WorldWideScience

Sample records for city sao paulo

  1. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  2. Nuclear technology in secondary school in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites, Daniela B.; Gordon, Ana Maria P.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dbenites@ipen.br, e-mail: amgordon@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and

  3. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  5. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Sao Paulo city and London architectonic epigraphs: a comparison from an information design perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lena Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study on inscriptions containing the names of architects and builders found in the façades of building in the cities of São Paulo and London. For the study, 123 architectonic epigraphs found in São Paulo city historic centre were compared with 71 inscriptions of the same kind found in the regions of Westminster and Camden, in central London. The focus of the analysis is the informational aspects of the inscriptions, including its location, size, typographic configuration and content.

  7. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  8. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  9. Determination of REE in urban park soils from Sao Paulo city for fingerprint of traffic emission contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sigolo, Joel B., E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in urban environments has become very interesting in the last years, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REE La, Ce and Nd are used in automobile converter catalysts to stabilize the catalyst support and to enhance the oxidation of pollutants. The honeycomb structure has a typical association of a high Ce (and often also La) concentration combined with high concentrations of Platinum Group Elements. Due to thermal and mechanical wear of catalysts, fine particles enriched in REE are released to the environment. These catalyst particles can accumulate in urban soils, mainly in soils located near high density traffic roads. The aim of this paper was to study the REE distribution and ratios in surface soil samples collected in fourteen urban public parks of Sao Paulo city, to assess the influence of vehicular emissions. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE analysis. The diagrams normalized to chondrite values showed an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), with a negative anomaly of Eu. The results obtained indicated that the enrichment in REE is not clearly attributed to vehicular traffic, because of high background values associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  10. Absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiographs in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Doses absorvidas pelos pacientes submetidos a radiografias toracicas em hospitais do municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de

    2000-07-01

    Medical irradiation contributes with a significant amount to the dose received by the population. Here, this contribution was evaluated in a survey of absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiological examinations (postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections) in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo. Due to the variety of equipment and procedures used in radiological examinations, a selection of hospitals was made (12, totalizing 27 X-ray facilities), taking into account their representativeness as medical institutions in the city, in terms of characteristics and number of radiographs carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom, provided with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-1 00), was irradiated simulating the patient, and the radiographic image quality was evaluated. Absorbed doses were determined to the thoracic region (entrance and exit skin and lung doses), and to some important organs from the radiation protection point of view (lens of the eye, thyroid and gonads). The great variation on the exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, beam size) leads to a large interval of entrance skin doses-ESD (coefficients of variation, CV, of 60% and 76%, for PA and LAT projections, respectively, were found) and of organ doses (CV of 60% and 46%. for thyroid and lung respectively). Mean values of ESD for LAT and PA projections were 0.22 and 0.98 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses per exam (PA and LAT) to thyroid and lung, 0.15 and 0.24 mGy respectively,showed that the thyroid was irradiated by the primary beam in many cases. Values of lens of the eye and gonad absorbed doses were below 30 {mu}Gy. Comparison of the lung doses obtained in this study with values in the literature, calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, showed good agreement. On the other hand, the comparison shows significant differences in the dose values to organs outside the chest region (thyroid, lens of eye and gonads). The effective dose calculated for a chest examination, PA and

  11. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas, the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR, and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%. Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17 with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%, potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35% had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%; other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P<0.05.

  12. Relation between HVL and ESD values in medical X-ray examination in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil;Relacao entre os valores de DEP e CSR em exames de raios X medicos no municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlotti, M.S.; Carvalhaes, R.P.M.; Nani, M. [Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the main entrance surface dose of (ESQ) in X-ray exams in medical exposures of PA chest, abdomen and skull AP and to study the influence of the reductive half value layer (HVL) in these results. The data obtained were analyzed in quality control tests performed in 92 X-ray units in the city of Sao Paulo. It was observed that about 30% of HVL equipment presented values below the minimum established by law, with 54.5%, 32.0% and 25.5% of the ESQ of the chest, abdomen and head respectively were above the reference level. The correlation factor between values obtained for the HVL and ESQ was estimated to -0.3, which indicates a weak correlation between the results. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the ESQ of equipment with low HVL have higher rates of compliance and that the low correlation observed may be explained by other technical operational factors involved in radiological exams. Furthermore, the large range of values observed in the distribution of ESQ shows that it is possible to reduce the doses in medical X-ray exams without loosing image quality. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city; Analise de liquens por ativacao neutronica para estudo da poluicao atmosferica da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: alessandrafuga@yahoo.com.br; Marcelli, Marcelo P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia]. E-mail: mpmarcelli@superig.com.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at {mu}g g{sup -1} levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g{sup -1} levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  14. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of Sao Paulo City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Roizenblatt

    Full Text Available We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity.A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007.The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30-39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue.Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a response to urbanicity

  15. SEGMENTATION IN TOURISTIC SECTOR: LGBT TOURISTS OF SAO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Sanitá Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the tourism segment LGBT (Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender of Sao Paulo city and gather information about his profile as important support for the tourism sector in defining their marketing strategies. It was carried out an exploratory and statistical data from government and representatives of this public for a description and analysis of data on the composition and profile of this segment, as well as the strategies being used by companies to captivate it and loyalty it. It also composes a Descriptive Study carried out by the Tourism Observatory of São Paulo next to the participants of the Sao Paulo Gay Parade in 2011. As results, it appears that LGBT public presents behavioral particularities as buyers of tourist products, providing during their stay, higher investments than others tourism segments, because it comes as a tourist for a longer period of stay in Sao Paulo, thus leaving more financial resources in the city. It also presents as results, examples of effective use of differentiation strategies by organizations, attraction, service and loyalty in this segment.

  16. SEGMENTATION IN TOURISTIC SECTOR: LGBT TOURISTS OF SAO PAULO

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Sanitá Azevedo; Cibele Barsalini Martins; Nádia Kassouf Pizzinatto; Osvaldo Elias Farah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the tourism segment LGBT (Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender) of Sao Paulo city and gather information about his profile as important support for the tourism sector in defining their marketing strategies. It was carried out an exploratory and statistical data from government and representatives of this public for a description and analysis of data on the composition and profile of this segment, as well as the strategies being used by companies ...

  17. Rational use of electric power in university cities: a case study of `Armando de Salles Oliveira` university city at the Sao Paulo University; Uso racional de energia eletrica em campi universitarios: o caso da cidade universitaria `Armando de Salles Oliveira` da Universidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Oliveira e Silva, Mauricio de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas

    1997-12-31

    This work aims to present the main results obtained in the first stage of project of implementation of the electric energy management program in the University of Sao Paulo (USP). In this stage data related to the end use habits of electrical energy in several units that form University City Armando de Salles Oliveira (CUASO) were collected and analysed, which enabled strategies that to a better use of electrical energy in the CUASO. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.; e-mail: masaidel at pea.usp.br

  18. Effects of chronic exposure to air pollution from Sao Paulo city on coronary of Swiss mice, from birth to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinaga, Lícia Mioko Yoshizaki; Lichtenfels, Ana Julia; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Bueno, Heloisa Maria De Siqueira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Garcia, Maria Lúcia Bueno

    2009-04-01

    To explore the hypothesis that air pollution promotes cardiovascular changes, Swiss mice were continuously exposed, since birth, in two open-top chambers (filtered and nonfiltered for airborne particles Sao Paulo, twenty-four hours per day for four months. Fine particle (PM(2.5)) concentration was determined gravimetrically; hearts were analyzed by morphometry. There was a reduction of the PM(2.5) inside the filtered chamber (filtered = 8.61+/-0.79 microg/m(3), nonfiltered = 18.05+/-1.25 microg/m(3), p < .001). Coronary arteries showed no evidence of luminal narrowing in the exposed group but presented higher collagen content in the adventitia of LV large-sized and RV midsized vessels (p = .001) and elastic fibers in both tunicae adventitia and intima-media of almost all sized arterioles from both ventricles (p = .03 and p = .001, respectively). We concluded that chronic exposure to urban air since birth induces mild but significant vascular structural alterations in normal individuals, presented as coronary arteriolar fibrosis and elastosis. These results might contribute to altered vascular response and ischemic events in the adulthood.

  19. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  20. Public policies for energy substitution in bus: the case of city of Sao Paulo; Politicas publicas para a substituicao energetica em onibus: o caso da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gregorio da Cruz; Zisman, Sandra Francis [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has been on a leading position on fossil fuel substitution in light vehicles. In 2008 and 2009, ethanol contributed with more than 50% of the light vehicle fuel's consumption. A new energetic substitution program was launched in Sao Paulo, and it can be the turning point for the fossil fuel's substitution in the segment of collective transport. This program allows the development of new fuel and engine technologies, and creates opportunities for their deployment on the collective transport market. The economic consequence is a restructuring process that affects the already established markets. There are still big uncertainties about the program's execution, and also about what will be the winning solutions of this, already started, technological race. (author)

  1. Characteristics of Contraceptive Use in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira; Rita Badiani; Amaury Léis Dal Fabbro; Antonio Luiz Rodrigues Junior

    2006-01-01

    Objective To know the characteristics of contraceptive use in Sao Paulo State collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 1996.Methods Data of Sao Paulo in 1996 were analyzed compared with the previous DHS carried on in 1986focusing on Sao Paulo State. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women by age, number of children and schooling was closely examined.Age and timing of female sterilization were also analyzed.Results The results showed that unlike Brazil there was a stability of female sterilization in Sao Paulo State during 1986 and 1996. There was a pattern in Sao Paulo: up to 30years old the pill was the most used contraceptive, after 30 there was a predominance of female sterilization, which increased with the number of children and decreased with schooling. The use of male methods had also increased in the 1986 and 1996period, being greater in Sao Paulo than in Brazil. Sao Paulo also presented more diversity in the use of reversible contraceptives.Conclusions The predominant two contraceptive methods in Brazil and Sao Paulo changed from 1986 to 1996, I.e. From pill to female sterilization.

  2. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  3. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  5. Sao Paulo jätkab biennaali / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Sao Paulo biennaal sai 50aastaseks. Kuni 29. VII toimunud juubelinäitusest. 2002. a. leiab aset XXV Sao Paulo biennaal "Metropoliikonograafiad", kus esinevad kunstnikud kaheksast maailma suurlinnast.

  6. Metal concentration in urban park soils of Sao Paulo 2. Buenos AiresPark; Concentracao de metais em solos de parques urbanos em Sao Paulo. 2. Parque Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumiero, Felipe C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: felipegumiero@gmail.com; Sigolo, Joel B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias], E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.br; Enzweiler, Jacinta [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias], E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br; Milian, Felix Mas [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: felixmasmilian@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    As part of a project which aims metal concentration assessment in urban park soils of Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Buenos Aires park of Sao Paulo. This park is located in central region of the city, and is surrounded by avenues and streets, with different traffic volumes. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). These results suggest that these elements have anthropogenic origin and indicate a potential risk for soil quality. (author)

  7. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  8. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Oyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV and Heavy (HDV duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel. The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5 in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS, and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT. The organic aerosol (OA desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the

  9. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  10. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  11. The white epidemic and the asepsis of refined earthenware in Belle Epoque Sao Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Abreu e Souza

    2013-01-01

    The article examines Brazilian refined earthenwares known as faianca fina (fine faience) and relates ideas about its production to the contextual backdrop of hygienist discourses in the city of Sao Paulo in the early twentieth century. Based on an analysis of glaze components, moisture expansion processes, and technological aspects of the production of earthenware recovered from the Petybon archeological site, it is suggested that the establishment of factories and the production and consumpt...

  12. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo city (Brazil); Ampliacao de mercado para o gas natural utilizando informacoes urbanas: estudo de caso dos distritos paulistanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa M.; Faga, Murilo T.W.; Santos, Edmilson M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the city of Sao Paulo for the Brazilian natural gas market, the aim of this paper is to propose an analytical methodology that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, characterizing the gas consumption possibilities and attractiveness for each of the 96 districts composing the city. The methodology is developed through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. On this paper, examples of essential information that compose the methodology are presented for three districts: Itaquera, Moema and Tatuape, which have different socio-economic and geographical profiles. (author)

  13. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M.M.; Grimoni, J.A.B.; Burani, G.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A.M.A.; Barbosa, E.J.S.; Hamzo, S.T.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Prist, R.; Sonnewend, J.E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  14. Causes of death among people living with AIDS in the pre- and post-HAART Eras in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Silvia Bruniera Domingues

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We examine the trend in causes of death among people living with AIDS in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, and we investigate potential disparities across districts of residence. METHODS: Descriptive study of three periods: pre-HAART (1991-1996; early post-HAART (1997-1999; and late post-HAART (2000-2006. The data source was the São Paulo State STD/AIDS Program and São Paulo State Data Analysis Foundation. Causes of death were classified by the ICD-9 (1991-1995 and ICD-10 (1996-2006. We estimated age-adjusted mortality rates for leading underlying causes of death and described underlying and associated causes of death according to sociodemographic characteristics and area of residence. We used Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical variables. Areas of residence were categorized using a socioeconomic index. To analyze trends we apply generalized linear model with Poisson regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 32,808 AIDS-related deaths. Between the pre- and late post-HAART periods, the proportion of deaths whose underlying causes were non-AIDS-related diseases increased from 0.2% to 9.6% (p<0.001: from 0.01% to 1.67% (p<0.001 for cardiovascular diseases; 0.01% to 1.62% (p<0.001 for bacterial/unspecified pneumonia; and 0.03% to 1.46% (p<0.001 for non-AIDS-defining cancers. In the late post-HAART period, the most common associated causes of death were bacterial/unspecified pneumonia (35.94%, septicemia (33.46%, cardiovascular diseases (10.11% and liver diseases (8.0%; and common underlying causes, besides AIDS disease, included non-AIDS-defining cancers in high-income areas, cardiovascular diseases in middle-income areas and assault in low-income areas. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of HAART has shifted the mortality profile away from AIDS-related conditions, suggesting changes in the pattern of morbidity, but

  15. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-12-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  16. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-09-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  17. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  18. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  19. Legal protection of the Guarani aquifer in Ribeirao Preto (Sao Paulo State, Brasil); Tutela juridica do Aquifero Guarani em Ribeirao Preto (Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso Goulart, M.; Cavalheiro Navajas Sampaio Campos, H.; Nepomuceno, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer is one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world and represents a strategic reserve for the four countries of South America where it occurs: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The municipality of Ribeirao Preto, located in the north-east region of Sao Paulo, with a population of over 600,000 inhabitants, is supplied entirely by water from this aquifer. Hydrogeological studies reveal the existence of a large cone of drawdown in the centre of the city due to the intensive and indiscriminate use of water pumped out by wells for decades. In rural areas, where many of the rocky outcrops of the aquifer occur and which affords direct recharge by rain water, the risk of contamination by pesticides is of some concern. Over the years the Public Ministry of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto has provided guidelines for actions and initiatives in environmental protection, especially with regard to the Guarani aquifer. These actions and initiatives are based mainly on the principle of the supremacy of public interest over private interest and the principle of caution. On the basis of these premises the prosecutor works with the government and the private sector to monitor and readmitted environmental liabilities that threaten the aquifer (landfills, diffuse contamination etc.) and to maintain due discipline within the activities that take place within the recharge zone (agriculture, industry and urbanization) including those of regulation and territorial planning. (Author)

  20. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  1. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  2. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  3. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  4. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, S. [Sao Paulo State Gas Co. and Mackenzie Univ. (Brazil); Assuncao, J.V. de [Mackenzie Univ. and Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  5. Sao Paulo natural gas market: conditions for its expansion; Mercado de gas natural em Sao Pauo: condicionantes para sua expansao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)]. E-mail: cpaula@sp.gov.br; Zevi Kann [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia (CSPE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: zevikann@sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This article evaluates the potential of natural gas at the Sao Paulo, BR, energy market, and his interaction with brazilian market. The demand of the brazilian and Sao Paulo demand markets were evaluated, contra posing with the projects of supply under examination. As the performance data base of operation of distribution forecasted the Sao Paulo state market, the analysis were directed to this State. The characteristics of each transportation technology were analysed, both channeled and liquefied, evaluating costs, investment and opportunities of each mode. The channelled gas were analysed under distribution by comparing the data from carious concessionaire, from the formation up to tariff revision, showing the specific costs and service expansion planning up to 2009.

