The technical requirements for the radiation meters used in civil defence are specified in the guide. The aim of the requirements is to quarantee sufficient measurement accuracy and reliable operation even in extreme environmental conditions. The guide is based on the following standards: (1) IEC 846 'Beta, X and gamma radiation dose equivalent and dose equivalent rate meters for use in radiation protection', (2) IEC 1017-1 'Portable, transportable of installed X or gamma radiation ratemeters for environmental monitoring, part 1: Ratemeters', and (3) IEC 45 B (Secretariat) 104 'Direct reading, personnel dose equivalent and/or dose equivalent rate monitors for X, gamma and high energy beta radiation'. (12 refs., 5 tabs.)
This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables
In Finland, the local authorities and the central government are responsible for the general planning of civil defence and for joint protection measures, while individual citizens and corporations are responsible for individual protection measures. In practice, housing companies and employers are required to carry out the statutory preparations needed for civil defence. Preparation for accidents can be improved, for instance, by awareness of correct actions in each situation. The most important individual protection measures are first aid, basic fire extinguishing skills, provision of shelter, and acquisition of a reserve stock of provisions at home. A reserve stock means that there is a sufficient supply of non-perishable foodstuffs, medication and water vessels for a couple of days' needs at home. A warning of imminent danger is usually given by sounding a general alarm signal. Even slight changes in radiation are reported immediately. Shelter should primarily be sought indoors. Instructions may be given on the radio, on TV and by means of loudspeakers. If there is a radiation risk, the thyroid may be protected against radioactive iodine by taking iodine tablets, but they should not be taken until so instructed by the authorities. (2 figs.)
The 80th anniversary of civil defence in Russia was marked by the All-Russian civil defence exercise attended by representatives of federal executive authorities, regional and local executive authorities. During the exercise performance of the following activities was verified: introduction of increased preparedness mode for local air-defence emergency-response forces, activities of emergency-response and fire safety commissions, information collection and exchange during implementation of top-priority civil defence measures, etc. The paper describes the activities carried out during the exercise
The work of the Civil Defence Commission comprises also interdisciplinary questions of civil defence and disaster relief. The lectures are concerned with the causes and effects of radioactivity, medical practice in the event of disaster, toxicology and pathology, including even psychology in disaster as well as risk management and dosimetry. The subjects chemical accidents and disaster relief are marginally dealt with. (DG)
The aim of the present study is to review current and future scientific trends in radiation protection and civil defence of the nuclear research center of the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt. The main areas of interest are summarized as follows: 1. Organization and training: Up dating radiation protection legislation. Information transfer via translation to Arabic of latest IAEA and ICRP publications. Establishing data base for rad port services in egypt. Updating radiation protection training programmes, and application of decision-aiding techniques in radiation protection (justification and optimization). 2. Occupational radiation control: Mixed field external personnel dosimetry/detection. internal dosimetry/biophysics/W B counter / Bioassay. Area monitoring and surface, and updating radiation format. 3. Public radiation control: Environmental programme around inshass reactor. Transport of radioactive material. Transfer of radioactivity in aquatic environments. storage of radioactive waste, and annual exposure to members of the public-natural radiation, medical others. 4. Emergency: First aids decontamination, decontamination of personnel and equipment, dose calculation after accidents, and Handling radiation accidents/emergency planning. 5. Quality assurance: Calibration of radiation sources and measuring devices, and intercomparison personnel dosimetry programme. The proposed plan can be completed within 1992-1997 national plan with the support of IAEA technical assistance, research contract and proper funding from the atomic energy authority of egypt
"Disaster education" is a fledgling area of study in lifelong education. Many countries educate their populations for disasters, to mitigate potential damage and loss of life, as well as contribute to national security. In this paper, which draws on interview data from the German Federal Office for Civil Defence and Disaster Assistance…
Changes in the conditions governing international safety call for a re-orientation in civil defence policy. The 23 papers presented to the meetings address aspects such as external hazards, including illicit trafficking with nuclear materials, novel risks emanating from the population growth rates, the international refugee problem, environmental issues, and new approaches in civil defence policy also encompassing emergency preparedness under the responsibility of the Laender. Futher topics discussed are proposals for improvement of first-aid medical care, or new approaches in concepts for risk identification and management as well as preventive action. (DG)
A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…
Full Text Available Civil-military relations theory suggests that a functional and effective military requires a unique culture, separate from its parent society. This is based on the assumption that a “gap” between the military and society is inevitable as the military’s function, the lawful application of military force in accordance with government direction, is fundamentally different from civilian business. Those interested in civil-military relations are essentially concerned with determining when the “gap” between the military and parent society becomes dysfunctional in terms of civil-control over the military and/or the military’s ability to execute its mandate. The correct balance needs to be obtained to ensure that the military remains strong enough to defend the state (protected by the military and subservient enough not to threaten the state (protected from the military.
Monitoring of radioactivity in the environment 2008-2009. Results of NRPA Radnett and air filter stations and from Civil Defence radiac measure service; Overvaaking av radioaktivitet i omgivelsene 2008-2009. Resultater fra Straalevernets Radnett- og luftfilterstasjoner og fra Sivilforsvarets radiac maaletjeneste
Moeller, Bredo; Dyve, Jan Erik
The Report summarizes the data from Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and The Norwegian Civil Defence monitoring programs for radioactivity in the environment in 2008 and 2009. A short description of the systems is also presented. (Author)
Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces on the bill proposition adopted by the National Assembly, related on the strengthening of the protection of civil installations containing nuclear materials. Nr 446
In its first part, this report presents the nuclear sector as a sensitive sector under strict surveillance: a sector of critical importance (safety policy with its actors and its multi-level planning, a safety arrangement for the nuclear energy sector), a regulation specific to the nuclear sector, and specialised protection forces. It also addresses the issues of intrusions and over-flights (overview of intrusions, unsuitable penal repression, and new dimension of air safety due to the development of civil uses of drones). The next part comments the content of the bill proposition, and addresses the lack of a suitable penal regime for the protection of nuclear materials and of areas regarding defence. The scope of application of the bill proposition is discussed, as well as the applicable and additional penalties. A list of hearings is provided as well as non adopted amendments and a table proposing a comparison between different versions of the text
Research for civil defence and disaster control 1975-1985. Festschrift on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of Paul Wilhelm Kolb on August 16, 1985. Forschungen fuer den Zivil- und Katastrophenschutz 1975-1985. Festschrift fuer Paul Wilhelm Kolb zum 65. Geburtstag am 16. August 1985
The Civil Defence Commission belongs to the Ministry of the Interior, its expert members advising the Ministry 'on all matters concerning the protection of the civilian population in the case of disaster or defence'. Apart from collecting and evaluating relevant information, the Commission carries out experimental and theoretical research on special topics. The Commission consists of eight sub-divisions and presently counts about 150 members. The publication in hand reports on the achievements and activities of the Commission over the last decade. The technical contributions are concerned with: Protection by shelters and other buildings; radioactive fallout; radiation doses and effects; radiation damage and disease; medical service in the case of disaster; pharmacology, toxicology and body protection; epidemiology; psychobiology and behaviour under stress. (orig./HSCH).
DESIDOC functions as a central agency of Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) for collecting, processing and disseminating scientific and technical information for the scientists and Technologists of the Organization in particular and the Ministry of Defence in general. The Centre aims to meet the current and futuristic information requirements of these personnel. The task of gathering information for high-tech Defence projects requires trained information scientists having ...
DESIDOC functions as a central agency of Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) for collecting, processing and disseminating scientific and technical information for the scientists and Technologists of the Organization in particular and the Ministry of Defence in general. The Centre aims to meet the current and futuristic information requirements of these personnel. The task of gathering information for high-tech Defence projects requires trained information scientists having suff...
Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar;
This chapter focuses on the recent and emerging research involving chemical defences against herbivory in aquatic primary producers. It provides an overview of plant chemical defence theories and highlights recent research on aquatic primary producers addressing a number of aspects of these...
National defence is very important and always needs new such materials which have technological and socio-economic development of human society. The types of materials used by a society reflect its level of sophistication. These modern materials are basically the same conventional materials but with a greater knowledge content which include superalloys, modern polymers, engineering ceramics and the advanced composite. The production and use of new materials is playing and important role in the recent development in the defence industry. (A.B.)
'Trojan horses', 'logic bombs', 'armoured viruses' and 'cryptovirology' are terms recalling war gears. In fact, concepts of attack and defence drive the world of computer virology, which looks like a war universe in an information society. This war has several shapes, from invasions of a network by worms, to military and industrial espionage ...
Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.
Within the Defence, Safety & Security branch of TNO a dedicated department focuses on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Protection. This is a world class research department consisting of about 50 people and a High Tox laboratory that is the only facility in The Netherlands that is allowed by the Chemical Weapons Treaty to produce and handle Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA’s). The CBRN department has a laboratory facility for synthesis of and working with live CWA’s or Toxic ...
P. V.S. Rao
Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.
In an economic sense defence expenditure is normally exogenously determined, that is economic forces do not play the leading role in determining the level of defense expenditure. Adam Smith, in his writing An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations states that "It is only by means of a standing army therefore that the civilization of any country can be perpetuated or even preserved for any considerable time" (Canon, E., ed, 1976). A country can thus not supply defence, i.e...
P. K. Bhatnagar
Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.
Claudia ANDRITOI; Florentina LUPSA
Between the right to defence and assistance and the civil rights a close connection has been identified. Sometimes the realisation and protection of these rights, such as the right to life, to personal dignity, to private life etc., in general are impossible without the right to defence and legal assistance. First, the right to legal assistance allows the individual to comprehend the powers conferred to him by this right. Second, the right to legal assistance allows the protection and enforce...
Heyttyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán; Buskirk, Josh
Phenotypic plasticity is extremely widespread in the behaviour, morphology and life-history of animals. However, inducible changes in the production of defensive chemicals are described mostly in plants and surprisingly little is known about similar plasticity in chemical defences of animals. Inducible chemical defences may be common in animals because many are known to produce toxins, the synthesis of toxins is likely to be costly, and there are a few known cases of animals adjusting their t...
Sharma, T. R.
"The Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, is a major centre of research in India, particularly in defence feeding. It is multi-disciplinary laboratory, well equipped to do research work in food technology, food preservation, packaging, nutrition and biochemistry and food microbiology. Special emphasis is laid on development of light weight processed food suiting Indian palate. This paper gives a bird's eye view of the activities and achievements of the laboratory and indicates the...
@@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.
Full Text Available This essay presents an extended defence of the general theory of law formulated by the Bolshevik jurist, Evgeny Pashukanis, and published in his Law and Marxism: A General Theory in 1924. The general theory is a theory of the legal form. Although Pashukanis did not name his theory, it has become known as the commodity form theory of law because of its theorising the legal form as a homologue of the commodity form. However, despite having weighty Marxist and revolutionary Bolshevik credentials, the general theory has been subjected to sustained attack, especially from new left and neo-Marxist circles. This essay identifies and explicates six major objections to Pashukanism from its left critics. These are that the general theory is too abstract to comprehend the reality of legal relations; that it is infused with economic reductionism; that it derives the legal form wrongly from commodity exchange; that it classifies the legal form incorrectly as an attribute of capitalism only; that it lacks the generality required of a general theory of law; and that it is imbricated in the growth of anarchism and Stalinism. Following a brief exegetical exercise, the bulk of the essay is devoted to demonstrating in detail that each of the six objections to the general theory is without merit, and that none makes any serious incursion into its integrity as a theory of the legal form. The central submission of the essay is that the Pashukanist general theory of law is rooted in the first principles of classical Marxism and hence may lay claim legitimately to being the Marxist theory of law.
D. S. Kothari
Full Text Available Science is a comparatively recent thing in man's history, and newer still is its cultivation on an organized scale and its large scale application in peace and war. As everyone now knows, science is an immensely powerful thing. It has profoundly altered man's material environment and it has even altered his pattern of thinking and his sense of values. It has deeply affected the way we look at the world and its problems. It has given new meaning to old problems-including the problem of living and life itself-and it has raised a host of new ones. In all civilized countries, science (-but not always, and not necessarily, scientists- enjoys tremendous prestige, and people have great hope and faith in its power of doing good, and there is also the fear that this power may not wisely used. And, all this has taken place in the amazingly short period of about three centuries.
Webster, R. Scott
In response to the lecture format coming under "attack" and being replaced by online materials and smaller tutorials, this paper attempts to offer not only a defence but also to assert that the potential value of the lecture is difficult to replicate through other learning formats. Some of the criticisms against lectures will be…
Petersen, Lars Axel
In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the...
The theory of “civilizing processes” was developed by Norbert Elias in the 1930s to describe and explain the generation of higher standards of various forms of conduct in the context of unplanned but structured changes in state formation and lengthening chains of social interdependencies (Elias 2000). The idea of civilized conduct may seem a strange companion to popular understandings of consumer culture, when the latter phrase is often associated with hedonism, individualism and excess. But ...
Full Text Available In the reality of practical cases and in certain special situations, self-defence may present some complex forms consisting either in accidental amplification of the issue in fact when self-defence is claimed, or in the correlation in fact of self-defence to other cases which remove the criminal nature of act1. For these reasons, we decided to analyse few of such special situations.
Wilt, de, HGJ; Sluiter, G.K.; Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.
The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc Tribunals) were set up in the mid-nineties to prosecute those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law, not much thought had been given to the organisation of the defence. The...
Full Text Available One of the handiest small craft to emerge from the Second World War was the 72 fet Harbour Defence Motor Launch. It's purpose was to patrol harbours and their approaches and to guard against attack by swimmers or underwater vehicles such as 'chariots' or even submarines. For this task the craft was fitted with a small ASDIC outfit and carried eight depth charges. Surface armament comprised a three-pounder gun on the foredeck, twin Lewis guns on the bridge and a 20 mm Oerlikon aft.
Schaub Jr, Gary John
, Sweden, and Finland—have conducted joint training courses for decades and are considering ways to facilitate cooperation in the education of the field-grade officers that would populate the staff of any future NATO-led expeditionary operation. We suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation...... in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. We conclude with a discussion of how the Alliance can facilitate clusters of cooperation between...
In 2009 the United States invested in defence R&T 3,6 times and in defence research and development 6,8 times as much as all member states of the European Defence Agency (EDA) combined while the ratio in the total defence expenditure was 2,6 in the US' favour. The European lack of investments in defence research and development has a negative impact on the competitiveness of European defence industry and on the European non-dependence. In addition, the efficiency of investment is reduced due to duplication of work in different member states. The Lisbon Treaty tasks EDA to support defence technology research, and coordinate and plan joint research activities and the study of technical solutions meeting future operational needs. This paper gives an overview how EDA meets the challenge of improving the efficiency of European defence R&T investment with an emphasis on electro-optics and describes shortly the ways that governmental and industrial partners can participate in the EDA cooperation. Examples of joint R&T projects addressing electro-optics are presented.
J.P.W. Temminck Tuinstra
The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc Tribun
Full Text Available Civil-military relations in Lithuania have serious deficiencies, which have appeared because of the emulation of a recommended Western model of civilian control. After regaining Independence, Lithuania had the difficult task of creating its armed forces and system of national defence following the Western model. At the same time we had to implement two political programs: to create functioning armed forces and a institutional-legal system of democratic civil-military control. However, this control is not only proper laws and functioning institutions. Equally, an important role must be given to intellectual reflection, which enables the posing of questions such as: what is war; how is the character of war changing; how does this affect Lithuanian defence policies and the perception of threats? Raising such questions inside the armed forces and in wider political and civil society is an essential condition for having effective and flexible civilian control over the military.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion
This article is about the network security defence method and technique at IHEP. Including: the experience, research result and application in network outlet security, server security, local network security, network security monitoring and collecting evidence, anti-virus etc
T. Lazar Mathew
Full Text Available Biotechnology, in its present perspective, encompasses activities, such as recombination of genes; cloning, or making genetically identical copies of a living thing; and splicing of genes from DNA of one organism into the genome of unrelated species, to create new, self-reproducing forms of life. The vast potential of biotechnology is being increasingly realised, and efforts are in progress to harness it for improving quality and quantity of bio-weapons, The bio-weapons, as such, are highly attractive because of their non-detection by routine security systems, ease of access, low production cost and easy transportation, A wide range of genetically manipulated organisms and their by-products are considered to have an added advantage, because these genetically manipulated biologics not only accentuate the existing properties of bio-weapons, but also could be made target-specific. Biotechnology, if used prudently, can play a significant role to counter such threats of biologics, viz., by producing (i bio-armoury comprising powerful antibiotics, antisera toxoids and vaccines to neutralise and eliminate a wide range of diseases, and (ii bio-sensors for rapid detection, identification and neutralisation of biological warfare agents. This article elucidates some facets of biological warfare, legal protective strategies emphasised through international consultation, cooperation and adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and discusses how biotechnology could be effectively used to strengthen countries' defence and combat the threat of biological warfare.
Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C
Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. PMID:26072999
Indian defence aeronautical industry, while becoming a global business, demands a largeeffort to monitor quality management system (QMS) and to ensure quality of aeronauticalproducts. An effort is being made to look for an effective QMS for aeronautical industry in India,which will also meet the requirements of the regulatory authority.The essential features of an effective QMS are described and compared with the presentlyavailable QMS standards for defence aeronautical industry such as QCSR:...
A survey is presented of the current organisation and status of civil defence in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Two lectures deal with social and psychological aspects. The activities and measures undertaken within the framework of civil defence have to take into account the physical effects of various nuclear weapons, and appropriate radiation protection, and protection from biological effects of neutron weapons. Limiting values for all nuclides have to be defined in order to be able to assess the hazards of contaminated food or drinking water after a nuclear disaster. For five of the lectures separate subject analyses have been prepared for the database. (DG)
Full text: Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation, while others may be designated as radiation protection officers in remote units with few duties to perform in this role. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A training course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasise: basic radiation theory and protection; operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO; an understanding of the Safety Manual; day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments; and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved sufficiently successful, both for the students and the ADO generally, to seek national accreditation through the Australian National Training Authority and, as a first step, competency standards have been identified
Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation. However, most are designated as radiation protection officers as a secondary duty. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A Training Course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasize, basic radiation theory and protection, operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO, an understanding of the Ionising Radiation Safety Manual, day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments, and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved successful, both for the students and the ADO generally. To seek national accreditation of the course through the Australian National Training Authority, as a first step, competency standards have been proposed. (authors)
Full Text Available In his book 'The Normative Web' Terence Cuneo provides a core argument for a paradigmatic instance of moral realism. At the heart of this instance lies the ontological thesis that there are irreducible moral facts. The parity premise is the first and main premise of Cuneo's core argument. It claims that 'if moral facts do not exist, then epistemic facts do not exist'. In this paper I first introduce and explain Cuneo's core argument. Subsequently I present and interpret his defence of the parity premise. It will be shown that Cuneo's defence, although intriguing, is not adequate and should therefore be refuted.
This essay examines the political aspects of the Japanese Constitution, especially following Carl Schmitt's critique of liberalism and the logic of the civil constitutional state to reconsider issues with the Self-Defence Forces, the Emperor system and national emergency rights that were made apparent by the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. The Constitution of Japan written in 1946 is a framework which was embodied in the agreement of the 1951 Peace Treaty with Japan. Although th...
Full Text Available Indian defence aeronautical industry, while becoming a global business, demands a largeeffort to monitor quality management system (QMS and to ensure quality of aeronauticalproducts. An effort is being made to look for an effective QMS for aeronautical industry in India,which will also meet the requirements of the regulatory authority.The essential features of an effective QMS are described and compared with the presentlyavailable QMS standards for defence aeronautical industry such as QCSR: 2002 (DGAQA, India,Def Stan (MOD, UK, ISO, AQAPs (NATO and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE aerospacestandards (AS. Evolution, relevance and review of the existing standards, to meet the requirementsof the industry as well as regulatory authority, have been made to bring out the special featuresand differences. The study leads to the most acceptable standard of SAE-AS-9100 (Rev B.With suitable modifications to include regulatory requirement of assistance for governmentquality assurance in the standard, when complied with, it will fully meet the QMS requirementsof the Indian defence aeronautical supply organisations as well as the requirements of theregulatory authority. Minor reorientation of the regulatory functions and inclusion of the QMSin the defence aeronautical supply orders are also suggested.
Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van
Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independen
The man-in-the-middle defence is all about rehabilitating Charlie. For 20 years we’ve worried about this guy in the middle, Charlie, who’s forever intercalating himself into the communications between Alice and Bob, and people have been very judgemental about poor Charlie, saying that Charlie is a wicked person. Well, we’re not entirely convinced.
Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…
Since the ending of the Cold War, the defence sector, particularly the areas of military logistics and defence acquisition, has been undergoing a comprehensive transformation. There are several factors that explain this transformation: changes in defence and security policies for nations and organisations; reductions in defence expenditure; participation in Peace Support Operations; Lessons Learned from these operations, especially in the area of logistics; revolutionary development in the ar...
Robinson, Jacobus Abraham; Weideman, Jeanette
This article examines how courts in the UK, the USA and South Africa apply and interpret article 13(b) of the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Courts in the UK have always adopted a very narrow interpretation and application of this defence. Even domestic violence victims who flee with their children to escape domestic violence have had difficulty invoking this defence successfully. This very narrow interpretation is due to the fact that English courts a...
-making capacities and capabilities. For many years, a genuine European defence policy remained a distant dream for an exclusive group of political leaders from federally oriented states such as Belgium and Luxembourg. Yet since 1999, the EU has carried out 23 military missions in the Balkans, Africa and Asia. The...... Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons to...
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease, typically with a chronic relapsing course and a defective skin barrier function. Recently, mutations of the skin barrier gene encoding filaggrin have been reported in a portion of the patients. In this thesis some aspects of defence defects in AD were studied. In paper I, the risk of developing any cancer was increased by 13%. Excess risks were observed for cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, brain, and lung and for...
Sumati Sharma; Anil Kumar Singh; Vijay Lakshmi Kakkar
Basic elements of collection development process are presented in this paper. Collection development of Defence Science Library is discussed in detail. Data presented in the paper reflects that there is a steep fall in the number of titles subscribed during last six years. On the other hand reference collection of library has become richer during past few years. Resource sharing is discussed as a solution to overcome the problem of increased cost of publications and present financial crunch.h...
