitoring flood defence structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Kozionov, A.; Kusherbaeva, V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid approach to monitoring the stability of flood defence structures equipped with sensors. This approach combines the finite element modelling with the artificial intelligence for real-time signal processing and anomaly detection. This combined method has been developed for the Urba

  17. Adaptive molecular evolution of a defence gene in sexual but not functionally asexual evening primroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch-Green, E I; Myburg, H; Johnson, M T J

    2012-08-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction provides evolutionary advantages over asexual reproduction by reducing mutational load and increasing adaptive potential. Here, we test the latter prediction in the context of plant defences against pathogens because pathogens frequently reduce plant fitness and drive the evolution of plant defences. Specifically, we ask whether sexual evening primrose plant lineages (Onagraceae) have faster rates of adaptive molecular evolution and altered gene expression of a class I chitinase, a gene implicated in defence against pathogens, than functionally asexual evening primrose lineages. We found that the ratio of amino acid to silent substitutions (K(a) /K(s) = 0.19 vs. 0.11 for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively), the number of sites identified to be under positive selection (four vs. zero for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively) and the expression of chitinase were all higher in sexual than in asexual lineages. Our results are congruent with the conclusion that a loss of sexual recombination and segregation in the Onagraceae negatively affects adaptive structural and potentially regulatory evolution of a plant defence protein.

  18. Quorum-Sensing Blockade As A Strategy for Enhancing Host Defences Against Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    rise to a new 'drug target rush'. Recently, QS has been shown to be involved in the development of tolerance to various antimicrobial treatments and immune modulation. The regulation of virulence via QS confers a strategic advantage over host defences. Consequently, a drug capable of blocking QS...

  19. The emerging role of photorespiration and non-photorespiratory peroxisomal metabolism in pathogen defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørhagen, K; Laxa, M; Peterhänsel, C; Reumann, S

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration represents one of the major highways of primary plant metabolism and is the most prominent example of metabolic cell organelle integration, since the pathway requires the concerted action of plastidial, peroxisomal, mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes and organellar transport proteins. Oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate by Rubisco leads to the formation of large amounts of 2-phosphoglycolate, which are recycled to 3-phosphoglycerate by the photorespiratory C2 cycle, concomitant with stoichiometric production rates of H2 O2 in peroxisomes. Apart from its significance for agricultural productivity, a secondary function of photorespiration in pathogen defence has emerged only recently. Here, we summarise literature data supporting the crosstalk between photorespiration and pathogen defence and perform a meta-expression analysis of photorespiratory genes during pathogen attack. Moreover, we screened Arabidopsis proteins newly predicted using machine learning methods to be targeted to peroxisomes, the central H2 O2 -producing organelle of photorespiration, for homologues of known pathogen defence proteins and analysed their expression during pathogen infection. The analyses further support the idea that photorespiration and non-photorespiratory peroxisomal metabolism play multi-faceted roles in pathogen defence beyond metabolism of reactive oxygen species.

  20. M-ficolin, an innate immune defence molecule, binds patterns of acetyl groups and activates complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille Dorthea; Thiel, Steffen; Larsen, Claus Bindslev;

    2005-01-01

    Ficolins play a role in the innate immune defence as pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition molecules. Three ficolins are found in humans: H-ficolin, L-ficolin and M-ficolin. L-ficolin and H-ficolin circulate in blood in complexes with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases...

  1. From inducible defences to population dynamics: modelling refuge use and life history changes in Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Matthijs; Flik, B.J.G.; Vijverberg, J.; Ringelberg, J.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of a behavioural defence (refuge use through diel vertical migration) and a life history change (a reduced size at first reproduction) that are used by daphnids to decrease the risk of predation by visually hunting fish. We used an individual based model of a

  2. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods

  3. Host-plant defence against Striga spp.: reconsidering the role of tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, J.; Bastiaans, L.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic weeds of the genus Striga cause high yield losses in cereal crops across Africa. Host-plant defence against Striga spp. can be an effective control strategy. It ideally consists of resistance, to reduce infection, complemented with tolerance, to mitigate the effects of infection. As resist

  4. Effects of beta-1,3-glucan from Septoria tritici on structural defence responses in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, N.P.; Jensen, J.D.; Knudsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase and structural defence responses were studied in leaves of wheat either resistant or susceptible to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Septoria tritici. Resistance was associated with an early accumulation of beta...

  5. Behavioural flexibility of the chemical defence in the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Machacek, Zora; Ruther, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Many insects use chemical defence mechanisms to defend themselves against predators. However, defensive secretions are costly to produce and should thus only be used in cases of real danger. This would require that insects are able to discriminate between predators to adjust their chemical defence. Here, we show that females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma adjust the intensity of their chemical defence to differently sized predators. If attacked by Myrmica ants, the females always released their defensive secretion, which consists mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin. However, if attacked by smaller Cardiocondyla ants, most females did not release any defensive spray, irrespective of the duration of the ant's aggression. When in contact with non-aggressive Nasonia wasps, the females of L. heterotoma did not release any defensive secretion. Our data show that females of L. heterotoma are able to discriminate between two predators and suggest that a predator of a certain size or strength is necessary to trigger the chemical defence mechanism of L. heterotoma.

  6. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, H.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an 'indirect defence'. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been rar

  7. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest...

  8. Anti-predator defence and the complexity-stability relationship of food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondoh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism for maintaining complex food webs has been a central issue in ecology because theory often predicts that complexity (higher the species richness, more the interactions) destabilizes food webs. Although it has been proposed that prey anti-predator defence may affect the stability of pre

  9. The effect of inbreeding on defence against multiple enemies in Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Bedoy, R; Núñez-Farfán, J

    2011-03-01

    The ability of plants to respond to natural enemies might depend on the availability of genetic variation for the optimal phenotypic expression of defence. Selfing can affect the distribution of genetic variability of plant fitness, resistance and tolerance to herbivores and pathogens. The hypothesis of inbreeding depression influencing plant defence predicts that inbreeding would reduce resistance and tolerance to damage by natural enemies relative to outcrossing. In a field experiment entailing experimentally produced inbred and outcrossed progenies, we assessed the effects of one generation of selfing on Datura stramonium resistance and tolerance to three types of natural enemies, herbivores, weevils and a virus. We also examined the effect of damage on relative growth rate (RGR), flower, fruit, and seed production in inbred and outcrossed plants. Inbreeding significantly reduced plant defence to natural enemies with an increase of 4% in herbivore damage and 8% in viral infection. These results indicate inbreeding depression in total resistance. Herbivory increased 10% inbreeding depression in seed number, but viral damage caused inbred and outcrossed plants to have similar seed production. Inbreeding and outcrossing effects on fitness components were highly variable among families, implying that different types or numbers of recessive deleterious alleles segregate following inbreeding in D. stramonium. Although inbreeding did not equally alter all the interactions, our findings indicate that inbreeding reduced plant defence to herbivores and pathogens in D. stramonium.

  10. Fit-for-Purpose Visualisation of Architecture to Support Defence Capability Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    has included software support for naval tactical systems, intelligence analysis, and research into systems of systems and architecture practice ...UNCLASSIFIED Fit-for-Purpose Visualisation of Architecture to support Defence Capability Decision-Making Kevin O’Shea, Peter Pong and...architecture development approach to capture capability development information with an emphasis on developing a fit-for-purpose visualisation to

  11. The defence architecture of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Asikainen; T.J. Ruotsalainen; J.J.W. Mikkonen; A. Koistinen; C. ten Bruggenkate; A.M. Kullaa

    2012-01-01

    The oral epithelium together with the saliva and its components forms a complex structure which is the first line of defence in the oral cavity. The surface of superficial cells of the oral epithelium contains ridge-like folds, microplicae (MPL), which are typical of the surfaces of areas covered wi

  12. Jamali lauds PAEC contribution to scientific development defence needs of country

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali has appreciated role of Pakistan Atomic Energy Council (PAEC) for its contribution to the scientific development and defence needs of the country. He directed that all resources and energy be devoted to the development of human resource and infrastructure for socio-economic uplift of the nation" (1 page).

  13. Redox regulation and antioxidative defence in Arabidopsis leaves viewed from a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormuth, Dennis; Heiber, Isabelle; Shaikali, Jehad; Kandlbinder, Andrea; Baier, Margarete; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2007-04-30

    Redox regulation is a central control element in cell metabolism. It is employed to adjust photosynthesis and the antioxidant defence system of leaves to the prevailing environment. During recent years progress has been made in describing the redox-dependent alterations in metabolism, the thiol/disulfide proteome, the redox-dependent and cross-talking signalling pathways and the target genes of redox regulation. Some transcription factors have been identified as proteins that perform thiol/disulfide transitions linked to the redox-regulation of specific plant promoters. In addition first mathematical models have been designed to simulate antioxidant defence and predict its response. Taken together, a profound experimental data set has been generated which allows to approach a systems biology type of understanding of antioxidant defence in photosynthesising cells in the near future. Since oxidative stress is likely to limit plant growth under stress, such a systematic understanding of antioxidant defence will help to define novel targets for breeding stress-tolerant plants.

  14. A non canonical subtilase attenuates the transcriptional activation of defence responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Irene; Buscaill, Pierre; Audran, Corinne; Pouzet, Cécile; Jauneau, Alain; Rivas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Proteases play crucial physiological functions in all organisms by controlling the lifetime of proteins. Here, we identified an atypical protease of the subtilase family [SBT5.2(b)] that attenuates the transcriptional activation of plant defence independently of its protease activity. The SBT5.2 gene produces two distinct transcripts encoding a canonical secreted subtilase [SBT5.2(a)] and an intracellular protein [SBT5.2(b)]. Concomitant to SBT5.2(a) downregulation, SBT5.2(b) expression is induced after bacterial inoculation. SBT5.2(b) localizes to endosomes where it interacts with and retains the defence-related transcription factor MYB30. Nuclear exclusion of MYB30 results in its reduced transcriptional activation and, thus, suppressed resistance. sbt5.2 mutants, with abolished SBT5.2(a) and SBT5.2(b) expression, display enhanced defence that is suppressed in a myb30 mutant background. Moreover, overexpression of SBT5.2(b), but not SBT5.2(a), in sbt5.2 plants reverts the phenotypes displayed by sbt5.2 mutants. Overall, we uncover a regulatory mode of the transcriptional activation of defence responses previously undescribed in eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19755.001 PMID:27685353

  15. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore at

  16. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant-microbe-insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore attack b

  17. Tropical Climate Dynamics and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and

  18. THE POETIC VECTOR OF CIVILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article regards poetry as the type of a world view that has profound effect on the social and technical development of civilization. Contrary to popular belief about the decline of poetry in the technological age, poetry, as the desire for imaginative comprehension and transformation of the world, remains the most powerful engine of civilization. There are new, non-linguistic forms of existence of poetry (outside of verses and books that are explored in the article: anthropoeia, biopoeia, kosmopoeia, noopoeia, sociopoeia, technopoeia… For example, the technique is no less metaphorical and symbolic than poetry is, but it embodies the energy of creation not in words, but in the poetically transfigured matter where each element is „playing” with nature, overcomes the force of gravity, the distances of time and space. Tehnopoeia as realized in aviation, rocketry, electronics, Internet, new means of communication, allows to see clearly the invisible, to hear the inaudible, to speak many languages. Technopoeia is the poetic aspect of technology as an activity that implements the creative aspirations of humans and the symbolic vision of the world. The article examines the „physics of poetry,” as it was understood by Surrealists, and shows that the poetic perception of things is not opposed to its utilitarian functions, but both can be harmoniously combined. Contemporatry science and technology aspire to implement a number of fundamental biopoetic and cosmopoetic metaphors: the universe — a computer, a planet — a living organism, the computer — the brain, the Internet — the nervous system, infectious viruses — computer and genes, the language of life — the process of writing… The metaphor becomes an integral part of the scientific outlook and the driving force behind the new discovery. Philology and poetics need to develop new methods of analysis of poetic phenomena as embodied not in verses, but in scientific thinking and

  19. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  20. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Narayan

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become

  1. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost

  2. A herbivorous mite down-regulates plant defence and produces web to exclude competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A Sarmento

    Full Text Available Herbivores may interact with each other through resource competition, but also through their impact on plant defence. We recently found that the spider mite Tetranychus evansi down-regulates plant defences in tomato plants, resulting in higher rates of oviposition and population growth on previously attacked than on unattacked leaves. The danger of such down-regulation is that attacked plants could become a more profitable resource for heterospecific competitors, such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Indeed, T. urticae had an almost 2-fold higher rate of oviposition on leaf discs on which T. evansi had fed previously. In contrast, induction of direct plant defences by T. urticae resulted in decreased oviposition by T. evansi. Hence, both herbivores affect each other through induced plant responses. However, when populations of T. evansi and T. urticae competed on the same plants, populations of the latter invariably went extinct, whereas T. evansi was not significantly affected by the presence of its competitor. This suggests that T. evansi can somehow prevent its competitor from benefiting from the down-regulated plant defence, perhaps by covering it with a profuse web. Indeed, we found that T. urticae had difficulties reaching the leaf surface to feed when the leaf was covered with web produced by T. evansi. Furthermore, T. evansi produced more web when exposed to damage or other cues associated with T. urticae. We suggest that the silken web produced by T. evansi serves to prevent competitors from profiting from down-regulated plant defences.

  3. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to

  4. PM2.5, oxidant defence and cardiorespiratory health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott A; Godri-Pollitt, Krystal; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2013-05-04

    Airborne fine particle mass concentrations (PM2.5) are used for ambient air quality management worldwide based in part on known cardiorespiratory health effects. While oxidative stress is generally thought to be an important mechanism in determining these effects, relatively few studies have specifically examined how oxidant defence may impact susceptibility to particulate air pollution. Here we review studies that explore the impact of polymorphisms in anti-oxidant related genes or anti-oxidant supplementation on PM2.5-induced cardiorespiratory outcomes in an effort to summarize existing evidence related to oxidative stress defence and the health effects of PM2.5. Recent studies of PM-oxidative burden were also examined. In total, nine studies were identified and reviewed and existing evidence generally suggests that oxidant defence may modify the impact of PM2.5 exposure on various health outcomes, particularly heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic function) which was the most common outcome examined in the studies reviewed. Few studies examined interactions between PM2.5 and oxidant defence for respiratory outcomes, and in general studies focused primarily on acute health effects. Therefore, further evaluation of the potential modifying role of oxidant defence in PM2.5-induced health effects is required, particularly for chronic outcomes. Similarly, while an exposure metric that captures the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress may offer advantages over traditional mass concentration measurements, little epidemiological evidence is currently available to evaluate the potential benefits of such an approach. Therefore, further evaluation is required to determine how this metric may be incorporated in ambient air quality management.