  6. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  7. Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2009-10-01

    programa de vacunación contra la gripe. Las estimativas de la población y los datos de mortalidad fueron, respectivamente, obtenidos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br y del Ministerio de la Salud (www.datasus.gov.br para el período entre el 1980 y 2006. Se estimó el riesgo de muerte por el método directo de ajuste, en el que se utilizó la población estándar (mundial referente al 1960. RESULTADOS: Las comparaciones entre las inclinaciones de las líneas de regresión resultaron semejantes para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y CE (p = 0,941, sin embargo, para las EIC (p = 0,022, se observó significativa reducción de la línea del período postvacuna cuando comparada con la línea del período prevacuna. El cambio en la tendencia de la mortalidad tras el 1996 fue significativo sólo para las EIC (p = 0,022, permaneciendo inalterada para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y EE (p = 0,941. CONCLUSIÓN: La vacunación contra la gripe se asoció a la significativa reducción de la mortalidad por EIC.BACKGROUND: The effect of vaccination against the influenza virus on the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality by CVD before and after the start of the vaccination against the Influenza virus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD, cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD and external causes (EC in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, aged > 60 years, before and after the start of the vaccination program against Influenza. The population estimates and mortality data were obtained, respectively, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br and from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (www.datasus.gov.br for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: The comparisons between

  8. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of neurosurgery at University of São Paulo comes from 1918, since its origins under the Department of Neurology from Chair of Psychiatric Clinic and Nervous Diseases. Professor Enjolras Vampré was the great inspiration for such medical specialty in the State of Sao Paulo. In 1929, the first neurosurgical procedures were performed in the recently (at time organized Section of Neurosurgery. The official inauguration of the Division of Functional Neurosurgery occurred at June 1977, with the presence of worldwide well-known neuroscientists. The division suffered a deep streamlining under the leadership of Professor Raul Marino Jr., between the decades of 1990 and 2000. At this time, it was structured with the sections of neurological surgery, functional neurosurgery and neurosurgical emergency. Since 2008, Professor Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira is the Chairman of the Division and has provided the Division with the best available technological resources, performing more than 3,000 surgeries a year and training professionals who will, certainly, be some of the future leaders of brazilian neurosurgery.

  9. Mortalidade por Aids e indicadores sociais no Município de São Paulo, 1994 a 2002 AIDS mortality and socioeconomic indexes in the city of Sao Paulo, 1994-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Farias

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as correlações entre os coeficientes de mortalidade por Aids e os índices de inclusão/exclusão social, em homens e mulheres de 25 a 49 anos. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em 96 distritos administrativos do Município de São Paulo, no período de 1994 a 2002. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos do programa de aprimoramento das informações de mortalidade do Município e estimativas populacionais dos censos de 1991 e 2000 da Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (Seade e Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento. Os índices foram obtidos do Mapa da Exclusão para a Cidade (1996 e 2000. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Pearson (alfa=0,05. RESULTADOS: Entre os homens, observou-se correlação positiva significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between AIDS mortality rates and social inclusion/exclusion indexes among male and female populations aged between 25 to 49 years. METHODS: The study was carried out in 96 administrative districts of the municipality of São Paulo in the period 1994-2002. Mortality data were collected from the Program for Improving Local Mortality Data and from population estimates based on the 1991 and 2000 census of the State System Data Analysis (SEADE Institute and the Municipal Department of Planning. The indicators were obtained from the city's map of exclusion (1996 and 2000. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation test (at 5% level. RESULTS: A significant positive correlation was seen among men between AIDS mortality and the district life quality index from 1994 to 1998 (p<0.05. Among women, a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 was seen for the whole study period between AIDS mortality and the equity index, which measures the proportion of illiterate women who are family heads. From 2000, it was also observed a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 among women between AIDS mortality and the global

  10. Caracterização das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva do município de São Paulo Caracteristics of intensive care units in Sao Paulo city - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miako Kimura

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo constitui-se numa parte inicial de um Projeto Integrado que visa analisar os recursos estruturais das UTIs do Município de São Paulo, incluindo o ambiente físico, recursos humanos, equipamentos e materiais. Os aspectos analisados neste artigo referem-se às características destas Unidades quanto à sua quantidade e distribuição geográfica, número de leitos, entidade mantenedora, tipo de atendimento, de clientela e de tratamento, assim como as médias de ocupação e de permanência. Por amostragem casual estratificada, foram selecionados 40% dos hospitais com UTI de cada uma das regiões integrantes do SUS no Município. A amostra estudada foi de 43 UTIs e o instrumento para coleta de dados foi um questionário respondido pelo enfermeiro responsável pela Unidade. O número de UTIs nos hospitais variou de 1 a 4 , sendo mais frequentes aqueles com urna única Unidade (68,8%. 79,2% das UTIs pertenciam a hospitais particulares e 51,2% localizavam-se na região centro-oeste do Município. Os leitos de terapia intensiva corresponderam a 8,0% do total de leitos hospitalares. Cada Unidade tinha, em média, 10 leitos. Predominaram as UTIs gerais (60,5%, as destinadas somente a pacientes adultos (51,2% e as que atendiam tanto a pacientes clínicos como cirúrgicos ( 95,3%. Na maioria das Unidades, a porcentagem de ocupação mensal dos leitos foi de 80 a 100% e a média de permanência, de 4,5 dias.This study is the first part in a series of the articles reporting results of a project conducted to analyse the structural resources of ICUs in São Paulo city. This article describes the characteristics of those Units, considering the quantity and geographic location, bed number, maintainer entity, type of assistance, type of client, as well the percentage of beds usage and lenght of stay. Forty three ICUs were analysed and a questionnaire answered by the ICU nurse coordinator was used to collect data. The results showed that the number

  11. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  12. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  13. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliavao da concentracao de elementos traco e de mercurio total em pescados comercializados na cidade de Cubatao, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T., E-mail: ba_cortopassi@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the non predator species, and the 1000 {mu}g{sup -1} for the predator species (humid weight)

  14. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudo comparativo de constituintes nutricionais e do teor de mercurio total em peixes comercializados na cidade de Cananeia, litoral de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Soraia M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: soraiamn@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg{sup -1} for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg{sup -1} established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species)

  15. Fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens pobres na cidade de São Paulo, 2007 Factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes pobres en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, 2007 Factors associated with induced abortion among poor youth in the city of São Paulo, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca de Souza e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo investiga fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens residentes numa comunidade pobre da cidade de São Paulo. A amostra foi composta por 102 homens e 99 mulheres de 14 a 25 anos de idade que já haviam iniciado suas vidas sexuais. Usou-se o modelo hierárquico de regressão logística. As variáveis não ter companheiro sexual no momento da entrevista, sexo do entrevistado, idade no momento da entrevista, priorizar morar só e número de gestações compuseram o modelo final. Dar muita importância a morar só quadruplica a chance de ocorrer um aborto. Jovens mais velhos foram menos propensos a se deparar com um aborto, dado que a chance de se optar pelo aborto se reduz 17% para cada incremento de um ano na idade dos jovens. Isso é indicativo de que as gestações ocorreram de forma inesperada, intempestiva, como é praxe nas condutas adolescentes, sendo as maiores candidatas a terminarem em aborto provocado. Evidencia-se, portanto, a necessidade de serem investidos recursos financeiros para obtenção de métodos contraceptivos eficazes e inócuos, destinados ao início da vida sexual.Este artículo investiga factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes residentes en una comunidad pobre de la ciudad de Sao Paulo. La muestra estaba compuesta por 102 hombres y 99 mujeres de 14 a 25 años de edad que ya habían dado inicio a sus vidas sexuales. Se usó el modelo jerárquico de regresión logística. Las variables: no tener compañero sexual en el momento de la entrevista, sexo del entrevistado, edad en el momento de la entrevista, priorizar vivir solo, y número de gestaciones, compusieron el modelo final. Dar mucha importancia a vivir solo cuadruplica la posibilidad de que se produzca un aborto. Jóvenes de mayor edad fueron menos propensos a encontrarse con un aborto, dado que la posibilidad de optar por un aborto se reduce un 17%, respectoa cada incremento de un año en la edad de los jóvenes. Eso es indicativo de

  16. Perfil dos usuários de serviços de Saúde Mental do município de Lorena - São Paulo Perfil de los usuarios de servicios de Salud Mental del municipio de Lorena - Sao Paulo Profile of users of mental health services in the city of Lorena - São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do Ambulatório de Saúde Mental e do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial de Lorena - São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório descritivo com dados coletados em 5.830 prontuários dos usuários desses dois serviços de Saúde Mental. RESULTADOS:Foram analisados 5.490 prontuários no Ambulatório e 340 no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial. No Ambulatório 68% dos usuários eram mulheres e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, 61% eram homens. Os diagnósticos que prevaleceram no Ambulatório foram: transtornos neuróticos, relacionados ao estresse e os somatoformes, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, foram os transtornos decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas. O grupo de medicamentos mais prescritos no Ambulatório foi o de antidepressivos, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, os antipsicóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que os serviços de Saúde Mental atuam de forma desarticulada com a Atenção Básica de Saúde e faz-se necessário implantar o apoio matricial nesse município.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el perfil de los usuarios del Consultorio Externo de Salud Mental y del Centro de Atención Psicosocial de Lorena - Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudio exploratorio descriptivo cuyos datos fueron recolecatos en 5.830 historias clínicas de los usuarios de esos dos servicios de Salud Mental. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 5.490 historias clínicas em el Consultorio Externo y 340 en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial. En el Consultorio externo el 68% de los usuarios eran mujeres y en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial, el 61% eran hombres. Los diagnósticos que prevalecieron en el Consultorio Externo fueron: trastornos neuróticos, relacionados al estrés y los somatoformes, y en el centro de Atención Psicosocial, fueron los trastornos generados por el uso de sustancias psicoactivas. El grupo de medicamentos más prescritos en el Consultorio Externo fue el de los antidepresivos, y en el Centro de Atenci

  17. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  18. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Talita; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Yamaguishi, Renata Bazante, E-mail: taoliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, Luciana Carvalho Bezerra de; Castro, Paula Maria Genova de; Monteiro Junior, Adalberto Jose; Maruyama, Lidia Sumile, E-mail: lcbm@usp.br [Instituto de Pesca, (IP/SAA-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de Sao Paulo

    2013-07-01

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  19. Estomizado adulto no município de São Paulo: um estudo sobre o custo de equipamentos especializados Adulto ostomizado del municipio Sao Paulo: un estudio sobre el costo de los equipamientos especializados Adult ostomy patients in the city of São Paulo: a study of specialized equipment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar o custo mensal do uso de dispositivos e adjuvantes por estomizados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, realizada em dois Ambulatórios de Especialidades, em São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em 635 prontuários de pacientes estomizados adultos, atendidos em junho de 2005. Os valores dos dispositivos e adjuvantes foram obtidos em registros eletrônicos e publicações oficiais da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e seus resultados foram submetidos aos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni e Spearman. A maioria dos indivíduos era do sexo feminino (51%, idade > 60anos, com colostomia provisória (64,5%. O custo individual mensal médio foi R$ 137,72, maior para os urostomizados, com estomas definitivos, com neoplasias de vias urinárias e atendidos no serviço que possui enfermeiro especialista. Houve correlação estatisticamente significativa e positiva entre o custo mensal e o tempo de estomia. Este estudo contribuiu para a avaliação do custo do estomizado no Estado de São Paulo.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar el costo mensual del uso de dispositivos y adjuvantes por ostomizados. Se trata de una investigación retrospectiva, realizada en dos Consultorios externos de Especialidades, en Sao Paulo. Los datos fueron recolectados en 635 historias clínicas de pacientes adultos ostomizados, atendidos en junio del 2005. Los valores de los dispositivos y adjuvantes fueron obtenidos en registros electrónicos y publicaciones oficiales de la Secretaría de Estado de la Salud de Sao Paulo y sus resultados fueron sometidos a los tests de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni y Spearman. La mayoría de los individuos era del sexo femenino (51%, edad >60 años, con colostomía provisional (64,5%. El costo individual mensual promedio fue de R$ 137,72, mayor para los urostomizados, con esto mas definitivos, con neoplasias de vías urinarias

  20. Ambiente atmosférico urbano e admissão hospitalar de crianças, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Urban atmospheric environment and hospital admission for children in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil Ambiente atmosférico urbano e ingresos hospitalarios de niños en la ciudad de Sâo Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelci Nunes da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações climáticas constituem risco para a saúde pública. Contudo, poucos estudos têm procurado identificar como a dinâmica do clima afeta a saúde, a fim de se obter dados que alimentem modelos de previsão de riscos para a saúde. Nas cidades tropicais esses estudos são particularmente escassos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar como as condições atmosféricas intraurbanas afetam a saúde respiratória das crianças menores de cinco anos no setor Sul/Sudeste, da cidade de São Paulo, associando as variáveis atmosféricas e o índice bioclimático PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature com as admissões hospitalares. Analisaram-se 12.269 casos de internamento por doenças respiratórias em crianças – CID 10, Capítulo 10 - Doenças Respiratórias (J00-J32; J40-J47; J80-J99. Os dados diários de temperaturas média, mínima e máxima do ar (ºC, humidade relativa média do ar (% e velocidade média do vento (m/s foram obtidos na estação meteorológica do aeroporto de Congonhas e o índice de qualidade do ar, como controle, na CETESB/CONGONHAS. Utilizou-se a análise estatística descritiva e modelo de regressão. Os resultados apontaram associação estatística entre as variáveis atmosféricas, a poluição e os internamentos hospitalares. Não foram identificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para o grupo de crianças com doenças respiratórias, menores de cinco anos residentes em distritos com diferentes condições socioambientais.Climatic changes pose public health risks. However, few studies have tried to identify how climate dynamics affect health, in order to obtain evidence-based data for risk-prediction models. Moreover, such studies are particularly scarce for tropical cities. This study aimed to verify how intra-urban atmospheric conditions affect the respiratory health of children under five in the South- eastern part of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by associating atmospheric variables and the

  1. Moradia e segregacao na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pasternak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to show striking aspects of the socio- spatial inequalities in the city of São Paulo: at one extreme, the favelas and at the other extreme, the gated condominiums. It shows the evolution of the population of greater São Paulo and that of the city itself and its pattern of spatial growth, namely the spread of the poor peripheral population. The population of the city is aging, although the spatialization of the age structure shows that all the population of the periphery is still younger. The association between income, education and place of living is clear: lower incomes and less education in the peripheral ring. The article also describes the formation of the city, its huge expansion in the 40s and its impoverishment at the turn of the century. The social segregation, previously confined to the periphery, is spreading to other parts of the city. The favelas are increasing, more gated condominiums are being built even in poor neighborhoods. A remarkable characteristic of housig in São Paulo at the end of last century is the growth of favelas and that of gated condominiums. The population of favelas represents more than 10% of the total population of the municipality and there were 2,500 new condominium units launched in 2000. The article solves Tha article belies some myths about favelas and condominiums. The favela space is very similar to the urban space and its units are also in the housing market. Nevertheless, there are some peculiarities in the favela fabric. The proportion of formal employment in favelas is the same as that in the municipality. Favelas are rather different one from the other, be it in what concerns physical space or in the type of population. In what regards gated condominiums, they also house social groups of lower income Gated condominiums also house social groups of lower income, being found in the poor and polluted periphery. The absence of city authorities makes this urban space prone to

  2. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil; Estudo de localizacao de termoeletricas no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas; Ramos, Dorel Soares; Vieira, Silas [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliane@pea.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used.