Sumati Sharma; Anil Kumar Singh; Vijay Lakshmi Kakkar
Basic elements of collection development process are presented in this paper. Collection development of Defence Science Library is discussed in detail. Data presented in the paper reflects that there is a steep fall in the number of titles subscribed during last six years. On the other hand reference collection of library has become richer during past few years. Resource sharing is discussed as a solution to overcome the problem of increased cost of publications and present financial crunch.
Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Lemaitre, Bruno; Boccard, Frédéric
Recent genetic and molecular analyses have revealed how several strategies enable bacteria to persist and overcome insect immune defences. Genetic and genomic tools that can be used with Drosophila melanogaster have enabled the characterization of the pathways that are used by insects to detect bacterial invaders and combat infection. Conservation of bacterial virulence factors and insect immune repertoires indicates that there are common strategies of host invasion and pathogen eradication. ...
Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike
Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.
Sharma, O. P.; Sharma, K. D.
A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents foot...
Update on Law-Related Education, 1997
Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)
Henriksen, Lars Skov
Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement.......Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement....
Pollier, J.; Moses, T.; González-Guzmán, M.; Geyter, N. De; Lippens, S; Bossche, R.V.; Marhavý, P.; Kremer, A; Morreel, K.; Guérin, C J; Tava, A.; Oleszek, W; J. M. Thevelein; Campos Martínez, Narciso; Goormachtig, S.
Jasmonates are ubiquitous oxylipin-derived phytohormones that are essential in the regulation of many development, growth and defence processes. Across the plant kingdom, jasmonates act as elicitors of the production of bioactive secondarymetabolites that serve in defence against attackers. Knowledge of the conserved jasmonate perception and early signalling machineries is increasing, but the downstream mechanisms that regulate defence metabolism remain largely unknown. Herewe showthat, in th...
Kolar, Satya S.; McDermott, Alison M.
The eye and its associated tissues including the lacrimal system and lids have evolved several defence mechanisms to prevent microbial invasion. Included among this armory are several host-defence peptides. These multifunctional molecules are being studied not only for their endogenous antimicrobial properties but also for their potential therapeutic effects. Here the current knowledge of host-defence peptide expression in the eye will be summarized. The role of these peptides in eye disease ...
Masys, Anthony J
Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic
Smith, Karen E.
Alongside France, the UK is generally viewed as one of the most important actors in EU defence policy. Karen E. Smith assesses what impact the UK leaving the EU might have in the area of defence. She writes that a Brexit would not spell the end for common European defence as a whole, particularly given the UK’s gradual withdrawal from its leadership role on foreign security and defence matters. However she argues that it would nevertheless deprive the EU of a potential key player, while also ...
1.Research Production Association 'LUCH' (RPA 'LUCH') have worked at atomic industry for 51 years. Now it is one of the leading scientific production centers of Russia Ministry of Atomic Energy. Not long ago it was a complex of Scientific Research Institute, experimental plant and Obyedenennaya Expedicia at the Semipalatinsk test site (now it is the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK). Basic directions of the complex activity are defence tasks. These tasks are to develop structure and technology of producing fuel assemblies for NRE (nuclear rocket engine) reactors. Also the tasks include testing the fuel assemblies at IWG-1, RWD and RA reactors. Also the tasks include structure and technology development, production and testing electric generating channels for nuclear thermal emission converters of nuclear energy into electric one (space board power engineering), power metal optics for powerful lasers, high temperature gas reactors. 2.Main directions of RPA 'LUCH' conversion were determined on the basis of possibilities for developing main achievements in defence technology directions.These directions are high temperature materials and constructions (carbides, refractory metals, measurements, optics, uranium compound, beryllium, molybdenum) 3.At present at RPA 'LUCH' there have been created experimental and industrial productions making temperature sensors for Atomic Electric Power Stations (AEPS). Also these manufactures release commercial products. They produce technological equipment of carbide-silicon for electronic industry as well as parts or X-ray tubes, vermiculite parts for cable driving of AEP stations (high temperature, fireproof ones) of thermal and electrical accumulators. Thus, a scientific-production center is being created. Core of it is a scientific engineers group and development directions, generated from orders of defence department, as well as new foreign technologies (along with investments).The example of the said above can be development of a
After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate
Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Lemaitre, Bruno; Boccard, Frédéric
Recent genetic and molecular analyses have revealed how several strategies enable bacteria to persist and overcome insect immune defences. Genetic and genomic tools that can be used with Drosophila melanogaster have enabled the characterization of the pathways that are used by insects to detect bacterial invaders and combat infection. Conservation of bacterial virulence factors and insect immune repertoires indicates that there are common strategies of host invasion and pathogen eradication. Long-term interactions of bacteria with insects might ensure efficient dissemination of pathogens to other hosts, including humans. PMID:18327270
Castellacci, Fulvio; Blom, Martin; Fevolden, Arne Martin
The paper investigates the trade-off between innovation and defence industrial policy. It presents an agent-based simulation model calibrated for the Norwegian defence industry that compares different policy scenarios and examines the effects of a pending EU market liberalization process. The paper points to two main results. (1) It finds that a pure scenario where national authorities focus on, and provide support exclusively for, either a) international competitiveness or b) national defenc...
In the current climate of budgetary restrictions, it is fair to question the weight of military nuclear defence spending. Upon examination, however, nuclear deterrence has numerous military, industrial, and technological benefits. It is, in fact, totally intertwined with the other elements of our defence system. (author)
N. S. Venkatesan
Full Text Available Defence science in India owes its origin and early growth to Professor DS Kothari. From humble beginnings the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO has grown into a major national scientific agency over the last four and a half decades.
Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull
The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...
An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....
The specialized literature defines civil action as being: “the legal means used by a person in order to ask the court to recognize its right or to fulfil this right, by ending the obstacles put by another person or through an adequate compensation Irrespective of its definition method, civil action is considered a central institution around which the entire activity of the court of law and of the parties gravitates. Next, we will discuss the requirements for exercising civil action: expressio...
Kuhta, Milan; Brunčič, Ana
Among all crises, which have struck Slovenian construction industry, the crisis of civil engineering terminology is perhaps less noticeable, but still as important as all the others. The lack of fundamental characteristics of proper terminology causes a reasonable doubt whether Slovenian civil engineering terminology actually exists. After three editions of Splošni tehniški slovar (A General Technical Dictionary), a preparation of the new civil engineering dictionary represents one step towar...
The paper provides a brief historical overview of the concept of civil society and the relevance of different meanings to the notion of 'voice' as it relates to poor people. It outlines civil society actors that might be helpful in clarifying different forms of accountability. And in the last section, it draws some conclusions and policy recommendations about the accountability of different types of civil society groups.
Kluth, Michael Friederich
raises the question: are we witnessing an incursion of spillover mechanisms into the ‘High Politics' domain of the defence industry? What are the drivers eroding the ‘High Politics' character of defence industry integration? Are market forces at play? Does it reflect pressures for institutional......Defence industry regulation falls in between the ‘Low Politics' of ensuring market efficiency and the ‘High Politics' of preserving the national defence industrial and technological base. It has been exempt from internal market regulation and integrative initiatives have been managed on an...... intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting. This...
Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.
Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.
Urban, Mark C; Bürger, Reinhard; Bolnick, Daniel I
Evolutionary biologists typically predict future evolutionary responses to natural selection by analysing evolution on an adaptive landscape. Much theory assumes symmetric fitness surfaces even though many stabilizing selection gradients deviate from symmetry. Here we revisit Lande's adaptive landscape and introduce novel analytical theory that includes asymmetric selection. Asymmetric selection and the resulting skewed trait distributions bias equilibrium mean phenotypes away from fitness peaks, usually toward the flatter shoulder of the individual fitness surface. We apply this theory to explain a longstanding paradox in biology and medicine: the evolution of excessive defences against enemies. These so-called extraordinary defences can evolve in response to asymmetrical selection when marginal risks of insufficient defence exceed marginal costs of excessive defence. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between population abundances and asymmetric selection further exaggerate these defences. Recognizing the effect of asymmetrical selection on evolutionary trajectories will improve the accuracy of predictions and suggest novel explanations for apparent sub-optimality. PMID:23820378
As antimissile defence has become a mean to compensate the limitations of nuclear deterrence in Asia, notably within the frame of the US-North Korea relationship, but has also influence on the relationships between countries which do not possess an actual operational antimissile defence like Pakistan and India, the author proposes an assessment of the consequences antimissile defence may have on deterrence logics in Asia. He also notices that various issues must be taken into account: arsenal sizes, the slow rate of ballistic modernisation processes, the weaknesses of C4ISR systems and advanced alarm systems. He recalls the peculiarities of antimissile defence, and then addresses the cases of North Korea, India and Pakistan, and China. For each country, he analyses and discusses the influence of a choice or of the existence of an antimissile defence on the nuclear strategy and doctrine, but also on the posture of other countries like the USA
Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger
This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....
Computer Security Team
It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always. In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...
O. P. Sharma
Full Text Available A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents footwear and books ankle in comparison to ladies footwear. All these fungi were grouped as (i active (15 isolates, (iimoderate (15 isolates and (iii slow leather deteriogens (8 isolates on the basis of screening.
Romania has been involved in the field of security and defense, named until December 2009 ESDP (European Security and Defence Policy) and is now subject to the CSDP, even before joining the EU, recorded at the 1st of January 2007. Today, Romania is an active participant in CSDP, both political dimension, dedicated to support interests identified by Member States as common security and defense, as well as the operational, contributing in a large number of EU crisis management .
The proceedings volume presents the inaugural address to the 35th Meeting of the Civil Defence Commission, the welcome addresses, a survey of the 35 years of existence and work done by the Commission, and the reports on the activities of the Technical Committees I and III-VI. The twelve scientific papers read at the meeting are given in full-text. They deal with radiation injuries caused by nuclear weapon explosions or reactor accidents, and with thermal and mechanical lesions due to nuclear weapons, with the diagnosis and therapy of the injuries, and with preventive measures, particularly through application of radioprotective substances. (MG)
The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....
This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…
This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...
Full Text Available The article tries to address the concept of civil society from varied perspectives. From a historical point of view, civil society demands not only the absent domination of state but also liberates individuals from the hegemony of state. The article shows that in Indonesia and Malaysian discourse, masyarakat madani is often used to represent the term of civil society. Using this conception, major values of civil society also share with basic ideas within the Medina Treaty in the history of Islam. These ideas include egalitarianism, human rights protection, participation, law and justice enforcement and pluralism. In this frame, the question on whether or not Islam is compatible with the concept of civil society is clearly answered. Muslims could benefit such a concept to build their awareness of being progressive and adaptive to social changes.
Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar
This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... literature. First, contrary to what is commonly argued, we claim that strong states in Asia promote civil regulation in what we call the “paradox of the weak state”. Second, we not only argue that civil regulation is mainly enforced by multinational enterprises willing to promote international social and...... environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...
The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection defines the legal framework of and the measures to be taken for achieving the purpose of the law, with competences being assigned to a variety of authorities of the Bund or Laender. The bill very quickly passed Parliament and this indeed is a very positive result, as the subject is a delicate one, politically speaking, but the disadvantages of the short law-making period are realized when going through the various provisions. There is a lack of exactness regarding terms and definitions, legal systematics, or assignment of competences. Also, lack of clear demarcation of applicability of the law against other laws in this field is likely to pose problems in practice. The article also presents a survey of tasks and competences assigned to the Bund or the Laender, and the relevant authorities concerned. (orig./HSCH).
The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection defines the legal framework of and the measures to be taken for achieving the purpose of the law, with competences being assigned to a variety of authorities of the Bund or Laender. The bill very quickly passed Parliament and this indeed is a very positive result, as the subject is a delicate one, politically speaking, but the disadvantages of the short law-making period are realized when going through the various provisions. There is a lack of exactness regarding terms and definitions, legal systematics, or assignment of competences. Also, lack of clear demarcation of applicability of the law against other laws in this field is likely to pose problems in practice. The article also presents a survey of tasks and competences assigned to the Bund or the Laender, and the relevant authorities concerned. (orig./HSCH)
Inna Vitalyevna BLAZOMIRSKAYA
Full Text Available The paper considered miscarriage of justice, i.e. an adjudi-cation being wrong judgment in effect containing either denial of defense within the actual (scope of right(s or defending the unlisted right for, for instance, while an in-nocent convict or an acquitted criminal. The dominant fea-tures of miscarriage of justice are the following: 1 A mis-carriage of justice appeared at the final adjudication; 2 A miscarriage of justice was presumed; 3 An agent commis-sioned to operate by a specific ruling would ascertain and eliminate a miscarriage of justice; 4 A specific way of proving a miscarriage of justice; 5 Actual miscarriage of justice has not been subsequent upon the fault / negli-gence having been let / tolerated / omitted by the judge who passed the final adjudication. Eliminating a miscar-riage of justice by the superior court should be one of three steps required for judicial defense. The first step shall be referring to the court and the hearing of the case by the court of first instance with the final disposition of the case that should be mandatory. The second and third steps shall be eliminating a miscarriage of justice and enforcing the court‟s disposition, – should be secured by the State as the effective remedies of judicial defense, and the party con-cerned may involve these when required.
Inna Vitalyevna BLAZOMIRSKAYA
The paper considered miscarriage of justice, i.e. an adjudi-cation being wrong judgment in effect containing either denial of defense within the actual (scope of) right(s) or defending the unlisted right for, for instance, while an in-nocent convict or an acquitted criminal. The dominant fea-tures of miscarriage of justice are the following: 1) A mis-carriage of justice appeared at the final adjudication; 2) A miscarriage of justice was presumed; 3) An agent commis-sioned to operate by a spec...
In the cold war, the United Kingdom government devised a number of public education campaigns to inform citizens about the precautions that they should undertake in the event of a nuclear attack. One such campaign, Protect and Survive, was released to the general public and media in May 1980. The negative publicity this publication received is…
Full Text Available Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food, but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and
), don't pollute the industry environ and surroundings, don't do real danger of reirradiation and pollution but demand investigation of their origin; accidents as a result when personal and persons from population have gotten a doze of outward irradiation (over PN); accidents as a result when industry or surroundings have been polluted (over PN);.accidents, as a result of outward and inside irradiation of personal, persons from population (over NPP-norms of radiation safety). Volume and character of measures by foregoing radiation accidents and their consequence depend on groups and scale of accident. They include investigation of the accident reasons; realization the radiation control for estimation degree of ionizing radiation pressure to personal and individual persons from population; rendering medical help to victims; definition of surroundings pollution level; equipment, industrial and habitable places; prevention of further influence of ionizing radiation to population and spreading radionuclides in surroundings; elimination of disrepairs and liquidation of radiation accident source. Radiation accident in the nuclear engineering establishments and industry have been divided into accident and proper-crash. At present international organizations have divided a school of crashes and accidents at NPP. According to that scale 3 levels of accidents and 4 levels of crashes have been chosen. The accidents have been qualified: insignificant (1 level), middle difficulty (2 level), serious (3 level), but crashes - within the NPP (4 level), at the risk of surroundings (5 level), difficult (6 level), global (7 level). Character, volume and forms of measures by defence of population in the crashes at NPP depend on both the level of crash and the concrete radiation situation and stage of crash development. Those measures include: notification about crash; rendering medical help to victims, primary measures of personal and population defence (cover, iodine precautions
Full Text Available The main security problem that any state faces today is protecting itscitizens in countering organised crime and terrorism. Wars between states are lessfrequent than in previous eras. Border defence and border security are distinctmissions requiring different forces with different training and different equipment.Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiringtanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles ofimmigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligencegathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, frequency,and probability – provides a solution to the large and expensive armed forces forterritorial border defence and defines the ability to succeed in border security.
Amol A. Gokhale
Full Text Available Among cellular metals, aluminium foams are the most commonly produced, and provide a unique combination of properties such as: very low density, high energy absorption under static and dynamic compressions, blast amelioration, sound absorption, and flame resistance. Applications in automotive and defence sectors have been reported. Foams based on high melting point metals such as nickel and its alloys are also under active development throughout the world for applications requiring corrosion and oxidation resistance coupled with high temperature strength and relatively high thermal conductivity. Ceramic foams were developed elsewhere in the world primarily for biomedical applications, but are also suitable for defence applications for high temperature insulation. These cellular materials will provide new materials options to designers of aerospace, transport, and other defence systems.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(6, pp.567-575, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.640
Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo
This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...
Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.331-339, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2756
Accident prevention is the first safety priority of both designers and operators. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems and procedures in a plant operated by personnel who are committed to a strong safety culture. For future nuclear power plants, consideration of multiple failures and severe accidents will be achieved in a more systematic and complete way from the design stage. Defence in depth (DID) consists of a hierarchical deployment of different levels of equipment and procedures in order to maintain the effectiveness of physical barriers placed between radioactive materials and workers, the public or the environment, in normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and, for some barriers, in accidents at the plant. The primary way of preventing accidents is to achieve a high quality in design, construction and operation of the plant, and thereby to ensure that deviations from normal operation are infrequent. The best way to meet these premises of effectiveness of the barriers and the Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) is to develop an ageing management programme to prevent potential failures and accidents. In this work we will refer to the ageing management programme for Atucha I and Atucha II power plants and to the Atucha I spent fuel storage. (author)
Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is usually divided into three wavelength ranges, which differ considerably from each other with respect to their effect on human health. UV-B radiation, in particular, weakens the body's resistance against cancer cells and thus increases cancer risk. Although virtually all UV-B radiation stops at the surface layer of skin, the whole body suffers from its adverse effects. UV radiation affects the body's defence mechanism relatively quickly. A reduction in the body's capacity to defend itself against alien substances can already be detected within a couple of days after the body has been exposed to a small amount of UV radiation. The risk of cancer increases slowly over the years. The skin cancers that are treated in hospitals today have their origin in the ways of life pursued in the 1960's and 70's. Factors affecting the amounts of UV doses received by Finns include trips to the South, solarium treatments and, to some extent, thinning of the ozone layer. (orig.) (4 figs.)
The management of data, information and knowledge through the project life cycle of buildings and civil infrastructure projects is becoming increasingly complex. In an attempt to drive efficiencies and address this complexity, the United Kingdom (UK) Government has mandated that Building Information Modelling (BIM) methods must be adopted in all public sector construction projects from 2016. Emerging from the US Department of Defence, BIM is an approach to the co-ordination of design and prod...
Tiwari, Aviral; Shahbaz, Muhammad
The aim of present is to reinvestigate the effect of defence spending on economic growth using Zivot and Andrews (1992) and Lee and Strazicich, (2003) structural unit root tests and ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration in augmented version of Keynesian model for Indian economy. Our analysis confirmed long run relationship between the variables and, results indicated positive effect of defence spending on economic growth (also negative impact after a threshold point). Investment and t...
The white-collar crime attorney is a lawyer who is competent in general legal principles and in the substantive and procedural aspects of the law related to upper-class financial crime. Based on a sample of 310 convicted white-collar criminals and their defence lawyers, this paper presents results from statistical analysis of relationships between crime characteristics and defence characteristics to predict lawyer fame. Statistical regression analysis was applied to the sample, where amount o...
US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...
Jørgensen, Martin Bak
The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and...
The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...... scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based...
In the column last month our regular contributor Dr Arthur McInnis took our first look at Hong Kong's Civil Justice Reform Interim Report and Consultative Paper. Those reforms as noted and if enacted, would bring the most far-reaching changes to civil - including construction -litigation in more than 100 years. This month, in the second of the two-part series, we look at the key concepts underlying and the details in the specific proposals.
The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)
Diamond, Robert A., Ed.; Alligood, Arlene, Ed.
Contents of this comprehensive review of civil rights developments from 1968 to 1970 include: Introduction--civil rights 1970: progress continues, priority wanes; Legislative Background--20 years of civil rights; Commission Report--civil rights enforcement; a promise unfulfilled; Supreme Court Decision--key decision on busing, racial balance…
Full Text Available The II Annual Symposium of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure ‘2015: The Civil Procedure 2.0: Reform and Current State’ took place on October 9, 2015, at the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga region Federal University.The Symposium is now an established tradition for the University. In 2015 it brought together in Kazan eminent scholars of civil procedure from cities across the whole of Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, Samara, Nizhnekamsk and others. This large-scale event attracted the attention not only of Russian scholars, but also of legal scholars from abroad: Elisabetta Silvestri (Professor, University of Pavia, Italy, William B. Simons (Professor, University of Tartu, Estonia, Jaroslav Turlukovsky (Professor, Warsaw University, Poland, Stuart H. Schultz (Practising Attorney, USA, Irina Izarova (Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.The opening ceremony of the Symposium began with greetings to all participants and best wishes for productive discussions. Participants were welcomed with remarks by Marat Khairullin, Deputy Chair of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tatarstan, Radik Ilyasov, Head of the Federal Bailiff Service of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Ildar Tarkhanov, Academic Supervisor at the Faculty of Law. They expressed their appreciation for the great value of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure in the growth of the science of civil procedure and enforcement procedure, and for its contributions to the development of the judicial system of the Russian Federation.In addition to hearing prepared reports and discussing viewpoints on current issues of civil and arbitration procedure, participants attended presentations by representatives from procedural law periodicals in the frame of the Symposium. The Editor-in-Chief of Herald of Civil Procedure, Damir Valeev, and the Commercial Director of the Statut Publishing House (Moscow, Kirill Samoilov, presented new
Kelly Rodney W
Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.
Kuiper, T B; Morris, M
We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature. PMID:17760037
the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....
Breant, Christian; Karock, Ulrich
Defence and security research have coexisted at the European Union level since the inception of the European Defence Agency (EDA). The agency was established under a Joint Action of the Council of Ministers on 12 July 2004, "to support the Member States and the Council in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the European Security and Defence Policy as it stands now and develops in the future".1 The political decision to create the EDA was taken at the Thessaloniki European Council on 19 and 20 June 2003. Heads of State or Government tasked the Council bodies to undertake the requisite actions, in the course of 2004, to create an intergovernmental agency in the field of defence capabilities development, research, acquisition and armaments. The EDA has been located in Brussels right from the start. It is an intergovernmental EU agency under the Council's authority within the single institutional framework of the Union. It performs its mission in close cooperation with its participating Member States (pMS) and the European institutional actors.