  5. Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae on the defence activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae Haemocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Skála

    Full Text Available Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2-36 h post exposure (p.e. to the parasite. At later time points, 44-92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae.

  6. [The civil liability of obstetricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, R; Hindemith, J

    2011-12-01

    The number of maternal and child deaths associated with delivery in Germany has reached a historically low level. Even so, the number of claims for damages arising from birth complications is continuously increasing. The reasons for this apparent paradox are analysed in the present contribution. Basic principles of the present situation concerning legal precedents with regard to birth damages are illustrated. The legal instrumentarium which the courts use to reach their decisions is presented. The interactions of the reasons for liability are demonstrated for the five most frequently occurring critical obstetric situations (intrauterine asphyxia, premature amniorrhexis, danger of premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, birth of a depressed child).From an analysis of court decisions on liability questions that result from an objective failure of obstetric management in critical situations, four general empirical rules can be derived and observation of these rules could markedly reduce the number of patient claims. The function of civil court rulings as a necessary control instance is positively accepted.

  7. Noviolencia, desobediencia civil y ejemplaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo, sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una educación y filosofía para lapaz. Es por ello por lo que se hace imprescindible traer a primer plano la importanciadel compromiso, la responsabilidad y el sacrificio que comporta la noviolencia, a finde que se los pueda hacer trascender socialmente bajo la modalidad (decisiva en unacultura de paz de ejemplaridad y autoridad, muy relevantes para que la noviolenciagane prestigio social real (y no un prestigio utópico.

  8. A Mathematics Lesson from the Mayan Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Morales-Aldana, Leonel

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can infuse culture into the curriculum and develop students' competence and confidence by using ethnomathematics. Examines the mathematics of the Mayan civilization. Contains 22 references. (ASK)

  9. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (m)(4) of this section, the Hearing Officer may receive any oral or documentary evidence, but... the civil penalty on the person's ability to do business; (iv) Any history of prior violations;...

  10. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  11. A Universal Model of Global Civil Unrest

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, we analyze records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008. We demonstrate that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  12. Rhetorical Alliances in the Civil Rights Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Molefi Kete

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetorical mode of the civil rights movement and gives some attention to the problematic convergence of white and Black progressive writers. Focuses on two recurring metaphors used to describe the condition of Blacks: invisibility and Black Power. (KH)

  13. Security Policy in the European Union and the United States through the issue of their Defence Expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Theodore Metaxas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to clarify how the level of defence expenditures affected security poli-cy in the post-World War II Europe and the United States till the present day. We first analyze theoretically the issue of a nation’s power through its defence outlays. We then proceed to the examination of how security policy was formulated during Cold War and afterwards for both Europe and the United States through their defence ex-penditures. By comparing European to United States defence budgets ceilings we found that the European military capabilities are undermined by the low level of the defence budget which is provided by the European Union member states as a whole, as well as by the lack of homogeneity in military means. By contrast, we noticed that the historically large US defence expenditures were one of the major reasons for the US global hegemony during Cold war and afterwards. We also examine the implica-tions that defence expenditures have on military industry, macroeconomic perfor-mance and geopolitics and the correlation that arises among them.

  14. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  15. Civil responsibility of Physical Education professionals

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the civil responsibility of Physical Education professionals which consists of an obligation to repair eventual damages in their professional practice. Firstly, this study presents a historical rescue, the conceptualization of civil responsibility , the differentiation of that criminal responsibility, and also of the assumed ones. Secondly, the conditions for the imputation of a damage and the differentiation between obligation of means and obligation of ...

  16. The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 1971 August 2008 The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for... Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SSC San Diego San Diego, CA 92152-5001 SB...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08–2008 Final THE FUTURE SSC PACIFIC CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J

  17. Environmental and ecological citizenship in civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, David

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the work of Andrew Dobson, two notions of citizenship in civil society can be distinguished: environmental citizenship, which focuses on environmental rights and seeks to redefine the relationship between the state and the citizen; and ecological citizenship, which goes beyond a rights-based notion of citizenship to advocate the fair usage of ecological space across international borders. Using civil society initiatives to conserve forests, this article argues that these two noti...

  18. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a)...

  19. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  20. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  1. The Emergence of Civilization [and] Case Studies in the Emergence of Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jack

    This secondary level anthropology textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations) in six different areas around the world. The textbook stresses problem-solving and is centered around three questions: In what manner and through what stages did these civilizations evolve? What…

  2. Ocean acidification disrupts induced defences in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Ruth; Cleall-Harding, Polly; Rundle, Simon; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John

    2007-12-22

    Carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification is predicted to have major implications for marine life, but the research focus to date has been on direct effects. We demonstrate that acidified seawater can have indirect biological effects by disrupting the capability of organisms to express induced defences, hence, increasing their vulnerability to predation. The intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea produced thicker shells in the presence of predation (crab) cues but this response was disrupted at low seawater pH. This response was accompanied by a marked depression in metabolic rate (hypometabolism) under the joint stress of high predation risk and reduced pH. However, snails in this treatment apparently compensated for a lack of morphological defence, by increasing their avoidance behaviour, which, in turn, could affect their interactions with other organisms. Together, these findings suggest that biological effects from ocean acidification may be complex and extend beyond simple direct effects.

  3. A concise history of the South African Defence Force (1912-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Dorning

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the SA Defence Force celebrates its 75th anniversary, it can look back with pride at a truly remarkable history. Established just two years after Union, the fledging force was to be severely tested within the first two years of its existence to a degree perhaps unparalleled in the history of modern armies. Just over a year after its formation, when it still existed more on paper than in fact, the Union Defence Force (UDF was called upon to suppress a violent industrial strike on the Reef. Having passed its first test with flying colours, the UDF was confronted a few months later by the far more serious crises of internal rebellion and World War. Once again, however, the young organization proved equal to the occasion, and by the end of the Great War the UDF had developed into a battle-hardened, professional force respected the world over for its prowess, courage and endurance in the field.

  4. Seasonal variations in the antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation of the digestive gland of mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viarengo, A; Canesi, L; Pertica, M; Livingstone, D R

    1991-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in the level of antioxidant compounds (glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, carotenoids) and in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), GSH-peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) in the digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus sp.) were evaluated. The lipid peroxidation process was also measured by determining the tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). 2. The physiological fluctuations of the antioxidant defence systems were inversely related to the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in the tissue. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the changing metabolic status of the animals, itself dependent on such factors as gonad ripening and food availability. 3. In particular, the obtained data indicate that a reduction of the antioxidant defence systems, occurring during winter, could be directly responsible for an enhanced susceptibility of mussels tissues to oxidative stress, as indicated by the high MDA concentration observed in this period.

  5. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: interactions with organisms in the environment and cells of the immune defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena

    2008-01-01

    ; two quorum sensing signal molecules; the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal and N-3-oxododecanoyl L-homoserine lactone exhibit the ability to modulate activities of the immune defence in addition to functioning as quorum sensing mediators. The two signal molecules impair activities of immune cells crucial...... enzymes and components capable of impairing the hosts’ immunity. P. aeruginosa readily assumes the biofilm lifestyle which confers efficient protection against the activity of the host defence system. In addition, P. aeruginosa exhibit an inherent tolerance to many of the antibiotics most commonly used......, which emphasises the urgent need for development of novel strategies that will help us to defeat this pathogen. P. aeruginosa biofilm cells display a multicellular-like coordinated behaviour and control expression of virulence factors, elements involved in biofilm development and immunomodulating...

  6. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  7. Defence Science and Technology Strategy. Science and Technology for a Secure Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    is a driver for change in the st century. It contributes directly to the advancement of military capabilities. Science & Technolgy ... Defence...Reconnaissance Mobile Systems Weapon Systems Human Domain Physical Domain Information Domain Figure  – Areas of S&T Expertise   Governance Consistent with...Personnel Protection Complex Systems System Autonomy Protection of Assets Communications Networks Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Mobile

  8. Switching model with two habitats and a predator involving group defence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Qamar J A; Jaju, R P

    2015-01-01

    Switching model with one predator and two prey species is considered. The prey species have the ability of group defence. Therefore, the predator will be attracted towards that habitat where prey are less in number. The stability analysis is carried out for two equilibrium values. The theoretical results are compared with the numerical results for a set of values. The Hopf bifuracation analysis is done to support the stability results.

  9. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 78/79-1 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 78/79-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-07

    march (in English) (61) Effect of transcendental meditation on the degree of neuroticism as measured by the defence mechanism test (62) The...comparability studies of labour requirements in sawmill employment H7 Testing and job analysis (64) Prevalence of migraine and cluster headache in Swedish...men of 18 (in English) (65) Physical characteristic and allergic history in young men with migraine and other headaches (in English) (66) Outline of

  10. Defence Technology Strategy for the Demands of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Network Defence · intrusion detection systems. · sensors. · intrusion protection. · event analysis and integration. · reaction and response. · virus...partners. B5.22 The majority of CBRN agents will enter the body via the lungs (through inhalation of gases, vapours or aerosols) or the skin (by direct...contact with vapours or liquids). There is a need for drug delivery technologies that target the medical countermeasure to the appropriate site

  11. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defence-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eDeslauriers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L. Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage and defence. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation, moderately (M-trees, 41 to 60% and heavily (H-trees, 61 to 80% defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem, carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch and defence components in needles (terpenoids compound from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defence. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defence components and to non-structural (NCS and structural (growth carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilisation for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  12. Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë–grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

  13. Deterrent activities in the crude lipophilic fractions of Antarctic benthic organisms: chemical defences against keystone predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Núñez-Pons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Generalist predation constitutes a driving force for the evolution of chemical defences. In the Antarctic benthos, asteroids and omnivore amphipods are keystone opportunistic predators. Sessile organisms are therefore expected to develop defensive mechanisms mainly against such consumers. However, the different habits characterizing each predator may promote variable responses in prey. Feeding-deterrence experiments were performed with the circumpolar asteroid macropredator Odontaster validus to evaluate the presence of defences within the apolar lipophilic fraction of Antarctic invertebrates and macroalgae. A total of 51% of the extracts were repellent, yielding a proportion of 17 defended species out of the 31 assessed. These results are compared with a previous study in which the same fractions were offered to the abundant circum-Antarctic amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Overall, less deterrence was reported towards asteroids (51% than against amphipods (80.8%, principally in sponge and algal extracts. Generalist amphipods, which establish casual host–prey sedentary associations with biosubstrata (preferentially sponges and macroalgae, may exert more localized predation pressure than sea stars on certain sessile prey, which would partly explain these results. The nutritional quality of prey may interact with feeding deterrents, whose production is presumed to be metabolically expensive. Although optimal defence theory posits that chemical defences are managed and distributed as to guarantee protection at the lowest cost, we found that only a few organisms localized feeding deterrents towards most exposed and/or valuable body regions. Lipophilic defensive metabolites are broadly produced in Antarctic communities to deter opportunistic predators, although several species combine different defensive traits.

  14. Provoking misunderstanding: a comment on Black's defence of value-free sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Martyn

    2014-09-01

    This paper is a response to a recent article dealing with the concept of value-free sociology by Donald Black. It argues that while a defence of Weber's position on the role of values in sociological research is necessary and important, what is offered by Black is counter-productive in important respects. This is because it encourages some of the misunderstandings that it is aimed at remedying and, even more importantly, offers a simplistic discussion of what are complex issues.

  15. Bacteria and derived products to strengthen defences and reduce risk of illness

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Yolanda; Palma, Giada de; Sánchez Sánchez, Esther; Medina, Marcela Susana

    2008-01-01

    [EN] This invention provides a new strain of the genus Bifidobacterium and the components of the cultivation supernatants thereof in the form of diverse preparations (functional and new foods, probiotics, symbiotics, supplements, nutraceuticals and drugs) destined to improve defences and reduce the risk of illness. The mechanisms of action thereof include: (i) regulation of intestinal glycosylation promoting that of healthy individuals, (ii) modulation of interactions between epithelial ce...

  16. THE RIGHT TO A DEFENCE IN THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE OF THE YOUNG SPANISH DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Luis GOMEZ COLOMER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the designated topic for discussion is the technical right to a defence in Spain, I consider it opportune to give a brief overview of the current criminal procedural situation in my country. Spain is a young democracy of only 35 years in which sovereignty was returned to the people with the 1978 constitution, the moment that marked the beginning of a period during which we have enjoyed the full range of freedoms.

  17. Epichloë endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation.

  18. How do Criminal Defence Barristers Work with Psychological Distress throughout the Courtroom Process?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly , Lynsey

    2015-01-01

    Whilst a significant proportion of those coming through the Magistrates’ Court have mental health difficulties and associated social disadvantage and vulnerability, there would appear to insufficient resources to meet their needs. Eight criminal defence barristers, who received no professional training in mental health, were interviewed about their experience of working with these clients. Thematic analysis of data, from a critical realist epistemological position, generated two themes. “Work...