  3. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1998. Ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997.

  4. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  5. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Razzouk

    Full Text Available Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce.To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated.147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs.Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially

  6. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size <63 {mu}m, which were then analyzed for 7 elements by X-ray fluorescence technique. The fundamental parameters method (FP) was applied and the simple pressed powder technique for sample preparation was used. The concentrations preliminary results of metals in the household dust were Cr, 18-188 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Mn, 119-369 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Fe, 372-1464 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Ni, 33-85 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Cu, 42-303 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Zn, 156-1369 {mu}g g{sup -1} and Pb, 26-160 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  8. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  9. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  10. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao de Neutrons; Kunioshi, Leonardo; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 mug kg{sup -1}) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 mug kg{sup -1}) - Pescada; (3 to 23 mug kg{sup -1}) - Tainha; (43 to 184 mug kg{sup -1}) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 mug kg{sup -1}) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 mug kg{sup -1}); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 mug kg{sup -1}); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 mug kg{sup -1}) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg{sup -1}). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  11. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Adenocarcinoma do endometrio: retrospectiva de casos dos ultimos cinco anos no Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  12. Cash Transfers and Mayoral Elections: The Case of Sao Paulo's Renda Mínima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sanches Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recently published studies analyze the effects of national conditional cash transfer (CCT programs, such as the Brazilian Bolsa Família and the Mexican Oportunidades, on presidential elections. Most of them show that these programs boost incumbents' electoral support among the poor. This research note is the first scholarly attempt to investigate this phenomenon at a lower-level unit of a federal state, by assessing the impact of a municipal cash transfer program on a mayoral election. Specifically, it investigates whether Renda Mínima, the cash transfer program of the city of Sao Paulo, affected beneficiaries' electoral behavior in favor of the incumbent candidate in the 2004 mayoral election. This note analyzes survey data from CEBRAP/IBOPE and shows that cash transfers did, indeed, affect beneficiaries' behavior in the predicted direction, but only in cases where they did not benefit from any other CCT program, such as the federal Bolsa Família or the São Paulo state Renda Cidadã. These results suggest that the pro-incumbent effect of CCT programs may be diluted by similar programs launched by governments at other tiers of a federation, even if they are led by the same party.

  13. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria Lobanco

    2009-06-01

    153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por niños y adolescentes, comercializados en el municipio de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil entre los años de 2001 y 2005. Los tenores de nutrientes informados por los rótulos fueron confrontados con los resultados obtenidos por métodos analíticos (fisico-químicos oficiales, considerando la variabilidad de 20% tolerada por la legislación vigente, para aprobar o condenar las muestras. Se calcularon promedios, desvíos estándar e intervalos con 95% de confianza para los nutrientes analizados, así como la distribución de la frecuencia porcentual de muestras condenadas. RESULTADOS: Todos los productos salados analizados presentaron inconformidades relativas al contenido de fibra alimentar, sodio o de grasas saturadas. Los productos dulces presentaron variación de cero a 36% de condenación relativa al tenor de la fibra alimentar. Más de la mitad (52% de los biscochos rellenos fueron condenados con relación a la cantidad de grasas saturadas. Los nutrientes implicados con la obesidad y sus complicaciones para la salud fueron aquellos que presentaron mayores proporciones de inconformidad. La falta de fidedignidad de las informaciones de rótulos en las muestras analizadas viola las disposiciones de la Resolución de la Directoria Colegiada Anvisa 360/03 y los derechos garantizados por la ley de Seguridad Alimentar y Nutricional y por el Código de Defensa del Consumidor. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron altos índices de no conformidad de los datos nutricionales en los rótulos de alimentos destinados al público adolescente e infantil, indicando la urgencia de acciones de fiscalización y de otras medidas de rotulación nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability of information about nutritional facts stated on labels of foods marketed. METHODS: A total of 153 industrialized foods, usually consumed by children and adolescents and marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2001 and 2005

  14. O perfil dos candidatos ao curso técnico de enfermagem de uma escola particular da cidade de São Paulo The technical nurses profile at a private school of nursing in Sao Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio da Eira Frias

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo levantar o perfil dos candidatos ao curso técnico de enfermagem de uma Escola de Enfermagem Particular da cidade de São Paulo. A população consta de indivíduos adultos jovens; com idade média de 31,09 anos; com renda familiar de 9,65 salários mínimos; solteiro; predominância do sexo feminino; 12,5% deles com formação escolar superior incompleto ou completo; 43,8% tem filhos, cujas idades variam entre 6 e 13 anos. Os candidatos apresentam afinidade para trabalhar com pacientes graves e sem afinidade para assistência pediátrica. Do trabalho em oncologia, o aprendizado pessoal é fator positivo em oposição ao sofrimento pessoal e do paciente, que é considerado aspecto negativo.The result showed the candidate's profile as they are adult; with age mindle of 31,09 years old; familiare income are 9,65 minimun salary; single; predominant female; 12,5% with university course complete or incomplete; 43,8% have a children. The age of a chil dren vary of 6-13 years old. The candidates refer afinity to work with patient of major risk and absence of afinity to pediatric patient. The work in oncology, demonstrated the positive way the personal learning and the negative, the personal and patient suffering.

  15. Photovoltaic plants of PRODEEM, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a proposal for regional organization; Instalacoes fotovoltaicas do PRODEEM - Sao Paulo e uma proposta de organizacao regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra; Campos, Ubirajara Sampaio de [Secretaria de Estado de Energia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Photovoltaic Systems for Water Pumping in Temporary Settlements in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil project, submitted for approval of the Brazilian PRODEEM (Program for the Energetic Development of States and Municipal Districts). This project aims the electric power viability for rural workers settlement in the Pontal do Parapanema region, providing the water supply for families and cattle.

  16. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  17. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008.; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2009. Ano base 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  18. Vanglaülestõus vallandas Sao Paulos kaose / Erik Henno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henno, Erik

    2006-01-01

    11. mail vallandus Sao Paulo vanglates konflikt, mis laienes üle osariigi ning mille käigus süüdati kümneid busse, rünnati politseiautosid ja pangakontoreid, pantvangi võeti ligi 200 inimest. Kaubanduskeskused ja koolid jäid suletuks, ühistransport oli halvatud. Kaart: Vägivallalaine Brasiilias. Lisa: Maffia

  19. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  20. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  1. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  2. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  3. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  4. Energy balance of the state of Sao Paulo - 2015: calendar year 2014; Balanco energetico do estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The State Energy Report 2015 prepared by the Secretariat of Energy, is the publication of the State Government that shows the supply and demand of energy used by the state economy, with the corresponding participation of the sectors involved. The energy policy of the State of Sao Paulo's strategic objective of expanding the energy supply from the load centers, energy security and expanding the share of renewable sources in the matrix. In order to achieve these objectives it is essential that count on complete and reliable information on the supply and demand of energy. This information is needed not only to the Secretary of Energy, in the formulation and implementation of state programs, but the municipalities and regions of the state so that they can formulate and present their demands as clearly as possible. It is therefore the production of strategic information to the counties together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services. The publication is essential reading for all who work with energy planning studies, feasibility of innovative technologies, search for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The evolution of the energy matrix of the State of Sao Paulo is one of the Balance sheet highlights, showing a greater share of biomass and natural gas since the mid- 90s . This issue also reports on CO{sub 2} emissions in the state, historical data vintages of the Sao Paulo sugarcane sector and a breakdown of electricity and derived from oil and gas. Thus, the State Energy Balance 2015 becomes an important tool aimed at implementation of public policies relevant to the infrastructure sector. (author)

  5. The sarsaparilla market in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the challenges of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, MKM; Martins, AR; MONTANARI, I.; Figueira, GM; ZUCCHI, MI; Bajay, MM; Appezzato-da-Gloria, B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (...

  6. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Monitoramento de radioatividade ambiental no municipio de Itu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of {sup 226} Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  8. {sup 137}Cs inventory in sedimentary columns from continental shelf of Sao Paulo state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cordero, Luisa M.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Tessler, Moyses G., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Quimica e Geologica; Cruz, Jacson L.S. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    {sup 137}Cs is an artificial radioactive isotope produced by {sup 235}U fission. This radionuclide has a high fission yield and a half-life of 30 years. It has been detected in the environment since 1945 and its principal contamination source has been nuclear tests in the atmosphere. There are other sources of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the environment, such as: release from nuclear and reprocessing plants, radioactive dumping and nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, for example). This paper presents an inventory of {sup 137}Cs on the Continental Shelf of Sao Paulo State, a region located between Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (Santa Catarina state) and Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro state). In this area, 9 cores were collected by the Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo University Institute of Oceanography). The cores were sliced at every 2 cm; sub-samples were lyophilized, grinded and stored in plastic containers. {sup 137}Cs was determined by 661 keV photopeak using a gamma spectrometry detector (Ge hyperpure). The analysis was performed by efficiency and background in different counting times. {sup 137}Cs concentration activities varied from 0.3 to 3.6 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 1.2+-0.6 Bq kg{sup -1}. The inventory of {sup 137}Cs in this area was 13+-7 Bq m-2. Values obtained are in agreement with the Southern Hemisphere, a region contaminated by atmospheric fallout due to past nuclear explosions. (author)

  9. Perfil epidemiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, em São Paulo, SP Epidemiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis treated at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa d´Andretta Tanaka

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - A vaginose bacteriana é doença de grande relevância devido à sua alta prevalência e suas complicações obstétricas e ginecológicas. OBJETIVO - Descrever o perfil epidemiológico das pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de São Paulo, segundo variáveis de interesse social, demográfico e clínico. MÉTODOS - Estudo transversal descritivo, baseado nos prontuários de 658 mulheres atendidas de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2004. Foram coletadas as seguintes informações: idade, cor, estado civil, procedência, grau de escolaridade, preferência sexual, número de parceiros e presença de doença sexualmente transmissível associada. RESULTADOS - A prevalência encontrada foi de 29%. Com relação ao perfil da mulher com vaginose bacteriana, observou-se maior ocorrência em jovens entre 10 e 19 anos (40%, negras (37,1%, viúvas (62,5%, com segundo grau incompleto (39,5%, heterossexuais (29,5%, com dois ou mais parceiros sexuais nos últimos 30 dias (50% e nos últimos cinco anos (32,3%. A associação com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, concomitante, foi encontrada em 31,9% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO - A distribuição dos casos segundo faixa etária, raça, número de parceiros sexuais e associação com outras doenças encontradas nas pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana foi semelhante aos dados encontrados na literatura. A ocorrência está dentro dos limites descritos (10 e 36%.BACKGROUND- Bacterial vaginosis is an important disease on account of its high prevalence as well as the obstetrical and gynecological complications. OBJECTIVE- To present an epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis seen at an outpatient clinic in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, described according to socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHODS- A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed by collecting data from the medical records of 658

  10. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  11. Thorium mobilization in groundwaters from Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo state; Mobilizacao de torio em aguas subterraneas de Aguas da Prata, estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonetto, Erica Martini [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Area de Concentracao Geociencias e Meio Ambiente. Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias]. E-mail: etonetto@rc.unesp.br; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br

    2002-09-15

    The paper describes and discusses results of the determination, by alpha spectrometry, of the natural thorium isotopes in groundwaters associated with different rock types in Aguas da Prata spa, state of Sao Paulo. The dissolved Thorium is relatively low (0.003 to 1.72 mg.L{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th), while the {sup 22}'8Th/{sup 232}Th isotopic ratios for dissolved thorium were higher than unity (1.8 to 34). The thorium concentration in suspended solids of these waters ranged between 183 up and 3445 mug.g{sup -1} and indicates that significant thorium transport occurs under this condition. The obtained results allowed to calculate the factor for preferential mobilization of thorium in particulate matter relative to the liquid phase, an important parameter for understanding the geochemical behaviour of this element in hydrosphere. (author)

  12. Scenario of distributed energetic resources in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; O cenario dos recursos energeticos distribuidos no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the viability of the use of distributed resources for power production inside the state of Sao Paulo, taking into account its different forms, advantages and drawbacks. To accomplish the assessment and using de integrated energy resources planning, the full cost accounting for energy resources was applied to each administrative region of the state, which allowed a greater focus without jeopardizing the final results. The analysis were performed considering the usage of the most prospective energy sources such as wind, solar, natural gas, hydro and biomass generation; the results show that when the different aspects of each type of distributed generation are taken into account the renewable forms of energy generation are likely to be more competitive, when compared to traditional forms of generation. (author)

  13. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in cattle in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira, Adriana; De Stefano, Eliana; de Souza Nunes Martins, Maira; Okuda, Liria Hiromi; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; da Silva Garcia, Thais; Heinz Hellwig, Otto; Alves de Lima, José Eduardo; Savini, Giovanni; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. The State of Sao Paulo was divided into 7 cattle production regions (circuits) according the different systems of breeding, operational and logistical capacity of the state veterinary service. At least 1 animal from each property (a total of 1,716 farms) was tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of antibodies against BTV. Sero‑positive sera were subsequently also tested by virus neutralization tests (VNT) using serial dilutions from 1:10 (cutoff) up to 1:640 (in MEM). BTV‑4 neutralizing antibodies were detected in 86% (1,483/1,716) of the animals tested. These results show that BTV‑4 is endemic and widespread in the State of San Paulo and indirectly confirm that in the State there are favourable conditions for the multiplication of competent vectors. However, as no clinical signs have ever been reported in cattle in the region, BTV‑4 infection is likely to occur silently in the State of Sao Paulo.