Last month a high-level Working Party on Civil Justice Reform in Hong Kong released a widely anticipated Interim Report and Consultative Paper. The reforms, if enacted, would bring the most far-reaching changes to civil - including construction - litigation in the territory in more than 100 years. This month, in the first of a two-part series, our regular contributor Dr Arthur McInnis, looks at the context for the reforms and the reasons underlying them while next month the recommendations th...
Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.
Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.
Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…
An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.)
Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis
The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…
The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…
Defence based decommissioning problems relate largely to power plants in submarines and the decommissioning of fuel facilities. Since the practice of dumping nuclear reactors in the sea was internationally agreed to be environmentally unsound in 1993, the construction of well structured, effective mechanisms for disposing of military nuclear waste has been necessary. However, this has raised some additional hurdles besides the more common problems faced by civil waste management. Military programmes are impacted by a number of factors concerning interim storage facilities, submarine storage and over classification issues. These can cause sufficient problems to slow or halt a process aimed at minimizing the potential environmental hazards of radioactive wastes as well as the security threats which may also be involved if these facilities are not decommissioned properly. A resultant problem of military programmes is the secret nature of the reactors, owing to competition between different designs and the need to keep information concerning the performance of the vehicles highly confidential. This can create problems where off-the-shelf components are often over classified; that is, with information being classified as restricted or confidential even in the case of equipment whose role does not contribute to the critical abilities of the vessel, such as a backup diesel generator. This can cause problems with decommissioning as the regulatory framework will obstruct otherwise menial tasks, which could have been easily avoided if the correct classification levels had been applied at design. The US programme has been largely able to find disposal routes for its own defence nuclear waste. This waste is stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the reactor compartments are stored in Hanford. The main advantages over other States (e.g. the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom) are the finances allocated to the programme, as well as the vast land resources available
Marisa Belausteguigoitia Rius; Mariana Gómez Alvarez Icaza; Iván González Márquez
Marisa Belausteguigoitia Rius, Mariana Gómez Alvarez Icaza and Iván González Márquez argue that indigenous and rural women play a leading role in the fight for the defence of their territories and its natural resources. They introduce the essays and testimonies of this section of the journal in order to show the complexity of the situation lived in Mexico, related to land, territory and the defence of natural resources, especially for indigenous women. In this context, they propose that indig...
The annual Global Civil Society Yearbooks provide an indispensable guide to global civil society or civic participation and action around the world. This year, the Yearbook will focus on communicative power and democracy, investigating different forms of democracy promotion and communication with a view to understanding the relationship between communication, democracy and media. The Global Civil Society Yearbook remains the standard work on all aspects of contemporary global civil society fo...
@@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.
...) entitled ``Civil Penalties'' which proposed the adjustment of certain civil penalties for inflation. 74 FR.... See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997) (NHTSA's civil penalty policy under the Small Business Regulatory... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477, 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jessica Lang, Office of...
...,000. 75 FR 5246. Also on February 10, 2010, NHTSA last adjusted the maximum civil penalty for a... civil penalty policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10... Act was published on February 4, 1997. 62 FR 5167. At that time, we codified the penalties...
... $6,000. 71 FR 28279. At the same time, the agency adjusted the maximum civil penalty for a single... to $16,650,000. 75 FR 5246. Also on February 10, 2010, NHTSA last adjusted the maximum civil penalty... policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997)...
Full Text Available Resumen: La crisis económica de Argentina en años recientes derivó en la pérdida de legitimidad de las instituciones políticas del país. La medida de suspensión de las libertades y garantías de derechos individuales provocó una desobediencia civil generalizada que llevó a miles de personas a manifestar pacíficamente su repudio al gobierno de Fernando de la Rúa. Este gesto ciudadano espontáneo, desorganizado y voluntario sirvió, entre otras cosas, para formar una autodeterminación primaria directa de la voluntad popular y una autocomprensión del carácter democrático de la sociedad civil. La justificación de la desobediencia se basaba en una cuestión de derechos. Todos los manifestantes afirmaban que tenían derecho a desobedecer porque la desobediencia, en ciertas circunstancias, era un derecho humano. ¿Pero puede ser la desobediencia civil, en un Estado de derecho, un auténtico derecho? ¿En qué circunstancias, en el contexto legal y fuera de los derechos habituales de resistencia como huelga, manifestación, etcétera, se puede desobedecer una norma legal? Abstract: The recent economic crisis in Argentina led to the loss of identity of the country’s political institutions. The measure of the suspension of freedom and of the guarantee of individual rights provoked a generalized civil disobedience which led thousands of people to peacefully demonstrate their repudiation of Fernando de la Rúa’s government. This spontaneous, unorganized and voluntary action by the citizens served, among other things, to form a direct primary self-determination of the will of the people and a self-understanding of the democratic character of civil society. The justification of the disobedience was based on a question of rights. All the demonstrators asserted that they had the right to disobey because disobedience, in certain circumstances, was a human right. However, can civil disobedience, in a constitutional state, be an authentic right
The defence industry has traditionally been a heavily regulated and protected market. A new EU Directive being implemented in Norway, January 2012, intends to reform the European defence market towards a higher degree of openness and liberalization. It is therefore vital for the Norwegian Government and national defence authorities to explore the impacts this new EU Directive will have in the near future. This thesis presents a computational agent-based model of the Norwegian defence industry...
Nabity, Paul D.; Zavala, Jorge A.; DeLucia, Evan H.
Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences...
<正>In the distribution of modem world civilizations,the Oriental civilization and Western civilization are the two major civilization systems.Western civilization is often represented by the Christian civilization in Europe and North America on both sides across the North Atlantic.Oriental civilization appears more diversified,among which the Chinese civilization,India civilization and Islamic civilization are the most influential
Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming
probability or cost of attacks and defences. In case of multiple parameters most analytical methods optimise one parameter at a time, e.g., minimise cost or maximise probability of an attack. Such methods may lead to sub-optimal solutions when optimising conflicting parameters, e.g., minimising cost while...
Mai, C.V.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.; Mai, T.C.
This paper aims at risk analysis and the investigation of safety aspects of coastal flood defences in Vietnam. The sea dike system has been actually designed by a 20 to 25 years return period. From the current situation it seems that the dike system is not sufficient to withstand the actual sea boun
This paper outlines various features of the acquisition module of Sanjay, an augmented CDS/ISIS ver 2.3 software package. It briefly describes the activities which are carried out using this software at Defence Science Library. It also suggests some features that need to be provided for book acquisition processing.
-, č. 2 (2011), s. 33-56. ISBN 978-80-87488-17-1. ISSN 1805-0565 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : use of force * self-defence * the UN Charter Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences
Following Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Defence-in-depth concept, which is usually defined as a combination of a number of consecutive and independent levels of protection that would have to fail before harmful effects could be caused, has been confirmed as an essential element to be applied in the design of a nuclear facility to protect people and the environment. However, and although the implementation of the defence in depth concept had been required for long, the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the “stress tests” conducted in different countries have revealed deficiencies in its implementation. Consequently within the review of the IAEA safety requirements requested by Member states, it was important to check whether this concept was appropriately defined in order to be properly understood and fully implemented by vendors and operating organizations. By screening the successive definitions of the defence in depth principle and concept, this paper emphasizes the few issues which have been gradually clarified and enhanced to ensure effectiveness of the defence in depth as expressed from its original statement. (author)
Bloemen, A.A.F.; Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.
This paper proposes a model for determining a robust defence strategy against ballistic missile threat. Our approach takes into account a variety of possible future scenarios and different forms of robustness criteria, including the well-known absolute robustness criterion. We consider two problem v
Seoul: The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 2012, s. 84-86. [2012 International Symposium and Annual Meeting of the KSABC. Gwangju (KR), 08.11.2012-10.11.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : insect communication * insect defence * pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
In this article, I indicate and illustrate several flaws in a recent "ethical defence" of homeopathy. It transpires that the authors' arguments have several features in common with homeopathic remedies, including strong claims, a lack of logic or evidence, and no actual effect. PMID:26659862
Kuiper, T. B. H.
Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.
Construction work on the civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. A dispute resolution procedure has been included in the contract, whereby a Panel of Adjudicators may be called upon to make a decision in the case of a difference or dispute between the parties. The aim of this paper is to present CERN's first experience of civil engineering Adjudication arising from problems encountered with the ground freezing technique employed to allow construction of two new shafts.
The paper looks at the trends in nominal and real salaries of the Federal Government employees over the period 1990-2006. It examines the structural defects in the existing salary structure and the anomalies in the allowances structure to show that appropriate remuneration for the civil servants requires serious and urgent consideration. The widening gap in the emoluments of government employees versus the public sector corporations and private sector employees has a strong bearing on the mot...
Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...
Full Text Available The establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP in 1999 has led to the creation of a whole range of bureaucratic bodies in Brussels and the national capitals. These bodies support the crisis management operations of the European Union. This review article presents the state of the art of academic research on the role of bureaucracy in this recent policy area. It argues that the growing institutional complexity and the constant interaction between actors at the national and European level require scholars to go beyond the dominant approaches of International Relations. Using insights from comparative politics, public administration and multi-level governance, this article considers four important questions: who these civil servants are, why they matter, how they interact, and how they are controlled politically and democratically.
Resumen: La crisis económica de Argentina en años recientes derivó en la pérdida de legitimidad de las instituciones políticas del país. La medida de suspensión de las libertades y garantías de derechos individuales provocó una desobediencia civil generalizada que llevó a miles de personas a manifestar pacíficamente su repudio al gobierno de Fernando de la Rúa. Este gesto ciudadano espontáneo, desorganizado y voluntario sirvió, entre otras cosas, para formar una autodeterminación primaria di...
Some polities are able to use constitutionally prescribed political processes to settle distributional disputes, whereas in other polities distributional disputes result in civil conflict. Theoretical analysis reveals that the following properties help to make it possible to design a self-enforcing constitution that can settle recurring distributional disputes between social classes without civil conflict: • Neither social class has a big advantage in civil conflict. • The expected incrementa...
P. SYLOS LABINI
It is commonly held that economic development automatically brings civil development with it, as if between the two there were a cause-effect relationship. While economic development is obviously a necessary condition for civil development, it is not a sufficient one. On the other hand, without certain fundamental pre-requisites in the civil development field, such as a minimum level of education, economic development is impossible. Thus, the two phenomena are best conceived of in terms of in...
Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik;
, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two......-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists and...... studies are suggested to investigate in detail how insect adaptations act in combination to overcome plant chemical defences and to allow ecologically relevant conclusions....
Bura, Veronica L; Kawahara, Akito Y; Yack, Jayne E
Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators. PMID:27510510
Ministry of Defence policy is to conform as closely as possible to UK health and safety legislation in all its operations. We consider the implications of the law and the guidance provided by the Health and Safety Executive for the arguments we need to make for the safety of defence procurements, and extract four general principles to help in answering the questions that arise when considering the safety of systems with complex behaviour. One of these principles is analysed further to identify how case law and the guidance interpret the requirement for risks to be reduced so far as is reasonably practicable. We then apply the principles to answer some questions that have arisen in our work as Independent Safety Auditors, including the limits to the tolerability of risk to armed forces personnel and civilians in wartime, and the acceptability of the transfer of risk from one group to another when controls on risk are introduced.
Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern......, economic and social impact. Civilization is a term widely used within modern political discourse its meaning, yet it is poorly understood and misused. part I explores the idea of a ‘standard of civilization', its implications for governance, and the use of such standards in political theory and economic...
Rostás, Michael; Blassmann, Katrin
Insects have evolved an astonishing array of defences to ward off enemies. Well-known and widespread is the regurgitation of oral secretions (OS), fluids that repel attacking predators. In herbivores, the effectiveness of OS has been ascribed so far to the presence of deterrent secondary metabolites sequestered from the host plant. This notion implies, however, that generalists experience less protection on plants with low amounts of secondary metabolites or with compounds ineffective against...
Rostás, Michael; Blassmann, Katrin
Insects have evolved an astonishing array of defences to ward off enemies. Well known and widespread is the regurgitation of oral secretion (OS), fluid that repels attacking predators. In herbivores, the effectiveness of OS has been ascribed so far to the presence of deterrent secondary metabolites sequestered from the host plant. This notion implies, however, that generalists experience less protection on plants with low amounts of secondary metabolites or with compounds ineffective against ...
Choenni, R.S.; Leijnse, C.
The need for more efficiency in military organizations is growing. It is expected that a significant increase in efficiency can be obtained by an integration of communication and information technology. This integration may result in (sub)systems that are fully automated, i.e., systems that are unmanned, including unmanned vehicles. In this paper, we focus on the automation of air defence systems, in which integration of communication and information technology is a major issue. We propose an...
Leferink, F.B.J.; Malabiau, R.
The European Commission (EC) would like to improve the competitiveness of the European Defence Industry. The large number of (national) standards, more than 10.000, is recognised by EC as a major constraint and cost driver . Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and more generally Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (EEE) have been considered by the EC as a major topic, with 7 other topics such as NBC detectors, energetic materials, fuels and lubricants, batteries, packaging, electrical an...
Bresson, Alain; Hunt, Andy; Tuomainen, Ari; Granbom, Bo; Urbanovsky, Claudia; Tredici, Claudio; Kugler, Dietmar; Leferink, Frank; Unden, Göran; Klok, Henk; Huguenin, Herve; Dymarkowski, Krzysztof; Popkowski, Jaroslaw; Lyomio, Jukka; Lodge, Keith
The European Commission (EC), DG Enterprise, endeavours the competitiveness of the European Defence Industry. The plethora of (national) standards, more than 10.000, are recognised by the EC as a major constraint and cost driver. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) or Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (EEE) are considered by the EC as a major topic, with 7 other topics such as environmental engineering, energetic materials, batteries, electrical interfaces. An EMC expert group with repres...
Čeleda Pavel; Čegan Jakub; Vykopal Jan; Tovarňák Daniel
Correct and timely responses to cyber attacks are crucial for the effective implementation of cyber defence strategies and policies. The number of threats and ingenuity of attackers is ever growing, as is the need for more advanced detection tools, techniques and skilled cyber security professionals. KYPO – Cyber Exercise & Research Platform is focused on modelling and simulating complex computer systems and networks in a virtualized and separated environment. The platform enables realist...
It is well known that inhaled urban air contains many particles and gases. On the other hand, the anesthetic agents used in respiratory diseases comprise pharmaceutical particles. Deposition and cleaning processes of both the inhaled foreign particles and gases from room air, and inhalation agents from respiratory tract are very important clinically. These processes are carried out by the defense mechanisms of the respiratory system. In this review, the defence system of respiratory tract and...
This paper outlines various features of the acquisition module of Sanjay, an augmented CDS/ISIS ver 2.3 software package. It briefly describes the activities which are carried out using this software at Defence Science Library. It also suggests some features that need to be provided for book acquisition processing.http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dbit.14.4.3103
Rostás, Michael; Blassmann, Katrin
Insects have evolved an astonishing array of defences to ward off enemies. Well known and widespread is the regurgitation of oral secretion (OS), fluid that repels attacking predators. In herbivores, the effectiveness of OS has been ascribed so far to the presence of deterrent secondary metabolites sequestered from the host plant. This notion implies, however, that generalists experience less protection on plants with low amounts of secondary metabolites or with compounds ineffective against ...
Gertrud Maria Hänsch
Bacteria living as biofilms have been recognised as the ultimate cause of persistent and destructive inflammatory processes. Biofilm formation is a well-organised, genetically-driven process, which is well characterised for numerous bacteria species. In contrast, the host response to bacterial biofilms is less well analysed, and there is the general believe that bacteria in biofilms escape recognition or eradication by the immune defence. In this review the host response to bacterial biofilms...
Lea Wiesel; Davis, Jayne L.; Linda Milne; Vanesa Redondo Fernandez; Herold, Miriam B.; Jill Middlefell Williams; Jenny Morris; Hedley, Pete E; Brian Harrower; Newton, Adrian C.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Ingo Hein
Phytohormones are involved in diverse aspects of plant life including the regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as governing biotic and abiotic stress responses. We have generated a comprehensive transcriptional reference map of the early potato responses to exogenous application of the defence hormones abscisic acid, brassinolides (applied as epibrassinolide), ethylene (applied as the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid), salicylic acid and jasmoni...
Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be
Full Text Available Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC, a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue. We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation.
The UK Ministry of Defence's (MOD) publication Plutonium and Aldermaston: An Historical Account is a valuable report because it increases transparency and openness with regard to the UK's military fissile material holdings. The report does not fulfil the precise mandate set out in the government's 1998 Strategic Defence Review. The MOD then committed itself to providing an account of fissile material production. Instead, it has reported on fissile material transfers to and from the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston (AWE) in the period 1952 to 1999. On 31 March 1999, the UK defence stockpile of plutonium comprised 3.51 tonnes. The report also discloses that physical stocks of plutonium at Aldermaston exceed recorded net deliveries to the site by 0.29 tonne (the inventory difference). The study reveals that the AWE acted as the centre of plutonium processing for both civilian and military programmes in the UK. The civilian work was largely phased out in the 1970s. To further increase transparency and meet stated disarmament objectives, the Department of Trade and Industry and MOD should launch a joint study of defence fissile material production, encompassing both plutonium and highly enriched uranium. A new table shows that the coverage of international safeguards in the UK is extensive. France is the only other state with a recognised nuclear weapon programme that approaches the UK in its safeguards coverage. The UK's withdrawals of fissionable material from safeguards since 1978 have recently been made public. It would be a significant step to strengthen safeguards if the UK were to announce that in the future it will not withdraw any nuclear material from international safeguards. (author)
Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel
In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...
France and the UK face similar geostrategic circumstances: both were once Great Powers and still retain their positions among the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. During the Cold War both were dwarfed by the super-powers and were thus extremely sensitive about their status: what the French called their grandeur and the British called their seat at the top table. Despite their strategic similarities, they have differed in many of their defence policy choices and in particular...
Vermeij, Geerat J.
Predation is a primary agency of natural selection affecting the evolution of skeletal form in gastropods. The nature of antipredatory defence depends on how predators attack their prey as well as on the types and quantities of resources that are available to the potential victims. Here I review the five main methods of predation on shell-bearing gastropods (swallowing prey whole, apertural entry, drilling, shell breakage, and partial consumption) and 31 categories of shell and opercular defe...
Van der Ent, S.; Koornneef, A.; Ton, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.
In nature, plants interact with a wide range of microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects. During the evolutionary arms race between plants and their attackers, primary and secondary immune responses evolved to recognise common or highly specialised features of the attacker encountered, resulting in sophisticated mechanisms of induced defence. Induced resistance mechanisms are characterised by a broad-spectrum effectiveness and often act systemically in plant parts distant from the site of ...
Planqué, Robert; Britton, N. F.; Franks, N. R.; Peletier, M. A.
Most bird species of the Eurasian Cuckoo, 'Cuculuscanorus', often display egg-discrimination behaviour butchick-rejection behaviour has never been reported.In this paper, we analyse ahost-cuckoo association in which both population dynamics andevolutionary dynamics are explored in a discrete-time model.We introduce four host types, each with their own defence behaviour, displayingeither egg or chick rejection, neither or both. We also introducefitness functions for each of these host types.Al...
In the past, only two types of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems were in use in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG): safety systems and operational systems. Present nuclear power plant 'Leittechnique' systems in the FRG have been expanded from this 'black-and-white' status to multiple-grade systems with respect to safety, qualification requirements and intelligence. The extensive experience of the past has encouraged the rule-making committees - representing all parties working in the nuclear field - to differentiate between the protection limitations and condition limitations of the reactor protection system on one hand and the information systems (including the accident monitoring and alarm system) of different safety importance on the other, assuming additional extensive application of non-safety-grade operational Leittechnique systems. These definitions of categories are in accordance with international practice and enable designers to apply 'echelons of defence', composed of equipment of all categories, in accordance with 'defence-in-depth' concepts. They also simplify the introduction of computerized equipment, especially in the lower safety categories. Status, background and reasons of the introduction, as well as typical defence-in-depth modes, of the first running Leittechnique system of this kind (in the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant) and especially their different tasks in disturbance handling are described. The international situation and future developments are briefly characterized. (author)
Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; González-Guzmán, Miguel; De Geyter, Nathan; Lippens, Saskia; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Marhavý, Peter; Kremer, Anna; Morreel, Kris; Guérin, Christopher J; Tava, Aldo; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Thevelein, Johan M; Campos, Narciso; Goormachtig, Sofie; Goossens, Alain
Jasmonates are ubiquitous oxylipin-derived phytohormones that are essential in the regulation of many development, growth and defence processes. Across the plant kingdom, jasmonates act as elicitors of the production of bioactive secondary metabolites that serve in defence against attackers. Knowledge of the conserved jasmonate perception and early signalling machineries is increasing, but the downstream mechanisms that regulate defence metabolism remain largely unknown. Here we show that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, jasmonate recruits the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) quality control system to manage the production of triterpene saponins, widespread bioactive compounds that share a biogenic origin with sterols. An ERAD-type RING membrane-anchor E3 ubiquitin ligase is co-expressed with saponin synthesis enzymes to control the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the supply of the ubiquitous terpene precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. Thus, unrestrained bioactive saponin accumulation is prevented and plant development and integrity secured. This control apparatus is equivalent to the ERAD system that regulates sterol synthesis in yeasts and mammals but that uses distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, of the HMGR degradation 1 (HRD1) type, to direct destruction of HMGR. Hence, the general principles for the management of sterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis are conserved across eukaryotes but can be controlled by divergent regulatory cues. PMID:24213631
Dipak K. Sahoo
Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.
Oji, S. I.
Full Text Available The study aimed at examining the practical operation of the right to private defence in Nigeria by virtue of the various constitutive legal instruments operating in the field of criminal jurisprudence. The sources of information relied upon here, are relevant statutes, texts, journals (both local and international and conference papers. The finding is that the enabling provisions on the subject matter are not smooth sailing. This is because the exercise of the right to private defence is further tied to the satisfaction of certain conditions which ordinarily the user will not advert his mind too and if case is not taken, in the attempt to prevent the commission of an offence which is about to be done to him, he becomes criminally liable in the reverse. In this regard, the study concluded that there is the problem of uncertainty as far as the instruments of self defence are concerned. In order to erase the problem of uncertainty, the user of the right must exercise caution in order to succeed in the courts, pending when an amendment is made.