  19. The synthetic cationic lipid diC14 activates a sector of the Arabidopsis defence network requiring endogenous signalling components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiagno, Damián Alejandro; Lonez, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Alvarez, María Elena

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic elicitors have contributed significantly to the study of plant immunity. Pathogen-derived proteins and carbohydrates that bind to immune receptors, allow the fine dissection of certain defence pathways. Lipids of a different nature that act as defence elicitors, have also been studied, but their specific effects have been less well characterized, and their receptors have not been identified. In animal cells, nanoliposomes of the synthetic cationic lipid 3-tetradecylamino-tert-butyl-N-tetradecylpropionamidine (diC14) activate the TLR4-dependent immune cascade. Here, we have investigated whether this lipid induces Arabidopsis defence responses. At the local level, diC14 activated early and late defence gene markers (FRK1, WRKY29, ICS1 and PR1), acting in a dose-dependent manner. This lipid induced the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent, but not jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent, pathway and protected plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), but not Botrytis cinerea. diC14 was not toxic to plant or pathogen, and potentiated pathogen-induced callose deposition. At the systemic level, diC14 induced PR1 expression and conferred resistance against Pst. diC14-induced defence responses required the signalling protein EDS1, but not NDR1. Curiously, the lipid-induced defence gene expression was lower in the fls2/efr/cerk1 triple mutant, but still unchanged in the single mutants. The amidine headgroup and chain length were important for its activity. Given the robustness of the responses triggered by diC14, its specific action on a defence pathway and the requirement for well-known defence components, this synthetic lipid is emerging as a useful tool to investigate the initial events involved in plant innate immunity.

  20. Brain metastases of melanoma-mechanisms of attack on their defence system by engineered stem cells in the microenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This report gives a better emphasis on the role of targeted effectors (e.g. a combination of 5-FC with CD-NSPCs as compared to the application of NSPCs alone) and how such delivery of pro-drug activating enzymes and other tumor-killing substances may overcome melanocytic defence system, interact with and promote the host defence and immune response modulations not only in melanoma but, potentially, in other highly-metastatic cancers.

  1. Enterococcus faecalis zinc-responsive proteins mediate bacterial defence against zinc overload, lysozyme and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Marta C; Kok, Jan; Silva Lopes, Maria de Fátima

    2014-12-01

    Two Enterococcus faecalis genes encoding the P-type ATPase EF1400 and the putative SapB protein EF0759 were previously shown to be strongly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of zinc. In the present work, we showed that a Zn(2+)-responsive DNA-binding motif (zim) is present in the promoter regions of these genes. Both proteins were further studied with respect to their involvement in zinc homeostasis and invasion of the host. EF0759 contributed to intramacrophage survival by an as-yet unknown mechanism(s). EF1400, here renamed ZntAEf, is an ATPase with specificity for zinc and plays a role in dealing with several host defences, i.e. zinc overload, oxidative stress and lysozyme; it provides E. faecalis cells with the ability to survive inside macrophages. As these three host defence mechanisms are important at several sites in the host, i.e. inside macrophages and in saliva, this work suggested that ZntAEf constitutes a crucial E. faecalis defence mechanism that is likely to contribute to the ability of this bacterium to endure life inside its host.

  2. Evolution of separate predation- and defence-evoked venoms in carnivorous cone snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutertre, Sébastien; Jin, Ai-Hua; Vetter, Irina; Hamilton, Brett; Sunagar, Kartik; Lavergne, Vincent; Dutertre, Valentin; Fry, Bryan G; Antunes, Agostinho; Venter, Deon J; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J

    2014-03-24

    Venomous animals are thought to inject the same combination of toxins for both predation and defence, presumably exploiting conserved target pharmacology across prey and predators. Remarkably, cone snails can rapidly switch between distinct venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimuli. Here, we show that the defence-evoked venom of Conus geographus contains high levels of paralytic toxins that potently block neuromuscular receptors, consistent with its lethal effects on humans. In contrast, C. geographus predation-evoked venom contains prey-specific toxins mostly inactive at human targets. Predation- and defence-evoked venoms originate from the distal and proximal regions of the venom duct, respectively, explaining how different stimuli can generate two distinct venoms. A specialized defensive envenomation strategy is widely evolved across worm, mollusk and fish-hunting cone snails. We propose that defensive toxins, originally evolved in ancestral worm-hunting cone snails to protect against cephalopod and fish predation, have been repurposed in predatory venoms to facilitate diversification to fish and mollusk diets.

  3. Antioxidant defences in hydrated and desiccated states of the tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela M; Negroni, Manuela; Altiero, Tiziana; Montorfano, Gigliola; Corsetto, Paola; Berselli, Patrizia; Berra, Bruno; Guidetti, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2010-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in all aerobic organisms, potentially leading to oxidative damage of all biological molecules. A number of defence mechanisms have developed to protect the organism from attack by ROS. Desiccation tolerance is correlated with an increase in the antioxidant potential in several organisms, but the regulation of the antioxidant defence system is complex and its role in desiccation-tolerant organisms is not yet firmly established. To determine if anhydrobiotic tardigrades have an antioxidant defence system, capable of counteracting ROS, we compared the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, the fatty acid composition and Heat shock protein expression in two physiological states (desiccated vs. hydrated) of the tardigrade Paramacrobiotus richtersi. In hydrated tardigrades, superoxide dismutase and catalase show comparable activities, while in desiccated specimens the activity of superoxide dismutase increases. Both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione were induced by desiccation. The percentage of fatty acid composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances are higher in desiccated animals than in hydrated ones. Lastly, desiccated tardigrades did not differ significantly from the hydrated ones in the relative levels of Hsp70 and Hsp90. These results indicate that the possession of antioxidant metabolism could represent a crucial strategy to avoid damages during desiccation in anhydrobiotic tardigrades.

  4. ECONOMIC THINKING AS A SIGNIFICANT PREREQUISITE FOR THE EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT AND FUNCTIONING OF THE DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera FRIANOVÁ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to draw attention of readers to the importance of economic thinking in order to solve various current economic problems in the defence sector as well as to indicate how economic thinking and behaviour of the sector members, especially managers, can increase the overall efficiency of the Armed Forces activities or the efficiency of the defence sector activities. The author in the article defines the general economic principles (3E principles of resource management, highlights the problem of application of the efficiency principle in the public sector and also in terms of the Department of Defence of the Slovak Republic and suggests some possible ways to solve some of current economic issues. In this context the author of the article also points to the need to educate managers in the economic field. The article is the output of a research and development project undertaken at the Armed Forces Academy of General M. R. Štefánik in Liptovský Mikuláš, the Slovak Republic.

  5. Armed rollers: does nestling's vomit function as a defence against predators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deseada Parejo

    Full Text Available Chemical defences against predators are widespread in the animal kingdom although have been seldom reported in birds. Here, we investigate the possibility that the orange liquid that nestlings of an insectivorous bird, the Eurasian roller (Coracias garrulus, expel when scared at their nests acts as a chemical defence against predators. We studied the diet of nestling rollers and vomit origin, its chemical composition and deterrent effect on a mammal generalist predator. We also hypothesized that nestling rollers, as their main prey (i.e. grasshoppers do from plants, could sequester chemicals from their prey for their use. Grasshoppers, that also regurgitate when facing to a threat, store the harmful substances used by plants to defend themselves against herbivores. We found that nestling rollers only vomit after being grasped and moved. The production of vomit depended on food consumption and the vomit contained two deterrent chemicals (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids stored by grasshoppers and used by plants to diminish herbivory, suggesting that they originate from the rollers' prey. Finally, we showed for the first time that the oral secretion of a vertebrate had a deterrent effect on a model predator because vomit of nestling rollers made meat distasteful to dogs. These results support the idea that the vomit of nestling rollers is a chemical defence against predators.

  6. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  7. HVEM signalling at mucosal barriers provides host defence against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jr-Wen; Larange, Alexandre; Kim, Gisen; Vela, Jose Luis; Zahner, Sonja; Cheroutre, Hilde; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2012-08-09

    The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor receptor family, has diverse functions, augmenting or inhibiting the immune response. HVEM was recently reported as a colitis risk locus in patients, and in a mouse model of colitis we demonstrated an anti-inflammatory role for HVEM, but its mechanism of action in the mucosal immune system was unknown. Here we report an important role for epithelial HVEM in innate mucosal defence against pathogenic bacteria. HVEM enhances immune responses by NF-κB-inducing kinase-dependent Stat3 activation, which promotes the epithelial expression of genes important for immunity. During intestinal Citrobacter rodentium infection, a mouse model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection, Hvem−/− mice showed decreased Stat3 activation, impaired responses in the colon, higher bacterial burdens and increased mortality. We identified the immunoglobulin superfamily molecule CD160 (refs 7 and 8), expressed predominantly by innate-like intraepithelial lymphocytes, as the ligand engaging epithelial HVEM for host protection. Likewise, in pulmonary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, HVEM is also required for host defence. Our results pinpoint HVEM as an important orchestrator of mucosal immunity, integrating signals from innate lymphocytes to induce optimal epithelial Stat3 activation, which indicates that targeting HVEM with agonists could improve host defence.

  8. How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2011-12-07

    Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories.

  9. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter D E; Kusterbeck, Anne; Hiltz, John A

    2008-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research in biotechnology and related scientific areas has increased tremendously over the past decade. This rapid pace, in conjunction with advances in microfabricated systems, computer hardware, bioengineering and the availability of low-powered miniature components, has now made it feasible to design bio-inspired materials, sensors and systems with tremendous potential for defence and security applications. To realize the full potential of biotechnology and bio-inspiration, there is a need to define specific requirements to meet the challenges of the changing world and its threats. One approach to assisting the defence and security communities in defining their requirements is through the use of a conceptual model. The distributed or intelligent autonomous sensing (DIAS) system is one such model. The DIAS model is not necessarily aimed at a single component, for instance a sensor, but can include a system, or even a system of systems in the same way that a single organism, a multi-cellular organism or group of organisms is configured. This paper provides an overview of the challenges to and opportunities for bio-inspired sensors and systems together with examples of how they are being implemented. Examples focus on both learning new things from biological organisms that have application to the defence and security forces and adapting known discoveries in biology and biochemistry for practical use by these communities.

  10. The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, TaU4 regulates wheat defence against the phytopathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millyard, Linda; Lee, Jack; Zhang, Cunjin; Yates, Gary; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici commonly known as Septoria), the causal agent of Septoria Leaf Blotch (STB), is considered one of the major threats to European wheat production. Previous studies have shown the importance of ubiquitination in plant defence against a multitude of pathogens. However the ubiquitination machinery in wheat is under studied, particularly E2 enzymes that have the ability to control the ubiquitination and thereby the fate of many different target proteins. In this study we identify an E2 enzyme, Triticum aestivum Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 4 (TaU4) that functions in wheat defence against Septoria. We demonstrate TaU4 to be a bona fide E2 enzyme through an E2 charging assay. TaU4 localises in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore potentially interacting with E3 ligases and substrate proteins in multiple compartments. Virus Induced Gene Silencing of TaU4 in wheat leaves resulted in delayed development of disease symptoms, reduced Septoria growth and reproduction. We conclude that TaU4 is a novel negative regulator of defence against Septoria. PMID:27759089

  11. Nordic visions of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten HEIBERG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of Scandinavian literature written by surviving volunteers of the International Brigades which concerns the Spanish Civil War. However, when it comes to scientific studies the situation is an altogether different one. Only a small number of academic studies can be found available, often limited in scope and of modest quality. The Civil War seems to be of marginal interest to the Nordic research community, which is generally more interested in national history than in European and world history. There are, however, some exceptions to this, as this article will demonstrate. The most interesting conclusion - from an international historiographical point of view - to be drawn from a number of new studies is that the Spanish Civil War produced political and military repercussions in Scandinavia during the German occupation of Denmark and Norway from 1940-1945.

  12. Global justice and transnational civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temi Ogunye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all accounts of global justice recognise that the world, as it is, is unjust, and that something ought to be done about this. But what? In this paper, I argue that wealthy individuals have a duty grounded in the natural duty of justice to engage in civil disobedience against the currently unjust global order with the aim of pressuring for institutional reform. In particular, I argue that those who subscribe to the two main views on global justice—cosmopolitanism and statism—can agree that the conditions which give rise to the duty to engage in civil disobedience obtain in global society today. I then explain why I focus on transnational civil disobedience, argue that only the wealthy have the duty to engage in it, and give an example of how this duty has been discharged in the real world.

  13. To each its own: differential response of specialist and generalist herbivores to plant defence in willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Martin; Hrcek, Jan; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Novotny, Vojtech

    2015-07-01

    Plant-insect food webs tend to be dominated by interactions resulting from diffuse co-evolution between plants and multiple lineages of herbivores rather than by reciprocal co-evolution and co-cladogenesis. Plants therefore require defence strategies effective against a broad range of herbivore species. In one extreme, plants could develop a single universal defence effective against all herbivorous insects, or tailor-made strategies for each herbivore species. The evolution and ecology of plant defence has to be studied with entire insect assemblages, rather than small subsets of pairwise interactions. The present study examines whether specialists and generalists in three coexisting insect lineages, forming the leaf-chewing guild, respond uniformly to plant phylogeny, secondary metabolites, nutrient content and mechanical antiherbivore defences of their hosts, thus permitting universal plant defence strategies against specialized and generalist folivorous insects from various taxa. The extensive data on folivorous assemblages comprising three insect orders and 193 species are linked with plant phylogeny, secondary chemistry (salicylates, flavonoids and tannins), leaf morphological traits [specific leaf area (SLA) and trichome coverage], nutrient (C : N) content and growth form of eight willow (Salix) and one aspen (Populus) species growing in sympatry. Generalists responded to overall host plant chemistry and trichomes, whilst specialists responded to host plant phylogeny and secondary metabolites that are unique to willows and that are capable of being utilized as an antipredator protection. We did not find any significant impact of other plant traits, that is SLA, C : N ratio, flavonoids, tannins and growth form, on the composition of leaf-chewing communities. Our results show that the response to plant traits is differential among specialists and generalists. This finding constrains the ability of plants to develop defensive traits universally effective

  14. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  15. La responsabilidad civil medioambiental por productos defectuosos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La tesis cuestiona por una parte la exhaustividad del marco regulador de la responsabilidad Civil por productos defectuosos y, por la otra, la singularidad de los daños medioambientales. Así, pretende, entre otros objetivos, contribuir en la construcción del Derecho Civil medioambiental, buscando, dentro del ámbito de protección de la legislación sobre productos defectuosos, el posible anclaje de los daños medioambientales. Gira en torno a la cuestión del régimen aplicable a supuesto...

  16. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    OpenAIRE

    Eiroa, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from th...