  15. Sedimentation rates of Sao Paulo coast by carbonate calcium content: an alternative for radiometric methods; Levantamento das taxas de sedimentacao do litoral de Sao Paulo a partir do teor de carbonato de calcio: uma alternativa aos metodos radiometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: figueira@ipen.br; figueiraru@yahoo.com.br; Tessler, Moyses G.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Fukumoto, Marina M.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Geologica]. E-mail: mgtessle@usp.br; mahiques@usp.br; marina@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work it is presented a methodology of sedimentation rate determination by carbonate calcium content. The technique developed is an alternative for radiometric methods where are used {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} and {sup 137}Cs radionuclides. This methodology consisted in a determination of chronologic event along sedimentary column. In this work two events were used: the tsunami in Sao Vicente city, in 1542, and the maximum of 1{sup 37}Cs radioactive fallout from nuclear atmospheric tests, in 1963-65. It was possible to calculate the accumulation rate of total sediments and precipitation rate of calcium carbonate, which values are necessary to determine the age of slice from sedimentary column and consequently the sedimentation rate. The results obtained for Sao Paulo Continental Shelf had a good agreement with radiometric methods, the values were: 0.32({+-}0.12) cm.y{sup -1}, 0.23({+-}0.08) cm.y{sup -1} and 0.25({+-}0.9) cm.y{sup -1} for carbonate method, {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} (CIC model) and {sup 137}Cs (radioactive fallout), respectively. The analytical procedure using carbonate calcium content showed to be fast, efficient and with low cost. However, it must be used carefully, because the results can be strongly influenced by environmental factors which could change the precipitation rate of calcium carbonate and it could cause errors on sedimentation rate values in a determined area (author)

  16. Trans fatty acid intake among the population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil Consumo de ácidos grasos trans en la población de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Consumo de ácidos graxos trans na população da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Alessandra de Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acid intake among the general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2003, on a representative sample of 2,298 male and female subjects, including 803 adolescents (12 to 19 years, 713 adults (20 to 59 years and 782 elderly people (60 years or over. Food intake was measured using 24-hour recall. Mean trans fatty acid intake was described according to gender and age group. RESULTS: The mean trans fatty acid intake was 5.0 g/day (SE = 0.1, accounting for 2.4% (SE = 0.1 of total energy and 6.8% (SE = 0.1 of total lipids. The adolescents had the highest mean intake levels (7.4 g/day; 2.9% of energy while the adults and the elderly had similar intake (2.2% of energy for both; 6.4% of lipids and 6.5% of lipids, respectively. The mean trans fatty acid intake among adult and elderly women (approximately 2.5% of energy and 7.0% of lipids was higher than among men in the same age group. The food item with the highest contribution towards trans fatty acids was margarine, accounting for more than 30% of total intake, followed by filled cookies among adolescents and meat among adults and the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The trans fatty acid intake is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Replacement of the trans fatty acids in manufactured food items may be an effective measure for reducing trans fatty acid intake in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Analizar el consumo de ácidos grasos moninsaturados y polinsaturados de configuración trans en la población general. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, 2003, con muestra representativa de 2.298 individuos, siendo 803 adolescentes (12 a 19 años, 713 adultos (20 a 59 años y 782 ancianos (60 años o más, de ambos sexos. El consumo alimentario fue medido por medio del recordatorio alimentario de 24 horas. Los valores promedios de ingestión de

  17. Metal concentration on soils of urban parks at Sao Paulo, Brazil. 3. Parque da Aclimacao; Concentracao de metais em solos de parques urbanos em Sao Paulo. 3. Parque da Aclimacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavese, Arthur C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: pavese@terra.com.br; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Gumiero, Felipe C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Enzweiler, Jacinta [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br; Milian, Felix Mas [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: felixmasmilian@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the concentration of As, Ba, Zn, Sb, Se, Co, Cf, Cu and Pb on samples of superficial soils (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) at the Parque da Aclimacao, Sao Paulo downtown. The metal analyses were performed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The obtained results for the Zn were higher than the values considered as reference for soils at Sao Paulo, in accordance with the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB), but were lower than the prevention values. For the As, Ba, Cr and Sb, the results have shown concentration higher than the values of reference reported by the CETESB. (author)

  18. Non-volant mammals from Nucleo Santa Virginia, Serra do Mar State Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study presents data on the composition and species richness of non-flying mammals in the northern part of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, called Nucleo Santa Virginia (NSV - around 17000 hectares of Atlantic Forest), Sao Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. The species list was based on ca. 660 km of line-transects, 25512 hours of cameras traps, 7740 trap. nights for small mammals, and 394 track-station. days, as well as occasional records and registers from local people (period 2002 t...

  19. Ticks infesting birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Ileyne Tenório; Costa, Luís Flávio da Silva; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum.

  20. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  1. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  2. Toxic metal, micro and macronutrient assessment in fish most consumed by Iguape community, Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vieira, Andre S.; Bordon, Isabella C.A.C., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br, E-mail: isabella.bordon@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Farias, Luciana A., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2013-07-01

    It is well-known that, fish is an important source of protein for populations around the world. As such, fish consumption has increased because it is a healthy and low cholesterol source of protein and other nutrients. The city of Iguape, in the extreme south of the Sao Paulo State coast, is located in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest region. During the last two centuries the city suffered from drastic environmental changes, reinforcing the importance of environmental monitoring in this region. In the present study, 23 samples of the three most consumed fish species by the Iguape city population were analyzed. Fish samples were bought at local markets, conditioned in isothermic boxes in crushed ice (-4 deg C) and then identified before registering the biometric information (total length, total weight and body weight). The following micro and macronutrients As, Br, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentration in muscle from 02 predatory fish species Macrodon ancylodon (King weakfish - Pescada) and Centropomus parallelus (Fat snook - Robalo peba) and one detritivorus species: Anchoviella lepidentostole (Broadband anchovy - Manjuba) were assessed by INAA. Toxic metals Cd, Hg and Pb were also evaluated by AAS. Statistical correlation between element concentrations and fish species were tested. (author)

  3. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  4. Perspectives for distributed generation of electricity in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso; Perspectivas da geracao distribuida de eletricidade nos estados de Sao Paulo, Bahia e Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Leite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses the concept of distributed generation of electricity and the current support policies for such kind of generation in the country. Their diffusion perspectives in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso are discussed. The more promising technologies and new policies for them are pointed out. (author)

  5. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Vitrificacao de residuos solidos galvanicos: solucao para a zona leste de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO{sub -}CaO-Na{sub O}, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  8. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  10. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  11. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  12. Direct medical costs associated with schizophrenia relapses in health care services in the city of São Paulo Costo directo médico-hospitalario de recaída en esquizofrenia en servicios de salud en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, sureste de Brasil Custo direto médico-hospitalar de recaída em esquizofrenia em serviços de saúde na cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiane Salles Daltio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess direct medical costs associated with schizophrenia relapses in mental health services. METHODS: The study was conducted in three health facilities in the city of São Paulo: a public state hospital; a Brazilian National Health System (SUS-contracted hospital; and a community mental health center. Medical records of 90 patients with schizophrenia who received care in 2006 were reviewed. Information on inpatient expenditures was collected and used for cost estimates. RESULTS: Mean direct medical cost of schizophrenia relapses per patient was US$ 4,083.50 (R$ 8,167.58 in the public state hospital; US$ 2,302.76 (R$ 4,605.46 in the community mental health center; and US$ 1,198.50 (R$ 2,397.74 in the SUS-affiliated hospital. The main component was daily inpatient room rates (87% - 98%. Medication costs varied depending on the use of typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotic drugs were more often used in the community mental health center. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with schizophrenia relapses support investments in antipsychotic drugs and strategies to reduce disease relapse and the need for mental health inpatient services. Treating patients in a community mental health center was associated with medium costs and added the benefit of not depriving these patients from family life.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo directo médico-hospitalario de la recaída en esquizofrenia, en servicios en salud mental. MÉTODOS: Estudio conducido en tres servicios de salud de la ciudad de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil: un hospital público estatal, un hospital contratado en convenio con el Sistema Único de Salud, y un centro de atención psicosocial. Se analizaron 90 prontuarios de pacientes portadores de esquizofrenia atendidos durante el año de 2006. Los recursos utilizados durante la permanencia de los pacientes en los servicios fueron obtenidos y valorados para cálculos de las estimaciones. RESULTADOS: El costo directo m

  13. Caracterização da cultura de crack na cidade de São Paulo: padrão de uso controlado Caracterización de la cultura de crack en la ciudad de Sao Paulo: el padrón del uso controlado Characterization of the crack cocaine culture in the city of São Paulo: a controlled pattern of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a situação do uso de crack na cidade de São Paulo, assim como o perfil sociodemográfico de seu usuário. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo etnográfico com amostra intencional de usuários (n=45 e ex-usuários de crack (n=17. Os participantes foram recrutados pela técnica de amostragem em cadeias e responderam a uma entrevista semi-estruturada, direcionada por questionário, durante os anos de 2004 e 2005. O conjunto de cada questão e suas respectivas respostas originou relatórios específicos que foram interpretados individualmente. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: O perfil predominante do usuário de crack foi ser homem, jovem, solteiro, de baixa classe socioeconômica, baixo nível de escolaridade e sem vínculos empregatícios formais. O padrão de uso mais freqüentemente citado foi o compulsivo, caracterizado pelo uso múltiplo de drogas e desenvolvimento de atividades ilícitas em troca de crack ou dinheiro. Entretanto, identificou-se o uso controlado que consiste no uso não-diário de crack, mediado por fatores individuais, desenvolvidos intuitivamente pelo usuário e semelhantes, em natureza, às estratégias adotadas por ex-usuários para o alcance do estado de abstinência. CONCLUSÕES: A cultura do uso de crack tem sofrido mudanças quanto ao padrão de uso. Embora a maioria dos usuários o faça de forma compulsiva, observou-se a existência do uso controlado, que merece maior detalhamento, principalmente quanto às estratégias adotadas para seu alcance.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la situación del uso de crack en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, así como el perfil sociodemográfico del usuario. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudio cualitativo etnográfico con muestra intencional de usuarios (n=45 y ex-usuarios de crack (n=17. Los participantes fueron reclutados por la técnica de toma de muestra en cadenas y respondieron a una entrevista semi-estructurada, direccionada por cuestionario, durante los anos

  14. Avaliação da estrutura dos centros de atenção psicossocial do município de São Paulo, SP Evaluación de la estructura de los centros de atención psicosocial del municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Evaluation of psychosocial healthcare services in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Fátima Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    "equipamentos-síntese" dos quais os usuários não recebem alta, até serviços que encaminham e dão alta após a estabilização dos sintomas dos usuários, numa tentativa de construção de uma rede de cuidados.OBJETIVO: Describir la estructura física, recursos humanos y modalidades de atención existentes en los centros de atención psicosocial (CAPS. MÉTODOS: Fueron incluidos en el estudio 21 CAPS para atención de adultos, vinculados a la Secretaria Municipal de Salud de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, entre 2007 y 2008. Fueron colectadas informaciones sobre las instalaciones físicas de los servicios, recursos humanos disponibles y procedimientos de cuidado al paciente, utilizando instrumento estandarizado. Fueron realizados análisis descriptivos de los datos y la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para evaluar la asociación entre los tipos de actividades y el origen y localización de los servicios. RESULTADOS: Diez servicios fueron creados como ambulatorios y posteriormente transformados, ocho eran hospitales-día y apenas tres fueron creados como CAPS. Ningún servicio funcionaba diariamente durante 24 horas. Mitad de los servicios funcionaba en inmuebles alquilados, con instalaciones físicas inadecuadas especialmente para atenciones grupales. La composición de los equipos de servicios fue bastante diversa. Las actividades desempeñadas en los CAPS fueron heterogéneas, con mayor valorización de las actividades grupales desarrolladas con usuarios dentro de los CAPS y poca integración a los otros equipos de salud. Los servicios de origen ambulatorio presentaban actividades artesanales y los que habían sido hospitales-día realizaban más actividades de integración psicofísica. El perfil de actividades se relacionó con la distribución regional de los servicios. CONCLUSIONES: La heterogeneidad de los CAPS parece relacionarse con la historia de los programas de salud mental implementados en el municipio desde la década de 1980 y a la diversidad socioeconómica y cultural

  15. Associaçao de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais de Sao Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    La Associaçao de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais de Sao Paulo trabaja desde el año 1961 para prevenir la deficiencia y ayudar en el bienestar y la inclusión social de las personas con discapacidad intelectual. Ofrece atención integral desde el nacimiento hasta la vejez, con acciones en las áreas de salud, educación, bienestar, formación e integración laboral, formación y difusión de conocimientos. Atiende a 1.700 personas al mes y realiza pruebas diagnósticas a 300.000 recién nacidos al año....

  16. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  17. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  18. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  19. Environmental license process complexity in natural protected areas: case of OSBAT pipeline operated by TRANSPETRO in the state of Sao Paulo; Complexidade do licenciamento ambiental em areas naturais protegidas: caso do duto OSBAT operado pela TRANSPETRO no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    It presents the environmental license process enforced to obtain the Implementation License (LI) of the OSBAT pipeway part substitution, in the Sao Sebastiao city, State of Sao Paulo, with the analyses centered on the several public power instances and on the many special legal protection aspects around the natural area scenarios of the project interference. The license process had the duration of seventeen months, since the LI protocol and its emission. The process had the involvement of several organisms, the main part from the Sistema Nacional de Meio Ambiente - SISNAMA, and represented an interesting experience that can contribute to the agility of other license process of infrastructure works on protected natural areas, which has the incidence of an extensive legislation and activities restriction. (author)

  20. The influence of the solid waste disposal areas in Campinas city, Sao Paulo state (Brazil) on water quality: determination of metals using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna F.F., E-mail: bffaria@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Moreira, Silvana; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    Among the many forms of waste disposal, landfills today are best suited to Brazilian conditions, this because their construction allows minimizing the negative effects of landfill gas and slurry produced. However, the confinement of pollutants from landfills is linked to its construction and operation and when the construction and/or is wrong they can endanger air, groundwater and surface waters qualities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry coming from solid waste disposal locations in the city of Campinas, SP - Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli Landfills. The samples were analyzed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF). In Pirelli Landfill, the highest concentrations were observed in one of the wells located to downstream of the Landfill (in relation to the groundwater flux) - the monitoring well PM04, exceeding the intervention value defined by CETESB. For Santa Barbara landfill in one upstream monitoring well the concentrations of Ni, Mn, Pb and Cr, surpassed the maximum permissive values. The manganese in Landfill Delta showed to be higher in wells located downstream and 50% of the wells analyzed exceeded the maximum permissive value for groundwater samples. In the case of surface waters located in the vicinity of landfill sites, the metals that surpassed the maximum permissive values according the legislation in most of the points analyzed were Mn, Cu and Pb. For slurry samples collected in Delta Landfill, the average concentrations for Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb not exceeded the maximum permissive values during the period studied. Moreover for Santa Barbara the average concentration of Mn, Cu and Zn surpassed the permissive limits, as was observed for Mn in the Pirelli Landfill. (author)

  1. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  2. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study - the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study - were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  3. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  4. An advanced automation system for operation of Sao Paulo pumping stations from TRANSPETRO Master Control Center - CNCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio; Barreto, Camila Maria Benevenuto [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Since 2000 the operations of the TRANSPETRO pumping stations in the state of Sao Paulo region began to be transferred from local control centers located at the transfer and storage terminals to the National Operational Control Center (CNCO) of TRANSPETRO, located at the headquarters of the company, in Rio de Janeiro. The proposed paper aims to presenting an overview of the automation system that was developed to enable such pumping stations to be operated from CNCO in a reliable and secure manner, focusing on tools that offer an embedded system alarms completely free of false alarms with automatic determining of the root cause, and also automatic and advanced diagnoses of problems caused by failures of hardware, human error and abnormal conditions of the process, providing the CNCO SCADA system of accurate and quality information that help operators to make decisions. The referred automation system was integrated for the first time to CNCO SCADA system in 2000, for pipeline pumps of Osvat (Sao Sebastiao - Vale do Paraiba pipeline) station at the Sao Sebastiao Terminal - northern coast of Sao Paulo region. (author)

  5. Corn Water Variables Assessments from Earth Observation Data in the Sao Paulo State, Southeast Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Heriberto de Castro Teixeira[1; Femando Braz Tangerino Hemandez[2; Ricardo Guimaraes Andrade[1; Janice Freitas Leivas[1; Daniel de Castro Victoria[1; Edson Luis Bolfe[1

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite images and agrometeorological data were used together for modelling the crop coefficient (Kc) in irrigation pivots composed by a mixture of corn hybrids from a commercial farm for grains and silage, located at the northwestern side of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. After developing relationships between Kc and the accumulated degree-days (DDac) and having yield data for 2012 available, they were applied in the whole state, to upscale the crop water variables, during the GS (growing seasons) of a second-harvest crop from March to August. Spatial thermohydrological differences among the main corn growing regions were clear. The largest CWP (crop water productivity) values and SD (standard deviations) were for Itapetininga with an average value of 1.60 ± 0.43 kg m-3, while the lowest ones were for Presidente Prudente (0.81±0.21 kg m-3). As corn is important for these growing regions, being inside of the priorities from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, these results should be considered for a rational exploration, including both, irrigation and rainfed conditions, as the actual water scarcity can bring much competition with other non-agricultural sectors.