Significant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive waste have been generated in Russia during the production of nuclear weapons, and there is an urgent need to find suitable ways to manage these wastes in a way that protects both the current population and future generations. This book contains contributions from pure and applied scientists and other representatives from Europe, North America, and Russia, who are, or have been, actively involved in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal. First-hand experience of specific problems associated with defence-related wastes in the USA and the Russian Federation is presented, and current plans are described for the disposal of solid wastes arising from civilian nuclear power production programmes in other countries, including Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany and the UK. The book provides a good insight into ongoing research at local and national level within Russia, devoted to the safe disposal of defence-related radioactive waste. It also demonstrates how existing expertise and technology from civilian nuclear waste management programmes can be applied to solving the problems created by nuclear defence programmes. Contributions address methods of immobilisation, site selection methodology, site characterisation techniques and data interpretation, the key elements of safety/performance assessments of planned deep (geological) repositories for radioactive waste, and radionuclide transport modelling. Concerns associated with certain specific nuclear waste disposal concepts and repository sites are also presented. refs
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...
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... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...
Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John
The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required
Kevin Curran; Steven McIntyre; Hugo Meenan; Francis McCloy; Ciaran Heaney
Civil Liberties - the term used for the fundamental liberties and rights of a countries citizen is the right of free speech, thought and action. This is the fundamental building block of a democratic society. This research essay outlines the current measures western governments are taking to ensure our safety and the associated costs to civil and human rights.
Aspects of civil law of importance for the psychiatrist as expert witness are those dealing with disability pensions accident insurance, compensation in civil law and rights of the seriously disabled. The legal basis of each is briefly outlined, and some guidelines given for psychiatric court reports. Some outstanding theoretical and practical problems are mentioned. PMID:1579170
Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.
In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…
Vesilind, P. Aarne
Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)
Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de
The good cooperation established between Universities, Laboratory National of Civil Engineering and private companies made possible the execution of a considerable number of civil engineering works by Portugueses, inside and outside the country. Some good examples are presented in this paper.
Verdera Server, Rafael
Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho
Christophe Portenseigne, Technical Director of Bouygues Travaux Publics, provided explanations on the main challenges of Civil work for the construction of the 3. generation of NPPs. He then provided an overview of the new Civil Work concepts for the 4. generation of NPPs
A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.
... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil...
Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira
It is intended in this work to review the book"Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security", 978-3-319-04146-9 published in Springer Series “Lecture Notes in Social Networks”. In this book the following areas are covered: Defence and security risk analysis; Criminal intelligence; Cyber crime;Cognitive analysis; Counter-terrorism and Social Network Analysis; Transnational Crime; Critical infrastructure analysis; Support to defence and security intelligence, emphasizing the idea that...
Doorduin, Leonie J.; Vrieling, Klaas
Several theories have been developed to explain why invasive species are very successful and develop into pest species in their new area. The shifting defence hypothesis (SDH) argues that invasive plant species quickly evolve towards new defence levels in the invaded area because they lack their specialist herbivores but are still under attack by local (new) generalist herbivores. The SDH predicts that plants should increase their cheap, toxic defence compounds and lower their expensive diges...
This report takes stock of the changes made to the European Security and Defence Policy since the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The report also examines what impact such changes have on Denmark, and specifically whether the Danish opt-out from EU defence cooperation will have increased consequences after the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty changes. By examining the Lisbon Treaty changes to the CSDP, and assessing how these affect Danish security and defence policy, the report pro...
Bankole, O O
Defence contracting has changed from the traditional provision of spares and repairs to contracting long-term for availability and capability. In these long-term contracts, the customer decides to outsource services (that would have been provided in-house) to contractors by consenting to an arrangement whereby payment is made only for the period that the equipment is made available to satisfy the defence need. Availability contracts may last for 40 years and more, but the main defence custome...
Huisken, Ron; Thatcher, Meredith
The fortieth anniversary of the Strategic and Defence Studies Centre’s founding provided the opportunity to assemble many of Australia’s leading analysts and commentators to review some of the more significant issues that should define Australian defence policy. In the first 20 years after its establishment, SDSC scholars played a prominent role in shaping the ideas and aspirations that eventually found official expression in the 1987 Defence of Australia White Paper. This policy sustaine...
Rasher, Douglas B; Hay, Mark E.
Many seaweeds and terrestrial plants induce chemical defences in response to herbivory, but whether they induce chemical defences against competitors (allelopathy) remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether two tropical seaweeds induce allelopathy in response to competition with a reef-building coral. We also assessed the effects of competition on seaweed growth and seaweed chemical defence against herbivores. Following 8 days of competition with the coral Porites cylindrica, the chemica...
Houston, Alasdair I; Mcnamara, John M.; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C
In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when...
The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type
Göran M Nylund
Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.
Swadhin Swain; Nidhi Singh; Ashis Kumar Nandi
A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1 (cdd1) is an exception. The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene expression profile between cdd1 and wild-type plants as obtained by microarray hybridization. Expression of several defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA insertion mutant lines of selected genes, for resistance against virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant defence against bacterial pathogens.
Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.
Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael
This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV. PMID:25599422
Safety management is a kind of system management, that is management by purposes. Taking "defence-in-depth" strategy, DDS - there can be defined four main aims and four method groups of risk management in transport: 1. minimizing transport accidents risk; 2. minimizing number of undesirable transport events (incidents, conflicts, collisions, accidents). Above purposes relate stages of safety management in transport. At each level of management should be elaborated methods, procedures and technologies of minimizing transport accidents risk. According to DDS any management system of transport safety should have a structure of multilevel chain protections which supervise main transport processes. About those problems in the paper.
Lapkova, Dora; Adamek, Milan
This paper is focused on analysis of a direct punch. Nowadays, professional defence is basic part of effective protection of people and property. There are many striking techniques and the goal of this research was to analyze the direct punch. The analysis is aimed to measure the velocity with help of high speed camera Olympus i-Speed 2 and then find the dependences of this velocity on input parameters. For data analysis two pieces of software were used - i-Speed Control Software and MINITAB. 111 participants took part in this experiment. The results are presented in this paper - especially dependence of mean velocity on time and difference in velocity between genders.
Kluth, Michael Friederich
The European Defence Industry is undergoing consolidation cutting across national borders. This is spurred by European Union policy initiatives and active encouragement by some national governments fearing a US-led global consolidation of the industry. The process in many ways proves challenging as...... paper will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the...
Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... related to sustainability – a Workshop on Traffic. The workshop discussed traffic prognoses and the way they are used in the preparation of urban transport and traffic strategies. Civil engineer Jonas Eliasson spoke about the experience in Sweden of developing a database for traffic prognoses. The main...
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.
This publication contains statewide standards for the civil engineering program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…
Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.
This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)
The paper treats the management of the realization of civil engineering projects or civil engineering buildings construction management, as a complex dynamic process, which entails a large number of strategic and operative decisions which are important for an efficient, cost effective, and economic construction. The management process execution is not possible without the functions such as planning, organizing, coordination and control. Planning as the initial function, important for the fore...
The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs
González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm
Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens. PMID:24392817
The idea that a study of the humanities helps to humanise doctors has become a leitmotif within the field. It is argued that the humanities (especially, literature) help to foster insights beyond those provided by biomedical training. Healthy young medics, it is claimed, can thereby gain significant insights into patienthood, and obtain important skills that may be valuable for their professional life. But the instrumentality of the humanities is not the only justification proffered for its inclusion in medical curricula. In this paper I critically examine the two overarching justifications recurrently cited in the mainstream literature-namely, (1) the instrumental worth and (2) the intrinsic value of the medical humanities in educating doctors. Examining these theses (and focusing on the views of a leading medical humanities scholar) I show that the bifurcation into instrumental versus non-instrumental justifications is not supported by the argumentation. Instead, I find that the particulars of the supposedly intrinsic justifications amount to an unambiguously instrumental defence of the humanities. Contextualizing the present investigation to probe further, I describe a long history of debate about the role of the humanities in British education and find that it rests on unsupported dichotomies (utility vs non-utility, theoretical vs applied, educated vs trained). I conclude that the medical humanities' manifesto would be more intellectually honest and coherent, and provide a more robust defence of its value in medical education, if it chose to embrace a wholly instrumental rationale for its role. PMID:26842744
Olsen, Gorm Rye
thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative......The article questions how strong Europeanisation is as an explanation of administrative changes in EU member states. Denmark has an opt-out from the European cooperation on defence, and, therefore, its defence administration represents a critical or a less likely case to test the Europeanisation...... structures and the decision-making processes in the Ministry of Defence (MoD) have also adapted to the ESDP. The latter example emphasises the strength of top-down Europeanisation as a possible explanation of domestic administrative changes in member states. It is argued that Europeanisation per se is not an...
This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...
Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.
Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.
R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); P. van Baarlen (Peter)
textabstractThe continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to h
Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.
The continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to have evolved
In 2015 the South African Parliament finalised the long awaited new defence review. This document had been a long time in the making and was the result of more than four years of intensive work by the members of the Defence Review Committee. The recommendations envisage an extensive transformatio...
Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Burow, Meike;
In plants, transport processes are important for the reallocation of defence compounds to protect tissues of high value, as demonstrated in the plant model Arabidopsis, in which the major defence compounds, glucosinolates, are translocated to seeds on maturation. The molecular basis for long-dist...
Firth, L.B.; Thompson, R.C.; Bohn, K.; Abbiati, M.; Airoldi, L.; Bouma, T.J.; Bozzeda, F.; Ceccherelli, V.U.; Colangelo, M.A.; Evans, A.; Ferrario, F.; Hanley, M.E.; Hinz, H.; Hoggart, S.P.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Moore, P.; Morgan, E.H.; Perkol-Finkel, S.; Skov, M.W.; Strain, E.M.; van Belzen, J.; Hawkins, S.J.
Coastal defence structures are proliferating as a result of rising sea levels and stormier seas. With the realisation that most coastal infrastructure cannot be lost or removed, research is required into ways that coastal defence structures can be built to meet engineering requirements, whilst also
Newman, D. W.; Beail, N.
Problem: A significant concept in psychodynamic theory and practice is that of defence mechanisms. The identifications of defences is a key task of the therapist and these are then used in the formulation and form part of the therapist's interventions. Case studies of psychotherapy with adults who have intellectual disabilities (IDs) suggest that…
Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten;
Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...
Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea
-old nestlings, and measured the intensity of male and female defence reaction. We measured the frequency of attack flights, intensity of alarm calling and total time spent in view, and then combined these for each individual, in a single defence factor by principal component analysis. All the females arrived to...
Nicholas A Paul
Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.
Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fuchs, Steffen; Takada, Toshiaki; Kataoka, Kazuyoshi [Toshiba International Limited (Japan)
The current defence-in-depth (DiD) concept has been established by the Reactor Harmonization Working Group (RHWG) of Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). Principally the DiD concept was already part of the very early power reactor designs. However, additional considerations have been done in order to take plant conditions into account which are beyond the original design basis. The most recent advancements have been done based on major lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident. Especially for new nuclear reactors it has to be demonstrated that DiD aspects have been considered in their design. Currently Toshiba is adapting its Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) for the European market, at first in Finland. This presentation aims to describe how the new DiD concept has been applied to achieve the safety goals for a modern reactor type and to ensure a design that can be licensed in Western Europe. (orig.)
Mastronicola, Daniela; Falabella, Micol; Forte, Elena; Testa, Fabrizio; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro
The microaerophilic protist Giardia intestinalis is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common intestinal infectious diseases worldwide. The pathogen lacks not only respiratory terminal oxidases (being amitochondriate), but also several conventional antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In spite of this, since living attached to the mucosa of the proximal small intestine, the parasite should rely on an efficient antioxidant system to survive the oxidative and nitrosative stress conditions found in this tract of the human gut. Here, we review current knowledge on the antioxidant defence systems in G. intestinalis, focusing on the progress made over the last decade in the field. The relevance of this research and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:26672398
Craik, David J
Cyclotides are ultra-stable plant proteins that have a circular peptide backbone crosslinked by a cystine knot of disulfide bonds. They are produced in large quantities by plants of the Violaceae and Rubiaceae families and have a role in plant defence against insect predation. As I discuss here, recent studies have begun to reveal how their unique circular topology evolved. Cyclization is achieved by hijacking existing plant proteolytic enzymes and operating them in 'reverse' to form a peptide bond between the N- and C-termini of a linear precursor. Such studies suggest that circular proteins are more common in the plant kingdom than was previously thought, and their exceptional stability has led to their application as protein-engineering templates in drug design. PMID:19423383
B. B. Chaudhuri
Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.
Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
court’s perception. As the contracts had been declared to be in force by a declaratory judgment that was res judicata, the dispute before the CJEU concerned the national interpretation of the principle of res judicata and its application in a State aid context. The CJEU first turned to the principle of......In the annotated judgment a public authority uses the existence of State aid as a defence in a legal action, where its contractual partner aimed to achieve damages and fulfilment of the contracts. The public authority claimed that the contracts were not on market terms, which also was the national...... consistent interpretation, which it considered could provide various solutions for the national court to draw all the necessary consequences of the possible breach of the duty to notify State aid. In the alternative, the CJEU considered the principle of effectiveness and found that due to the fundamental...
Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.
Civil works of PFBR has posed numerous design and construction challenges. Eight safety related nuclear buildings of PFBR are founded on a single raft, first of its kind in Indian nuclear Reactors. Construction of eight interconnected buildings on the common raft has been challenge for construction material transportation. Thus Herculean task, require storage of massive quantities of raw materials and ice. The civil construction scope in PFBR expanded to critical steel fabricated structures integrated with civil works. This includes huge embedment erected to very close tolerances. Large size panels for upper lateral, lower lateral and bottom shields were to be fabricated to intricate contours with tight tolerances and were required to be transported to locations from far off distances; this was well accomplished without loss of tolerances of fabricated structures. Novel construction practices and stringent quality control procedures were implemented to accomplish this critical requirement. Integration of cooling coils inside the safety vessel flanges after completing the reactor vault and safety vessel erection, required special contour bending for numerous reinforcement and development of special construction methodology. The neutron detector box integration with bottom shield was also a construction challenge posed and well addressed by site. Many mock ups were to be carried out for demonstrating the construction procedures and methodology for critical construction activities. Maintaining the stringent requirements such as clean room conditions was a major challenge and was met effectively. Equipment erection in parallel to civil works too required innovative solutions for clean condition maintenance while civil works are in progress. it can be said that the civil construction of PFBR has emerged as a marvel of technology handled professionally by competent engineers deploying scientific construction techniques and stringent quality control procedures. (author)
José Fernández Santillán
Este documento aborda el tema de la democracia desde una perspectiva opuesta al llamado neoinstitucionalismo; es decir, se orienta a analizar los procesos de democratización desde la base de la sociedad civil y, en es pe cial, desde lo que se conoce como el cap i tal so cial. Desde mediados de la década de 1980, el tema de la democracia desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil fue cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia. Esta tendencia se vio reforzada por la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de nov...
France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)
Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.
Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.
Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, riproduce il testo dell’intervento nel dibattito a due voci (con il presidente della Corte costituzionale, Gaetano Silvestri a conclusione del convegno “La Bibbia sulle strade dell’uomo” (Messina, 23 novembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. L’etica civile come etica costituzionale – 2. L’etica evangelica – 3. Irriducibilità? – 4. La promessa e il terzo – 5. La libertà – 6. Il tratto di cammino insieme. Civil Ethic and Evangelical Beatitudes ABSTRACT The differences between civil ethic and religious ethic, that the Author defines as constitutional principles and evangelic Beatitudes, are well known: it’s common knowledge that the ones are effective in the earthly life while the others are oriented to the eternal life. Nevertheless the Author argues that they both have a common feature before that last analysis: they cross as principles of continuing opposition to unjust society, to “unlawful law”, to spreading apart between the constitutional and evangelic must be and the legislative being of positive law.KEY-WORDS: Civil Ethic – Constitution – Evangelical Beatitudes – Differences - Common Feature.
Loewen, James W.
William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.
This program guide presents civil engineering technology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and…
Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…
Robelen, Erik W.
Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…
A convention on the complementary repair of nuclear damages comes and superposes on the Convention of Paris and the Convention of Vienna or national autonomous conventions of nuclear civil liability. In case of accident, a fund would be created to compete the first level of indemnification beyond the contribution of the government. (N.C.)
During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…
van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.
The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore
Wallace, J F
THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737
Leskov, L. V.
The problem of finding extraterrestrial civilizations and establishing contact with them is directly related to the problem of their evolution. Possible patterns in this evolution and the stages in the evolution of extraterrestrial civilizations are examined.
Hugh Collins argues that the European Union should develop a civil code to provide uniform rules for contracts, property rights and protection against civil wrongs, thus drawing together the differing national traditions with respect to the detailed regulation of civil society. The benefits of such a code would lie not so much in facilitating cross border trade, but in establishing foundations for a denser network of transnational relations of civil society, which in turn would help to overco...
Brownlee, Kimberley; Professor Joseph Raz; Dr John Tasioulas
This dissertation examines the moral character of civil disobedience. The discussion begins with a conceptual analysis of civil disobedience which eschews standard definitions in favour of a paradigm case approach, highlighting a parallel between the communicative aspects of civil disobedience and the communicative aspects of lawful punishment by the state. Foundations for a moral evaluation of civil disobedience are then laid down through, first, an examination of the nature ...
Roxana Cristina RADU; Eliza Adela VOICU
An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is...
Anheier, Helmut K.; Kaldor, Mary; Glasius, Marlies
The annual Global Civil Society Yearbooks provide an indispensable guide to global civil society or civic participation and action around the world. Each yearbook includes commissioned contributions from leading commentators across the social sciences on the latest issues and developments. Each yearbook also explores and presents the latest approaches to measuring and analyzing global civil society and provides a chronology of key global civil society events in the year. The 2005/6 Yearbo...
techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though an...
Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012
Since 1968, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) has collected data on key education and civil rights issues in our nation's public schools for use by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), other Department offices, other federal agencies, and by policymakers and researchers outside of the Department. The CRDC has…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action...
... Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), and the NASA implementing regulations (14 CFR parts 1250... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57... REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For any... willfully participates in the violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000. (b) For any willful...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575AC93 Civil Monetary Penalties AGENCY...) proposes to implement two civil monetary penalty provisions. First, RHS proposes to amend its regulations to create a new section, for imposing civil monetary penalties under the authority of 42 U.S.C....
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions. 310.46 Section 310.46 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.46 Civil actions. An individual may file a civil...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780...
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty. Any... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...
... subject to a civil penalty under this part: (1) 10 CFR Part 1017—Identification and Protection of... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 1017.29 Section 1017.29 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Violations § 1017.29 Civil penalty. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66033, Dec. 14,...
... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...
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Abstract:Corroborative evidence is the basis for ascertaining and corroboration rules are proof the rules, plays a corroborative proof function and limiting the discretion of judges. Full study of corroborative evidence in civil procedure rules to use, helps to perfect evidence rules of civil procedure and civil systems.
G. S. Mukherjee
Full Text Available Three words ‘Moseley, Soldier & Science’ in which the last two are so deeply associated with the name of the English scientist Moseley that these have become virtually synonyms of Moseley in the context of remembrance of the professional contribution and character of the unique soldier-scientist Moseley because these two words are very special for him in the sense that they often are essential to understand the personality of iconic Moseley. His keen interest in the service of Science as researcher and on the other hand, his involvement in the Defence services as soldier is really unique example of personification of total commitment to the cause of defence of his country and his deep dedication for the cause of unfolding the scientific truth towards building up a way forward to enrich human history. Moseley’s dual personalities as a scientist and as a soldier rest on the framework of Science & Defence in which the ideas and appeal of Science is universal whereas the ideals of a soldier in Defence is purely national and personal; and that was manifested in his attitude and approach - so intimate and so intense that it would not be inappropriate to say that ‘Service to Science’ and ‘Service to Defence’ for this real world, as Moseley exemplified were in a way virtually two sides of the same coin. Thus, Moseley is truly a composite personality which can be understood from his passion for Science as essentially meant for global cause but his zeal as soldier for Defence was pristine and core to his heart. In fact, often such deeply motivated men contribute for creation of history of this real composite world.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(4, pp.343-345, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4873
David W. Archer
Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.
Woodward, Ruth M.
The terahertz (1 THz = 1012 Hz, 3 mm or 33 cm-1) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is typically defined in the frequency range 100 GHz to 10 THz, corresponding to a wavelength range of 3 mm to 30 microns. Owing to a lack of suitable coherent sources and detectors, this region has only been investigated in earnest in the last ten years for terrestrial imaging and spectroscopy applications. Its role in the medical, pharmaceutical, non-destructive testing and more recently security industries is now being examined. The terahertz frequency range is of particular interest since it is able to probe several molecular interactions including the intermolecular vibrations, large amplitude vibrations and twisting and torsional modes. Molecules have also shown polarization sensitivity to the incident terahertz radiation. The ability of terahertz radiation to investigate conformational change makes it an important part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Terahertz radiation has the potential to provide additional information, which may complement other optically based sensing technologies. The use of terahertz technology in the security and defence industry is discussed, with a specific focus on biological and chemical sensing. The challenges faced in bringing terahertz technology into the market place will be discussed.
Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.
Dirk J. Geldenhuys
Full Text Available Orientation: This article deals with the unconscious role of risk management in an African country.Research purpose: The aim of the study is to describe how risk management unconsciously influences behaviour when doing business in an African country.Motivation for the study: Operational risk management is a rational management imperative. However, this does not take cognisance of the unconscious role of risk management. A systems-psychodynamic perspective might be particularly relevant if the anxiety implied in risk management is not appropriately contained. Awareness of these dynamics may provide an opportunity for addressing them and allow for a more holistic way of managing risk.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study as a qualitative case study in an African country. They used purposive sampling and analysed the data using qualitative content analysis.Main findings: Viewing risk management from a systems-psychodynamic perspective allowed the researchers to identify the influence of risk management on the behaviour of people. The emerging hypothesis was that, if businesses do not address the anxiety underlying risk management, managing risk becomes a social defence against the anxiety.Practical/managerial implications: Awareness of the anxiety involved in risk management may assist businesses to manage risk in a more realistic way, making provision for, and even capitalising on, the human element.Contributions/value-add: The article provides a systems-psychodynamic, and hence a more complete, perspective of operational risk management when doing business in an African country.
Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz
Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275
Wiesel, Lea; Davis, Jayne L; Milne, Linda; Redondo Fernandez, Vanesa; Herold, Miriam B; Middlefell Williams, Jill; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; Harrower, Brian; Newton, Adrian C; Birch, Paul R J; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Hein, Ingo
Phytohormones are involved in diverse aspects of plant life including the regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as governing biotic and abiotic stress responses. We have generated a comprehensive transcriptional reference map of the early potato responses to exogenous application of the defence hormones abscisic acid, brassinolides (applied as epibrassinolide), ethylene (applied as the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid), salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (applied as methyl jasmonate). Of the 39000 predicted genes on the microarray, a total of 2677 and 2473 genes were significantly differentially expressed at 1 h and 6 h after hormone treatment, respectively. Specific marker genes newly identified for the early hormone responses in potato include: a homeodomain 20 transcription factor (DMG400000248) for abscisic acid; a SAUR gene (DMG400016561) induced in epibrassinolide treated plants; an osmotin gene (DMG400003057) specifically enhanced by aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; a gene weakly similar to AtWRKY40 (DMG402007388) that was induced by salicylic acid; and a jasmonate ZIM-domain protein 1 (DMG400002930) which was specifically activated by methyl jasmonate. An online database has been set up to query the expression patterns of potato genes represented on the microarray that can also incorporate future microarray or RNAseq-based expression studies. PMID:26477733
Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel
Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.
In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown. PMID:22288539
van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels; Netea, Mihai G
The innate arm of the immune system is generally viewed as primitive and non-specific and - in contrast to the adaptive immune arm - not to possess memory. However in plants and invertebrate animals that lack adaptive immunity, innate immunity will exhibit a prolonged enhanced functional state after adequate priming. A similar enhancement of function of the innate immunity has occasionally been described in vertebrates, including humans. Over the past few years we have studied this phenomenon in greater detail and we have coined the term 'Trained (innate) immunity' (TI). TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, of which we have studied BCG and β-glucan in greater detail. The non-specific protective effects of BCG that have been observed in vaccination studies in the literature are probably due to TI. Monocytes and macrophages are among the main cells of the innate immune arm that can be trained. We have discovered that both BCG (via NOD2 signalling) and β-glucan (via dectin-1) induce epigenetic reprogramming, in particular stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. These epigenetic changes lead to cellular activation, enhanced cytokine production and a change in the metabolic state of the cell with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. TI is not only important for host defence and vaccine responses, but most probably also for diseases like atherosclerosis. Modulation of TI is a promising area for new treatments. PMID:26597205
Full Text Available In recent times the SA Defence Force (SADF has been bombarded with a variety of methods and approaches to the improvement of productivity, financial savings and, most recently, for quality of work life or quality assurance. Various approaches have included the concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM, Quality Circles (and variants in the guise of Triads and others, Methodology, Unit Management Systems, Cost Control Systems, Deterministic Productivity Accounting and the Iike. There have been many benefits to be found in these various approaches, each of which concentrates on certain aspects of productivity. That there have been great achievements in productivity in the SADF is a matter of record, a record which is reflected in a National Award for Productivity, a smaller more efficient SADF, and a reputation for submitting more recommendations for improvements than other departments in the Public Service. At a more personal level though, the writer has gained the impression that no or very little attempt has been made to integrate selected aspects of these approaches into an overall "productivity” strategy acceptable to the SADF. That there is a need for such an overall strategy is clear from the sentiments expressed recently by the members of the SADF's Productivity Co-ordination Committee when attempting to indicate the way ahead to even greater productivity in the SADF (Meeting, January 1991. In this paper a strategy for the improvement of productivity and the quality of work life which is acceptable to the SADF is proposed.
Zvonko Biljecki; Goran Gugić; Aida Osmanagić; Stipica Pavičić; Mladen Rapaić; Petra Sajko; Tomislav Tonković; Daniel Vencler; Željko Železnjak
One of the goals that Partnership for Peace has set, within domain of geospatial information, is the implementation of a military geoinformation system. Besides this important strategic objective for the Republic of Croatia, the military geoinformation system will enhance activities of the Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces and in such way improve national defence and cooperation with NATO members and members of the Partnership for Peace. This paper describes overall system principles based...
Dostálek, Tomáš; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pavela, Roman; Münzbergová, Zuzana
The type and intensity of plant-herbivore interactions are likely to be altered under climate change as a consequence of differential dispersal rates of plants and their herbivores. Here, we studied variation in herbivore damage on Salvia nubicola in the field and compared its growth and defence strategies against herbivores in controlled conditions using seeds from populations along a broad altitudinal gradient. Our work is one of the first studies to simultaneously measure complex intraspecific variation in plant growth, direct and indirect defences as well as plant tolerance (ability to regrow) as a consequence of herbivore attack simulated by clipping. In the field, we found that plants experienced higher herbivore pressure in lower altitudes. In the greenhouse, plants grown from seeds collected in lower-altitude populations grew better and produced a higher content of phenolic compounds (direct defence) and volatile organic compounds (indirect defence) in response to simulated herbivory. However, there were no differences in tolerance and effect of S. nubicola extracts on the model generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis (direct defence) along the altitudinal gradient. Although we found that S. nubicola developed a range of defence strategies, the strategies do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with altitudinal gradient. Our finding is in agreement with the current knowledge that co-expression of multiple defences might be costly for a plant, since investment in defensive traits is assumed to reduce the resource availability for growth and reproduction. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding these trade-offs could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with future climate change. PMID:27169609
The training environment of the Irish Defence Forces: integrated training and bullying in the workplace In this chapter I will refer to recruit and cadet training within the defence forces in light of international trends in integrated training. Following the consideration of ‘commitment’ in terms of numbers of women recruited to the organisation in chapter five, this chapter assesses the “education” component of the setting (Reskin and Padavic, 1994). Through an examination of archival dat...
Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Wiklund, Christer
Long-lived butterflies that hibernate as adults are expected to have well-developed antipredation devices as a result of their long exposure to natural enemies. The peacock butterfly, Inachis io, for instance, is a cryptic leaf mimic when resting, but shifts to active defence when disturbed, performing a repeated sequence of movements exposing major eyespots on the wings accompanied by a hissing noise. We studied the effect of visual and auditory defence by staging experiments in which wild-c...
Dutertre, Sébastien; Jin, Ai-Hua; Vetter, Irina; Hamilton, Brett; Sunagar, Kartik; Lavergne, Vincent; Dutertre, Valentin; Fry, Bryan G.; Antunes, Agostinho; Venter, Deon J.; Alewood, Paul F.; Lewis, Richard J.
Venomous animals are thought to inject the same combination of toxins for both predation and defence, presumably exploiting conserved target pharmacology across prey and predators. Remarkably, cone snails can rapidly switch between distinct venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimuli. Here, we show that the defence-evoked venom of Conus geographus contains high levels of paralytic toxins that potently block neuromuscular receptors, consistent with its lethal effects on humans. In con...
The innate immunity is the first line defence against invading pathogens, such as the facultative intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. It senses microorganisms by so-called pattern recognition receptors, e.g. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and initiates subsequent defence mechanisms. Recent studies indicated an important role of type I interferons in bacterial infections. Moreover, genetic studies in different mice strains demonstrated that different alleles of the Nod-...
Dostálek, Tomáš; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pavela, Roman; Münzbergová, Zuzana
The type and intensity of plant–herbivore interactions are likely to be altered under climate change as a consequence of differential dispersal rates of plants and their herbivores. Here, we studied variation in herbivore damage on Salvia nubicola in the field and compared its growth and defence strategies against herbivores in controlled conditions using seeds from populations along a broad altitudinal gradient. Our work is one of the first studies to simultaneously measure complex intraspecific variation in plant growth, direct and indirect defences as well as plant tolerance (ability to regrow) as a consequence of herbivore attack simulated by clipping. In the field, we found that plants experienced higher herbivore pressure in lower altitudes. In the greenhouse, plants grown from seeds collected in lower-altitude populations grew better and produced a higher content of phenolic compounds (direct defence) and volatile organic compounds (indirect defence) in response to simulated herbivory. However, there were no differences in tolerance and effect of S. nubicola extracts on the model generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis (direct defence) along the altitudinal gradient. Although we found that S. nubicola developed a range of defence strategies, the strategies do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with altitudinal gradient. Our finding is in agreement with the current knowledge that co-expression of multiple defences might be costly for a plant, since investment in defensive traits is assumed to reduce the resource availability for growth and reproduction. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding these trade-offs could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with future climate change. PMID:27169609
Paul Dunne; Richard Haines
In post-Apartheid South Africa, the ANC Government faced the challenge of restructuring an unsustainably large defence sector. This was in the context of economic and social problems and a declining international arms market. This paper considers the restructuring of the South African industry over that period and more recently, providing a valuable case study of defence industrial restructuring in a small industrialised economy. It considers how the public sector (DENEL) and private sector r...
Bardin, Marc; Comby, Morgane; Lenaerts, Ruben; Nicot, Philippe
The development of plant defence stimulants to increase host resistance represents anattractive alternative to fungicides for the protection of crops against plant pathogens. In this study we evaluated the efficiency of 14 products presumed to induce plant defence mechanisms against Botrytis cinerea on tomato and lettuce. Two days after the application of the products, tomato and lettuce leaves were inoculated with B. cinerea and incubated in conditions conducive to disease development.Out...
Full Text Available This article presents preliminary findings on current environmental management practices used by the South African National Defence Force (SANDF at the Grahamstown Military Installation (GMI. These findings comprise interviews with SANDF officials and an analysis of official documents, which include the first and second editions of the Environmental Management Plan for Defence (2001 & 2008 respectively. The study on which this article reports, found that the emphasis placed on environmental protection within defence force activities worldwide has compelled the South African Department of Defence and Military Veterans (SA DODMV to regulate the management of the environment within its properties. Yet, these efforts have faced numerous challenges that range from financial to human resources deficiencies. Consequently, the military installation at Grahamstown does not have environmentally knowledgeable and qualified personnel to deal with environmental issues. From the analysis of official documents as well as interviews with respondents, it was established that the SA DODMV itself does not have a budget for environmental services. The combination of all these drawbacks has led to the failure of the implementation of the Environmental Management System (EMS for Defence at this military installation (i.e. GMI of the SANDF. Undoubtedly, all these challenges have severely compromised the commitment of the SA DODMV to honour its environmental management obligations. Moreover, the deficiencies of all these resources undermine the sustainable utilisation of these national assets (natural resources entrusted to the defence force. The study reported here proposes an ideal model for the successful implementation of the EMS in SANDF military installations.
Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M
The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. PMID:23758201
Mahr, Katharina; Riegler, Georg; Hoi, Herbert
Do parents defend their offspring whenever necessary, and do self-sacrificing parents really exist? Studies recognized that parent defence is dynamic, mainly depending on the threat predators pose. In this context, parental risk management should consider the threat to themselves and to their offspring. Consequently, the observed defence should be a composite of both risk components. Surprisingly, no study so far has determined the influence of these two threat components on parental decision rules. In a field experiment, we investigated parental risk taking in relation to the threat posed to themselves and their offspring. To disentangle the two threat components, we examined defence behaviours of parent blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus towards three different predators and during different nestling developmental stages. Nest defence strategies in terms of alarm call intensity and nearest predator approach differed between the three predators. Defence intensity was only partly explained by threat level. Most importantly, parental risk management varied in relation to their own, but not offspring risk. Parent defence investment was independent of nestling risk when parents followed a high-risk strategy. However, parents considered nestling as well as parental risk when following a low-risk strategy. Our findings could have general implications for the economy of risk management and decision-making strategies in living beings, including humans. PMID:25392467
Civil works of PFBR has posed numerous design and construction challenges. Eight safety related nuclear buildings of PFBR are founded on a single raft, first of its kind in Indian nuclear Reactors. Construction of eight interconnected buildings on the common raft has been challenge for construction material transportation. The construction of Nuclear Island Connected Buildings (NICB) raft was completed in three and a half months. This massive 100mx100m raft for NICB, requiring 35000 cubic meter of concrete was undertaken in twelve pours. This Herculean task required storage of massive quantities of raw materials and ice. The construction of Turbo Generator (TG) building including TG mat and deck and interconnection with NICB posed enormous construction challenges that were well planned and executed. The intake and outfall structures too are exemplary construction handled effectively at PFBR. The excavation for the nuclear and power islands was large and deep. Rock out crops were found starting at various depths of excavation, requiring extensive planning controlled blasting and mechanization in excavation. This also required innovative dewatering procedures in sandy terrain often mixed with clay. Ground water table at PFBR site being high, water proofing for massive underground structure of PFBR was required to be carefully engineered and handled. This started with innovative grouting of excavated strata below the raft till required permeability was met and bone dry condition was achieved for laying of waterproofing membranes. Concurrent construction and regulatory reviews and stage wise clearance for civil construction required dynamic construction planning and sequencing. The scope of civil construction in PFBR expands to critical steel fabricated structures integrated with civil works. This includes huge embedment erected to very close tolerances. Large size panels for upper lateral, lower lateral and bottom shields were fabricated to intricate contours with
Tonias, Elias C
This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice. A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.
The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...
The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...
The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP)
José Luis MARTIN RAMOS
Full Text Available Although much of it communicational and even propagandistic in nature, there is now an abundance of Catalan literature on the Civil War. The study of the war in Catalonia has obviously made progress, in particular through a larger exploitation of primary sources, and has overcome its over-reliance on personal memoirs, recollections and oral testimonies. However, there is still a predominant focus on the period ending in May 1937. The consequence is a significant lack of scientific knowledge on what happened from that date until the end of the war. Moreover, some recurring stereotypes subsist, such as the notion that the Civil War was not truly an internal, civil confrontation but rather an act of aggression against Catalonia. There exists also the “moral excuse” for so-called “revolutionary violence” during the first months of the war, as opposed to the unreserved condemnation of the institutional repression carried out by the Government of the Republic in legitimate self-defence.
Mediation is one of the few mechanisms the international community can deploy that will affect civil wars. This article introduces the dataset on mediation in civil wars – termed the Civil War Mediation (CWM) dataset. This is the first dataset to focus solely on civil war mediation. These data contribute to the present state of quantitative research on mediation in three important respects: the data are collected for the period of 1946–2004, are organized by mediation cases and by civil war e...
Rrustem Qehaja; Elza Bajrami
This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it ...
Author analyses (a) the causes leading to the Afghan Civil War 1979-1989 (the war is above all the result of global rivalries between the super-power states and conflicting political systems); (b) Politburo decision to send Soviet troops into Afghanistan (there is reason to believe that the leaders of the Soviet Union became "victims" of strategic misinformation, skillfully put into effect by American intelligence agencies); (c) the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan (brought about an...
Donna Livesey; Craig Taylor; Pete Jones
Presents a summary of annual statistics, previously produced by the Cabinet Office and now the responsibility of ONS.This article presents a summary of annual Civil Service statistics for the year ending 30 September 2006, as published in July 2007. Previously produced by the Cabinet Office, responsibility for the collection and publication of these statistics is now with the Office for National Statistics (ONS). This transfer of responsibility was outlined in an ‘In brief’ article in the Feb...
Power plant structures are conspicuously visible and have an impact on our landscape. In the opinion of a critical public, a successful external design can greatly enhance acceptance of an undertaking and its plants. This paper considers the subjects - utilization of by-products, aggregation of series experience in the construction of nuclear power plants, architecture in power plant construction, water works for adequate cooling water supply and also quality assurance in civil engineering and optimum application of electronic data processing. (orig.)
Engelbach, Wolf; Kloyber, Christian; Rigaud, Eric; Wendt, Willi
International audience Civil Society Resilience is an area of crisis management that is complementary to professional response. Crisis managers and response organizations need to integrate individuals, communities and local governments in their management efforts, among others by efficient crisis communication via media and the mobilization and handling of citizens as spontaneous volunteers. DRIVER aims at a campaign of experiments: organizational concepts and IT-solutions will be iterativ...
The events of September 11 have cast a new light on the perceived security of the world's nuclear facilities. Although concerns have persisted that governments might want to divert nuclear material from civil use to secret weapons programs - recent developments in North Korea validate such concerns - the terrorist attacks on US soil have inspired new fears for nuclear sites of insider threats that, if acted upon, could result in either outright sabotage of the facility or diversion of materials, potentially for future terrorist activities. Further, these concerns have increased the importance of preventing material stolen from nuclear facilities in countries with relatively weak security measures from being trafficked illicitly to and used against prime terrorist targets (industrialized countries of Europe and North America). Without international agreements and standards to guide their efforts, the international nonproliferation community now faces these newly emerged challenges of how to protect nuclear materials from insider threats and how to block diverted materials from reaching terrorist hands. The following paper will explore opportunities for agreed-upon and proven integrated safeguards equipment to be used both to counter the insider threat at nuclear facilities by automatically supervising oversight authorities, and to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by observing personnel and procedures at civil installations. To conclude, the paper will look to future civil applications of safeguards equipment as support for international counter-terrorism and security efforts
Studies carried out within the last ten years on the nature and distribution of extraterrestrial intelligent life are reviewed. Arguments for the absence of intelligent life in the Galaxy based on the assumption that at least some of these would have engaged in colonization and for the presence of colonies of extraterrestrials in some undiscovered location in the solar system are presented, and it is noted that both these views rest on the notion that interstellar travel can be achieved at high velocities in very large vehicles, which has been questioned. Alternative suggestions concerning interstellar exploration by automated probes and the possible extended time scale and motivation for galactic colonization are pointed out. Attention is then given to arguments for the extreme smallness of one of the factors in the Drake equation used to estimate the number of communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Galaxy, including the frequency of single stars, the likelihood that planets with the correct initial composition and conditions for life are at the proper distance from their stars, the probability of the formation of DNA and the origin of life, and the time for the evolution of intelligence. It is concluded that it seems likely that other civilizations exist in the Galaxy, although the number and distribution of such civilizations may only be determined by the detection of one or more examples.
One of the most dangerous forms of terrorism is nuclear and radiological terrorism, including threats by terrorists to use so called dirty bombs. The Russian Federation?s national security concept recognizes the possibility of a terrorist threat arising in practically any sphere of State activity. The threat of nuclear or radiological terrorism is considered an integral part in the overall problem of ensuring national security. Without doubt, reliable physical protection of nuclear material and a reliable system of accounting for and control of nuclear material and radioactive substances play a key role in preventing and countering possible acts of nuclear and radiological terrorism. Clearly, however, the problem of combating the manifestations of nuclear and radiological terrorism cannot be solved by physical protection measures alone. Considering that the whole threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism is conditional upon the possibility of illicit trafficking in nuclear material and radioactive substances and their illegal possession or transport in a State?s territory, across its customs boundaries or in transit across its territory, national systems for responding to the threat of terrorism must be designed as an informational and logical whole integrated with the system for combating illicit trafficking in nuclear material and radioactive substances. Generally speaking, the term ?second line of defence? refers to the set of measures to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear material and radioactive substances at the next level above the nuclear facility. This level can be the territory of a country or its border. The ?second line of defence and countermeasures against nuclear and radiological terrorism? means coordinated actions taken by federal bodies of the executive power whose functional duties include the prevention of terrorist acts in general, and by law enforcement bodies, ministries, departments and organizations directly concerned with the use of
Van Rooijen Nico
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice with genetic deficiencies in adaptive immunity are used for the grafting of human cells or pathogens, to study human diseases, however, the innate immune responses to xenografts in these mice has received little attention. Using the NOD/SCID Plasmodium falciparum mouse model an analysis of innate defences responsible for the substantial control of P. falciparum which remains in such mice, was performed. Methods NOD/SCID mice undergoing an immunomodulatory protocol that includes, clodronate-loaded liposomes to deplete macrophages and an anti-polymorphonuclear leukocytes antibody, were grafted with human red blood cells and P. falciparum. The systematic and kinetic analysis of the remaining innate immune responses included the number and phenotype of peripheral blood leukocytes as well as inflammatory cytokines/chemokines released in periphery. The innate responses towards the murine parasite Plasmodium yoelii were used as a control. Results Results show that 1 P. falciparum induces a strong inflammation characterized by an increase in circulating leukocytes and the release of inflammatory cytokines; 2 in contrast, the rodent parasite P. yoelii, induces a far more moderate inflammation; 3 human red blood cells and the anti-inflammatory agents employed induce low-grade inflammation; and 4 macrophages seem to bear the most critical function in controlling P. falciparum survival in those mice, whereas polymorphonuclear and NK cells have only a minor role. Conclusions Despite the use of an immunomodulatory treatment, immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice are still able to mount substantial innate responses that seem to be correlated with parasite clearance. Those results bring new insights on the ability of innate immunity from immunodeficient mice to control xenografts of cells of human origin and human pathogens.