  17. Fundamentos del seguro de responsabilidad civil

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez del Prado Simons, Alfonso; Universidad de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Luego de una pequeña introducción en que comenta algunos problemas del Seguro Obligatorio de Accidente de Tránsito (SOAT) y de los seguros oncológicos en relación a los médicos, el autor hace una revisión de los fundamentos legales de la responsabilidad civil, especialmente la extracontractual, a partir de la legislación peruana y luego explica los alcances del seguro de responsabilidad civil general.

  18. Disfuncionalidades del servicio civil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isaza E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta las características del servicio civil colombiano y argumenta que este existe en un nivel formal, pero sufre de una brecha de implementación que ha conducido a la creación de una serie de disfuncionalidades en el sistema. Esta situación explica la discrepancia entre la imagen positiva que existe fuera del país frente a su servicio civil y la imagen que existe dentro, basada en el mal funcionamiento práctico del mismo.

  19. Newton and the origin of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    2012-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced an

  20. Preaching in the perspective of civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kroczek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preaching the word of God is the part of the ministry of the divine word. The activity belongs exclusively to the Church and is regulated by the church law, but it is also under regime of Polish law. The article focuses on the Polish civil law and treats about: copyright law, the protection of secret information in labor law and in educational law, the obligation of silence before election day, and protection of personal interests. The catholic ministers must be aware of the civil liability for the preaching.

  1. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  2. La responsabilidad civil en el delito fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Se realiza un análisis de la procedencia de pronunciamiento sobre responsabilidad civil en el delito fiscal en referencia a la cuota tributaria defraudada. Se toma como punto de partida la posición del tribunal supremo que admite la configuración de la deuda tributaria defraudada como responsabilidad civil, y se subraya las dificultades técnicas de la misma, tomando en consideración la naturaleza ex lege que en todo caso ostenta la obligación de hacer efectivo el pago de la deuda tributaria,...

  3. Global civil society and its discontents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, T. Olaf

    2006-01-01

    According to enthusiasts the concept of global civil society is spreading rapidly and becoming pivotal to the reconfiguring of the statist paradigm. However, critics have recently grown more numerous and outspoken in opposition to the term claiming that it is actually perpetuating statism...... by grafting the idea of civil society onto the global by way of an unhelpful domestic analogy. This paper examines the role the concept is playing in perpetuating/reconfiguring statism. First it summarizes current criticism by identifying three basic accusations: the ambiguity of the term, the "domestic...

  4. Optimal Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thesbjerg, Leo

    In designing large civil engineering structures, an important consideration is prospective dynamic loadings which may include earthquake ground motion, wind gusts, severe sea states and moving vehicles, rotating and reciprocating machinery and others. successful design of such structures requires...... providing for the safety and integrity of the structure, and in some cases also providing for a measure of comfort for the occupants during such loading which the structure and its occupants must endure. Due to these uncertainties, the civil engineering community has traditionally adopted a very...

  5. Social Movements, Civil Society and Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bakker, Frank; Hond, Frank den; King, Brayden

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between social movements and civil society on the one hand, and the corporate world on the other hand, are often shaped by conflict over the domination of economic, cultural and social life. How this conflict plays out, in current as well as in historical times and places......, is the central question that unites the papers in this special issue. In this essay, we review the differences and points of contact between the study of social movements, civil society and corporations, and offer an agenda for future research at this intersection that also frames the papers in the special issue...

  6. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil monetary... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties...

  7. El derecho civil, los derechos civiles forales o especiales y el derecho civil autonómico

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza Penadés, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Para poder comprender el concepto y significado del Derecho Civil conviene previamente delimitar su contenido y comprender su consideración como Derecho Privado y como Derecho común, que es fruto de su evolución histórica.

  8. The Organizations and Functions of Documentation and Information Centres in Defence and Aerospace Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-20

    Shape Technical Centre and SACLANT, and civil research reports from ESA and the Institute for Oceanographic Science (lOS). 1000 final reports are selected...Dictionnaire de l’aeronautique et de ’espace by Goursau, Chambers diccionario cientifico y technologico, Russian-English military dictionary by JTLS...Base (NSIB) which should contain information about Stanags and relevant civil standards. In case TDCK receives a question concerning Milspecs, the

  9. CIVIL LIABILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marica

    2008-09-01

    é un dommage ou un préjudice. Le droit à un environnement écologique, sain et équilibré, est reconnu et garanti par la législation nationale, ainsi que par celle internationale.L’article 35 de la Constitution de la Roumanie, tel qu’il a été modifié par la Loi no. 429/2003, affirme, entre autres droits fondamentaux, le droit à un environnement sain, qui est une partie d’une troisième génération de droits, appelés droits de solidarité, qui peuvent être respectés non seulement par des efforts internes de l’Etat, mais aussi par la coopération entre l’Etat et les citoyens. Par la conclusion d’un accord d’association entre la Roumanie et l’Union Européenne, entré en vigueur en 1995, la Roumanie a assumé l’acquis communautaire de l’environnement, avec ses trois droits fondamentaux (le droit d’être informé au sujet de l’environnement, le droit de participer au processus de prise de décision concernant l’environnement et le droit de solliciter la réparation des dommages écologiques, ou l’annulation d’actes administratifs illégaux a joué un rôle important dans ce processus.Mots-clé: biodiversité, la protection de l’environnement, pollution, la réparation des dommages écologiques, responsabilité civile

  10. Canadian Diving Symposium (4th) Held at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, 24-25 October, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    decompression sickness, using squirrel monkeys (27) as animal subjects. The monkeys with inner ear "hits" show severe flbro- osseous labyrtnthltis in their semi...400 University Avenue Toronto, Ontario M7A IT7 British Columbia Mr. S. Duffy (604) 273-3878 Accident Prevention Officer Workers’ Compensation Board

  11. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... offense; (ii) Any history of prior offenses by the Respondent (including offenses occurring prior to the... proposed civil money penalty, including documentary evidence to support any of Respondent's arguments or... argument in mitigation, the Respondent shall provide documentary evidence as part of its response....

  12. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2011-01-01

    Research in the field of citizenship, civil society, and social movements in relation to larger democratic summits has either focused on radical confrontational elements of activism, broad public demonstrations, or the professional non-governmental organizations. In this article, I label the type...

  13. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  14. Aluminium building and civil engineering structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Mennink, J.

    1999-01-01

    The design of aluminium structures in building and civil engineering applications is different from designing in traditional materials. This difference is based on the physical and mechanical properties of the material and the freedom of cross-sectional shape provided by the extrusion manufacturing

  15. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common f

  16. The language of architecture and civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Riejos, Ana Ma Roldan

    2011-01-01

    This book not only provides unique and in-depth information to understand the language of architecture and civil engineering, it is also helpful for students and professionals who need to improve their linguistic skills. The LACE book includes plenty of

  17. State Education Agency Civil Rights Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter

    This memorandum addresses the responsibility of State Education Agencies (SEAs) for insuring that local educational agencies do not violate students' civil rights. The SEA's duty is said to arise from two sources. First, in most if not all States, State law mandates that State education officials supervise and regulate the conduct of local school…

  18. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  19. CIVIL ENGINEERS' ROLES IN PUBLIC WORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Teruaki

    Recently, the public interests are becoming high in the way of executing public works and the future direction of infrastructure development, which raises nation-wide discussion on these issues. How should we make our country's growth strategy for sustainable development? How should we realize the grand design of infrastructure needed for the implementation of such a strategy? It is obvious that further discussions are needed for these challenging questions. With an aim to promote such discussions, this paper reviews the history of public works and the professional practices (or accomplishments) of our great civil engineers, and discusses the future of public works and the roles of civil engineers based on their origin. Further, in this paper, the author, as the chairman of the Public Works Committee of Japan Civil Engineering Contractors Association, introduces the Association's proposal of "realization of an attractive construction industry." However, for its realization, sustainable institutional arrangements under social consensus are indispensable. Also, individual engineer must establish his/her own identity based on sense of social ethics. It is the author's hope that, through these journals, the professional practices of civil engineers will be widely known to the public with objective logics and discussed to achieve social consensus.

  20. Civil Rights in the Third Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffler, Alvin

    1982-01-01

    Current political and legal institutions must be restructured to accommodate the new, higher levels of social diversity brought about by technological progress. Those who are committed to civil rights should recognize the need to tolerate and even encourage diversity, instead of attempting to recreate the homogeneity of yesterday's mass society.…

  1. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Наумов

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  2. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  3. Civil Rights and Japanese-American Internment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greg; Hojo, Samantha; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Yoda, Steven

    Students may not be as familiar with the Asian American struggle for equal rights as they are with the black struggle for equal rights. But Asian Americans' civil rights have also been challenged and/or denied throughout their history in the United States. This curriculum module contains six lessons and can be used as a supplement to history…

  4. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  5. The civilized sacred in contemporary China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Recent policies set by the Government renewed the urgency of being civilized (wenming): behavior in public parks needs to be wenming, and also rituals in Buddhist and Daoist temples have to be wenming. The next step has been to encourage citizens to avoid burning incense or visiting temples, and to

  6. Civil society responds to protection gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Jackson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of mechanisms to protect the populationof the OPT, and the reluctance or impotence of the‘international community’, global civil society activists andhuman rights campaigners – working with Palestinianand Israeli actors – have stepped into the breach.

  7. RECRUITMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cristina RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is recruitment and training. The originality of this article lies in the multidisciplinary character, combining elements of labor law, administrative law and human resources management, character reflected in the bibliography used. Another merit of this study is that the authors correlated the provisions of various laws: Constitution, Labor Code, Law no. 161/2003 on the transparency in exercising public dignities and public functions, Government Ordinance no. 137/2000 regarding the prevention and sanction of all discrimination forms, Government Ordinance no. 129/2000 concerning adults’ professional training.

  8. China To Boost Civil Aerospace Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced on January 30,2008 that it had approved the overall development planning of three national aerospace industrial bases.Building a civil aerospace industry base serves to optimize and integrate aerospace resources to further increase the potential for technological innovation and product R&D in China's aerospace industry.

  9. A Changing Climate for Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Edward B.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies trends likely to influence civil rights issues in the 1980s: new emphases on entrepreneurial thinking, self-reliance, and meritocracy; a new socioeconomic agenda; and growing expectations that business will fill the gap left by shrinking government budgets and will support efforts to end discrimination against minorities and women. (CMG)

  10. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 20-15:320-15, “Equal Employment Opportunity in Construction Financed with RUS Loans”; 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b and 45 CFR part 90. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17...

  11. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21... penalty. Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to...

  12. Civil and Military Bureaucracy in Pakistan,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Mohammad Ali Jinnah and maintained by his successors until 1958. During the Ayub period (1958-69), the basic framework of adminis- tration was maintained...civil services. * As opposed to the refugees who came from India at Partition . By_ Distribut il/ October 1981 Avallal-ility Codes Avn il and/or Dist special

  13. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  14. Civil Technology. Surveying. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Beverley J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary civil technology--surveying education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in surveying in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first…

  15. Civil Litigation in China and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Bratković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed book: Civil Litigation in China and Europe: Essays on the Role of the Judge and the Parties (= 31 Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice (C.H. (Remco van Rhee & Fu Yulin, eds. (Springer 2014.

  16. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between organized civil society and the public sector has becoming stronger and more outspoken for several reasons. First, the public sector is increasingly turning to the civic organizations because the general failure of New Public Management strategies and market-driven solutio...... participatory democracy through active involving of all citizens....

  17. Should Bad Civil Servants Be Chosen by Voting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote good service from civil servants, Anqiu City in Shandong Province recently issued the Appraisal Methods for Best-and Worst-Performing Civil Servants. Based on the regulation, the city government

  18. Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The civil engineering program of Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil is described, with emphasis on recent trends within the Hydraulics Department’s coastal engineering unit.

  19. ICAO Assistance to Civil Aviation in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Describes the cost advantages of air transportation over road, rail, and river transportation in many circumstances which prevail today in developing countries. Presents accounts of International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) efforts supporting civil aviation programs in these countries. (DS)

  20. Civil society and the ‘commanding heights’:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Paton, Rob

    Civil society associations, including voluntary and community groups, trade unions, faithbased organisations, co-operatives and mutuals, have long influenced the economy. Civil society associations can run businesses and they can run organisations that aim to influence businesses. Together...

  1. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  2. The Language of Civil Engineering: Descriptive, Prescriptive, and Persuasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machauf, Liora

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the language of civil engineering as manifested in the professional journal "Civil Engineering ASCE." Articles are analyzed, both syntactically and lexically, in terms of three major rhetorical functions: description, prescription, and persuasion. (17 references) (GLR)

  3. Personnel of Civil Aviation as a Systematic Formation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation is considered in the article. During the research the author presents scientific views on the definition of «system», reveals the essence of the organization of personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation. Essential characteristics of the integral system of personnel of civil aviation and its systematic qualities are determined.English abstractThe personnel of civil aviation is a system organized formation of trained workers of c...

  4. Civil-Military relations and democratization in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine civil-military relations in Guatemala and their effect on democratic consolidation. The issue of civil- military relations in Guatemala is one of particular importance as political and military leaders as well as members of civil society attempt to redefine the role of the military after 36 years of civil war. Applying Felipe Aguero's theory of civilian supremacy, this thesis argues that since 1982, the Guatemalan military has evolved into a profession...

  5. ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Civil society organizations, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), are important stakeholders of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010 presents an overview of the year’s work in cooperating with civil society organizations, including NGOs, in country and regional programming work, project operations, as well as in policy and strategy development. Through ADB’s NGO and Civil Society Center, ADB is strengthening its partnership with ...

  6. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  7. Civil reconnaissance; separating the insurgent from the population

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Kevin P.

    2007-01-01

    Civil Information Management is one of the main tools in conducting effective counter insurgency operations, yet there is no definitive doctrine that explains how to collect, analyze, or warehouse Civil Information. This thesis provides a methodology for collecting civil information in a counter insurgency environment. The proposed methodology provides a foundation for the creation of standard operating procedures and tactics to enhance the US Military's capability to conduct Civil Recon...

  8. DOCTRINAL FOUNDATIONS OF PLURALITY OF PERSONS IN CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolayev A. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the theoretical basis of the multiplicity of individual and joint ownership of civil rights and conscientious objection to civilian duties. The author explores the state of development of scientific problems of completely plurality of persons in civil law, proves the necessity to consider the multiplicity not through teaching about the object of civil rights, but through the subject of civil rights

  9. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    OpenAIRE

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-01-01

    The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  10. Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons: Recommendations for a More Effective Federal Civil Remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Lack

    2008-01-01

    In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its...