  6. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  7. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figuty, L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Setor de Arqueologia; Baffa, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2006-03-15

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05{+-}0.07) Gy and (9.50{+-}0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  8. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using {sup 210}Pb as geochronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaris, T.P.P. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess {sup 210}Pb model was successfully used to assess {sup 210}Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The {sup 210}Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm{sup 2} yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the {sup 222}Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) {sup 210}Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model.

  9. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  10. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  11. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  12. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  13. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalencia de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en mujeres profesionales del sexo en un municipio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalência de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres profissionais do sexo, em um município do interior paulista, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Rodrigues Baldin-Dal Pogetto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the profile of sexually transmitted diseases have increased the need for their detection, particularly where there is a concentration of individuals with risk behavior, so that diagnosis and immediate treatment can be translated in the reduction of resulting problems. The objective was to identify the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a medium-sized city in São Paulo state. This population prevalence study was conducted in 2008 on 102 females. The prevalence was 71.6%. When considered separately and in association, the highest values found were: HPV (67.7% and Chlamydia (20.5%. HPV typing showed oncogenic genotypes. The prevalence of syphilis was 4.0% and of trichomoniasis 3.0%. No cases of hepatitis B or gonorrhea were identified. It was concluded that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the studied group was high, since approximately two thirds of the women showed some type of disease under this classification.Cambios en el perfil de las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles han ampliando la necesidad de su seguimiento, especialmente donde existe concentración de personas o grupos con comportamientos de riesgo, para que el diagnóstico y tratamiento inmediato se traduzcan en reducción de los problemas causados. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible entre mujeres profesionales del sexo de un municipio de porte medio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Este estudio de prevalencia poblacional fue realizado en el año de 2008 con 102 profesionales del sexo. La prevalencia general de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible fue 71,6%. Considerados aisladamente y en asociación, los mayores valores encontrados fueron: VPH (67,7% e infección clamidiana (20,5%. El tipaje del VPH evidenció genotipos oncogénicos. La prevalencia de sífilis fue de 4,0% y de tricomoníasis 3,0%. Ningún caso de hepatitis B o gonorrea fue identificado. Se concluye

  14. Natural radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil; Radionuclideos naturais e {sup 137}Cs em cogumelos comestiveis comercializados em Sao Paulo - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-07-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities

  15. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  16. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  17. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  18. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  19. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; O controle sanitario do uso das radiacoes ionizantes em servicos de saude no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services 19 refs.

  20. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  1. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  2. Studies on energy conservation for buildings of the electrical engineering of the Polytechnical School - Sao Paulo State University - Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudos de conservacao de energia para predios da engenharia eletrica da EPUSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Maki, Clayton Massatoshi; Fereira Segundo, Nestor Candido; Morales Udaeta, Miguel Edgar [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper identifies and quantifies the potential of electric power conservation by end using of the buildings of electrical engineering at Polytechnic School of Sao Paulo University (EPUSP), SP, Brazil, aiming the increasing of energetic efficiency. The paper presents the results of the energetic diagnostic performed at the EPUSP Electric Engineering. The final using of lighting, air conditioning in the windows and microcomputers were analysed. The obtained results demonstrates the existence of a large potential of energy conservation, mainly related to the lighting end use.

  3. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalencia de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en mujeres profesionales del sexo en un municipio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalência de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres profissionais do sexo, em um município do interior paulista, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra Rodrigues Baldin-Dal Pogetto; Márcia Guimarães Silva; Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the profile of sexually transmitted diseases have increased the need for their detection, particularly where there is a concentration of individuals with risk behavior, so that diagnosis and immediate treatment can be translated in the reduction of resulting problems. The objective was to identify the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a medium-sized city in São Paulo state. This population prevalence study was conducted in 2008 on 102 females. The...

  5. Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS ad: nursing insertion and practices in São Paulo City, Brazil Inclusión y prácticas del enfermero en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial para alcohol y drogas (CAPS AD de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil A inserção e as práticas do enfermeiro no contexto dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial em Álcool e Drogas (CAPS AD da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study with a qualitative approach aimed to identify nurses' insertion and practices at Psychosocial Care Centers for alcohol and drugs in São Paulo City, Brazil. Sixteen nurses participated in the study. Data were recorded and were analyzed by dialectic hermeneutics and guided by Brazilian psychiatric reform premises. The results evidenced nurses' difficulties to take part in the care recommended at these services, as their practices are more linked up with the traditional mental health care model. Causes of this phenomenon include nurses' lack of preparation to act in psychoactive substance-related issues and lack of knowledge on specific contents that would favor their insertion into care practice in these scenarios. It is concluded that more attention should be paid to these contents in nursing education, as the legal requirement of nursing presence at these services is insufficient as a strategy to guarantee their actual insertion.Estudio exploratorio de abordaje cualitativo que objetivó identificar la inclusión y las prácticas del enfermero en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial para alcohol y drogas de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Participaron del estudio 16 enfermeros, los datos fueron recolectados por medio de registro autograbado y fueron analizados por la hermenéutica dialéctica orientada por los presupuestos teóricos de la Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileña. Se evidenciaron dificultades del enfermero para ingresar en el campo de la atención preconizada en esos servicios, siendo sus prácticas más orientadas por el modelo tradicional de atención a la salud mental. Se apuntan como causas de ese fenómeno la carencia de preparación del enfermero para actuación en esa área y el poco conocimiento de contenidos específicos que favorecen su inclusión en el campo de las prácticas. Se concluyó que debe ser dada mayor atención a esos contenidos en la formación del enfermero, ya que la exigencia legal del

  6. Nitro-PAH compounds in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilia, R.; Cecinato, A.; Tomasi Scianò, M. C.; Vasconcellos, P.; Carvalho, L.; Mathos, L.; Franco, L.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) are the chemical class with potent mutagenic compounds. These species are emitted from a wide range of combustion sources. Some compounds can be formed photo chemically via reactions of their parents PAH with OH or NO_3 radicals (in the presence of NO_2) in the gas phase as well as N_2O_5 or HNO_3 when parent PAH is associated with aerosols. In the tropics, an important source of particulate PAH and nitro-PAH is biomass burning used for clearings in forest and for making easier the harvesting of sugar cane. Brazil owns 25% of global sugar cane and is the major producer in the world. This burning produces soot, which remains for along time in the air and can cause respiratory diseases. This study was conducted in 3 cities in São Paulo State during sugar cane burning episodes. Back trajectories were calculated by University of São Paulo Trajectory Model for determination of air parcel trajectories over the sites. Atmospheric samples were collected on quartz fiber filters for 24 hours in high-volume sampler during one week. A Soxhlet apparatus filled with methylene chloride was used for extracting the filters. This residue was submitted to HPLC separation and the 3 obtained fractions (n-alkanes, PAH and nitro-PAH) were analyzed by both gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection. The isomers 2-, 3-, 8-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene were identified and results show large differences between the sites. 2-nitropyrene/2-nitrofluoranthene ratios were calculated indicating the daytime reactions promoted by OH radicals.

  7. [Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takitane, Juliana; de Oliveira, Lucio Garcia; Endo, Ligia Góes; de Oliveira, Keziah Cristina Barbosa Gruber; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Yonamine, Mauricio; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-05-01

    The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134) were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to traffic accidents and the related effects.

  8. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  9. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  10. Presence of anti-BoHV-1 antibodies in caprine herds from Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carvalho Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the presence of antibodies against the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in serum samples from caprines. This way, one analyzed 337 samples from 5 properties, 2 of them located at the state of Minas Gerais and the other 3 at the state of Sao Paulo. The samples underwent the virusneutralization test using the Nebraska viral strain, in order to verify the presence of antibodies against BoHV-1. Despite the geometric mean of antibody titers was 3, the occurrence of reactivity in animals achieved 62% (209/337, being positive 57.2% (151/264 of samples from the properties at the state of Minas Gerais and 79.5% (58/73 of samples from the state of Sao Paulo. Due to the fact that caprines don’t constitute a target species of this virus, the high occurrence of anti-BOHV-1 antibodies awakens an epidemiological alert on consortium herds, a fact driving the need for further studies to show the importance of infection in this animal species.

  11. AVAILABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES OF PIRACICABA RIVER BASIN, SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL = DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA DA BACIA DO RIO PIRACICABA, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Paula

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the water availability of the Piracicaba river basin, comparing water consumption data, both actual and future, with the analyses of outflows (monthly average, minimum and maximum figures from the existing DAEE/CTH monitoring program. Extensive analysis was carried out of existing information, both in relation to consumption as well as of user profile, in scientific publications, technical reports, and water availability plans and the information was brought up-to-date with the help of the relevant government regulatory bodies and interviews with consumers. The Piracicaba river basin has a drainage area of 12,400 Km2, of which 90% is situated in the State of Sao Paulo, with the remaining 10% being in the States of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The Piracicaba river basin’s population comes to a total of 3.1 million people (SEADE 1998. The average water availability in the basin is 165m3/s, dropping to 40 m3/s in periods of drought. The Cantareira System, which carries the waters of the basin to Sao Paulo’s Metropolitan Region, has not been maintaining the minimum outflow (40m3/s established for the Piracicaba River. Urban usage (11.2 m3/s and industrial usage (9.9 m3/s account for 81% of the water consumption in the Piracicaba Basin, while usage for irrigation purposes represents a further 19% (25m3/s. There is a trend towards stabilization in terms of industrial consumption and growth in urban consumption (+2% per year and in consumption for irrigation purposes (+1.34% per year, resulting in a yearly increase in demand of 0.35 m3/s. An examination of river surface discharge levels suggests that the Jaguari river sub basin has the highest discharge values available, 23.4 m3/s. During just 13% of the year, this river does not have a sufficient level of discharge to maintain an outflow rate of 40m3/s in the Piracicaba river, near the city bearing the same name. = O presente artigo visa avaliar a

  12. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  13. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  14. Agricultural production and sustainable development in a Brazilian region (Southwest, Sao Paulo State): motivations and barriers to adopting sustainable and ecologically friendly practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, A. E.; De Castro, R.; Jabbour, C. J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    closed questionnaires taken by a random sample of farmers in the Southwest, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the second half of 2013. Overall, sustainable agricultural practices recommended in the literature and analysed in this study are being not fully adopted by farmers of the studied area. The results...

  15. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  16. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  17. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  18. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  19. Cogeneration of electric power in the sugar and alcohol sectors: registration of the power plants in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Cogeracao de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro: cadastro das usinas em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Gustavo Goncalves [Federacao das Industrias do Estado de Sao Paulo (FIESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Helemilton Rios; Silva, Edison da [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the major difficult for the planning of co-generation industry of electricity from the sugar cane bagasse is the determination of their true potential. This question comes up, especially in the lack of information about the sugar and ethanol facilities, therefore for the study of potential, we can not just focus on the issue of the cane grinding, but also in technology, the configuration of the power plant and its capacity to export energy. This paper presents a proposal to minimize this difficulty, detailing a solution dedicated to the development of a database for the registration and monitoring of these plants, part of a series of actions regarding in the Understanding Protocol for the promotion of co-generation of bagasse, signed between FIESP and the Government of the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  20. Phytoplankton of the portion of the Paranapanema River to be dammed for construction of the Rosana Hydroelectric Plant, Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil; Fitoplancton do trecho a represar do Rio Paranapanema (Usina Hidreletrica de Rosana), Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo, Carlos E. de M.; Bicudo, Denise de C.; Castro, Ana Alice J. de; Picelli-Vicentim, M. Marcina [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    1992-12-31

    The phytoplankton community of the 120 Km long portion of the Paranapanema River located between the Salto Grande Hydroelectric Plant reservoir and the river mouth at the Parana River is surveyed. This part of the river will be dammed for construction of the Rosana hydroelectric System in the State of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. An inventory was completed for 4 collecting stations, and based on the study of 48 samples gathered bimonthly during the period from November 1985 to September 1986. Each collection is represented by a net concentrated and a raw total phytoplankton sample. Except for the Bacillariophyceae, study of which is still in progress, the other classes present were the following in order of their local representation: Chlorophyceae with 23 taxa, Zygnemaphyceae (= Cyanophyceae) with 9, Tribophyceace (= Xanthophyceae) with 2 each one, and Oedogoniophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae with a single taxon each, to a total of 55 taxa identified. (author) 27 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  2. Georeferenced energy information system integrated of energetic matrix of Sao Paulo state from 2005 to 2035; Sistema de informacoes energeticas georreferenciadas integrado a matriz energetica do estado de Sao Paulo: 2005-2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, Joao Malta [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A georeferenced information system energy or simply SIEG, is designed to integrate into the energy matrix of Sao Paulo from 2005 to 2035. Being an innovative request made by the Department of Sanitation and Energy of the state, this system would have the purpose to collect and aggregate information and data from several themes, relating this content in a geographic location spatialized. The main focus of the system is the analysis of the energy sector as a whole, from generation to final consumption, through all phases such as transmission and distribution. The energy data would also be crossed with various themes of support, contributing to the development of numerous reviews and generating sound conclusions. Issues such as environment, socio-economics, infrastructure, interconnected sectors, geographical conditions and other information could be entered, viewed and linked to the system. The SIEG is also a facilitator for planning and managing the energy sector with forecast models in possible future situations. (author)