Probably the oldest and most widespread antimicrobial strategy in living organisms is the use of antimicrobial peptides. Bacteria secrete such defence peptides, termed bacteriocins, that they use for microbial competitions. Microcins are bacteriocins of less than 10 kDa produced by Escherichia coli and related enterobacteria through the ribosomal pathway. They are synthesized as linear precursors, which can further undergo complex post-translational modifications resulting from dedicated maturation enzymes encoded in the microcin gene clusters, and are processed by proteolytic cleavage. Microcins exert potent bactericidal activities that use subtle and clever mechanisms to cross outer and inner membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. To cross the outer membrane, siderophore-microcins hijack receptors involved in iron acquisition. The lasso-peptide microcin J25, which is characterized by a knotted arrangement where the C-terminal tail is threaded through an N-terminal macrolactam ring, uses a hydroxamate siderophore receptor and the inner-membrane protein SbmA for import in sensitive bacteria, where it inhibits bacterial transcription through binding to RNAP (RNA polymerase). Microcin C produced as a heptapeptide adenylate, requires an outer-membrane porin and an inner-membrane ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporter to reach the cytoplasm of target bacteria, where it is processed by proteases into a non-hydrolysable aspartyl-adenylate analogue. Therefore, despite showing different killing mechanisms and the absence of any structural homology, microcins have the common characteristic to use Trojan horse strategies to destroy their competitors. They offer new and promising tracks for further design and engineering of novel efficient antibiotics. PMID:23176498
Y. S. Rajan
Full Text Available The design of a suitable system for image data processing, analysis and applications in Defence is governed by users' requirements during peace time and prehostility/hostility period. The users need timely information and image products for decision-making. The product specifications in terms of their scale, geometrical accuracy, information content, and turnaround time among other things are crucial for the design of systems. The systems are not complete without efficient software for information extraction and analysis and for aiding decision-making process. Usually, the base data is from high resolution remote sensing systems, both airborne and spaceborne, and also from conventional sources, like topomap and other intelligence gathering mechanisms. The database thus evolved is basic and vital for a decision support system. The sensors providing input to the database creation could be airborne high resolution camera systems, high resolution synthetic aperture radar systems and thermal imaging systems operating from a stand-off range of 50 to 100 km, or from high resolution spaceborne panchromatic optical and synthetic aperture radar imagery. High resolution stereo data from airborne and spaceborne sensors are also increasingly needed for image interpretation and analysis. The digital elevation data is another important information, derived from either existing topographic maps or high resolution space stereo imagery. The system also should cater to a large information archival/retrieval system and data dissimination system for the users spread far and wide. This may call for to and fro traffic between central operational system and units spread over different locations, preferably, through high speed satellite communication channels. Finally, the total system should have reliability, data security, adequate redundancy, user-friendliness and be efficient enough to provide timely information transfer for the decision makers. This paper discusses
Full Text Available Eales′ disease (ED is an idiopathic retinal periphlebitis characterized by capillary non-perfusion and neovascularization. In addition to the existing system, a new staging system has been proposed by Saxena et al . Immunological, molecular biological and biochemical studies have indicated the role of human leucocyte antigen, retinal S antigen autoimmunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, free radical damage and possibly hyperhomocysteinemia in its etiopathogenesis, which appears multifactorial. Oxidant stress has been shown by increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid oxidation in the vitreous, erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. A decrease in vitamins E and C both in active and healed vasculitis, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase showed a weakened antioxidant defence. Epiretinal membrane from patients of ED who underwent surgery showed, by immunolocalization, presence of carboxy methyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product formed by glycoxidation and is involved in angiogenesis. OH· free radical accumulation in monocytes has been directly shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radical damage to DNA and of protein was shown by the accumulation of 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine (in leucocytes and nitrotyrosine (in monocytes, respectively. Nitrosative stress was shown by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in monocytes in which levels of iron and copper were increased while those of zinc decreased. A novel 88 kDa protein was found in serum and vitreous in inflammatory condition and had antioxidant function. Platelet fluidity was also affected. Oral, methotrexate in low dosage (12.5 mg/week for 12 weeks as well as oral vitamin E (400 IU and C (500 mg daily for 8 weeks are reported to have beneficial effects.
Lynch, Z R; Schlenke, T A; de Roode, J C
It may be intuitive to predict that host immune systems will evolve to counter a broad range of potential challenges through simultaneous investment in multiple defences. However, this would require diversion of resources from other traits, such as growth, survival and fecundity. Therefore, ecological immunology theory predicts that hosts will specialize in only a subset of possible defences. We tested this hypothesis through a comparative study of a cellular immune response and a putative behavioural defence used by eight fruit fly species against two parasitoid wasp species (one generalist and one specialist). Fly larvae can survive infection by melanotically encapsulating wasp eggs, and female flies can potentially reduce infection rates in their offspring by laying fewer eggs when wasps are present. The strengths of both defences varied significantly but were not negatively correlated across our chosen host species; thus, we found no evidence for a trade-off between behavioural and cellular immunity. Instead, cellular defences were significantly weaker against the generalist wasp, whereas behavioural defences were similar in strength against both wasps and positively correlated between wasps. We investigated the adaptive significance of wasp-induced oviposition reduction behaviour by testing whether wasp-exposed parents produce offspring with stronger cellular defences, but we found no support for this hypothesis. We further investigated the sensory basis of this behaviour by testing mutants deficient in either vision or olfaction, both of which failed to reduce their oviposition rates in the presence of wasps, suggesting that both senses are necessary for detecting and responding to wasps. PMID:26859227
Full Text Available This article revisits some of the main arguments presented (in the South African context since the late 1990s in relation to the regional security demands placed on the South African National Defence Force (SANDF on the one hand, and the configuration of the force design imposed on the SANDF on the other. These issues are of great relevance to the South African Department of Defence’s recent (2012 official pronouncements and related defence thinking on the current and future external role of the South African military, specifically with regard to post-conflict reconstruction and development. The aim of the article is to examine the dynamics of recent years – philosophical and practical – that gave rise to the policy “move” or “shift” from defence in a democracy (1998 to defence, security and development (2012.[i] In addition, the article aims to analyse and discuss the new comprehensive guidelines for defence force design in the Draft Defence Review 2012 and reflects on some of the most important policy implications for the SANDF in this regard – specifically given the demands placed on the SANDF in the field of post-conflict reconstruction and development. The author contends that the Department of Defence has now gained a clearer idea or perspective of what the future role(s of the South African military should be through the assessment of its function, principles and goals expounded in the Draft Defence Review 2012. [i] At the time of writing it was planned to replace the Defence Review 1998, which was published under the theme of Defence in a democracy, with a new Defence Review 2012, to be published under the theme Defence, security, development.
Oluwafemi, Sunday; Dewhirst, Sarah Y.; Veyrat, Nathalie; Powers, Stephen; Bruce, Toby J.A.; Caulfield, John C.; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A.
cis-Jasmone (CJ) is a natural plant product that activates defence against herbivores in model and crop plants. In this study, we investigated whether CJ could prime defence in maize, Zea mays, against the leafhopper, Cicadulina storeyi, responsible for the transmission of maize streak virus (MSV). Priming occurs when a pre-treatment, in this case CJ, increases the potency and speed of a defence response upon subsequent attack on the plant. Here, we tested insect responses to plant volatile o...
Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15
Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez
Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo), sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una edu...
Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M
Extrafloral (EF) nectaries recruit carnivorous arthropods that protect plants from herbivory, but they can also be exploited by nectar thieves. We studied the opportunistic, targeted predation (and destruction) of EF nectaries by insects, and the localized chemical defences that plants presumably use to minimize this effect. In field and laboratory experiments, we identified insects that were possibly responsible for EF nectary predation in Vicia faba (fava bean) and determined the extent and accuracy of the feeding damage done to the EF nectaries by these insects. We also performed biochemical analyses of plant tissue samples in order to detect microscale distribution patterns of chemical defences in the area of the EF nectary. We observed selective, targeted feeding on EF nectaries by several insect species, including some that are otherwise not primarily herbivorous. Biochemical analyses revealed high concentrations of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a non-protein amino acid that is toxic to insects, near and within the EF nectaries. These results suggest that plants allocate defences to the protection of EF nectaries from predation, consistent with expectations of optimal defence theory, and that this may not be entirely effective, as insects limit their exposure to these defences by consuming only the secreting tissue of the nectary. PMID:26446809
K. Imroze; N. G. Prasad
Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune defence is affected by their mates. We assess the effect of different sized males on antibacterial immune defence and reproductive fitness of their mates. We used a large outbred population of Drososphila melanogaster as the host and Serratia marcescens as the pathogen. We generated three different male phenotypes: small, medium and large, by manipulating larval densities. Compared to females mating with small males, those mating with large males had higher bacterial loads and lower fecundity. There was no significant effect of male phenotype on the fraction of females mated or copulation duration (an indicator of ejaculate investment). Thus, our study is the first clear demonstration that male phenotype can affect the cost of mating to females in terms of their antibacterial immune defence. Mating with large males imposes an additional cost of mating to females in terms of reduced immune defence. The observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the ejaculates of the three different types of males. If the phenotypic variation that we observed in males in our study is mirrored by genetic variation, then, it can potentially lead to antagonistic coevolution of the sexes over immune defence.
Oexle, S; Jansen, M; Pauwels, K; Sommaruga, R; De Meester, L; Stoks, R
Natural populations can cope with rapid changes in stressors by relying on sets of physiological defence mechanisms. Little is known onto what extent these physiological responses reflect plasticity and/or genetic adaptation, evolve in the same direction and result in an increased defence ability. Using resurrection ecology, we studied how a natural Daphnia magna population adjusted its antioxidant defence to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during a period with increasing incident UVR reaching the water surface. We demonstrate a rapid evolution of the induction patterns of key antioxidant enzymes under UVR exposure in the laboratory. Notably, evolutionary changes strongly differed among enzymes and mainly involved the evolution of UV-induced plasticity. Whereas D. magna evolved a strong plastic up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase under UVR, it evolved a lower plastic up-regulation of glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase and a plastic down-regulation of catalase. The differentially evolved antioxidant strategies were collectively equally effective in dealing with oxidative stress because they resulted in the same high levels of oxidative damage (to lipids, proteins and DNA) and lowered fitness (intrinsic growth rate) under UVR exposure. The lack of better protection against UVR may suggest that the UVR exposure did not increase between both periods. Predator-induced evolution to migrate to lower depths that occurred during the same period may have contributed to the evolved defence strategy. Our results highlight the need for a multiple trait approach when focusing on the evolution of defence mechanisms. PMID:27018861
Satinder K. Brar
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to adjudge the soil quality of two sites at the defence establishments in India. Various soil samples were collected from the surface and up to 20 cm depth (subsurface as per apportioned gridding method. These samples were subjected to air drying for 15 days and were characterised for various parameters. The soil is clayey and loamy with granular blocky structure on both the sites. The pH ranged from 7.1 to 7.72 0.1 for site I and from 5.5 to 8.0 f 0.1 for site 11; salinity and bulk density ranged from 0.1 per cent to 8 per cent and from 1.2 glcm3 to 1.5 g/cm3, respectively and soil moisture was about 0.4 f 1 per cent for both the sites. Similarly, total Kjeldahl nitrogen ranged from 1100 mg kg-' to 1900 mg kg-' for site I and 1700 mg kg-' to 9000 mg kg ' for site I1 and total organic carbon ranged from 18 mg g-' to 75 mg g ' for both the sites. A good correlation between nitrate concentration and various explosive process activities has been observed which gives substantial evidence in terms of contamination of the soil. High performance liquid chromatography analysis, which shows varied concentrations of RDX-HMX, NB, DNB, DNT, and TNT in the respective ranges 0.003-2.300 rng g-1, 0.002-0.350 mg g~1, 0.002-0.550 mg g-1, 0.004-0.041 mg g-1 and 0.010- 0.050 mg g-1 for site 1 and 0.002 - 0.013 mg g-1, 0.005 - 0.350 mg g-1, 0.003 - 0.080 mg g-1, 0.001- 0.100 mg g-1, 0.0001- 0.044 mg g ~a1n d 6*10-6- 0.080 mg g-1 for sites I1 has also indicated the contamination of soil by nitro-organics. These results serve as a valuable database for an ongoing project on the development of phytoremediation technology to detoxify such sites.
Helmut K. Anheier; Katz, Hagai; Lam, Marcus
In its focus on the relationships between civil society activity across the political spectrum, communications and democratic change, Global Civil Society 2007/8 explores how activists and organisations are exploiting the effects of globalisation to create or expand spaces for debate and discussion, often using new forms of communications, even in closed regimes such as Burma, Iran and China. In addition to a focus on the civil society activity in illiberal regimes, this edition of the Yearbo...
This book presents a study on democracy and civil society in non-Western countries. Like other discourse on democracy and modernization, civil society emerged in the West with its specific culture and tradition. Therefore the development of discourse on civil society in non-Western countries has raised a question: Is a social system that emerged in a particular culture compatible to a society with different culture and tradition? Among other things, the book edited by Robert W. Hefner i...
Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.
Sean Bolks; Richard Stoll
Samuel Huntington's article and book on the clash of civilizations has created a great deal of controversy and interest. The focus of this is his assertion that in the post-Cold War era, there will be significant conflict between states from Western civilization and states from Islamic civilization. This assertion has been the subject of a number of systematic empirical studies (Henderson, 1997, 1998; Henderson and Tucker, 2001; Russett, Oneal and Cox, 2000; Chiozza, 2002). These studies shar...
Abdibekov Nazarbay; Baimakhanova Dina Muratovna
Main goal of activity of government and the Kazakhstan reforms in the fundamental principle is construction and development of the constitutional state and civil society. The concept of development of civil society and formation of the modern open state allow solving problems of interaction of the population and authorities. The democracy in its full realization provides differentiation of civil society and state by means of certain mechanisms of influence of citizens on activity of governmen...
Djankov, Simeon; Reynal-Querol, Marta
Previous research has interpreted the correlation between per capita income and civil war as evidence that poverty is a main determinant of conflict. In this paper, we find that the relationship between poverty and civil war is spurious and is accounted for by historical phenomena that jointly determine income evolution and conflict. In particular, the statistical association between poverty and civil wars disappears once we include country fixed effects. Also, using cross-section data for 19...
The author defines terms and concepts discussed in an Expert Group Meeting on Civil Society Participation in Fiscal Policy held at UN headquarters in New York City. He addresses first the question, What is civil society? The term is used in varied ways by different writers, which makes communication difficult and impedes clarity of thought. Second, he attempts to categorize and synthesize the many ways that civil society participates in the budget process.
With the social and economic development, the civil aviation industry of China is experiencing rapid growth. This growth will lead to more CO2 emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse effect are already serious problems especially in China, but also all over the world. Civil aviation has brought environmental pollution in the context of improving social activity and economic growth. Because of civil aviation, the rapid increase of the total amount of air pollutants are also in...
Analyzes the associations among moral autonomy, civil liberties and Confucianism. Concept of moral autonomy; Elements of moral living; Application of moral autonomy in Confucian ethics; Theories of freedom.
Multiple studies of Huntingtonâ€™s suggestion of a clash of civilizations have found no support for it. This study does not reanalyze his thesis, but rather focuses on specific features of the different-civilization conflict he theorizes about. Using empirical analysis I find that different-civilization conflict is more prevalent than same-civilization conflict, and is therefore appropriate for continued scholarly examination. Even so, I conclude that over time it is not only shrinking as a p...
Kotelnikov, V. A.
Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.
Chabas, Hélène; van Houte, Stineke; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Buckling, Angus; Westra, Edze R
Migration of hosts and parasites can have a profound impact on host-parasite ecological and evolutionary interactions. Using the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 and its phage DMS3vir, we here show that immigration of naive hosts into coevolving populations of hosts and parasites can influence the mechanistic basis underlying host defence evolution. Specifically, we found that at high levels of bacterial immigration, bacteria switched from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas) to surface modification-mediated defence. This effect emerges from an increase in the force of infection, which tips the balance from CRISPR to surface modification-based defence owing to the induced and fixed fitness costs associated with these mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27581884
In recent years the American South has become the platform for an authenticity seeking tourism industry. Former sites of civil rights action have been revived and transformed into tourist attractions. The following paper introduces the notion of so-called civil rights tourism and presents a critical analysis of current sites of civil rights commemoration throughout the American South.
Jeremias J. de Klerk
Full Text Available Orientation: The statistical record of change and improvement interventions to deliver on expectations is notoriously poor. Yet, new interventions are started constantly.Research purpose: The aim is to provide an explanation to the lure behind interventions and to contribute to building a theory on plausible systems psychodynamic drivers and mechanisms of recurrent change interventions.Motivation for the study: This study provides insights into social defences in ways that did not receive much attention previously; specifically how defence mechanisms act as drivers for new change and improvement interventions.Research design, approach and method: A literature study, consisting of a literature review and a phenomenological analysis. The study was conducted from the systems psychodynamic approach.Main findings: Improvement interventions often represent defences that serve to contain anxieties or maintain fantasies. Four specific themes emerged: interventions defend the perception of being in control, they maintain the fantasy that one is busy with worthy actions to overcome challenges, they are defences against boredom or contain anxieties about incompetence, and they maintain the fantasy of being heroic leaders.Practical/managerial implications: The findings can assist leaders to understand their own defences in order to avoid embarking on non-essential interventions. This can free up much time, energy and effort to spend on other priorities, assisting organisations to achieve better results.Contribution/value-add: The study refutes the notion that improvement interventions are always rational coping mechanisms and highlights the role of improvement interventions as defences to reduce anxiety, even though they may contribute little to organisational survival in real terms.
Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.;
Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...... decreases in formation of appressoria as well as accumulation of H2O2, HRGPs and phytoalexins. Concomitant with these inducible responses, fungal growth was stopped during or just after penetration in genotypes SC146 and SC326. High levels of H2O2 accumulating at late infection stages (5 days after...
Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the innovative concepts of small and medium sized reactors with fast neutron spectrum. (author)
WENRA published in 2010 a statement on safety objectives for new NPPs. Based on these objectives, WENRA decided to develop common positions, compiled in a booklet (available on www.wenra.org), on selected key safety issues for the design of new NPPs. One position presents WENRA’s Defence-in-Depth approach, describing WENRA’s expectation that multiple failure events and core melt accidents are considered in the original design of new nuclear power plants; another position presents expectations on the independence between different levels of Defence-in-Depth. (author)
Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo;
petronia), a monomorphic species in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch, the size of which correlates with individual reproductive quality. We reduced the breast patch in a sample of females and compared the parental care of their partners (chick feeding and nest defence) with the parental care of...... males paired to sham-manipulated controls. Nest defence was assessed by placing a dummy predator on the nest box. Males of ornament-reduced females defended the nest less but did not feed the chicks less than males paired to control females. Our results only partially support male differential...
Randriamanana, Tendry R; Nybakken, Line; Lavola, Anu; Aphalo, Pedro J; Nissinen, Katri; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
Plant defence theories have recently evolved in such a way that not only the quantity but also the quality of mineral nutrients is expected to influence plant constitutive defence. Recently, an extended prediction derived from the protein competition model (PCM) suggested that nitrogen (N) limitation is more important for the production of phenolic compounds than phosphorus (P). We aimed at studying sexual differences in the patterns of carbon allocation to growth and constitutive defence in relation to N and P availability in Populus tremula L. seedlings. We compared the gender responses in photosynthesis, growth and whole-plant allocation to phenolic compounds at different combination levels of N and P, and studied how they are explained by the main plant defence theories. We found no sexual differences in phenolic concentrations, but interestingly, slow-growing females had higher leaf N concentration than did males, and genders differed in their allocation priority. There was a trade-off between growth and the production of flavonoid-derived phenylpropanoids on one hand, and between the production of salicylates and flavonoid-derived phenylpropanoids on the other. Under limited nutrient conditions, females prioritized mineral nutrient acquisition, flavonoid and condensed tannin (CT) production, while males invested more in above-ground biomass. Salicylate accumulation followed the growth differentiation balance hypothesis as low N mainly decreased the production of leaf and stem salicylate content while the combination of both low N and low P increased the amount of flavonoids and CTs allocated to leaves and to a lesser extent stems, which agrees with the PCM. We suggest that such a discrepancy in the responses of salicylates and flavonoid-derived CTs is linked to their clearly distinct biosynthetic origins and/or their metabolic costs. PMID:24852570
Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.
ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too
In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts
This publication contains the official text of a law adopted by the French Parliament for the strengthening of civil nuclear installations housing nuclear materials. The first article of this law is made of modifications introduced in the Defence Code. The second article states that a report is to be submitted by the Government to the Parliament on the risk and threat assessment of illegal UAVs flyovers, and on technical solutions to improve the detection and neutralisation of these aircraft, as well as on necessary legal adaptations to punish such infringements
The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…
This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…
Boje, Thomas P.
the relationship between market, state, civil society and family has been under restructuring due to the financial crisis and the retrenchment of the welfare state. This article tries to establish a frame for understanding the potential role of civil society organizations and the importance of...
Reynolds, Gerald A.
Columnist George Will and others have questioned the continuing need for a federal civil rights commission, because civil rights protections have been on the books since 1964. The chairman of the Commission, Gerald Reynolds, here responds that practitioners of critical legal theory, advocates of the Akaka-Secession bill, some proponents of…
Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit
This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…
Full Text Available It is obvious that an essay have introduced about Dialogue Civilizations, at first must be start with a definition about it. Obviously, this simple definition is almost difficult. Defining of Dialogue Civilizations is complex and difficult as far as it need to a vast range of definitions. In this essay will argue that how ever definition of Dialogue Civilization is different, can only seek as specific of intemporall and special situations that are in real-life. As well as this essay emphasize to practice of environmental (realm in Islamic countries. The philosophy of this essay is that, what is the share of Islamic environments with regard to looking at Civilizations special phenomena. The first attitude is that Islamic civilization includes different spaces around the globe. The second attitude is that Islamic Civilization includes developing of other Civilizations realm. The third is that in the realm of Islamic Civilization live different human life and this is an important starting point for Cultural Dialogue in the Islamic countries together. The fourth is that, there are expanding (space, population, political systems, organs and economic is different, that we will describe them in this essay.
Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…
This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs
Gibson, Arrell Morgan
Details combat and conflicts between Native Americans and settlers before, during, and following the Civil War. Shows how the involvement of tribes in the Civil War and Reconstruction diminished their martial power and made them certain marks for conquest and relegation to reservations. (JHZ)
One Feather, Sandra
American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…
Gindilis, L. M.
The probability of radio interchange with extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed. Difficulties constitute absorption, scattering, and dispersion of signals by the rarified interstellar medium as well as the deciphering of received signals and convergence of semantic concept. A cybernetic approach considers searching for signals that develop from astroengineering activities of extraterrestrial civilizations.
... issued by the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the approval of the President (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 235.9 Section 235.9 Transportation... SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of... violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a...
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... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations...
... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9368 Filed 4-14-11...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8654 of April 12, 2011 Civil War Sesquicentennial By the President of the... in an attack on Fort Sumter. These were the first shots of a civil war that would stretch across...
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Birnie, Billie F.
Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…
... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...
... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner,...
... the Department of Justice Non-Discrimination regulations 28 CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... her jurisdiction. See part 18 of this chapter. These equal opportunity laws are: (1) Title VI,...
... Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.21...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...
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... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil action. 493.1846 Section 493.1846 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1846 Civil action. If...
Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.