  11. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  12. Opportunities in Civil Engineering. [VGM Career Horizons Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Heer, John E., Jr.

    This book presents information on career opportunities in civil engineering. Chapter 1 focuses on the scope of civil engineering, discussing: role of scientist, engineer, and technologists; engineering and engineering technology; civil engineer's role and obligations; and other information. Chapter 2 considers such aspects of the education for…

  13. Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies in the Study of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the quantitative study of civil war, focusing on the development of quantitative conflict studies, the basics of the quantitative method, the prominent sources of civil conflict data, and the strengths and weaknesses of using quantitative methods to analyse civil war.

  14. 77 FR 65100 - Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... inflation. This rule sets forth the maximum, inflation-adjusted dollar amount for civil monetary penalties... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 143 RIN 3038-AD76 Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation AGENCY... and orders thereunder. The rule, as amended, implements the Federal Civil Penalties...

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-9 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met....

  16. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1834 - Civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalty. 493.1834 Section 493.1834... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1834 Civil money... Secretary to impose civil money penalties on laboratories. Section 1846(b)(3) of the Act...

  18. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act

  19. Strategies of chemical anti-predator defences in leaf beetles: is sequestration of plant toxins less costly than de novo synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Elena L; Zverev, Vitali; Kruglova, Oksana Y; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of defensive traits is driven both by benefits gained from protection against enemies and by costs of defence production. We tested the hypothesis that specialisation of herbivores on toxic host plants, accompanied by the ability to acquire plant defensive compounds for herbivore defence, is favoured by the lower costs of sequestration compared to de novo synthesis of defensive compounds. We measured physiological costs of chemical defence as a reduction in larval performance in response to repeated removal of secretions (simulating predator attack) and compared these costs between five species synthesising defences de novo and three species sequestering salicylic glucosides (SGs) from their host plants. Experiments simulating low predator pressure revealed no physiological costs in terms of survival, weight and duration of development in any of study species. However, simulation of high predation caused reduction in relative growth rate in Chrysomela lapponica larvae producing autogenous defences more frequently, than in larvae sequestering SGs. Still meta-analysis of combined data showed no overall difference in costs of autogenous and sequestered defences. However, larvae synthesising their defences de novo demonstrated secretion-conserving behaviour, produced smaller amounts of secretions, replenished them at considerably lower rates and employed other types of defences (regurgitation, evasion) more frequently when compared to sequestering larvae. These latter results provide indirect evidence for biosynthetic constraints for amounts of defensive secretions produced de novo, resulting in low defence effectiveness. Lifting these constraints by sequestration may have driven some leaf beetle lineages toward sequestration of plant allelochemicals as the main defensive strategy.

  20. Analysis of pea HMG-I/Y expression suggests a role in defence gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J; Choi, Jane J; Hadwiger, Lee A

    2003-07-01

    SUMMARY HMG-I/Y proteins are characterized by the presence of AT-hook motifs, DNA binding domains that recognize AT-rich tracts of DNA. By facilitating protein:protein and protein:DNA interactions in the vicinity of these AT-rich binding sites, HMG-I/Y positively or negatively regulates gene expression. Several pea defence gene promoters have AT-rich tracts of DNA that are potential targets for modulation via HMG-I/Y. In this study, a comparison of the expression of a pea defence gene (DRR206) mRNA relative to the expression of HMG-I/Y mRNA was monitored by Northern analysis following the inoculation of a fungal pathogen, Fusarium solani or treatment with chitosan and a F. solani DNase (Fsph DNase). In pea pod endocarp tissue, HMG-I/Y expression was observed at high levels in untreated tissue and at lower levels 6 h following inoculation or wounding of the tissue. Western blots with an antipea HMG-I/Y polyclonal antibody also revealed that pea HMG-I/Y is expressed at decreased levels 6 h following inoculation or elicitor treatment. HMG-I/Y extracted from pea caused alterations in the gel migration of radio-labelled AT-rich sequences from the pea DRR206 promoter, suggesting that similar interactions could exist in vivo. Agroinfiltration was utilized to express the pea HMG-I/Y gene in tobacco containing a chimeric gene fusion of a promoter from the PR gene, DRR206, and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Transient expression of pea HMG-I/Y led to a decrease in GUS reporter gene activity in the heterologous tobacco system. These data implicate pea HMG-I/Y abundance in the down-regulation of DRR206 gene expression, and possibly HMG-I/Y depletion in the expression of defence genes in pea.

  1. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS.

  2. Gastrointestinal-sparing effects of novel NSAIDs in rats with compromised mucosal defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Blackler

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most commonly used prescription and over-the-counter medications, but they often produce significant gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding, particularly in elderly patients and patients with certain co-morbidities. Novel anti-inflammatory drugs are seldom tested in animal models that mimic the high risk human users, leading to an underestimate of the true toxicity of the drugs. In the present study we examined the effects of two novel NSAIDs and two commonly used NSAIDs in models in which mucosal defence was expected to be impaired. Naproxen, celecoxib, ATB-346 (a hydrogen sulfide- and naproxen-releasing compound and NCX 429 (a nitric oxide- and naproxen-releasing compound were evaluated in healthy, arthritic, obese, and hypertensive rats and in rats of advanced age (19 months and rats co-administered low-dose aspirin and/or omeprazole. In all models except hypertension, greater gastric and/or intestinal damage was observed when naproxen was administered in these models than in healthy rats. Celecoxib-induced damage was significantly increased when co-administered with low-dose aspirin and/or omeprazole. In contrast, ATB-346 and NCX 429, when tested at doses that were as effective as naproxen and celecoxib in reducing inflammation and inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity, did not produce significant gastric or intestinal damage in any of the models. These results demonstrate that animal models of human co-morbidities display the same increased susceptibility to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage as observed in humans. Moreover, two novel NSAIDs that release mediators of mucosal defence (hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide do not induce significant gastrointestinal damage in these models of impaired mucosal defence.

  3. The Union Defence Force Between the Two World Wars, 1919-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was ill prepared for the Second World War. Her war potential was limited and Hitler is reputed to have laughed when the South African declaration came on 6 September 1939. The Permanent and Active Citizen Forces were under strength: the first comprised only 350 officers and some five thousand men. There were a further 122 000 men in the Commandos, of whom only 18 000 were reasonably equipped, and, being rurally based and overwhelmingly Afrikaans, many of these men did not support the war effort. Furthermore, training and training facilities were inadequate, there was a shortage of uniforms and equipment and, like the rest of the British Commonwealth, much of the doctrine had not kept pace with technological developments. This predicament developed over the preceding twenty years. The mechanisation of ground forces and the application of new technology for war contrasted sharply with developments in Europe. Although South Africa had the industrial capacity for the development of armour and mechanised forces, arguments based upon the nature of potential enemy forces, poor infrastructure and terrain inaccessibility combined with government policy and financial stringency resulted in nothing being done. Southern Africa, the focus of South African defence policy, was also thought to be unfavourable for mechanised warfare. Inadequate roads and multifarious geographic features concentrated energy on the development of the air arm for operations in Africa and a system of coastal defences to repel a sea assault, as well as a mix of British and Boer-type infantry supported by field artillery. As a result, an expeditionary force had to be prepared from scratch and the first South Africans to serve in the Second World War only left the country in July 1940. Yet the close relationship between the projected role of the Union Defence Force (UDF and the low priority given to force maintenance and weapons acquisition has been perceived by few

  4. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  5. Dry up and survive: the role of antioxidant defences in anhydrobiotic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Rebecchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the evolution of life has turned oxygen into a vital chemical for aerobic organisms, this element can also have deleterious effects on living systems through the production of oxidative stress. This is a process resulting from an imbalance between the excessive production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and the limited action of antioxidant defences. It is a particularly harmful health risk factor, involved in the development of several chronic human pathologies and believed to play a major role in the ageing process. Consequently aerobic metabolism needs a stringent control of ROS. Water too is essential for life, but some organisms widespread throughout nature have the ability to survive complete desiccation by entering an anhydrobiotic state. The loss of water induces changes in metabolism, cell membrane organization, and molecular composition. In the anhydrobiotic state, high temperatures, high humidity, light exposure, and high oxygen partial pressure negatively affect organism survival and directly influence the time required to reactivate the metabolism after a period of desiccation. These abiotic factors induce damages that are accumulated in proportion to the time spent in the desiccated state, potentially leading to organism death. Oxidative stress seems to be one of the most deleterious damages due to water depletion, therefore anhydrobiosis also needs a stringent control of ROS production. Anhydrobiotic organisms seem to apply two main strategies to cope with the danger of oxygen toxicity, namely an increased efficiency of antioxidant defences and a metabolic control of both energy-production and energy-consuming processes. Experimental studies provide evidence that antioxidant defences such as ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g. peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidases and other molecules (e.g. glutathione, carotenoids, vitamins C and E represent a key group of molecules required for desiccation

  6. Antiretroviral therapy in the Malawi defence force: access, treatment outcomes and impact on mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred C Banda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS affects all sectors of the population and the defence forces are not exempt. A national survey was conducted in all public and private sectors in Malawi that provide antiretroviral therapy (ART to determine the uptake of ART by army personnel, their outcomes while on treatment, and the impact of ART on mortality in the Malawi Defence Force. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out, collecting data on access and retention on treatment from all 103 public and 38 private sector ART clinics in Malawi, using standardised patient master cards and clinic registers. Observations were censored on December 31(st 2006. Independent data on mortality trends in army personnel from all causes between 2002 and 2006 were available from army records. By December 31(st 2006, there were 85,168 patients ever started on ART in both public and private sectors, of whom 547 (0.7% were army personnel. Of these, 22% started ART in WHO clinical stage 1 or 2 with a CD4-lymphocyte count of defence forces and large companies in the region.

  7. Understanding plant defence responses against herbivore attacks: an essential first step towards the development of sustainable resistance against pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Martínez, Manuel; Cambra, Inés; Grbic, Vojislava; Diaz, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    Plant-herbivore relationships are complex interactions encompassing elaborate networks of molecules, signals and strategies used to overcome defences developed by each other. Herbivores use multiple feeding strategies to obtain nutrients from host plants. In turn, plants respond by triggering defence mechanisms to inhibit, block or modify the metabolism of the pest. As part of these defences, herbivore-challenged plants emit volatiles to attract natural enemies and warn neighbouring plants of the imminent threat. In response, herbivores develop a variety of strategies to suppress plant-induced protection. Our understanding of the plant-herbivore interphase is limited, although recent molecular approaches have revealed the participation of a battery of genes, proteins and volatile metabolites in attack-defence processes. This review describes the intricate and dynamic defence systems governing plant-herbivore interactions by examining the diverse strategies plants employ to deny phytophagous arthropods the ability to breach newly developed mechanisms of plant resistance. A cornerstone of this understanding is the use of transgenic tools to unravel the complex networks that control these interactions.

  8. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Bihari Nityananda Chainy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons.

  9. Quorum-sensing blockade as a strategy for enhancing host defences against bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    -mediated killing or growth inhibition would be to attenuate the bacteria with respect to pathogenicity. The realization that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a number of other pathogens, controls much of their virulence arsenal by means of extracellular signal molecules in a process denoted quorum sensing (QS) gave...... is likely to increase the susceptibility of the infecting organism to host defences and its clearance from the host. The use of QS signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity, rather than bacterial growth, is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi...

  10. A Note on the Optimisation of a Defence System Against an Air Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Sangal

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the optimum mix of the defence weapons and the deployment of the mix has been dealt by Leibowitz & Lieberman. But the assumptions there in make it of less practical utility. In this note, an attempt has been made for a more realistic model. The mathematical expressions for the "Measure of Effectiveness" has been modified and this, in turn, brings about a change in the pay-off function and the value of the game. A numerical example has also been worked out to illustrate the same.

  11. Identification and characterization of novel defence and PCD signalling components in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Wenjun

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens by activating a defence signalling network. The Arabidopsis double mutant syp121 syp122 is dwarfed and mimics a response as if it was attacked by pathogens. Using EMS as mutagen on syp121 syp122, a suppressor screen was performed. More than 200 partially...... a large protein with at least six domains with predicted functions, and mutations in five of these showed that they are important for the lesion mimic phenotype of syp121 syp122. Subcellular localization showed SSD6 to function on the ER. In the project, a split-GFP Gateway vector system was developed...

  12. Advances in AlGaInN laser diode technology for defence, security and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Boćkowski, M.; Leszczyński, M.; Wisnieski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Targowski, G.

    2016-10-01

    Laser diodes fabricated from the AlGaInN material system is an emerging technology for defence, security and sensing applications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., 380nm, to the visible 530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well, giving rise to new and novel applications including displays and imaging systems, free-space and underwater telecommunications and the latest quantum technologies such as optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry.