  3. {alpha}-{alpha} interaction reexamined in the context of the Sao Paulo potential: possible applications in astrophysics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasques, L.R.; Chamon, L.C.; Botero, D.F.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DFN/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Alves, L.F.M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Rossi Junior, E.S. [Centro Universitario FIEO(UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We have analyzed a large set of {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering data for bombarding energies ranging from 0.6 to 29.5 MeV. The complete lack of open reaction channels at these somehow low energies results in a vanishing imaginary part for the optical interaction. This characteristic makes the {alpha}-{alpha} reaction particularly interesting as the corresponding elastic scattering cross sections and phase shifts become very sensitive to the real part of the interaction. The data were analyzed within the context of the velocity-dependent Sao Paulo potential, which is a successful theoretical model for the description of heavy-ion reactions from sub-barrier to intermediate energies. We have shown that, even in this low energy region, the velocity dependence of the Sao Paulo potential model is a necessary ingredient for describing the data. Despite the reasonable description obtained with the Sao Paulo potential, the analyses indicate the necessity of an additional weak dependence of the interaction on the angular momentum. These important characteristics open the possibility for studying reactions with astrophysical interested. In particular, predictions of the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction will be presented. The understanding of the reaction rate for the {alpha}-capture process by a {sup 12}C nucleus is a crucial ingredient for predicting the stellar helium burning and the subsequent fate of stars as this reaction determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen towards the end of the Red Giants phase. It is well known that low mass stars evolve to White Dwarfs and this ratio determines the final abundance composition in White Dwarf matter and sets the trigger conditions for type Ia supernova explosions. The carbon-oxygen ratio also dictates the subsequent sequence of burning processes during the final stages of stellar evolution for massive stars. Thus, it has a key role in the determination of the abundance composition in

  4. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  5. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  6. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  7. Evaluation of efficiency of equipment used in the conservation of fruits and vegetables in the terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo - CEAGESP; Avaliacao da eficiencia no uso dos equipamentos de refrigeracao utilizados na conservacao de frutas e hortalicas no entreposto terminal de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP-Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Josue; Ferreira, Marcos David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI); Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Gutierrez, Anita de Souza Dias [CEAGESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Qualidade em Horticultura

    2004-07-01

    The shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be directly related to store temperature. At determined temperature and humidity a better conservation of the product can be achieve. The cold chain delays the aging, having its conservation guaranteed until the consumer. It was carried through in the Terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo- CEAGESP, a research for evaluation of the condition of the cold chambers used. The cold storage equipment evaluation was measured using the follow parameters: temperature, humidity, isolation, type of equipment used, etc. It was analyzed, chambers used for cold storage, using thermal load calculation. Apple and pears were the most stored commodities in CEAGESP, 50 % and bananas the second one (31,4%). Based in the average volume of commercialization, it was observed that 57% of the motors were over dimensioned. (author)

  8. Depression prevalence in Intensive Care Unit nursing workers: a study at hospitals in a northwestern city of São Paulo State Prevalencia de depresión en trabajadores de enfermería de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: estudio en hospitales de una ciudad del noroeste del Estado de Sao Paulo Prevalência de depressão em trabalhadores de enfermagem de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: estudo em hospitais de uma cidade do noroeste do Estado São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression in nursing staff working in Intensive Care Units of hospitals from a city in Northwestern São Paulo State - Brazil, examining its association with participants' socio-demographic characteristics. The Beck Depression Inventory was applied to a sample of 67 nursing workers from three general hospitals, showing an 28.4% prevalence of depression. The analysis based on the multiple model showed a significant association between depression and marital status (OR=1.52, night work (OR=1.46 and double shifts (OR=2.11. Also, there were significant percentages of workers who reported discouragement, sadness and hopelessness. In conclusion, the prevalence of depression is significant and more attention should be paid to this problem workers at these units face. Further studies are needed in the attempt to broaden knowledge on the subject, which can support strategies to guarantee attention to ICU nursing workers' physical and mental health needs.Este estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de depresión, en trabajadores de enfermería de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI de hospitales de una ciudad del Noroeste del estado de Sao Paulo, analizando su asociación con las características sociodemográficas de los participantes. Se aplicó el Inventario de Depresión de Beck a una muestra de 67 trabajadores de enfermería de tres hospitales generales; se observó una prevalencia de 28,4% de depresión. El análisis por el modelo múltiple demostró asociación significativa entre depresión y estado civil (OR=1,52, trabajo nocturno (OR=1,46 y doble jornada (OR=2,11, fueron significativos también los porcentajes de trabajadores que relataron desanimo, tristeza y desesperanza. Se concluye que es significativa la prevalencia de depresión y que se debe dar mayor atención a ese problema enfrentado por los trabajadores de esas unidades. Se sugiere la realización de otros estudios

  9. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  10. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Caminha Caro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM by the Unified Health System (SUS in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process of OPM dispensation, or responsible for their acquisition flow in the cities of that region. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by the researchers themselves, composed of questions aiming to identify the physical rehabilitation centers in the towns, the staff members involved, the provision of assistive technology through SUS, delivery time and existence of waiting lists. Results and discussion: The data were statistically measured, categorized, described and correlated with the current legislation aimed to guarantee access to assistive technology. We observed that the practice around this resource in the 3rd region concentrates in a single care center, causing long waits and poor efficiency of the services provided, in addition to maintaining a paternalistic aspect. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that, although the right to access to assistive technology is legally guaranteed, there are still many difficulties and challenges around this practice.

  11. Meat consumption in Sao Paulo-Brazil: trend in the last decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. SETTING: Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey years. Data were collected from adolescents, adults, and elderly using a representative, complex, multistage probability-based survey in 2003 and in 2008 in São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. SUBJECTS: 2631 Brazilians were studied in 2003 and 1662 in 2008. RESULTS: Daily mean of red and processed meat consumption was 100 g/day in 2003, and 113 g/day in 2008. Excessive red and processed meat consumption was observed in almost 75% of the subjects, especially among adolescents in both surveys. Beef represented the largest proportion of meat consumed, followed by poultry, pork and fish in both surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Daily red and processed meat consumption was higher in 2008 than in 2003, and almost the entire population consumed more than what is recommended by World Cancer Research Fund. Public health strategies are needed, in order to reduce red and processed meat consumption to the recommended amounts, for a healthy diet.

  12. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  13. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  14. Financing structure for the hydroelectric sector: the Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP case; Estrutura de financiamento do setor hidreletrico: o caso da CESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Thomaz Garcez

    1987-12-31

    The objective of this dissertation is to study the financial resources made use by Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP - for its implantation and later expansion, during the period of 1967 to 1980. The motivation in developing this subject originated of CESP`s importance in the Brazilian electric power sector. The dissertation is divided into three chapters. The first chapter describes the power sector in the state of Sao Paulo before CESP`s creation and after its consolidation. The second chapter studies some matter that shows the importance of company in the Brazilian power sector. In the third chapter, we study the performance of own resources and the third resources in CESP`s financing. At the end of the study the most important conclusion is that the own resources, more than third resources, were the prime motive liable in CESP`s financing during the period. (author) 102 refs., 23 figs.

  15. The quality of the distribution services in subtransmission lines and substations of the electric power concessionaires in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A qualidade dos servicos de distribuicao em linhas de subtransmissao e subestacoes das concessionarias de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinigo, Marcos Alex; Minami, Nelson Kazuo [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; nminami@sp.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia), delegate of ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica) in Sao Paulo state, and demonstrates the mechanisms employed and the results achieved in the inspection of the maintenance of transmission lines e substations of the main concessionaires of the state. (author)

  16. Technical and economic modeling of the presence sensor adjust influence on the lamps useful life and the economy of energy - case study at the University of Sao Paulo, BR; Modelagem tecnico-economica da influencia do ajuste de sensores de presenca sobre a vida util das lampadas e a economica de energia - estudo de caso na universidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Capello, Ricardo Machado; Peng, Tang [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br; gimenes@gmail.com; ricmc@ig.com.br; tpbrazil@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper evaluates the technical and economic viability through three main types of presence sensors in the market: the infrareds, the ultrasonics and the dual. With this objective, behavioural simulations modeled in classrooms of the university of Sao Paulo, validated by field survey for evaluating the energy reduction potential and impacts in the service life of the lamps. (author)

  17. Changes in the spatial distribution of O3, NO and CO in different vehicular emission scenarios in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquetto, J. B.; Silva, M. E. S.; Ynoue, R.; Cabral-Miranda, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) has been investigated using the WRF/Chem model version 3.2.1 in a 1X1 km emission grid. Based on a local emission inventory, a control simulation (CTRL) was performed for the period 28/01-02/02/2014, during a summer season characterized by intense solar radiation and temperature positive anomalies, which resulted in high pollutant concentration. Sensitivity tests were performed using different vehicular emission scenarios and CTRL. In scenario A), emissions were removed from a region which encompasses almost the entire urban area of the SPMA, only roads in the outskirts had regular emissions. Comparing scenario A) to CTRL, sharp decreases in CO, NO and NO2 were observed inside the SPMA. Ozone decreased slighlty during the day, probably due to the significant absence of precursor emissions which form ozone during the day in the presence of sunlight. On the other hand, ozone concentrations increased at night, influenced by the absence of ozone-consuming precursors inside the densely urbanized SPMA, in the absence of sunlight. In scenario B), we removed emissions from a smaller area, corresponding roughly to an expanded downtown area (where a few traffic restriction laws operate). The goal of this scenario was to observe possible impacts if more strict traffic restriction laws were implemented. In scenario C), emissions were decreased by 50% in the same area, in an attempt to characterize concentrations in an urban toll scenario. Results from scenarios B) and C) showed a decrease in NO, NO2 and CO, but less intense than in scenario A). On the other hand, a higher increase in ozone was detected both during the day and at night compared to the CTRL and scenario A). These results suggests that, along with lower concentrations of precursor gases and CO, higher ozone concentrations are likely to be expected in downtown Sao Paulo if more severe traffic restriction laws should be implemented. This is concerning

  18. Application of {sup 222} Rn as a tracer of groundwater discharge at the coastal zone of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Aplicacao de {sup 222} Rn como tracador da descarga de aguas subterraneas na regiao costeira de Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joselene de; Farias, Luciana A.; Mazzilli, Barbara P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiometria Ambiental]. E-mail: jolivei@net.ipen.br; Burnett, William C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Saraiva, Elisabete de S.B. e; Furtado, Valdenir V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Quimica e Geologica

    2002-07-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and recycled seawater can provide chemical constituents to coastal zone, representing an important material flux pathway from land to sea in some areas. Geochemical tracers, like {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra, are advantageous for regional-scale assessment of SGD, because their signals represent values integrated through the water column that removes small-scale variations. These radionuclides are usually enriched in groundwater compared to seawater, can be measured at very low concentrations and are conservative. This work reports preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26{sup '}S and 23 deg 46{sup '}S and longitudes between 45 deg02{sup '}W and 45 deg 11{sup '}W. The main aims of this research were to set up an analytical method to assess {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra activities in seawater samples and to apply the excess {sup 222} Rn inventories obtained to estimate the submarine groundwater discharge. Measurements made during 2001/2002 included {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra in seawater, {sup 222} Rn in sediment, seawater and sediment physical properties. (author)

  19. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  20. Electrical efficiency: case study of electric motors at machines room of a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo; Eficiencia eletrica: estudo de caso dos motores eletricos da sala de maquinas de um frigorifico no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Conselho Integrado de Infraestrutura Rural], E-mail: rossi@agri.unicamp.br; Silva, Roberto P.B. da; Barros, Regiane S. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    To estimate the potential for energy saving in cold compressor motor of a food industry, a study was conducted in a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo. It was analyzed only the engine room of the company because according to measurements this one corresponds approximately 97% of all electricity consumption of the unit. It was found that the electrical efficiency indices were low, demonstrating the possibilities for adoption of conservation measures and the rationalization of electric energy. It was evident that the establishment of an efficiency study to change the electrical equipment used was feasible and, therefore, was demonstrated and proposed a new arrangement for the current system. Soon after the diagnosis of the use of electricity was found that from the six Machinery, five were oversized. Then it was suggested to replace these machines by others with lower power and greater efficiency, as well as conducted an analysis of technical and economic feasibility of the project, demonstrating the possibilities for the rational use of energy and the optimization of financial resources company (author)

  1. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  2. Implementation of the integrated planning process of energy resources in the administrative region of the Aracatuba in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Implementacao do processo de planejamento integrado de recursos energeticos na regiao administrativa de Aracatuba no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jonathas Luiz de Oliveira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Novos Instrumentos para o Planejamento Energetico Regional Visando o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel' considers, through the Integrated energy Resources Planning - IRP -, to identify to the necessities and strategical expectations for the region and the elaboration of business-oriented plans in distributed resources, to evaluate the economic potential of these resources and to develop strategical projects aiming to reach the sustainable development of the west region of Sao Paulo state. Structuralized to get information organized and reliable in order to help the decision being aimed at the sustainable development and evidencing the benefits of an ample or holistic vision suggested by the IRP, the methodology of work consider phases as the consolidation of resources and technologies, research of field, determination of the potential, accomplishment of the IRP with the evaluation of the complete costs (economical, environmental, social and political respects). The study of the region points at energy resources, as much for expansion of offers as for substitution of the existing ones, considering its social, environmental respects as much as economical and political, placing them of form if to classify in space, through the geo-referring; and classifying them qualitatively, taking itself in account all characteristics previously raised. (author)

  3. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (Ppolyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries.

  4. Avaliação da qualidade da atenção básica utilizando a doença respiratória da infância como traçador, em um distrito sanitário do município de São Paulo Primary health care quality evaluation using respiratory diseases as tracer in a health district in the city Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Yoshimi Tanaka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a qualidade dos serviços de atenção básica utilizando a doença respiratória da infância como traçador. MÉTODOS: a abordagem avaliativa se baseia no referencial de Donabedian acoplado à metodologia da condição traçadora de Kessner. A amostra é composta de 768 crianças de zero a cinco anos de idade, com queixas respiratórias, atendidas em sete Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Distrito Sanitário de Brasilândia, município de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. As fontes de dados foram prontuários e entrevistas com mães ou responsáveis. RESULTADOS o exame médico mais acurado da criança mostrou-se significativamente associado com a evolução favorável dos quadros atendidos. O acolhimento demonstrado pelos profissionais influiu na avaliação dos usuários acerca da qualidade do atendimento, observando-se uma atitude de preservação da figura do médico. O nível de escolaridade da mãe não apresentou diferença significativa em relação à melhora apresentada. CONCLUSÕES: a metodologia de tratadores mostrou-se adequada para a identificação e análise crítica das principais questões envolvendo a avaliação da resolubilidade de serviços de saúde. As doenças respiratórias na infância são uma condição traçadora importante para avaliação da qualidade na atenção básica.OBJECTIVES: to assess quality of the primary care using respiratory diseases as a tracer. METHODS: the evaluative approach is based on Donabedian's referencial connected to Kessner's tracers methodology. The sample is formed by 768 children from 0 to 5 years old, presenting respiratory symptoms, attended at seven basic health units from the Sanitary District of Brasilândia, in the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Medical registrations and interviews with mothers or responsibles were the information sources. RESULTS: more accurate child medical examination evidences significant association with favorable evolution

  5. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br; Mello, C.B. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progeny ({sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent {sup 222}Rn.