This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter…
The ongoing economic crisis forces seeking solutions enabling the development of NATO's defence capabilities in the era of cuts in defence budgets. An example of this is Smart Defence initiative, which allows member states to participate in multinational projects oriented into the needs of the whole NATO. Capabilities in the area of aviation are considered as one of the key priorities of NATO, somany projects in Smart Defence initiative relate to aviation. The ar...
Over the past years, in books and journals (this journal included), N. Maxwell launched a ferocious attack on B. C. van Fraassen’s view of science called Constructive Empiricism (CE). This attack has been totally ignored. Must we conclude from this silence that no defence is possible and that a fort
Findings from parent-infant observational research have stimulated the development of intersubjective models of psychotherapeutic action. These models have brought out the infant as an interactive partner with the parent. Conversely, interest in describing the individual psyche of the baby has decreased, especially the unconscious levels of his/her experiences and representations. In parallel, clinicians and researchers have been less prone to apply classical psychoanalytic concepts when describing the internal world of the infant. The author argues that this is inconsistent with the fact that psychoanalytic theory, from its inception, was founded on speculations of the infant's mind. He investigates one such concept from classical theory; the defence. Specifically, he investigates if selective gaze avoidance in young babies may be described as a defence or even a defence mechanism. The investigation links with Selma Fraiberg's discussion of the phenomenon and also with Freud's conception of defence. The author also compares his views on the baby as a subject with those suggested by infant researchers, for example, Stern and Beebe. The discussion is illustrated by vignettes from a psychoanalytic therapy with a 3 month-old girl and her mother. PMID:25988970
This brief paper examines the issues of awareness and application of a Learning Management System (LMS) used at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM), Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. The paper argues that due to the discouraging responses from academics at the university on using the LMS, proactive measures must be taken immediately in order…
Jing, Jingying; Raaijmakers, Ciska; Kostenko, Olga; Kos, Martine; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bezemer, T. Martijn
Competition and herbivory are two major factors that can influence plant growth and plant defence. Although these two factors are often studied separately, they do not operate independently. We examined how aboveground herbivory by beet armyworm larvae (Spodoptera exigua) and belowground herbivory b
Kyjaková, Pavlína; Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Bednárová, Lucie; Hadravová, Romana; Pohl, Radek; Hanus, Robert
Roč. 115, č. 4 (2015), s. 818-825. ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : termites * soldiers * chemical defence * diterpene * cavitene * frontal gland Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014
The publication of this IAEA technical document represents the conclusion of a task, initiated in 1995, devoted to defence in depth in future reactors. It focuses mainly on the next generation of LWRs, although many general considerations may also apply to other types of reactors
"The Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali has appreciated role of Pakistan Atomic Energy Council (PAEC) for its contribution to the scientific development and defence needs of the country. He directed that all resources and energy be devoted to the development of human resource and infrastructure for socio-economic uplift of the nation" (1 page).
Stefan Pentzold; Mika Zagrobelny; Pernille Sølvhøj Roelsgaard; Birger Lindberg Møller; Søren Bak
Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are widespread plant defence compounds that release toxic hydrogen cyanide by plant bglucosidaseactivity after tissue damage. Specialised insect herbivores have evolved counter strategies and some sequesterCNglcs, but the underlying mechanisms to keep CNglcs intact during feeding and digestion are unknown. We show thatCNglc-sequestering Zygaena filipendulae larvae combine behavioural, morphological, physiological and biochemicalstrategies at different time point...
European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) represents the actual Security Policy of the European Union. The Lisbon Treaty represented a new chapter in strengthening the institutional framework to address this area, noting the establishment of the post of High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy, the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS) and concrete steps in implementing the provisions on CSDP objectives.
The antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of a host defence peptide can be controlled by modification as a propeptide of reduced net charge which can be processed by neutrophil elastase, a serine protease involved in chronic airway inflammation and infections associated with cystic fibrosis.
J. V. Shankar; V. H. Potty; S. P. Pillai
The Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, working under the council of Scientific & Industrial Research has developed a number of processes and techniques some of which are relevent to Defence needs. Items like spray dried egg powder and canned drinking water are already in use by the services while others may find application in future.
Stökl, Johannes; Machacek, Zora; Ruther, Joachim
Many insects use chemical defence mechanisms to defend themselves against predators. However, defensive secretions are costly to produce and should thus only be used in cases of real danger. This would require that insects are able to discriminate between predators to adjust their chemical defence. Here, we show that females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma adjust the intensity of their chemical defence to differently sized predators. If attacked by Myrmica ants, the females always released their defensive secretion, which consists mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin. However, if attacked by smaller Cardiocondyla ants, most females did not release any defensive spray, irrespective of the duration of the ant's aggression. When in contact with non-aggressive Nasonia wasps, the females of L. heterotoma did not release any defensive secretion. Our data show that females of L. heterotoma are able to discriminate between two predators and suggest that a predator of a certain size or strength is necessary to trigger the chemical defence mechanism of L. heterotoma.
K. Tibori Szabó
The legality of preemptive strikes is one of the most controversial questions of contemporary international law. At the core of this controversy stands the temporal dimension of self-defence: when and for how long can a state defend itself against an armed attack? Can it resort to armed force before
Published in 1979, Richard Dyer’s ‘In Defence of Disco’ is one of the best-read but relatively little-used essays in pop music studies, queer studies and cultural studies. With his essay, not only does Dyer demystify the ‘authenticity’ of music genres such as folk and rock, but also validates and ce
Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.
BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods
Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.
Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore attack b
Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.
1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore at
P. Asikainen; T.J. Ruotsalainen; J.J.W. Mikkonen; A. Koistinen; C. ten Bruggenkate; A.M. Kullaa
The oral epithelium together with the saliva and its components forms a complex structure which is the first line of defence in the oral cavity. The surface of superficial cells of the oral epithelium contains ridge-like folds, microplicae (MPL), which are typical of the surfaces of areas covered wi
Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.
Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and
Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A
There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost
Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become
Full Text Available The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability and the talent that civil engineers apply in the development process. A competency framework defines a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that professionals must have to excel in their careers. A competency framework facilitates the identification of training needs and guides the design of a professional development program. In this paper we propose a competency framework for civil engineers, whose design is based on the activities and interactions that they perform during the civil development process. Thus, competency framework for civil engineers defines a set of knowledge, abilities and key behaviors, with special emphasis in the soft skills. The organization that adopts this framework must define and integrate the specific competencies needed by for civil engineers to allow them to fulfill their goals.
Full Text Available In the context of the civil service system reform, the new normative framework adopted in 2002 introduced a new management arrangement in public administration, whose consequence was the transition of senior positions within ministries, bodies within ministries, and government offices from political officials to positional civil servants with a limited term of office, who have thus become the most senior civil servants, called administrative managers. Based on extensive empirical research and statistical data, this article provides an in-depth analysis of the status and position of administrative managers, which is intended to serve as a test whether the apex of the Slovenian administrative system is politicized and in what form. In the so-called new democracies, politicization most often is manifested as a violation of the principles of political neutrality characteristic of a professional civil service, through personalized and biased appointments of senior civil servants and in the low degree of protection against lay-offs of civil servants on political grounds. Administrative managers thus often have to decide between political susceptibility and trustworthiness versus professionalism and professional accountability, for their tasks belong to the administrative and political realms. This poses a question about the degree of influence politicians exert on administrative managers and the rate of success with which administrative managers manage to retain their professionalism and independence, which should represent the key characteristics of a senior civil servant.
Rautio, Pasi; Kesti, Kari; Bergvall, Ulrika A.; Tuomi, Juha; Leimar, Olof
Large herbivores select food at several spatial scales: plant communities are chosen at a landscape scale, plant patches are chosen within a plant community, and individual plants within a patch. Foraging decision at the patch level can result in associational effects in plant communities and populations. Several studies have shown that herbivore attack and consumption rates may not only depend on a plant's own defence traits, but also on the defence traits of its neighbours. In the present experiment we investigated whether the spatial scale of the food distribution affects food selection by fallow deer and whether the foraging behaviour gives rise to associational effects in plant defences. In a population of captured wild fallow deer we simulated a natural situation where two separate plant patches are exposed to intense herbivory pressure. We presented different spatial arrangements of low- and high-tannin food to the deer, varying the frequency of the feeder types within and between patches. We found that the deer consumed palatable food among the unpalatable food on average as much as they consumed palatable food among other palatable feeders. However, when unpalatable food occurred among the palatable food it was more consumed than among other unpalatable feeders. Hence, we did not find support for associational defence, but our results supported associational susceptibility. At the between patch level a patch of mainly high-tannin feeders was consumed less when presented near to a patch of mainly low-tannin feeders, suggesting that for well-defended plants having palatable neighbours in a nearby patch might accentuate the effectiveness of their defence.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to
Renato A Sarmento
Full Text Available Herbivores may interact with each other through resource competition, but also through their impact on plant defence. We recently found that the spider mite Tetranychus evansi down-regulates plant defences in tomato plants, resulting in higher rates of oviposition and population growth on previously attacked than on unattacked leaves. The danger of such down-regulation is that attacked plants could become a more profitable resource for heterospecific competitors, such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Indeed, T. urticae had an almost 2-fold higher rate of oviposition on leaf discs on which T. evansi had fed previously. In contrast, induction of direct plant defences by T. urticae resulted in decreased oviposition by T. evansi. Hence, both herbivores affect each other through induced plant responses. However, when populations of T. evansi and T. urticae competed on the same plants, populations of the latter invariably went extinct, whereas T. evansi was not significantly affected by the presence of its competitor. This suggests that T. evansi can somehow prevent its competitor from benefiting from the down-regulated plant defence, perhaps by covering it with a profuse web. Indeed, we found that T. urticae had difficulties reaching the leaf surface to feed when the leaf was covered with web produced by T. evansi. Furthermore, T. evansi produced more web when exposed to damage or other cues associated with T. urticae. We suggest that the silken web produced by T. evansi serves to prevent competitors from profiting from down-regulated plant defences.
Full Text Available Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers--a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death.
Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez
Full Text Available Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo, sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una educación y filosofía para lapaz. Es por ello por lo que se hace imprescindible traer a primer plano la importanciadel compromiso, la responsabilidad y el sacrificio que comporta la noviolencia, a finde que se los pueda hacer trascender socialmente bajo la modalidad (decisiva en unacultura de paz de ejemplaridad y autoridad, muy relevantes para que la noviolenciagane prestigio social real (y no un prestigio utópico.
Deepak S. Vede
The excavations carried in Western India have brought to light the important civilization of the Indus Valley. This is the most important civilization of the prehistoric period. The sites of this civilization are Mohenjo-Daro, meaning the Mound at the Dead, on the Indus in Sind and the other Harappa on the Ravi in the Montqomery district of the Punjab. The surrounding region of Moh enjo-Daro is wonderfully fertile and is called even today Nakhlistan or the “Garden of Sind”. Here, the city ...
„Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.
Dr. Theodore Metaxas
Full Text Available This article aims to clarify how the level of defence expenditures affected security poli-cy in the post-World War II Europe and the United States till the present day. We first analyze theoretically the issue of a nation’s power through its defence outlays. We then proceed to the examination of how security policy was formulated during Cold War and afterwards for both Europe and the United States through their defence ex-penditures. By comparing European to United States defence budgets ceilings we found that the European military capabilities are undermined by the low level of the defence budget which is provided by the European Union member states as a whole, as well as by the lack of homogeneity in military means. By contrast, we noticed that the historically large US defence expenditures were one of the major reasons for the US global hegemony during Cold war and afterwards. We also examine the implica-tions that defence expenditures have on military industry, macroeconomic perfor-mance and geopolitics and the correlation that arises among them.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...
Presents the assumptions, generalizations, data, and methods central to the development of the History of Women (Women and Western Civilization) course at Des Moines Community College. Provides a course outline and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources. (TP)
Kleinbaum, Abby Wettan
Compares basic themes in women's history and the Western civilization survey course and concludes that women's studies do not assimilate comfortably because women are not a part of the heroic epics upon which European history is based. (CK)
Kocol, Cleo Fellers
This article chronicles events surrounding the pro-ERA/anti-Mormon civil involvement demonstration by 21 feminists in Bellevue, Washington, on the occasion of the dedication of the Bellevue Mormon Temple. (DB)
Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Taylor, Peter; Attoh-Okine, Nii O
Nanotechnology's rapid evolution is facilitating ever more previously unexplored areas of application. This book focuses on the latest advances in the development and characterization of nanotechnology-based civil engineering materials, structures and systems.
Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, we analyze records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008. We demonstrate that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.
Even with slow rates of technological advance, extraterrestrial civilizations substantially in our future will have technologies and laws of nature currently inaccessible to us, and will probably have minimal interest in communicating with us. If this communication horizon is about 1000 years in our future, other crude estimates previously published imply that only about .0001 of the technical civilizations in the Galaxy are accessible to us. The mean distance to the nearest such society is then about 10,000 light years. Radio detection of extraterrestrial intelligence seems to imply either (1) much larger telescopes or antenna arrays for the detection of civilizations within our Galaxy than now exist; or (2) attention to the nearer extragalactic systems, with smaller radio telescopes, to detect the very small fraction of very advanced societies which may choose to make their presence known to emerging civilizations via antique communication modes.
Full Text Available Roberto Ago, the International Law Commission’s second Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, defined self-defence as a faculté of a state to use force in response to an act of another state through which a breach of the principal obligation under Article 2(4 Charter is committed. On this basis, he then inserted a provision in Chapter V to Part One of the Draft Articles on State Responsibility expressing self-defence as a specific factual circumstance precluding the wrongfulness of the use of force which constitutes a response to state aggression. This conception of self-defence, although misunderstood from the onset, remained in the backdrop of the study of the law of state responsibility for a considerable period. It was only dismantled during the reign of the last Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility, James Crawford. The last Rapporteur, at the onset, submitted that it is not the function of the Draft Articles to specify the content of the primary rules, including that referred to in Article 51 Charter. He then redefined the function of the circumstance of self-defence as that of precluding the wrongfulness of non-performance of certain obligations other than the general prohibition insofar as such non-performance is connected with the exercise of the right under Article 51 Charter.This contribution first scrutinises this paradigmatic shift and finds it to be symptomatic of the conviction on the part of Crawford that the notion of self-defence could also encompass the use of force against speculative threats of state origin as well as actual threats that emanate from individuals or groups which are disconnected from the organisation of any state. It then uses this finding as a springboard towards the examination of the controversy surrounding the notion of self-defence under international law. In that connection, it first outlines the findings of the World Court on the
Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.
Phanudej Kudngaongarm; Chuchai Sujivorakul
The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability a...
Van Bohemen, H.D.
This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing number and increase in size of civil engineering works and the growing need for protection measures of the sandy coasts have led to an ever increasing risk of adverse effects on the nature and lan...
Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new, with potential for operational applications, but currently not exploited to full advantage. Here we investigate how to optimally assess and monitor the structural health of civil infrastructure usi...
This thesis presents a civil engineering approach to active control for civil structures. The proposed control technique, termed Active Interaction Control (AIC), utilizes dynamic interactions between different structures, or components of the same structure, to reduce the resonance response of the controlled or primary structure under earthquake excitations. The primary control objective of AIC is to minimize the maximum story drift of the primary structure. This is accomplished by timing th...
Walker, J. C. G.
The probability that a star has a habitable planet with a communicative civilization is investigated. One approach to the search problem is to assume that the other civilization will do most of the work, which implies that the search is limited to 'supercivilizations' able to transmit detectable signals in all directions all the time. The development of an optimal search strategy is discussed together with questions of the probability of success.
... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education...
The concept of defence-in-depth (DID) is fundamental to the safety of nuclear power plants. It calls for multiple successive methods or barriers against radioactive release to the environment. DID principle is partly reflected in a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), but not all of the DID levels are included in the model. In addition, events included in PSA are not typically labelled with DID information. PSA could however be a powerful tool to assess the status of various DID levels in an NPP. This work is a start of a development of the PSA-methodology towards an assessment of DID levels. It includes: 1) mapping of conditions that should be considered for the defence in depth levels, and 2) definition of quantitative measures that should be considered for the defence in depth levels. The work has been limited to loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and DID levels 1 and 2, i.e., prevention of abnormal operation and failures and control of abnormal operation and detection of failures. Examples are chosen both from power operation LOCAs and LOCAs during cold shutdown. The methods that are used today in PSA are applicable for evaluating defence-in-depth levels 1 and 2. In the framework of these methodologies there are many different conditions and measures used. Failure data can be determined through: human reliability analysis (HRA), risk-informed in-service-inspection (RI-ISI) methodology, system reliability analysis and directly from plant specific failure data for the components. Many DID activities against LOCA are not explicitly modelled in typical PSA-studies. The risk importance of in-service-inspection is analysed and quantified in RI-ISI applications but so far results from RI-ISI have not been incorporated into PSA. Very few leakage detection systems are modelled in PSA-studies. Normally leakage detection systems that is part of the automatic actuation system are modelled while leakage detection systems in DID levels 1 and 2 typically are omitted. DID
Dora Elvira García GONZÁLEZ
En este escrito se presenta la propuesta de Rawls en torno a la posible desobediencia civil ante una autoridad democrática legítimamente establecida. La desobediencia civil rawlsiana muestra pretensiones antiautoritarias en función del mantenimiento de un orden justo, y cuyo gestor se ubica en la sociedad civil. Ahí se comparten valores tales como la justicia, la diversidad, el respeto mutuo, el sentido de dignidad y el respeto a la libertad. La sociedad civil está conformada por elementos ta...
Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.
Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.
A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.
Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W.; Reguero, Borja G.; Losada, Iñigo J.; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N.; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A.
There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences–i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...
... civil penalty action and that the matter is closed. (e) Referral for prosecution and collection. If the... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty letter; referral. 1503.703 Section... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Judicial Assessment of Civil Penalties § 1503.703 Civil penalty...
... GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-95 Civil and criminal penalties. (a) If a violation of law or regulation carries both a civil and a criminal penalty... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil and criminal penalties....
Teacher and student editions of Civil Technology Applications are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for drafting and civil technology programs. It includes the technical content and tasks necessary for a student to be employed as a drafter or civil technician in a civil engineering firm. Introductory pages in the teacher…
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights, powers, and duties. 935.21 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.21 Civil rights, powers, and duties. In any case in which the civil rights, powers, and duties of any person on Wake Island are not otherwise prescribed...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in §...
Winkler, Fred H.
Through the comparative approach to teaching Western Civilization, the student is confronted by a discussion of some aspect of several civilizations or countries within the same time period instead of a civilization-by-civilization or a country-by-country analysis. (Author/JB)
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a)...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...
... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 326 RIN 0710-AA66 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation... Engineers (Corps) is proposing to amend its regulations to adjust its Class I civil penalties under the... civil penalties to account for inflation is required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of civil penalties. 599.514 Section 599... ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.514 Assessment of civil penalties. (a) Not later... Hearing Officer's assessment of a civil penalty, or decision not to assess a civil penalty. In...
Full Text Available In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its status as the first comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation to be enacted in the United States, the TVPA fails to sufficiently address human trafficking concerns. It is suggested that the failure of the TVPA is a result of both the prosecutorial focus of the legislation, a focus which tends to overlook victims’ civil rights, and the contingency of TVPA benefits upon adherence to the prosecutorial process. In response to the shortcomings of the TVPA, the legislation was amended by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (TVPRA to provide a civil remedy for trafficking victims. The civil remedy confers on trafficking victims the private right to vindicate their civil rights and hold their traffickers directly accountable for their exploitative acts. By directly compensating victims, the civil remedy acts as a financial deterrent against traffickers and provides a private enforcement anti-trafficking policy. In pursuing the civil remedy, trafficking victims possess several advantages over the prosecutorial process of the TVPA and other civil causes of action. However, despite its advantages, the civil remedy is infrequently utilized thus frustrating congressional intent that victims advance antitrafficking policy by enforcing a civil remedy against their traffickers.
Newman, Mari-Anne; Dow, J. Maxwell; Molinaro, Antonio;
the triggering of defence responses or to the priming of the plant to respond more rapidly and/or to a greater degree to subsequent pathogen challenge. LPS from symbiotic bacteria can have quite different effects on plants to those of pathogens. Some details are emerging of the structures within LPS...... that are responsible for induction of these different plant responses. The lipid A moiety is not solely responsible for all of the effects of LPS in plants; core oligosaccharide and O-antigen components can elicit specific responses. Here, we review the effects of LPS in induction of defence......-related responses in plants, the structures within LPS responsible for eliciting these effects and discuss the possible nature of the (as yet unidentified) LPS receptors in plants....
Full Text Available One of the goals that Partnership for Peace has set, within domain of geospatial information, is the implementation of a military geoinformation system. Besides this important strategic objective for the Republic of Croatia, the military geoinformation system will enhance activities of the Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces and in such way improve national defence and cooperation with NATO members and members of the Partnership for Peace. This paper describes overall system principles based on relevant standards from domain of geospatial information. The emphasis is on the design of the conceptual data model and the object catalogue as main objective in the first phase of the whole project. Within this first phase of the project not only conceptual data model and object catalogue were created, but also a GML application scheme that will serve as basis for data exchange with all anticipated users of the system.
Burstein, David; Sun, Christine L.; Brown, Christopher T.; Sharon, Itai; Anantharaman, Karthik; Probst, Alexander J.; Thomas, Brian C.; Banfield, Jillian F.
Current understanding of microorganism–virus interactions, which shape the evolution and functioning of Earth's ecosystems, is based primarily on cultivated organisms. Here we investigate thousands of viral and microbial genomes recovered using a cultivation-independent approach to study the frequency, variety and taxonomic distribution of viral defence mechanisms. CRISPR-Cas systems that confer microorganisms with immunity to viruses are present in only 10% of 1,724 sampled microorganisms, compared with previous reports of 40% occurrence in bacteria and 81% in archaea. We attribute this large difference to the lack of CRISPR-Cas systems across major bacterial lineages that have no cultivated representatives. We correlate absence of CRISPR-Cas with lack of nucleotide biosynthesis capacity and a symbiotic lifestyle. Restriction systems are well represented in these lineages and might provide both non-specific viral defence and access to nucleotides. PMID:26837824
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian
Conventional antibiotics target the growth and the basal life processes of bacteria leading to growth arrest and cell death. The selective force that is inherently linked to this mode of action eventually selects out antibiotic-resistant variants. The most obvious alternative to antibiotic...... rise to a new 'drug target rush'. Recently, QS has been shown to be involved in the development of tolerance to various antimicrobial treatments and immune modulation. The regulation of virulence via QS confers a strategic advantage over host defences. Consequently, a drug capable of blocking QS is...... likely to increase the susceptibility of the infecting organism to host defences and its clearance from the host. The use of QS signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity, rather than bacterial growth, is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi...