  13. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence; Defense et illustration de la dissuasion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  14. 强制辩护制度探究%Research into the compulsory defence system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨群

    2012-01-01

    The defence right of the criminal proceeding is a basic right of the prosecuted.Whether the defence right is fully used not only concerns the right of the prosecuted,but also influences the justice and public credibility.At the present stag,the defence rate of criminal cases has gradually dropped year by year.The lack of defender results in imbanlance of power between the prosecutor and the defender,leading to the frequent infringement of the prosecuted' just right and the wrong cases.In order to improve the judgement of criminal cases,it is necessary to borrow the compulsory defence system to normalize the criminal proceeding for the sake of the protection of the prosecuted' basic right,which is of great significance for the development of our criminal law.%刑事诉讼中的辩护权是被追诉人的一项基本权利,辩护权行使的充分与否,不仅关涉被追诉人的切身利益,更影响着司法的公正性和公信力。现阶段我国刑事案件辩护率低且逐年下降,辩护人的缺席导致控辩力量对比失衡,控辩平等对抗近乎空谈,被告人的正当权益屡遭侵害,冤假错案时有发生。为突破这一困境,提高刑事案件审判水平,借鉴引入强制辩护制度尤为重要,通过强制辩护制度,制衡控方公权力行使,规范刑事诉讼活动,切实维护刑事被追诉人的基本权利,对我国刑事诉讼法的发展具有重要意义。

  15. Current strategies in the farm practices and post-harvest pesticidal defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Molinari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, people often talk about biologic agriculture and Integrated Production (IP, even if the real meaning of these terms is altered. In both cases, they deal with production methods characterized by a particular attention to the reduction of the environmental impact of all the farm practices used, especially for defence from adversities, being the element of major concern for environment and consumers’ health.Farm practice evolution, especially those about pest defence, is based on important conceptual change, accurate scientific analysis and organization of technical assistance, rationalization of agri-pharmaceutical product use is one of the main objective of Integrated Production Specifications (IPS. The quantitative reduction is the first objective, obtained by various means such as the use of efficient equipment and the qualitative selection based on the priority use of minor impact means, effectiveness being equal. At post-harvest, the anti-parasitary defence is undergoing deep changes in our country. Once, pesticides very toxic and persistent were used; however, in the last years the availability of active principles (a.p. usable on foodstuffs or in productive environments; for instance, methyl bromide use has been progressively reduced till its banishment because it is recognized to damage the ozone layer. Thus, on the whole we can talk about “integrated pest management” even for the post-harvest sector. However, substantial differences exist between agriculture and post-harvest, thus the integrated pest management in food production environment has to be designed in a different way. The fundamental element of this technique is to identify a tolerance threshold to pest attack but for the defence of food industries and stored foodstuffs is very difficult, if not impossible, to fix a limit to insect presence after which intervening is compulsory. Monitoring of pest attacks and the implementation of prevention practices is

  16. Cell Surface Receptor Theory of Disease Infectivity; Body's Defence and Normal Body Functioning in Living Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study of the pattern of Candida spp. infection of the human body and the mode and pattern of reaction of the human body to this infection showed that disease infectivity and self healing by plants followed the same procedures and patterns. Approach: A comparism of these procedures and patterns of natural self- healing of disease infection by the human body and plants/plant parts with the cutaneous Candida spp. killing and elimination procedures and patterns of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract, showed that cell surface receptors are the sites through which disease infects the body and also the sites at which the body is defended. They are also the sites where activities which result in normal body functioning are carried out. The mode and patterns of Cutaneous Candida infection in a human subject and its containment by the body was examined and photographed. The disease infection and self healing procedures and patterns of plants were also examined in comparism with those of their healthy counterparts and photographed. The findings from the observations on disease infectivity and natural body’s defence patterns and procedures of the plant parts studied and those of the human body in reaction to Candida spp. infection were compared with those of the Candida spp. killing procedures and patterns of aqueous and Arachis hypogeal oil extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Results: The findings of this study also showed that disease-infective organisms gain access to the body of a host through attachment to the cell surface receptors of that host which are placed linearly and are interconnected by channels. The results of the study also indicated that living organisms have a main endogenous substance that mediates both their body’s defence and their normal physiological functioning which is therefore the owner of the cell surface receptor. Other endogenous substances which participate in normal body functioning/body’s defence or in

  17. SECURITY AND DEFENCE SOURCES FOR THE ARMED FORCES OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan SOPÓCI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some aspects of security and defence sources for the armed forces of the Slovak Republic. It compares the possibilities of several NATO states in terms of their Gross National Product (GNP and their expenses for the armed forces. The article refers to the negative impingement of expenses reduction on the position of the SR and the Slovak armed forces developed with its NATO and EU partners. It also focuses on the possibilities to obtain funding sources for the development of armed forces from special NATO programmes.

  18. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL E O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCYLENE VILLALBA SOARES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem por finalidade realizar uma análise sobre a evolução da responsabilidade civil e suas teorias, subjetiva e objetiva aplicadas ao meio ambiente. Dentro desta área, deve-se ressaltar que a responsabilidade civil ao meio ambiente, é um assunto de importante relevância para o efetivo controle da depredação ambiental, permitindo que sejam alcançadas as metas propostas como condição de sobrevivência da espécie humana, ou seja, a conservação do meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento econômico social, visando desta maneira, permitir a qualidade e a continuação da vida. Existe o entendimento, que somente com educação ambiental e normas reguladoras fortes, como a penalidade de ter que indenizar quando praticar algum dano ao meio ambiente conseguirá atingir o objetivo maior de preservação. Necessitam-se além de uma mudança na legislação que responsabilize poluidores do meio ambiente, atribuindo-lhes sanções que inibam a prática de tal conduta ilícita e realizando assim, a aplicabilidade da justiça.Palavras-chave:Responsabilidade Civil; Responsabilidade; Meio Ambiente ABSTRACTThis article have objective to realize a analysis about civil responsibility evolution and your theories, subjective and objective apply environment. Inside this area have to stand out that civil responsibility environment, it is a theme very important relevance for environment depredation control effective, permitting have been obtain proposals target like been human survival condition, therefore, environment conservation and social economic development objective permit quality and continuation of life. There is understanding, that only with environment education and strong regulation principle, like penalty has to indemnify when practice some injury of environment, will obtain more preservation. Demand a change on legislation that responsible environment polluter attribute him inhibit sanctions for practice this illicit conduct and

  19. Family Enterprise in Czech Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janku Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades the family business enterprises of the first generation (generation of founders are more and more dominating in the category of today’s small and medium–sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. The necessary legal background defining the legal relationships and rights of all participating persons was, however, limited to general provisions in the Commercial Code that has not solved many of the problems associated thereto. Only in 2012 the new Czech Civil Code, Act. No 89/2012 Coll., introduced the institute of family enterprise as completely new term in the Czech Civil law. The presented paper aims to analyse the key rules of this new legal regulation, focusing on significant aspects of the institute in the context of commercial law and family law, as well as, to highlight the potential weaknesses and gaps existing in the regulation.

  20. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde EIROA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from the idea that the features of the online world allow for an extensive and multifaceted production of media of content which is more cultural, more social, and more attuned to the passing of time.

  1. Reflexiones sobre el concepto de guerra civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Calleja, Eduardo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the phenomenon of war as the highest intensity point in an armed conflict. The work looks over his juridical typification, the special dialectical relation established between situations of war and peace, and the ethiology, characteristics and consequences of civil war as a big scale political conflict whose aim is the preservation or conquest of state power.

    El artículo describe el fenómeno de la guerra como un conflicto armado de máxima intensidad. Estudia su caracterización jurídica, la peculiar relación dialéctica que se establece entre el estado de guerra y el de paz, y la etiología, características y efectos de la guerra civil como conflicto político en gran escala dirigido a la conservación o conquista del poder estatal.

  2. Civil Society as a Network of Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Mendo Castro Henriques

    2007-01-01

    According to a political philosophy approach, civil society may be defined as the network of institutions of private origin and a public purpose in which communities share goods, meanings and values, significantly contributing to the progress or decline of governance. Its empowering role is growing as cooperation networks spread across the local, national, supranational and global levels, strengthening both the communities they serve and the governance procedures they legitimize. Those instit...

  3. Civil Society Organizations: Development and Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Ali Saleh

    2016-01-01

    One has not to be worried about civil society organizations because they have already received an important role to play in social activities, in the development and the defense of human rights. Therefore, they represent a key partner for the state, alongside with which they participate in economic and social development. In fact, nowadays, it is no longer possible for the state alone to vouch for social development and to assume responsibility for all social problems. The relations between t...

  4. Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

  5. Sustaining the Peace After Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    GOVERNMENT Fight Quit REBELS Fight Civil War Continues Rebels Win Quit Government Wins Negotiated Settlement Derived from Allan C. Stam III, Win...Approach,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 23, No. 4, December 1979, pp. 743-763; Allan C. Stam III, Win, Lose, or Draw: Domestic Politics and...Resolution Vol. 39, No. 3, September 1995, p. 388. 135. Steven C. Poe and C. Neal Tate, “Repression of Human Rights to Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A

  6. Civil liability for ecologic damage and repairing

    OpenAIRE

    Basílio, Patrícia Droeber; Faculdades de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses how civil liability takes position regarding situations connected to damages caused to the environment, defined ways in our legislation reprimanding damages caused and existent ways of prevention and repairing. The text contemplates how law disciplines such issue, looking for efficient and effective solutions and also checking evolution and modification from law which are relevant to the environment, the environmental law, whereas we observe it is a serious issue that ha...

  7. Handbook for Military Justice and Civil Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    and normally require more time to develop; therefore, it may be more prudent to utilize black-and-white film . Polaroid prints offer instant review to...camera used (e.g., type, settings, film , lighting conditions, time of day, persons depicted, and name and address of photographer). In cases of...8217 and Sailors’ Relief Act of 1940, 50 U.S.C. App. 501-591 [hereinafter SSCRA] which is largely a reenactment of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil

  8. Legal Officer Civil Law Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    it may be more pr&udent to utilize black-and-white film . Pnlaroid prints offer instant review to ensure that the desired picture is obtain-ed, hut...dimensions. The investigative report should include the negatives plus complete tichnical rdetails relating to the camera tused (e.g., type, settings, film ...Act or the Act] which is- largely a reenactment of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act of -1918. Except for specific relief provisions deemed

  9. Judicial considerations with regard to civil liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelli, S D; Muñoz, D R

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the doctrinaire position of a judge in terms of the civil liability objective and subjective theories and the results of their decisions in terms of "acquittal/against judgments". A system of classification of matter of fact results is proposed and the influence on the result of the decision of each category is also tested. The material consists of 71 records of judicial procedures from São Paulo State Court of Justice.

  10. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  11. The Civil Side of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    operational environment; identify and mitigate underlying causes of instability within civil society ; or involve the application of functional...Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya, the Islamic Resistance Movement, seeks an Islamic state within Palestine . Unique to HAMAS as compared to Islamists...an embodiment of the Muslim Brotherhood’s missionary work in Palestine , established schools and social safety nets within Gaza. This social safety

  12. Understanding civil society before and after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Miszlivetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrapped in the ambiguities of the Realpolitik of the Yalta system, East and Central European societies had to proceed on a long path of learning in order to find the right modes of self-organization and articulation to defend their values and identities vis-à-vis dictatorship and authoritarian rule. These bitter lessons contributed to the emergence of a new «strategy», a new vision which materialized in the emerging political philosophy and the political and social practice of civil society. This development would not have been possible without a gradual and fundamental change in political thinking and goal-setting, expressed in the development of a new concept of civil society.Atrapados en las ambigüedades de la Realpolitik del sistema de Yalta, las sociedades del Centro y Este de Europea han tenido que proceder a un largo camino de aprendizaje a fin de encontrar formas correctas de autoorganización y la articulación de la defensa de sus valores e identidades vis-à- vis con una dictadura y una administración autoritaria. Estas amargas lecciones contribuyeron a la emergencia de una nueva «estrategia», una nueva visión materializada en la emergente filosofía política y la práctica social y política de la sociedad civil. Este desarrollo no hubiera sido posible sin el gradual y fundamental cambio en el pensamiento político y el establecimiento de metas, expresadas en el desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de sociedad civil

  13. Civil Society and Paths to Abolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour DRESCHER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Through a comparative analysis, this article aims to present an overview of British, French, Russian, American and Brazilian abolitionist action, between the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century. Indicating the struggles of pro-abolition civil associations, the paths taken in Britain, France, the US and Brazil are presented in parallel - either to emphasize approaches, either to highlight the undeniable peculiarities - revealing the marks of violence and negotiation present in the emancipation process.

  14. Observational signatures of self-destructive civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam; Forgan, Duncan; James, Jack O'malley

    2016-10-01

    We address the possibility that intelligent civilizations that destroy themselves could present signatures observable by humanity. Placing limits on the number of self-destroyed civilizations in the Milky Way has strong implications for the final three terms in Drake's Equation, and would allow us to identify which classes of solution to Fermi's Paradox fit with the evidence (or lack thereof). Using the Earth as an example, we consider a variety of scenarios in which humans could extinguish their own technological civilization. Each scenario presents some form of observable signature that could be probed by astronomical campaigns to detect and characterize extrasolar planetary systems. Some observables are unlikely to be detected at interstellar distances, but some scenarios are likely to produce significant changes in atmospheric composition that could be detected serendipitously with next-generation telescopes. In some cases, the timing of the observation would prove crucial to detection, as the decay of signatures is rapid compared with humanity's communication lifetime. In others, the signatures persist on far longer timescales.

  15. Lei natural e lei civil em Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo aborda a relação entre lei natural e lei civil na filosofia de John Locke. Embora leituras consagradas tenham afirmado que a relação entre ambas é dedutiva, este artigo tentará apresentar uma interpretação diferente, qual seja, a de que a relação entre lei civil e lei natural é de determinação. Longe de ser mera dedução de uma lei natural imutável, a lei civil possui papel determinante com relação à lei natural. Como mostraremos, esta interpretação realça algo que Locke tinha em alta estima: o caráter deliberativo da lei natural. A deliberação dos cidadãos na legislatura cria, em certa medida, a lei natural. Os cidadãos são livres para determinar a lei, e a participação em tal determinação é crucial para a manutenção de sua liberdade política. Nesse sentido, como veremos, a liberdade política lockiana é tributária do republicanismo.

  16. Self powered system for civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat A.

    2009-03-01

    Globally, civil infrastructures are deteriorating at an alarming rate caused by overuse, overloading, aging, damage or failure due to natural or man-made hazards. With such a vast network of deteriorating infrastructure, there is a growing interest in continuous monitoring technologies. In order to provide a true distributed sensor and control system for civil structures, we are developing a Structural Nervous System that mimics key attributes of a human nervous system. This nervous system is made up of building blocks that are designed based on mechanoreceptors as a fundamentally new approach for the development of a structural health monitoring and diagnostic system that utilizes the recently developed piezo-fibers capable of sensing and actuation. In particular, our research has been focused on producing a sensory nervous system for civil structures by using piezo-fibers as sensory receptors, nerve fibers, neuronal pools, and spinocervical tract to the nodal and central processing units. This paper presents up to date results of our research, including the design and analysis of the structural nervous system.