  6. Integrated energy resources planning for Sao Paulo state region; Proposicao para o interior paulista do planejamento integrado de recursos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Ino, William Takanori; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work has in view the elaboration of projections based on IRP (Integrated Energy Resources Planning) in order to propose an alternative of sustainable development to one region of the State of Sao Paulo. Using the data of the region, gathered in the past years by several researches of the GEPEA-USP, scenarios of the development and consume of energy have been created. In these scenarios, two possibilities to supply the demand of the region were considered: energy of clean sources and/or renewable as well as energy of sources that have lower costs. In order to simulate the behavior of several factors of the offer and demand, the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) has been used. Both scenarios have vantages and disadvantages, but the clean sources scenario certainly could supply the needs of the region for the next twenty years. Uncertainties in longer periods make the forecasts no much reliable, because changes in both, demand and offer, could invalidate the study. The best is an accompaniment of the sector's behavior in order to make shorter projections, ten years for example, to set the generator estate and policies of consumption. Long forecasts are good to show the limits of the system and the reserve to preview emergency situations as occurred in 2001 with shortness of water supply and consequently broke of energy catering. (author)

  7. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  8. Proposal of lead time reduction in the thermoelectric products line of a small company in the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veríssimo Soulé

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM is a way manufacturing companies may increase their flexibility. Manufacturing flexibility is a key to differentiation and enhancement of competitiveness. There is few empirical research on the topic of how small and medium-sized enterprises (SME may benefit from QRM, what may impact the appropriation of this approach by these important actors of our economy. This article aims to present the results of a project which applied QRM to reduce the lead time of a small company located in the state of Sao Paulo. It was proposed to a balance the throughputs of slow operations, reducing 50% of production batches; b implement cellular manufacturing and improvements in the management of Work In Process, using the POLCA system and visual management; c implement an integrated sales and operations planning (S&OP and rules for prioritization of orders. It was identified that the proposal would generate a lead time reduction from 39 to 21.3 days and a decrease of at least 51% in the raw materials stock costs. During the research, the following conclusions could be drawn: a problems in management, investment capacity and relationship with suppliers are frequent in family-owned SMEs; b QRM approach can be adapted to work within this environment; c the knowledge developed in academia can be an important tool to help family-owned SMEs to supplant these obstacles.

  9. DISTRIBUITION OF 226Ra AND 228Ra IN UNDERGROUND WATER INTO THE SOUTH REGION OF SAO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO DE JESUS, Sueli; CHIRINOS, Hugo;

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitor of natural radionuclides in aquatic raw is very important to guaranty the normal control level inthe environmental medium and the human. In this report were available the concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra inCananeia’s underground water, Iguape and Comprida Island into the south region of Sao Paulo state, by grossalpha and beta counting method. The concentration of 226Ra was variety into the interval 0.80 to 23 mBqL-1 inApril/2009 (rain period and into the interval 0.63 to 12 mBqL -1in August/2009 (dried period. The concentrationof 228Ra was variety into the interval 18 to 39 mBqL-1 in April/2009 and into the interval 15 to 72 mBqL-1 inAugust/2009. The Activities ratio of 228Ra/226Ra was variety into the interval 3.3 to 31.7 at rain period and 1.1 to26.7 at dried period. To compare the yield values of 226Ra and 228Ra these show high activity of the 228Raisotope. The calculate dose no arising the reference of effective dose level available by WHO.

  10. Coaching and Mentoring as a Tool for Internal Customer Focus: A Regional Study in Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Oste Graziano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research had as objective identifies the dimensions involved in the implementation of Coaching, for the manager's performance as manager close to your team, in real situation of work; the study includes the same investigation in relation to Mentoring, taking as study people's that work area of São Paulo focus. The data collected in the research they were collected through a questionnaire with open and closed subjects. The research showed as results of the pertinent subjects to the coaching and the mentoring that the great majority, or almost all had some training type, that happened in group, with the managers' presence just in the beginning and adding 8 hours, could end like this with that subject that in the researched respondents the work of the coaching is accomplished inside of the retail organizations. Concerning the mentoring, it can be concluded that she is inside present of the organization and it is represented by the leader. 

  11. Evolucao dos precos relativos de grupos alimentares entre 1939 e 2010, em Sao Paulo, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Yuka Yuba; Flavia Mori Sarti; Antonio Carlos Coelho Campino; Heron Carlos Esvael do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução dos preços relativos dos grupos de produtos alimentares e sua influência nas políticas públicas para uma alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do município de São Paulo de 1939 a 2010, a partir da aplicação de métodos de cálculo de números-índices. Foram utilizados dados do banco de preços e estruturas de ponderação da Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (1939 a 1988) e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (1989 a 2010). ...

  12. Febre amarela silvestre: reemergencia de transmissao no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Mascheretti; Cilea H Tengan; Helena Keiko Sato; Akemi Suzuki; Renato Pereira de Souza; Marina Maeda; Roosecelis Brasil; Mariza Pereira; Rosa Maria Tubaki; Wanderley,Dalva M.V.; Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza; Ana Freitas Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO Descrever a investigação do surto de febre amarela silvestre e as principais medidas de controle realizadas no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo do surto de febre amarela silvestre na região sudoeste do estado, entre fevereiro e abril de 2009. Foram avaliados casos suspeitos e confirmados em humanos e primatas não humanos. A investigação entomológica, em ambiente silvestre, envolveu captura em solo e copa de árvore para identificação das espécies e detecção de infecção...

  13. Aedes aegypti entomological indices in an endemic area for dengue in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Favaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most productive types of properties and containers for Aedes aegypti and the spatial distribution of entomological indices. METHODS: Between December 2006 and February 2007, the vector's immature forms were collected to obtain entomological indices in 9,875 properties in the Jaguare neighborhood of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. In March and April 2007, a questionnaire about the conditions and characteristics of properties was administered. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with the presence of pupae at the properties. Indices calculated per block were combined with a geo-referenced map, and thematic maps of these indices were obtained using statistical interpolation. RESULTS: The properties inspected had the following Ae. aegypti indices: Breteau Index = 18.9, 3.7 larvae and 0.42 pupae per property, 5.2 containers harboring Ae. aegypti per hectare, 100.0 larvae and 11.6 pupae per hectare, and 1.3 larvae and 0.15 pupae per inhabitant. The presence of yards, gardens and animals was associated with the presence of pupae. CONCLUSIONS: Specific types of properties and containers that simultaneously had low frequencies among those positive for the vector and high participation in the productivity of larvae and pupae were not identified. The use of indices including larval and pupal counts does not provide further information beyond that obtained from the traditional Stegomyia indices in locations with characteristics similar to those of São José do Rio Preto. The indices calculated per area were found to be more accurate for the spatial assessment of infestation. The Ae. aegypti infestation levels exhibited extensive spatial variation, indicating that the assessment of infestation in micro areas is needed.

  14. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the Sao Paulo megacity mental health survey, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helena Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion

  15. Evolucao dos precos relativos de grupos alimentares entre 1939 e 2010, em Sao Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yuka Yuba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução dos preços relativos dos grupos de produtos alimentares e sua influência nas políticas públicas para uma alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do município de São Paulo de 1939 a 2010, a partir da aplicação de métodos de cálculo de números-índices. Foram utilizados dados do banco de preços e estruturas de ponderação da Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (1939 a 1988 e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (1989 a 2010. O banco de preços foi organizado, sua consistência foi testada e os preços foram deflacionados pelo Índice de Preços ao Consumidor. Os dados relativos a preços deflacionados foram calculados e agregados por categorias e grupos alimentares da pirâmide alimentar adaptada. Os índices de preços de cada grupo foram construídos aplicando a fórmula de Laspeyres modificada. O índice geral de preços da alimentação foi comparado com índices de cada grupo alimentar e respectiva categoria: alimentos in natura; alimentos industrializados; bebidas; carnes, leguminosas, leite e ovos; cereais e tubérculos; e refeições fora do domicílio. RESULTADOS: Os grupos alimentares de gorduras, óleos, condimentos, açúcares e alimentos processados (alimentos industrializados apresentaram tendência de redução de preços em termos relativos. O índice dos alimentos in natura, como frutas e verduras, apresentaram tendência de elevação de preços. Outros grupos alimentares, como cereais, farinhas e massas, carnes, leite e ovos, apresentaram estabilidade de preços relativos ao longo do tempo. CONCLUSÕES: A evolução dos preços relativos dos alimentos no município de São Paulo mostra tendência desfavorável à manutenção da alimentação saudável em nível domiciliar em longo prazo.

  16. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Avaliacao da contaminacao por elementos inorganicos e esteres ftalicos em poeira domestica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 {mu}m. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  17. Evolution of bacterial meningitis diagnosis in Sao Paulo State-Brazil and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Marques Salgado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis (BM is a severe disease and still represents a serious public health problem with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most common cases of BM around the world, mainly in Brazil, have been caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Bacterial culture is the gold-standard technique for BM confirmation, but approximately 50% of suspected cases are not culture-confirmed, due to problems related to improper transportation and seeding or previous antibiotic treatment. Immunological methods present low sensitivity and have possibility of cross-reactions. Real time PCR (qPCR is a molecular technique and has been successful used for BM diagnosis at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo State, Brazil, since 2007. The incorporation of qPCR in the Public Health surveillance routine in our state resulted in diminishing 50% of undetermined BM cases. Our efforts are focused on qPCR implementation in the BM diagnostic routine throughout Brazil.

  18. A quantitative risk assessment model for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de S Costa; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Landgraf, Mariza

    2014-06-16

    A risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with raw oysters produced and consumed in São Paulo State was developed. The model was built according to the United States Food and Drug Administration framework for risk assessment. The outcome of the exposure assessment estimated the prevalence and density of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters from harvest to consumption. The result of the exposure step was combined with a Beta-Poisson dose-response model to estimate the probability of illness. The model predicted that the average risks per serving of raw oysters were 4.7×10(-4), 6.0×10(-4), 4.7×10(-4) and 3.1×10(-4) for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the most influential variables on the risk of illness were the total density of V. parahaemolyticus at harvest, transport temperature, relative prevalence of pathogenic strains and storage time at retail. Only storage time under refrigeration at retail showed negative correlation with the risk of illness.

  19. Catastrophic Regime Shift in Water Reservoirs and Sao Paulo Water Supply Crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M Coutinho

    Full Text Available The relation between rainfall and water accumulated in reservoirs comprises nonlinear feedbacks. Here we show that they may generate alternative equilibrium regimes, one of high water-volume, the other of low water-volume. Reservoirs can be seen as socio-environmental systems at risk of regime shifts, characteristic of tipping point transitions. We analyze data from stored water, rainfall, and water inflow and outflow in the main reservoir serving the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, by means of indicators of critical regime shifts, and find a strong signal of a transition. We furthermore build a mathematical model that gives a mechanistic view of the dynamics and demonstrates that alternative stable states are an expected property of water reservoirs. We also build a stochastic version of this model that fits well to the data. These results highlight the broader aspect that reservoir management must account for their intrinsic bistability, and should benefit from dynamical systems theory. Our case study illustrates the catastrophic consequences of failing to do so.

  20. Epidemiology of septic arthritis of the knee at Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Partezani Helito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Septic arthritis is an infrequent disease although very important due to the possibility of disastrous outcomes if treatment is not adequately established. Adequate information concerning the epidemiology of septic arthritis is still lacking due to the uncommon nature of the disease as well as the struggle to establish a correct case-definition. Objective: To epidemiologically characterize the population seen at Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo with a diagnosis of septic arthritis between 2006 and 2011. Methods: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the knee between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics, the microorganisms that caused the infection and the patients' treatment and evolution were analyzed. Results: Septic arthritis of the knee was more common among men, with distribution across a variety of age ranges. Most diagnoses were made through positive synovial fluid cultures. The most prevalent clinical comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and the most commonly reported joint disease was osteoarthritis. Staphylococcus aureus was the prevailing pathogen. Fever was present in 36% of the cases. All patients presented elevation in inflammatory tests. Gram staining was positive in only 50.8% of the synovial fluid samples analyzed. Six patients presented complications and unfavorable evolution of their condition. Conclusion: S. aureus is still the most common pathogen in acute knee infections in our environment. Gram staining, absence of fever and normal leukocyte count cannot be used to rule out septic arthritis.

  1. Sensory quality of out-of-home coffees in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alberto Pino

    Full Text Available Summary A field study was carried out in the largest Brazilian city in order to evaluate the quality of coffee prepared and sold for out-of-home consumption, using a logit model. It was shown that the decision on coffee quality was taken by the coffee house owner or manager based on his perception of the socio-economical class of the consumers, the prevalent gender, the participation of coffee in the invoicing and the coffee brewing method.

  2. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotufo Paulo A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively. Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively. No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia.

  3. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  4. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  5. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  6. Mapping of occupational therapy practice in the psychosocial Care Centers of Alcohol and Drugs In Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug use and the challenge of finding answers in assistance to the so called drug abuse is a current theme that challenges professionals, services and managers. This study aimed to map features, professionals and the activities carried out by occupational therapists of the Psychosocial Care Centers of Alcohol and other Drugs (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas – CAPS ad in the state of Sao Paulo, through the application of a self-answerable questionnaire. During data collection, 45 CAPS ad were found in the interior of the state. Nineteen professionals cooperated with the research; 15 of them were occupational therapists. The results showed that these care centers present proposals regulated according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, but the complexity of the demand and its multiple facets with the social dimension require further discussion on the type of intervention that has been employed, as well as on its efficacy. Regarding the profile of the occupational therapists, most of them have at least five years of training, graduate degrees, and did not choose the area of mental health and drugs. The occupational therapists have different views of their actions, use different resources and strategies, especially in group activities and through workshops, and signify their actions in different ways, promoting new projects of life by joining treatment proposals from abstinence to harm reduction. We conclude that the assistance to the users of CAPS ad is extremely complex, because it involves social character themes with macro social determinants which require greater integration between sectors, areas and resources.

  7. Determinantes sociais da saude e o Programa Saude da Familia no municipio de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pluciennik Dowbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a situação do trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde no âmbito do Programa Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo de caso com métodos mistos de pesquisa, ancorados em estratégia sequencial explanatória, com 171 gerentes das unidades do Programa Saúde da Família em São Paulo, SP, em 2005/2006. Questionários autopreenchíveis foram aplicados. Entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais foram realizados com amostra intencional de profissionais envolvidos no trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por análise descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla, análise de agrupamento e testes de correlação entre variáveis. Os dados qualitativos foram apurados por análise de conteúdo e a criação de categorias temáticas. RESULTADOS Apesar da concentração de atividades direcionadas ao cuidado com a doença, o Programa Saúde da Família realizou atividades relacionadas à determinação social da saúde, contemplando todas as formas de abordagem da promoção da saúde (biológico, comportamental, psicológico, social e estrutural e os principais determinantes sociais da saúde descritos na literatura. Houve diferença significativa quanto à abrangência dos determinantes trabalhados nas unidades em relação às diferentes regiões do município. Constatou-se fragilidade das iniciativas e a sua desconexão com a estrutura programática do Programa Saúde da Família. CONCLUSÕES A quantidade e variedade de atividades com determinantes sociais da saúde realizadas no Programa Saúde da Família mostram potencial para trabalhar a determinação social da saúde. Mas a fluidez de objetivo e o caráter extraordinário das atividades descritas questionam sua sustentabilidade como parte integral da atual estrutura organizacional do programa.