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian
Conventional antibiotics target the growth and the basal life processes of bacteria leading to growth arrest and cell death. The selective force that is inherently linked to this mode of action eventually selects out antibiotic-resistant variants. The most obvious alternative to antibiotic...... rise to a new 'drug target rush'. Recently, QS has been shown to be involved in the development of tolerance to various antimicrobial treatments and immune modulation. The regulation of virulence via QS confers a strategic advantage over host defences. Consequently, a drug capable of blocking QS is...... likely to increase the susceptibility of the infecting organism to host defences and its clearance from the host. The use of QS signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity, rather than bacterial growth, is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi...
Bricknell, Martin; Terrell, A; Ross, D; White, D
This paper is a narrative of the policies, procedures, mitigations and observations of the application of Force Health Protection measures applied by the Ministry of Defence (MOD) for the deployment of military personnel to West Africa as part of the UK contribution to the international response to the Ebola crisis from July 2014 to July 2015. The MOD divided the threat into three risk categories: risk from disease and non-battle injury, Ebola risk for non-clinical duties and Ebola risk for healthcare workers. Overall risk management was directed and monitored by the OP GRITROCK Force Health Protection Board. There were six cases of malaria, four outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease, two needlestick injuries in Ebola-facing healthcare workers, one MOD Ebola case and five non-needlestick, high-risk exposures. This experience reinforces the requirement for the Defence Medical Services to have a high level of organisational competence to advise on Force Health Protection for the MOD. PMID:26744191
Full Text Available In the paper the author proposes that effectively and efficiently addressing cyber crime requires a shift in paradigm. For businesses and government departments alike the focus should be on prevention, rather than the prosecution of cyber criminals. The Defence in Depth strategy poses a practical solution for achieving Information Assurance in todayâ€™s highly networked environments. In a world where â€œabsolute securityâ€ is an unachievable goal, the concept of Information Assurance poses significant benefits to securing one of an organizationâ€™s most valuable assets: Information. It will be argued that the approach of achieving Information Assurance within an organisation, coupled with the implementation of a Defence in Depth strategy can ensure that information is kept secure and readily available and provides a competitive advantage to those willing to invest and maintain such a strategy.
Full Text Available As the SA Defence Force celebrates its 75th anniversary, it can look back with pride at a truly remarkable history. Established just two years after Union, the fledging force was to be severely tested within the first two years of its existence to a degree perhaps unparalleled in the history of modern armies. Just over a year after its formation, when it still existed more on paper than in fact, the Union Defence Force (UDF was called upon to suppress a violent industrial strike on the Reef. Having passed its first test with flying colours, the UDF was confronted a few months later by the far more serious crises of internal rebellion and World War. Once again, however, the young organization proved equal to the occasion, and by the end of the Great War the UDF had developed into a battle-hardened, professional force respected the world over for its prowess, courage and endurance in the field.
Carlos Echeverría Jesús
Full Text Available Cooperation between Spain and the Maghreb states in the area of defence represents a sphere that includes long-term historical links (for example, with Morocco with other relations that have been developing in recent years, and at varying rates of intensity. Theprogressive normalising of the situation in Algeria since the 1990s, the raising of the UN embargo against Libya and the rise of what are called “new dangers” (all kinds of illegal trading and a style of terrorism that is increasingly transnational and lethal has led the states together with Mauritania and Tunisia to call for aid and cooperation from members such as Spain. Meanwhile, the revitalisation of the 5+5 group, even though it does not involve greater sub-regional cooperation in the Maghreb region, is encouraging North-South links which had until then been bilateralised, and since December 2004 the group has included the issue of defence on its agenda.
Kim, Sang Yong
"The Korean Civil Code is currently in the process of amendment. The government expects to submit a proposal for amending the Civil Code to this year's regular session of the National Assembly. However, considering the extent to which the works for amending the Civil Code being in process by the Civil Code amendment committee have thus far advanced, submission of the proposal for Civil Code amendment within this year’s regular session of the National Assembly can be considered ...
This study explores the effects of class conflicts on civil war duration. Colombian civil war, the FARC insurgency, is examined from a class-based perspective. I argue that class-based civil wars last longer than non-class based civil wars such as identity conflicts because class conflicts have deeper roots embedded in the social, political, and economic aspects of the society. Through the examination of existing theories in the civil war duration literature, I propose four arguments in the c...
Russia's integrity depends on ensuring civil identity as a priority factor in the development of society and the individual. Civil identity is fully realized in a civil nation that gradually takes shape within a particular society. The crisis of multiculturalism in the West triggered by the crisis of the European civilization and culture calls for a revision of certain ideas and theories associated with civil identity. The question is whether the national regions of Russia (including Daghesta...
function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study the......Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... types of adaptations enable plants to avoid the potential lethal effects of their own defence compounds. These adaptations include detoxification and stabilization by glycosylation and the genomic clustering of biosynthetic pathway genes. These two types are the main focus of this PhD thesis on...
Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander C; Christopher E. Davies; Searle, Amelia K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Verhagen, Alan; Benassi, Helen; Stephanie E Hodson
Background: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population.Objective: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods, and identify specific occupational factors that influence mental health. This paper describes the design, sampling strategies, and methodology used in this study.Method: At Phase 1, approximately ...
Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie
Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is
Full Text Available Generalist predation constitutes a driving force for the evolution of chemical defences. In the Antarctic benthos, asteroids and omnivore amphipods are keystone opportunistic predators. Sessile organisms are therefore expected to develop defensive mechanisms mainly against such consumers. However, the different habits characterizing each predator may promote variable responses in prey. Feeding-deterrence experiments were performed with the circumpolar asteroid macropredator Odontaster validus to evaluate the presence of defences within the apolar lipophilic fraction of Antarctic invertebrates and macroalgae. A total of 51% of the extracts were repellent, yielding a proportion of 17 defended species out of the 31 assessed. These results are compared with a previous study in which the same fractions were offered to the abundant circum-Antarctic amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Overall, less deterrence was reported towards asteroids (51% than against amphipods (80.8%, principally in sponge and algal extracts. Generalist amphipods, which establish casual host–prey sedentary associations with biosubstrata (preferentially sponges and macroalgae, may exert more localized predation pressure than sea stars on certain sessile prey, which would partly explain these results. The nutritional quality of prey may interact with feeding deterrents, whose production is presumed to be metabolically expensive. Although optimal defence theory posits that chemical defences are managed and distributed as to guarantee protection at the lowest cost, we found that only a few organisms localized feeding deterrents towards most exposed and/or valuable body regions. Lipophilic defensive metabolites are broadly produced in Antarctic communities to deter opportunistic predators, although several species combine different defensive traits.
Lan, Z.Y.; Krosse, S.; Achard, P.; Van Dam, N.M.; Bede, J.C.
Upon insect herbivory, many plant species change the direction of metabolic flux from growth into defence. Two key pathways modulating these processes are the gibberellin (GA)/DELLA pathway and the jasmonate pathway. In this study, the effect of caterpillar herbivory on plant-induced responses was compared between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and quad-della mutants that have constitutively elevated GA responses. The labial saliva (LS) of caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodop...
Juan-Luis GOMEZ COLOMER
Although the designated topic for discussion is the technical right to a defence in Spain, I consider it opportune to give a brief overview of the current criminal procedural situation in my country. Spain is a young democracy of only 35 years in which sovereignty was returned to the people with the 1978 constitution, the moment that marked the beginning of a period during which we have enjoyed the full range of freedoms.
Lawson, Daniel John; Rubin-Delanchy, Patrick T G; Heard, Nicholas A.; Adams, Niall M.
How can we effectively use costly statistical models in the defence of large computer networks? Statistical modelling and machine learning are potentially powerful ways to detect threats as they do not require a human level understanding of the attack. However, they are rarely applied in practice as the computational cost of deploying all but the most simple algorithms can become implausibly large. Here we describe a multilevel approach to statistical modelling in which descriptions of the no...
Michael Tyworth; Nicklaus A. Giacobe; Vincent F. Mancuso; Michael. D. McNeese; Hall, David L.
In this paper we argue for a human-in-the-loop approach to the study of situation awareness in computer defence analysis (CDA). The cognitive phenomenon of situation awareness (SA) has received significant attention in cybersecurity/CDA research. Yet little of this work has attended to the cognitive aspects of situation awareness in the CDA context; instead, the human operator has been treated as an abstraction within the larger human-technology system. A more human-centric approach that seek...
Maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for foetal malformations. The mechanism by which diabetes is teratogenic is not fully known. Previous studies have demonstrated that radical oxygen species can contribute to the teratogenicity of glucose and diabetes. The aim of the present work was to study different aspects of free radical damage and antioxidant defence in experimental diabetic pregnancy. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase and the mRNA levels of an...
Ravindra Kumar; Manoj Kumar Misra; Rohitash Kumar; Deepak Gupta; P. K. Khatri; B. B. Tak; S. R. Meena
Phase change materials (PCM) are being utilised world over for energy storage and temperature smoothening applications. Defence Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ) has initiated a R&D programme to apply PCM in solving many heat related problems being faced by Indian forces during desert operations specially failure of mission-critical components. Under the programme, special organic PCM (Patent application no. 2258/DEL/2007 and low melting metal alloys have been developed well tuned to desert diurna...
Pasteels, Jacques M.; Rowell-Rahier, Martine; Braekman Jean-Claude; Daloze, Désiré
The chemical defences of the Chrysomelinae are reviewed. Defensive glandular secretions have evolved independently in larvae and adults, and faster than the morphology of the glands. Both characters are used in a phylogenetic study of the Chrysomelini, disclosing suprageneric affinities. First, a close relationship between the Chrysomelina and Phratora is proposed. Secondly, Leptinotarsa and Gonioctena are probably more closely related to the Chrysolinina than to the Chrysomelina and Phratora...
Reynolds, David; Chapman, Christopher; Kelly, Anthony; Muijs, Daniel; Sammons, Pamela
Educational effectiveness research (EER) has made a significant contribution to our understanding of the characteristics and processes associated with more and less effective schools in a diverse range of contexts. However, this remains a contested field of inquiry and has been subjected to significant critique. This paper examines the origins and development of EER and summarises the key critiques and defences of the field during the past 30 years. It then moves on to examine the recent crit...
Farace, Giovanni; Fernandez, Olivier; Jacquens, Lucile; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Jacquard, Cédric; Dorey, Stéphan
Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B. subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B. subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo. cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants. PMID:25040001
The Flood and Coastal Defence (FCD) project of the United Kingdom Foresight Programme was involved a scenario exercise that has been very influential on UK policy. The scenario approach had an extensive prehistory, and its use in a water management context predates FCD. It continues to evolve and influence decision-making in many fields. This study presents an overview of the approach and how it has come to be so influential. The FCD project features by an integrated scenario analysis of the ...
Al-Baharna, Marwa M.; Whitford, David L
Objectives: Primary care audits in Bahrain have consistently revealed a failure to meet recognised standards of delivery of process and outcome measures to patients with diabetes. This study aimed to establish for the first time the quality of diabetes care in a Bahraini hospital setting. Methods: A retrospective clinical audit was conducted of a random sample of patients attending the Diabetes and Endocrine Center at the Bahrain Defence Forces Hospital over a 15-month period which ended in J...
Schuijt, T. J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, E; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de, J.W.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de, VHJ Vincent; De Vos; Belzer, C.; Poll, van der, T.; Wiersinga, W.J.
OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. DESIGN: We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice ...
Offsets have taken centre stage in defence trade. To date, more than 78 countries around the world practice offsets and outstanding offsets obligations run into billions of US dollars However, why have offsets gained such a momentum? Increasingly, both sellers and buyers in the arms trade view offsets as an efficient and effective economic compensation tool to justify arms deals. Buyers, consider offsets as a catalyst for industrial and technological development, employment, cr...
Juan-Luis GOMEZ COLOMER
Full Text Available Although the designated topic for discussion is the technical right to a defence in Spain, I consider it opportune to give a brief overview of the current criminal procedural situation in my country. Spain is a young democracy of only 35 years in which sovereignty was returned to the people with the 1978 constitution, the moment that marked the beginning of a period during which we have enjoyed the full range of freedoms.
Fanny Mondet; Seo Hyun Kim; Joachim R. de Miranda; Dominique Beslay; Yves Le Conte; Mercer, Alison R.
Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the...
Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A.; Dafoe, Nicole J; Christensen, Shawn; Sims, James; Martins, Vitor F; Swerbilow, Jay; Romero, Maritza; Hans T. Alborn; Allen, Leon HARTWELL; Teal, Peter EA
Maize is by quantity the most important C4 cereal crop; however, future climate changes are expected to increase maize susceptibility to mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens and reduce productivity. While rising atmospheric [CO2] is a driving force behind the warmer temperatures and drought, which aggravate fungal disease and mycotoxin accumulation, our understanding of how elevated [CO2] will effect maize defences against such pathogens is limited. Here we report that elevated [CO2] increases maiz...
Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H
Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards. PMID:24307931
Boddy, Amy M; Kokko, Hanna; Breden, Felix; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Aktipis, C Athena
The factors influencing cancer susceptibility and why it varies across species are major open questions in the field of cancer biology. One underexplored source of variation in cancer susceptibility may arise from trade-offs between reproductive competitiveness (e.g. sexually selected traits, earlier reproduction and higher fertility) and cancer defence. We build a model that contrasts the probabilistic onset of cancer with other, extrinsic causes of mortality and use it to predict that intense reproductive competition will lower cancer defences and increase cancer incidence. We explore the trade-off between cancer defences and intraspecific competition across different extrinsic mortality conditions and different levels of trade-off intensity, and find the largest effect of competition on cancer in species where low extrinsic mortality combines with strong trade-offs. In such species, selection to delay cancer and selection to outcompete conspecifics are both strong, and the latter conflicts with the former. We discuss evidence for the assumed trade-off between reproductive competitiveness and cancer susceptibility. Sexually selected traits such as ornaments or large body size require high levels of cell proliferation and appear to be associated with greater cancer susceptibility. Similar associations exist for female traits such as continuous egg-laying in domestic hens and earlier reproductive maturity. Trade-offs between reproduction and cancer defences may be instantiated by a variety of mechanisms, including higher levels of growth factors and hormones, less efficient cell-cycle control and less DNA repair, or simply a larger number of cell divisions (relevant when reproductive success requires large body size or rapid reproductive cycles). These mechanisms can affect intra- and interspecific variation in cancer susceptibility arising from rapid cell proliferation during reproductive maturation, intrasexual competition and reproduction. PMID:26056364
Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Amit Kumar; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh; Chand, Duni; Singh, Nagendera Kumar; Sharma, Tilak Raj
The Pi54 gene (Pi-k(h)) confers a high degree of resistance to diverse strains of the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In order to understand the genome-wide co-expression of genes in the transgenic rice plant Taipei 309 (TP) containing the Pi54 gene, microarray analysis was performed at 72 h post-inoculation of the M. oryzae strain PLP-1. A total of 1154 differentially expressing genes were identified in TP-Pi54 plants. Of these, 587 were up-regulated, whereas 567 genes were found to be down-regulated. 107 genes were found that were exclusively up-regulated and 58 genes that were down- regulated in the case of TP-Pi54. Various defence response genes, such as callose, laccase, PAL, and peroxidase, and genes related to transcription factors like NAC6, Dof zinc finger, MAD box, bZIP, and WRKY were found to be up-regulated in the transgenic line. The enzymatic activities of six plant defence response enzymes, such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, β-glucosidase, β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase, were found to be significantly high in TP-Pi54 at different stages of inoculation by M. oryzae. The total phenol content also increased significantly in resistant transgenic plants after pathogen inoculation. This study suggests the activation of defence response and transcription factor-related genes and a higher expression of key enzymes involved in the defence response pathway in the rice line TP-Pi54, thus leading to incompatible host-pathogen interaction. PMID:22058403
Noret,Nausicaa; Meerts, Pierre Jacques; Vanhaelen, Mathieu; Dos Santos, Anabelle; Escarre Blanch, José
Some plant species growing on metalliferous soils are able to accumulate heavy metals in their shoots up to very high concentrations, but the selective advantage of this behaviour is still unknown. The most popular hypothesis, that metals protect plants against herbivores, has been tested several times in laboratory conditions, with contradictory results. We carried out the first large-scale test of the defence hypothesis in eight natural populations of the model Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi c...
Petit, Anne Noelle; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Walker, Anne Sophie; Leroux, Pierre; Baillieul, Fabienne; Panon, Marie-Laure; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence
Botrytis bunch rot of grapes is mainly controlled by applying fungicides at three crop stages: the end of flowering (BBCH 68), bunch closure (BBCH 77) and the beginning of veraison (BBCH 81). The phenylpyrroles derivative fludioxonil is among the most effective fungicides registered to control Botrytis cinerea. Its effectiveness was investigated in relation to spray timing, fungicide resistance and defence responses of grapevine. Frequencies of B. cinerea strains which were resistant to fungi...
Conceição, Luís F. R.; Franklin, Gregory; Ribeiro, Catarina; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires
To elucidate the defence mechanisms of Hypericum perforatum L. against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, we utilized cell suspension cultures. When primed with methyl jasmonate, H. perforatum cells showed a double oxidative burst upon Colletotrichum gloeosporioides elicitation typical of a hypersensitive response. Phenolic profile of the cells was modified upon various stimuli such as salicylic acid, MeJ and C. gloeosporioides. The possible importance of reactive oxygen species production an...
Romero Rojo, Francisco Javier; Roy, Rajkumar; Shehab, Essam; Wardle, P. J.
The aerospace and defence industries are moving towards new types of agreement such as availability contracts based on Product-Service System (PSS) business models. Obsolescence has become one of the main problems that will impact on many areas of the system during its life cycle. This paper presents the major challenges to managing obsolescence for availability contracts, identified by means of a comprehensive literature review and several interviews and forums with experts in ob...
Bjork, Adam; Starmer, William T.; Higginson, Dawn M.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Pitnick, Scott
Postcopulatory sexual selection favours males which are strong offensive and defensive sperm competitors. As a means of identifying component traits comprising each strategy, we used an experimental evolution approach. Separate populations of Drosophila melanogaster were selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Despite using a large outbred population and evidence of substantive genetic variation for each strategy, neither trait responded to selection in the two replicates of this exp...
Increased literary attention and debate has been directed at business turnaround in recent years; albeit as Furman & McGahan (2002, p.238) suggest; ‘despite their centrality, little is still known about their prevalence or trajectory’. This case study departs from most other turnaround research by addressing the global Aerospace and Defence sector; of which has remained unexplored until this point. Specifically, it looks to ascertain ‘how new top management enact successful turnaround’ and co...
Monique F. Crane; Virginia Lewis; Andrew Cohn; Hodson, Stephanie E.; Ruth Parslow; Bryant, Richard A; Cate Chesney; David Forbes
In the last two decades there has been increasing attention directed at the analysis of psychological resilience. The number of modern-day veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan has sparked great interest in identifying mechanisms that can either erode or facilitate psychological resilience. In November 2009, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) in collaboration with the Australian Centre for Post-traumatic Mental Health (ACPMH) launched a longitudinal study of psychological resilience du...
Although in the last 10 years in Italy there has been a greater sensitivity by the legislature to the trafficking, including in relation to international commitments such as the Palermo Protocol, there are still difficulties and deficiencies in affording effective jurisdictional protection for victims of this shameful social phenomenon. Italy has started to pay a sensitive normative attention to the defence of the victims of trafficking through the art. 18 of the DLvo 286/98I that stipulates ...
Lao PDR is at a point on its development trajectory where strategic attention to administrative performance is crucial. An efficient and high-performing civil service, with the compensation and human resource management systems to attract and motivate qualified personnel, will be essential to Lao PDR's development efforts. The ministerial-level Public Administration and Civil Service Autho...
Kammerhofer, N.; Radakovic, Z.; Regis, J.M.A.; Dobrev, P.; Vaňková, R. (Radomíra); Grundler, F. M. W.; Siddique, S.; Hofmann, J.; Wieczorek, K.
Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and ...
Stynoski, Jennifer L.; Shelton, Georgia; Stynoski, Peter
Parents defend their young in many ways, including provisioning chemical defences. Recent work in a poison frog system offers the first example of an animal that provisions its young with alkaloids after hatching or birth rather than before. But it is not yet known whether maternally derived alkaloids are an effective defence against offspring predators. We identified the predators of Oophaga pumilio tadpoles and conducted laboratory and field choice tests to determine whether predators are d...
Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet
Antioxidant defences and induced oxidative stress tissue damage of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, under challenge with Vibrio nigriputchritudo, were investigated for a 72-h period. For this purpose, L stylirostris were first infected by immersion with pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain SFn1 and then antioxidant defences: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), Total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathiones and induced tissue damage (MDA and carbon...
L Bowden; NM Dheilly; DA Raftos; SV Nair
Our understanding of invertebrate immune systems is undergoing a paradigm shift. Until recently, the host defence responses of invertebrates were thought to rely on limited molecular diversity that could not tailor reactions toward specific microbes. This view is now being challenged. Highly discriminatory defence responses, and hypervariable gene systems with the potential to drive them, have been identified in a number of invertebrate groups. These systems seem to be quite distinct, suggest...
Nicot, Philippe; Bardin, Marc; Debruyne, François; Duffaud, Magali; Lecompte, François; Neu, Laurent; Pascal, Michel
Although Nitrogen (N) is a key component in many compounds implicated in host-pathogen interactions, little is known on the possible effect of N fertilisation of the plant on the efficacy of defence-stimulating biocontrol agents. In the present work we examined the effect of five levels of N nutrition on the susceptibility of strawberry leaves to Botrytis cinerea and on the protective efficacy of two biocontrol products presumed to induce plant defence mechanisms. Two days after the app...