  17. Hacia un bosquejo de la sociedad civil global: Un referente para la sociedad civil en el mundo árabe

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Tarbush, José

    2012-01-01

    La emergencia de la sociedad civil transnacional o global fue precedida por el desarrollo de las sociedades civiles en sus respectivos ámbitos nacionales o estatales. A su vez, la creciente transnacionalización de las organizaciones de las sociedades civiles nacionales sentó las bases de la sociedad civil global. Por su parte, la emergencia del tejido asociativo de la sociedad civil en el mundo árabe ha transcurrido de manera paralela ―e incluso previamente― a la formación de su s...

  18. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defence pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A.J. Mur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant defence against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA or jasmonic acid (JA/ethylene (ET pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defence responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signalling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signalling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA—dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1 will promote the NPR1 oligomerisation within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S –nitrosylation and inhibition of s-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ethylene production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.

  19. Variation in plant defences among populations of a range-expanding plant: consequences for trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Taiadjana M; Eckert, Silvia; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Vet, Louise E M; Müller, Caroline; Gols, Rieta

    2014-12-01

    Although plant-herbivore-enemy interactions have been studied extensively in cross-continental plant invasions, little is known about intra-continental range expanders, despite their rapid spread globally. Using an ecological and metabolomics approach, we compared the insect performance of a generalist and specialist herbivore and a parasitoid, as well as plant defence traits, among native, exotic invasive and exotic non-invasive populations of the Turkish rocket, Bunias orientalis, a range-expanding species across parts of Eurasia. In the glasshouse, the generalist herbivore, Mamestra brassicae, and its parasitoid, Microplitis mediator, performed better on non-native than on native plant populations. Insect performance did not differ between the two non-native origins. By contrast, the specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae, developed poorly on all populations. Differences in trichome densities and in the metabolome, particularly in the family-specific secondary metabolites (i.e. glucosinolates), may explain population-related variation in the performance of the generalist herbivore and its parasitoid. Total glucosinolate concentrations were significantly induced by herbivory, particularly in native populations. Native populations of B. orientalis are generally better defended than non-native populations. The role of insect herbivores and dietary specialization as a selection force on defence traits in the range-expanding B. orientalis is discussed.

  20. Plant community diversity influences allocation to direct chemical defence in Plantago lanceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG, catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms.

  1. Polyphenol Stilbenes: Molecular Mechanisms of Defence against Oxidative Stress and Aging-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Reinisalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have highlighted the key roles of oxidative stress and inflammation in aging-related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In aging cells, the natural antioxidant capacity decreases and the overall efficiency of reparative systems against cell damage becomes impaired. There is convincing data that stilbene compounds, a diverse group of natural defence phenolics, abundant in grapes, berries, and conifer bark waste, may confer a protective effect against aging-related diseases. This review highlights recent data helping to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in the stilbene-mediated protection against oxidative stress. The impact of stilbenes on the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 mediated cellular defence against oxidative stress as well as the potential roles of SQSTM1/p62 protein in Nrf2/Keap1 signaling and autophagy will be summarized. The therapeutic potential of stilbene compounds against the most common aging-related diseases is discussed.

  2. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-06-17

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motives and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity.

  3. Allocation of nitrogen to chemical defence and plant functional traits is constrained by soil N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judy; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-09-01

    Plants have evolved a vast array of defence mechanisms to avoid or minimize damage caused by herbivores and pathogens. The costs and benefits of defences are thought to vary with the availability of resources, herbivore pressure and plant functional traits. We investigated the resource (nitrogen) and growth cost of deploying cyanogenic glycosides in seedlings of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae). To do this, we grew the plants under a range of soil N conditions, from levels that were limiting for growth to those that were saturating for growth, and we measured correlations between foliar chemical and performance attributes. Within each N treatment, we found evidence that, for every N invested in cyanogenic glycosides, additional N is added to the leaf. For the lowest N treatment, the additional N was less than one per cyanogenic glycoside, rising to some two Ns for the other treatments. The interaction between cyanogenic glycosides and both condensed tannins and total phenolic compounds was also examined, but we did not detect correlations between these compounds under constant leaf N concentrations. Finally, we did not detect a correlation between net assimilation rate, relative growth rate and cyanogenic glycoside concentrations under any soil N treatment. We conclude that the growth cost of cyanogenic glycosides was likely too low to detect and that it was offset to some degree by additional N that was allocated alongside the cyanogenic glycosides.

  4. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lujca; Boćkowski, Mike; Leszczyński, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaInN laser diodes is an emerging technology for defence and security applications such as underwater communications and sensing, atomic clocks and quantum information. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries. Ridge waveguide laser diodes are fabricated to achieve single mode operation with optical powers up to 100mW with the 400-440nm wavelength range with high reliability. Visible free-space and underwater communication at frequencies up to 2.5GHz is reported using a directly modulated 422nm GaN laser diode. Low defectivity and highly uniform GaN substrates allow arrays and bars to be fabricated. High power operation operation of AlGaInN laser bars with up to 20 emitters have been demonstrated at optical powers up to 4W in a CS package with common contact configuration. An alternative package configuration for AlGaInN laser arrays allows for each individual laser to be individually addressable allowing complex free-space or optical fibre system integration with a very small form-factor.

  5. Glial-cell-derived neuroregulators control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and gut defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiza, Sales; García-Cassani, Bethania; Ribeiro, Hélder; Carvalho, Tânia; Almeida, Luís; Marques, Rute; Misic, Ana M; Bartow-McKenney, Casey; Larson, Denise M; Pavan, William J; Eberl, Gérard; Grice, Elizabeth A; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2016-07-21

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are major regulators of inflammation and infection at mucosal barriers. ILC3 development is thought to be programmed, but how ILC3 perceive, integrate and respond to local environmental signals remains unclear. Here we show that ILC3 in mice sense their environment and control gut defence as part of a glial–ILC3–epithelial cell unit orchestrated by neurotrophic factors. We found that enteric ILC3 express the neuroregulatory receptor RET. ILC3-autonomous Ret ablation led to decreased innate interleukin-22 (IL-22), impaired epithelial reactivity, dysbiosis and increased susceptibility to bowel inflammation and infection. Neurotrophic factors directly controlled innate Il22 downstream of the p38 MAPK/ERK-AKT cascade and STAT3 activation. Notably, ILC3 were adjacent to neurotrophic-factor-expressing glial cells that exhibited stellate-shaped projections into ILC3 aggregates. Glial cells sensed microenvironmental cues in a MYD88-dependent manner to control neurotrophic factors and innate IL-22. Accordingly, glial-intrinsic Myd88 deletion led to impaired production of ILC3-derived IL-22 and a pronounced propensity towards gut inflammation and infection. Our work sheds light on a novel multi-tissue defence unit, revealing that glial cells are central hubs of neuron and innate immune regulation by neurotrophic factor signals.

  6. Unpacking insanity defence standards: An experimental study of rationality and control tests in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Helm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N = 477 read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination. The effects of these variables on the insanity determination were investigated. Jurors also completed questionnaires measuring individualism and hierarchy attitudes and perceptions of facts in the case. Results indicate that under current insanity standards jurors do not distinguish between defendants with rationality deficits and defendants with control deficits regardless of whether the legal standard requires them to do so. Even defendants who lacked control were found guilty at equal rates under a legal standard excusing rationality deficits only and a legal standard excluding control and rationality deficits. This was improved by adding a control test as a partial defence, to be determined after a rationality determination. Implications for the insanity defence in the Criminal Justice System are discussed.

  7. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motifs and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04805.001 PMID:26083713

  8. Defence transcriptome profiling of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith by mRNA differential display

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P G Kavitha; George Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Soft rot is a serious disease in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), imposing a considerable economic loss annually in all ginger-producing countries. In this study, mRNA differential display was employed to identify genes whose expression was altered in a soft rot-resistant accession of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, a wild relative of ginger, in response to Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., which is the principal causative agent of soft-rot disease in ginger. Analysis using 68 primer combinations identified 70 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), of which 34 TDFs were selected for further analysis following reverse northern screening. Cloning and sequence characterization of the 34 TDFs yielded a total of 54 distinct clones. Functional categorization of these clones revealed seven categories, of which the defence/stress/signalling group was the largest, with clones homologous to genes known to be actively involved in various pathogenesis-related functions in other plant species. The significance of these genes in relation to the resistance response in Z. zerumbet is discussed. This study has provided a pool of candidate genes for detailed molecular dissection of the defence mechanisms in Z. zerumbet and for accessing wild genetic resources for the transgenic improvement of ginger.

  9. Defence sugarcane glycoproteins disorganize microtubules and prevent nuclear polarization and germination of Sporisorium scitamineum teliospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Elordi, Elena; Baluška, František; Echevarría, Clara; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, M Estrella

    2016-08-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are involved in the germination of Sporisorium scitamineum teliospores. Resistant varieties of sugar cane plants produce defence glycoproteins that prevent the infection of the plants by the filamentous fungi Sporisorium scitamineum. Here, we show that a fraction of these glycoproteins prevents the correct arrangement of MTs and causes nuclear fragmentation defects. As a result, nuclei cannot correctly migrate through the growing hyphae, causing germinative failure. Arginase activity contained in defence glycoproteins is already described for preventing fungal germination. Now, its enzymatically active form is presented as a link between the defensive capacity of glycoproteins and the MT disorganization in fungal cells. Active arginase is produced in healthy and resistant plants; conversely, it is not detected in the juice from susceptible varieties, which explains why MT depolarization, nuclear disorganization as well as germination of teliospores are not significantly affected by glycoproteins from non-resistant plants. Our results also suggest that susceptible plants try to increase their levels of arginase after detecting the presence of the pathogen. However, this signal comes "too late" and such defensive mechanism fails.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides present in mammalian skin and gut are multifunctional defence molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Shooshtarizadeh, Peiman; Prevost, Gilles; Haikel, Youssef; Chich, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are major components of the innate immune defence. They are well conserved along evolution, non-toxic and they ensure potent defences against a large number of pathogens. They act by direct killing of microorganisms and they possess additional roles in the regulation of adaptive immune responses, by recruting or stimulating immune cells. Skin and gut are positioned at the interface of internal milieu and external environment. They represent a physical and chemical barrier against pathogens invasion and the antimicrobial peptides limit pathogen growth in normal conditions. During infection or injury, some of these peptides are overexpressed and disrupt microbial membranes and/or stimulate immune cell recruitment, allowing to return to homeostasis or to increase inflammation. Antimicrobial peptides expression is altered in several diseases: alpha-defensins deficiency is related with Crohn's disease and in skin, cathelicidin LL-37 and beta-defensin-2 are overexpressed in psoriasis, while in atopic dermatitis, their expression is decreased. The present review provides an up-to-date summary of the expression and the biological roles of the antimicrobial peptides found in the skin and gastrointestinal mucosa of the host, in normal and pathological conditions. The involvement of these natural antimicrobial peptides in inflammation, is also discussed.

  11. Uncovering ultrastructural defences in Daphnia magna--an interdisciplinary approach to assess the predator-induced fortification of the carapace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Rabus

    Full Text Available The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca. Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator's mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research.

  12. Uncovering Ultrastructural Defences in Daphnia magna – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Assess the Predator-Induced Fortification of the Carapace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphniamagna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triopscancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator’s mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research. PMID:23776711

  13. Uncovering ultrastructural defences in Daphnia magna--an interdisciplinary approach to assess the predator-induced fortification of the carapace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D. magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator's mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research.

  14. Variation in defence strategies in two species of the genus Beilschmiedia under differing soil nutrient and rainfall conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J; Miller, R E; Woodrow, I E

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between various leaf functional traits that are important in plant growth (e.g., specific leaf area) have been investigated in recent studies; however, research in this context on plants that are highly protected by chemical defences, particularly resource-demanding nitrogen-based defence, is lacking. We collected leaves from cyanogenic (N-defended) Beilschmiedia collina B. Hyland and acyanogenic (C-defended) Beilschmiedia tooram (F. M. Bailey) B. Hyland at high- and low-soil nutrient sites in two consecutive years that varied significantly in rainfall. We then measured the relationships between chemical defence and morphological and functional leaf traits under the different environmental conditions. We found that the two species differed significantly in their resource allocation to defence as well as leaf morphology and function. The N defended species had a higher leaf nitrogen concentration, whereas the C-defended species had higher amounts of C-based chemical defences (i.e., total phenolics and condensed tannins). The C-defended species also tended to have higher force to fracture and increased leaf toughness. In B. collina, cyanogenic glycoside concentration was higher with higher rainfall, but not with higher soil nutrients. Total phenolic concentration was higher at the high soil nutrient site in B. tooram, but lower in B. collina; however, with higher rainfall an increase was found in B. tooram, while phenolics decreased in B. collina. Condensed tannin concentration decreased in both species with rainfall and nutrient availability. We conclude that chemical defence is correlated with leaf functional traits and that variation in environmental resources affects this correlation.

  15. Interpreting the impact of flood forecasts by combining policy analysis studies and flood defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood forecasting is necessary to save lives and reduce damages. Reducing damages is important to save livelihoods and to reduce the recovery time. Flood alerts should contain expected time of the event, location and extent of the event. A flood alert is not only one message but part of a rehearsed flow of information using multiple canals. First people have to accept the fact that there might be a threat and what the threat is about. People need a reference to understand the situation and be aware of possible measures they can take to assure their own safety and reduce damages. Information to the general public has to be consistent with the information used by emergency services and has to be very clear about consequences and context of possible measures (as shelter in place or preventive evacuation. Emergency services should monitor how the public is responding to adapt their communication en operation during a crisis. Flood warnings and emergency services are often coordinated by different government organisations. This is an extra handicap for having consistent information out on time for people to use. In an information based society, where everyone has twitter, email and a camera, public organisations may have to trust the public more and send out the correct information as it comes in. In the Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat, the National Water Authority and the National Public Works Department, is responsible for or involved in forecasting in case of floods, policy studies on flood risk, policy studies on maintenance, assessment and design of flood defences, elaborating rules and regulations for flood defences, advice on crisis management to the national government and for maintaining the main infrastructure in the Netherlands (high ways and water ways. The Water Management Center in the Netherlands (WMCN has developed a number of models to provide flood forecasts. WMCN is run for and by all managers of flood defences and is hosted by

  16. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Analyst-Oriented Volume - Code of Best Practice for Soft Operational Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  17. Information systems for civil engineering; Sistemas de informacion para ingenieria civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buen R, Pablo R; Alvarado G, Alonso; Alaniz Q, Felipe de J; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since its beginnings, in the Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the interest has existed to take advantage of and to promote the advantages that the appropriate use of the computerizing systems in the different tasks of civil engineering in the power sector represent. Either as a part of its infrastructure or at the request of their clients, at the GIC have been developed calculation systems for the analysis and design of special structures such as turbo-generators foundations, poles for transmission and distribution and transmission towers, in addition the information systems for the consultation and the analysis of diverse information, such as the related to the Manuals of Civil Works of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) or the relative to the existing instruments in the large dams of our country. In this article are briefly described some of the computer systems developed by the GIC in recent years. [Spanish] Desde sus inicios, en la Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha existido el interes por aprovechar y promover las ventajas que representa el uso adecuado de los sistemas de computo en las diferentes tareas de ingenieria civil en el sector energetico. Ya sea como parte de su infraestructura o a solicitud de sus clientes, en la GIC se han desarrollado sistemas de calculo para el analisis y diseno de estructuras especiales como lo son las cimentaciones de turbogeneradores, los postes para transmision y distribucion y las torres de transmision, ademas de sistemas de informacion para la consulta y el analisis de informacion diversa, como es la relacionada con los manuales de obras civiles de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) o a la relativa a los instrumentos existentes en las grandes presas de nuestro pais. En este articulo se describen brevemente algunos de los sistemas de computo desarrollos por la GIC en anos recientes.

  18. The mirror has two faces: dissociative identity disorder and the defence of pathological criminal incapacity--a South African criminal law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Dissociative identity disorder poses numerous medico legal issues whenever the insanity defence emerges. Within the context of the South African criminal law, the impact of dissociative identity disorder on criminal responsibility has only been addressed very briefly in one decided case. Various questions arise as to the impact that the distinctive diagnostic features of dissociative identity disorder could possibly have on the defence of pathological criminal incapacity, or better known as the insanity defence, within the ambit of the South African criminal law. In this contribution the author reflects on the mental disorder known as dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder, against the backdrop of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. Reflections are also provided pertaining to the various medico legal issues at stake whenever this defence has to be adjudicated upon.

  19. De la responsabilidad civil de los maestros a la responsabilidad civil del titular del centro docente

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Esta obra analiza los cambios que se han producido en el ámbito de la responsabilidad extracontractual o aquiliana, a través de un caso bien concreto: la responsabilidad civil de los maestros o profesores por los actos de sus alumnos. Este supuesto, regulado originariamente en el párrafo sexto del art. 1903 del Código civil , fue modificado por medio de la Ley 1/1991 de 7 de enero, pasando a ocupar el actual párrafo quinto de ese mismo articulo. En esa modificación influyó la presencia en la ...

  20. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of the Simon's Town agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Potgieter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the maritime defence of South Africa was a colonial responsibility. First performed by the Dutch, the British took over the task after they wrestled the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch. The Cape was of supreme strategic value to Britain as the link with India and a great part of her empire. Therefore for more than a century and a half (from 1806 to the abrogation of the Simon's Town Agreement the Royal Navy had a constant presence in South African territorial waters. Furthermore when the first flickers of an indigenous maritime defence organisation appeared in South Africa it was British in character. The South African Division of the part-time Royal Naval Voluntary Reserve (RNVR came into being long before the country had a navy. The origin of the South African Navy dates back to 1922, when, the South African Naval Service was created with the arrival of three small ships from Britain. Unfortunately, the budget cuts during the Depression meant that these ships and their crews were paid off (in 1933-4 and only a skeleton staff remained. This was still the position at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6 September 1939, meant that the country's utterly neglected Navy had to suddenly prepare for war. Ships had to be found, and as purpose-build warships were out of the question, ships from the country's fishing fleet and trade had to suffice. A small ocean-going navy was created for the defence of the Union's ports and coastline. Following an urgent request from the British Admiralty in November 1940, South Africa sent four anti-submarine vessels to join the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean. As the war progressed, more ships of the South African Naval Forces arrived in the Mediterranean. They were used for a variety of tasks, ranging from minesweeping to salvage work. South African ships and crews earned themselves quite a reputation, participating in most

  1. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Мirko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation. Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as methodological paradigm, and the concept of cultural landscape as the essence of classical geography of culture and civilization. After this part are researched specific characteristics of certain academic schools and methodological perspectives in cultural geography. Postmodern paradigm and essence of "new" cultural geography are in the main focus. Postmodernism is changing the meaning of the basic concepts in cultural geography, which are analyzed in the introduction, such as space, culture, cultural region, cultural landscape and others. "New" cultural geography reassessed social and moral issues associated with the characteristics of the postmodern era. In this regard, methodological paradigm must be changed. This ascertainment is based on the interpretation of humanistic geography, where the emphasis is on the interpretation of cultural symbols, causal link and the "spirit of place" (Spiritus Loci. In accordance with modern conceptions of human in psychological notion, there are at least three theoretical directions, which find resonance in the appropriate cultural geography: behaviorism, psychoanalytic concept and cognitive concept - gestaltism and geography of perception. In conclusion is emphasized the need of finding a dialectical unity in "classical" and "new" cultural geography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  2. The Evolution and Challenges of the Danish Civil Service System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2013-01-01

    In this article a descriptive analysis of the evolution and current challenges of the Danish civil service system is given. The focus is on the state administration. Theories of path-dependency and the transnational diffusion of ideas inform the empirical analysis. The broad features of the long...... service is examined. The Danish civil service system has been characterized by long-term gradual evolution and adoption of many of the prevailing institutions in medieval and modern European state administration. This adaptation to prevailing trends has been predominantly characterized by integration......-term history of the Danish civil service system are analyzed. The basic characteristics of the current internal labor market of the civil service are analyzed as well as some recent changes in the system. Issues of politicization of the civil service are discussed and public opinion concerning the civil...

  3. CIVIL SOCIETY AS A RESOURSE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Makarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research on civil society in Russia conducted for the Committee of Civil Initiatives by the Centre of Political Technologies in June-July 2013. It compares the Western model of civil society with its understanding in non-Western nations. The author analyses historical evolution of the Russian society and provides assessment of its current standing. He concludes that non-governmental organisations and civil activities in Russia develop under conditions of low mutual trust among the population and between society and state. The lack of trust of governmental bodies to civil initiatives is clearly reflected in the latest legislation on “foreign agents”. The remaining unfavourable conditions are likely to continue to hinder progress of Russian civil society for the years to come. The foundation for the research created the data from surveys, in-depth interviews and group discussions.

  4. Influence of load interdependencies of flood defences on probabilities and risks at the Bovenrijn/IJssel area, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.J.; Kok, M.; de Bruijn, K.M.; Jonkman, S.N.; van Overloop, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, flood risk analysis is usually carried out for a location, without considering potential flood defence failures in upstream areas. This may result in significant over- or underestimation of flood risks. The effect of upstream failures on failure probabilities and flood risks in o

  5. Molecular basis of Colorado potato beetle adaptation to potato plant defence at the level of digestive cysteine proteinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruden, K.; Kuipers, A.G.J.; Guncar, G.; Slapar, N.; Strukelj, B.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Potato synthesises high levels of proteinase inhibitors in response to insect attack. This can adversely affect protein digestion in the insects, leading to reduced growth, delayed development and lowered fecundity. Colorado potato beetle overcomes this defence mechanism by changing the composition

  6. Reciprocal crosstalk between jasmonate and salicylate defence-signalling pathways modulates plant volatile emission and herbivore host-selection behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Gols, R.; Menzel, T.R.; Li, N.; Kang, L.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathways, which mediate induced plant defence responses, can express negative crosstalk. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of this crosstalk on host-plant selection behaviour of herbivores. We report on temporal and dosage effects

  7. Dutch police officers' preparation and performance of their arrest and self-defence skills: A questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how Dutch police officers perceive their preparation for arrest and self-defence skills (ASDS) and their ability to manage violence on duty. Furthermore, we assessed whether additional experience (i.e., by having encountered violence on duty or by practicing martial arts) and self-pe

  8. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  9. Arquitectura civil segoviana en el Plateresco

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Antonio, Francisco de Paula

    2015-01-01

    El tema de tesis es la arquitectura civil segoviana en el Plateresco. El trabajo se estructura en tres partes: una primera, el marco teórico, que, a su vez, se divide en tres capítulos, que se ocupan de aspectos urbanos, formales, tipológicos y constructivos. La segunda, que analiza y caracteriza los edificios platerescos, donde se estudian las viviendas individualmente y, una tercera, dedicada a la conservación patrimonial de los edificios. Como principal conclusión del trabajo, se constata ...

  10. Ley de paternidad responsable y Registro Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montarano Lacayo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Con la promulgación de la Ley de Paternidad Responsable en abril del 2001, los derechos de las madres de hijos extramatrimoniales y de los propios menores han cambiado en lo que a filiación se refiere. El artículo explica ampliamente el procedimiento administrativo que lleva el Registro Civil para la inscripción de nacimientos extramatrimoniales, desde la declaración de paternidad, citatorio, prueba de marcadores genéticos, hasta concluir con la declaración de la paternidad vía administrativa.

  11. Italia civile:Associazionismo, partecipazione e politica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Una profonda trasformazione politica e sociale ha investito il nostro paese negli ultimi vent’anni. Un cambiamento che non poteva non coinvolgere il mondo dell’associazionismo, la parte più attiva e sensibile della società civile. Impegnate in molteplici attività, le reti associative favoriscono la diffusione della cultura democratica e della solidarietà sociale, rafforzando i legami fra le persone e l’efficacia delle politiche pubbliche. Fino agli anni novanta, la loro azione era strettament...

  12. Tocqueville: la sociedad civil y la democracia

    OpenAIRE

    Saínz Vidal, Lambra

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo de las últimas décadas, hemos asistido a un renovado interés por la participación asociativa. Son muchos los teóricos, en filosofía política y en ciencias sociales, que han afirmado que la viabilidad y la salud de nuestras democracias dependen de una sociedad civil fuerte y vibrante. En la tesis analizamos las interpretaciones liberales, comunitaristas, republicanas y deliberativas de los cuerpos intermedios en la obra de Alexis de Tocqueville, De la démocratie en Amérique. Estudia...

  13. The Novation - Means of Transformation Civil Obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica VĂLEANU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at the application, in concreto, of the new provisions on novation, providing a useful working tool for private legal practitioners. It is the result of practical experience and the interpretation approach dedicated to new provisions in the field of civil liabilities. Through the analysis of the multitude of works in this field I have highlighted the legislative evolution as well as the new orientations in the doctrine and jurisprudence concerning the processing of obligations. Far from being exhaustive, the comment wants to offer solutions to the challenges posed by the complexity and the continuous need to adapt to the

  14. Ley de paternidad responsable y Registro Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Montarano Lacayo; Luis Antonio Bolaños Bolaños

    2007-01-01

    Con la promulgación de la Ley de Paternidad Responsable en abril del 2001, los derechos de las madres de hijos extramatrimoniales y de los propios menores han cambiado en lo que a filiación se refiere. El artículo explica ampliamente el procedimiento administrativo que lleva el Registro Civil para la inscripción de nacimientos extramatrimoniales, desde la declaración de paternidad, citatorio, prueba de marcadores genéticos, hasta concluir con la declaración de la paternidad vía administrativa...

  15. "Doing Business" come scopo della giustizia civile

    OpenAIRE

    Caponi

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the paper is to shed light on some problems arising from the use of indicators for evaluating and comparing the performance of national judicial systems in a cross-country perspective, taking cue from assessing the impact of indicators on the reforms of the Italian civil justice system in the last ten years. I have written this paper as a sort of by-product in the framework of a wider research project I am carrying out as a Senior Global Research Fellow at NYU School of Law in the acad...

  16. Probability, statistics, and decision for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Jack R

    2014-01-01

    Designed as a primary text for civil engineering courses, as a supplementary text for courses in other areas, or for self-study by practicing engineers, this text covers the development of decision theory and the applications of probability within the field. Extensive use of examples and illustrations helps readers develop an in-depth appreciation for the theory's applications, which include strength of materials, soil mechanics, construction planning, and water-resource design. A focus on fundamentals includes such subjects as Bayesian statistical decision theory, subjective probability, and

  17. Sociedad Civil y combate a la pobreza

    OpenAIRE

    López Salazar, Ricardo; Ortega, Isabel; Sandoval, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Una de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil que ha adquirido gran relevancia en el combate a la pobreza alimentaria en el estado de Sonora es el Banco de Alimentos de Hermosillo (BAH). Su objetivo es combatir el hambre y la desnutrición mediante la distribución de alimentos a zonas marginadas. Pesqueira,  es una de las localidades en situación crítica de pobreza alimentaria y que ha sido beneficiada por los apoyos que otorga el BAH. Sin embargo, a pesar de que esos apoyos son reconocidos c...

  18. A responsabilidade civil no direito ambiental brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Henkes,Silviana L.

    2009-01-01

    O Direito assumiu papel preponderante na gestão dos riscos na sociedade contemporânea definida, por muitos autores, como de Risco; com isso, novos direitos foram instituídos e novos instrumentos e meios de tutela foram criados. A responsabilidade civil ambiental tornou-se um dos principais instrumentos criado para a gestão do risco ambiental e tem-se harmonizado com a nova realidade marcada por incertezas científicas, riscos e danos globais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a responsabi...

  19. Civil Service Reforms in Thailand: Political Control and Corruption.

    OpenAIRE

    Prijono Tjiptoherijanto

    2012-01-01

    After the 1973 student demonstration marked a changing in Thai political history. The principle of Weberian bureaucracy such as political neutrality becomes the legal framework of the Civil Service under democratic environment. However, given the cultural values and their impact on the bureaucracy, any serious change must came from the top leadership.Another characteristic of the Thai's civil service is corruption practices. The close personal connections between politician, civil service, an...

  20. Charting the Course for Civil Affairs in the New Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    focus on the Navy and Marine Corps in this paper, the U.S. Army maintains the largest cadre of military CA personnel. Its CA reservists are organized...Civil affairs (CA) and civil- military operations (CMO) have been an important area of United States military operations for much of the nation’s history...coordinating integration between military and non- military instruments of power.1 Such activities range from humanitarian assistance operations, to civil