  8. Fluorose dentaria em criancas de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Capel Narvai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência de prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças de 12 anos em contexto de exposição a múltiplas fontes de flúor. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se análise de tendência da prevalência de fluorose dentária no período de 1998 a 2010 na cidade de São Paulo, SP. As prevalências foram calculadas para diferentes anos (1998, 2002, 2008 e 2010, a partir de dados secundários obtidos em levantamentos epidemiológicos com amostras representativas da população de 12 anos de idade. A ocorrência de fluorose foi avaliada sob luz natural utilizando o índice de Dean, preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e categorizada em normal, questionável, muito leve, leve, moderada e severa. Em 1998 foram examinadas 125 crianças; 249 em 2002; 4.085 em 2008; e 231 em 2010. RESULTADOS: Em 1998 a prevalência de fluorose foi de 43,8% (IC95%35,6;52,8, em 2002 de 33,7% (IC95% 28,2;39,8, de 40,3% (IC95% 38,8;41,8 em 2008 e de 38,1% (IC95% 32,1;44,5 em 2010. As categorias muito leve + leve registraram 38,4% (IC95%30,3;47,6 em 1998, 32,1% (IC95% 26,6;38,2 em 2002, 38,0% (IC95% 36,5;39,5 em 2008 e 36,4% (IC95%30,4;42,7 em 2010. Não se observou fluorose severa com significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças paulistanas pode ser classificada como estacionária no período de 1998 a 2010, tanto em geral quanto ao se considerarem apenas as categorias muito leve + leve.

  9. Febre amarela silvestre: reemergencia de transmissao no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Mascheretti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Descrever a investigação do surto de febre amarela silvestre e as principais medidas de controle realizadas no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo do surto de febre amarela silvestre na região sudoeste do estado, entre fevereiro e abril de 2009. Foram avaliados casos suspeitos e confirmados em humanos e primatas não humanos. A investigação entomológica, em ambiente silvestre, envolveu captura em solo e copa de árvore para identificação das espécies e detecção de infecção natural. Foram realizadas ações de controle de Aedes aegypti em áreas urbanas. A vacinação foi direcionada para residentes dos municípios com confirmação de circulação viral e nos municípios contíguos, conforme recomendação nacional. RESULTADOS Foram confirmados 28 casos humanos (letalidade 39,3% em áreas rurais de Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré e Buri. Foram notificadas 56 mortes de primatas não humanos, 91,4% do gênero Alouatta sp . A epizootia foi confirmada laboratorialmente em dois primatas não humanos, sendo um em Buri e outro em Itapetininga. Foram coletados 1.782 mosquitos, entre eles Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , Sabethes chloropterus , Sa. purpureus e Sa. undosus . O vírus da febre amarela foi isolado de um lote de Hg. leucocelaenus procedente de Buri. A vacinação foi realizada em 49 municípios, com 1.018.705 doses aplicadas e o registro de nove eventos adversos graves pós-vacinação. CONCLUSÕES Os casos humanos ocorreram entre fevereiro e abril de 2009 em áreas sem registro de circulação do vírus da febre amarela há mais de 60 anos. A região encontrava-se fora da área com recomendação de vacinação, com alto percentual da população suscetível. A adoção oportuna de medidas de controle permitiu a interrupção da transmissão humana em um mês, assim como a confirmação da circulação viral em humanos, primatas não humanos e mosquitos. Os isolamentos

  10. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  11. The Rio de Janeiro - Sao Paulo pipeline: the interests onset in the emptiness of the energy and regional development federal politics; Oleoduto Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo: embate de interesses no vazio da politica federal de energia e de desenvolvimento regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    The PETROBRAS project in constructing a pipeline between the Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo states originated a dispute of strategic interests between the PETROBRAS and the Rio de Janeiro state. However, the relevant dimension in this dispute is the absence of a Brazilian politics for the development of refining as an important thruster of regional development; this theme deserve to be inserted in the Brazilian energy politic agenda.

  12. Old age, migration, and poverty in the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-sherlock, P

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the potential relationships between socioeconomic change, public policy, and the welfare of elderly people in Brazil. It focuses on one particular aspect of socioeconomic change: the flow of migrants from the countryside to the cities. Three interrelated aspects of older peoples¿ welfare were identified and examined in turn. These include their economic welfare and access to pensions, their access to health care, and their social status. In addition, a conceptual framework for the relationships is presented. Using microlevel research, the study finds that the outlined conceptual framework is of relevance to the experiences of poor elderly people living in shantytowns. Socioeconomic change and public policy had an important effect on older peoples¿ quality of life. It is also noted that rapid migration and the existence of formal pension programs had not undermined informal support for older people in poor urban areas, and family support was still the principal source of income. However, there were elements of the migration experience, such as its timing, that sometimes influenced the quality of life of older people. Further research as well as pilot projects addressing the needs of vulnerable individuals that are located in the poorest urban districts are recommended.

  13. The new coastal modelling system SMC-Brazil and its application to the erosional problem in the Massaguaçu Beach (Sao Paulo, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Ernesto Mauricio; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Omar Quetzalcoatl; Cánovas Losada, Verónica; Kakeh Burgada, Nabil; Medina Santamaría, Raúl; Espejo Hermosa, Antonio; Méndez Incera, Fernando Javier; Abascal Santillana, Ana Julia; Castanedo Barcena, Maria Sonia; Martínez Garrido, Cynthia Almenara; Antonio H. F. Klein; Gomes, Paula; Dalinghauss, Charline; Gonzales, Moysés; Rogacheski, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A new version of coastal modeling system (SMC) called SMC-Brasil has been developed by the Environmental Hydraulics Institute “IH-Cantabria” from University of Cantabria, University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) and the Oceanographic Institute of the Sao Paulo University (USP), with the support of the International Spanish Cooperation Agency (AECID), the Brazilian Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) and Ministério do Planejamiento, Orçametno e Gestao/ Secretaria de Patrimonio da União (MP-SPU)...

  14. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  15. Guidelines for the development and environmental protection of the outcrop area in the Guarani aquifer system in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Diretrizes para o desenvolvimento e protecao ambiental da area de afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburquerque Filho, J. L.; Carvalho, A. M. de; Ikematsu, P.; Costa Barbosa, M.; Iritani, M.; Nogueira Pressinoti, M. M.; Rocha, G.; Pereira Militao da Silva, M.; Theodorovicz, A.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) is an important public water source. The unconfined areas are those where the aquifer is more vulnerable to contamination, justifying the creation of a Protection and Recovery Source Area (Area de Protecao e Recuperacao de Manancial - APRM), as established in Act 9.866/97 of Sao Paulo State. We present here the results of the project Environmental Diagnosis in Support of the Plan for the Development and Environmental Protection Plan of the Outcrop Area of the Guarani Aquifer System in Sao Paulo State (Plano de Desenvolvimento e Protecao Ambiental da Area de Afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no Estado de Sao Paulo PDPA-SAG) and describe the areas of intervention defined by this law. The characterization of the area studied focuses on the physical and socio-economic aspects of the region, in addition to the pertinent legislation. Partial results indicate that the condition of the aquifer is satisfactory, but territorial discipline continues to be of prime importance. (Author)

  16. Effects of vinasse accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs of water used for washing cane sugar in water resources in Dobrada municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Efeitos da estocagem de vinhaca e das aguas de lavagem da cana-de-acucar na qualidade dos recursos hidricos da regiao de Dobrada, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabadia, Jose Antonio Beltrao; Reboucas, Aldo da Cunha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1996-12-31

    This work shows the results of a monitoring carried out in an area of about 21 km{sup 2}, Dobrada Municipality, central west region of the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), where the impacts in ground water and surface water were evaluated by the infiltration and percolation of vinasse and water used for washing cane sugar, through accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs, respectively, in areas of Bauru Aquifer (Cretaceous). The Bauru Aquifer, free and porous, occurs in a extended area of 104.000 km{sup 2} in Sao Paulo State, as a major exploitable aquifer (more than 15.000 wells), used for domestic and industrial water supplies. For the groundwater, the following measures were found in analyses exceeding drinking water standards (WHO; CONAMA/Brazil and Sao Paulo State): manganese (0,03 to 3,5 mg/l), iron (0.45 to 34 mg/l), aluminum (1 to 52 mg/l) and phosphate (0,03 to 0.38 mg/l). For superficial water, the following measures exceeded drinking water standards: total iron (3 mg/l) and phosphate (0,035 mg/l). The main purpose of this research is to improve the field methodology to characterize the impacts of vinasse and washing water of cane sugar infiltration/percolation., detaching the relationship between ground and surface water, with the major aim to supply the legislation to protect drinking water resources. (author) 11 refs.

  17. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  18. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Marcos J. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mjsalvador1531@yahoo.com.br; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], E-mail: david_tatsuo@hotmail.com, E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Hattori, Gustavo Y. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Benjamin Constant (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias], E-mail: hattori@ufam.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  19. The Mesoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Serra do Itaberaba Group of the Central Ribeira Belt, Sao Paulo State, Brazil: implications for the age of the overlying Sao Roque Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliani, Caetano [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: cjuliani@usp.br; Hackspacher, Peter; Fetter, Allen Hutchenson [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: phack@rc.unesp.br; fetter@rc.unesp.br; Dantas, Elton Luiz [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: elton@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    One of the fundamental problems to understanding the evolution of volcano-sedimentary sequences in southeastern Brazil is constraining their depositional ages. Brasiliano tectonic and metamorphic either obscured or destroyed primary features, such as unconformities, as well as other geologic relationships. This problem is exemplified by the Serra do Itaberaba and Sao Roque groups, where the lack of data about the timing of their deposition has prevented resolution of proposed one-and two-stage geotectonic/depositional models. Recent U-Pb zircon data obtained from metavolcanic rocks in the Sao Roque Group indicate that it was deposited between 628 and 607 Ma. New U-Pb zircon data of 1395{+-} 10 Ma for a metandesite in the basal Morro da Pedra Preta Formation (Serra do Itaberaba Group) indicate the maximum age for the beginning of the deposition of the pelites overlying MORB-like basalt. A metarhyolite of the upper unit, the Nhangucu Formation, contains two zircon populations. One yielded an age of 619 {+-}3 Ma, which defines the crystallization age of the rock, and the other an age of 1449 {+-}3 Ma, interpreted as inherited xenocrystal grains from older units of the Serra do Itaberaba Group. The younger metarhyolite was affected only by the S{sub 2} foliation, generated during the Brasiliano orogenesis, whereas the Middle Proterozoic metavolcano-sedimentary sequence records additional metamorphic and deformational events, confirming the presence of two different geotectonic cycles. (author)

  20. Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the entomological indicators in Sumare, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Laurindo Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide, caused by any of four virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus, transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. Reducing the levels of infestation by A. aegypti is one of the few current strategies to control dengue fever. Entomological indicators are used by dengue national control program to measure the infestation of A. aegypti, but little is known about predictive power of these indicators to measure dengue risk. In this spatial case-control study, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the influence of entomological indicators of A. aegypti in its egg, larva-pupa and adult stages occurring in a mid-size city in the state of São Paulo. The dengue cases were those confirmed by the city's epidemiological surveillance system and the controls were obtained through random selection of points within the perimeter of the inhabited area. The values of the entomological indicators were extrapolated for the entire study area through the geostatistical ordinary kriging technique. For each case and control, the respective indicator values were obtained, according with its geographical coordinates and analyzed by using a generalized additive model. Dengue incidence demonstrated a seasonal behavior, as well as the entomological indicators of all mosquito's evolutionary stages. The infestation did not present a significant variation in intensity and was not a limiting or determining factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. The risk maps of the disease from crude and adjusted generalized additive models did not present differences, suggesting that areas with the highest values of entomological indicators were not associated with the incidence of dengue. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive models may reveal the modulatory effect for the risk of the disease, which is not found in this study.

  1. Perda dentária precoce em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade: estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1998 Early tooth loss in adults aged 35 - 44: State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Dados secundários de condições de saúde bucal em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade foram analisados a fim de estimar a prevalência da perda dentária precoce e do ataque de cárie dentária. Uma amostra não probabilística, de exames epidemiológicos provenientes de 5.777 professores e funcionários de escolas públicas e particulares, aleatoriamente selecionadas em 131 cidades do estado de São Paulo foi utilizada. Os critérios de observação do ataque de cárie recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997 foram empregados. O índice CPOD, correspondendo ao número de dentes permanentes cariados, perdidos e restaurados, e a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais foram analisados de acordo com o sexo, a idade, o grupo étnico, acesso à água de abastecimento fluoretada, tipo de escola: rural e urbana e o tamanho da população da cidade. O censo de 1991 - na época a mais recente fonte disponível - ofereceu informação de base municipal do perfil sócio-econômico. Análise espacial foi empregada para avaliar associação entre o perfil de saúde bucal e os indicadores sócio-econômicos. O ataque de cárie na amostra de adultos foi 22,39 (6,24. Perda dentária foi responsável pela metade do valor do ataque. Taxas crescentes de perda dentária precoce foram observadas para adultos mais velhos, negros, que trabalhavam em escolas rurais, em cidades pequenas e áreas não fluoretadas. Indicadores sócio-econômicos municipais mostraram correlação com a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais. Estes resultados podem auxiliar na formulação de políticas públicas dirigidas à promoção da saúde bucal.Secondary data on the oral health status of adults aged 35 - 44 were analysed in order to estimate the prevalence of caries and early tooth loss. A non-probabilistic sample of 5,777 teachers and workers of public and private schools randomly selected in 131 cities of the State of Sao Paulo

  2. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira Wanderley, Vivianni; Affonso Fonseca, Fernando Luiz; Vala Quiaios, André; Nuno Domingues, José; Paixão, Susana; Figueiredo, João; Ferreira, Ana; de Almeida Pinto, Cleonice; da Silva, Odair Ramos; Alvarenga, Rogério; Machi Junior, Amaury; Luiz Savóia, Eriane Justo; Daminello Raimundo, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil). The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill. PMID:28085053

  3. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  4. Concentration of metals adjacent to Tiete river border avenues; Concentracao de metais em solos adjacentes a Avenida Marginal do Rio Tiete, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia C. e; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Nammoura Neto, Georges M.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work analysed different 5 cm depth fragments soils, with distinct characteristic s, collected at 8 points of the Tiete river marginal avenue at the Sao Paulo metropolitan region. The technique used for the analysis was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Together with samples, metal concentration were measured in three reference materials BEN (IWG-GIT), GS-N (IWG-GIT) and Soil-7 (IAEA) for quality control of the results. These metals were analysed: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), antimony (Sb) e zinc (Zn); the obtained concentrations were compared with intervention limit values stipulated by the Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB). Those values indicate the soil quality for different use

  5. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  6. The program for rational using of energy and alternative sources - PUREFA from Sao Paulo University (USP) - Brazil; O programa de uso racional de energia e fontes alternativas - PUREFA da USP: analise de resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Castello Branco, Paula Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br, gimenes@pea.usp.br, paulacastello@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the results of project PUREFA - Program of Rational Use of Energy and Alternative Sources of the University of Sao Paulo, as they arise from the measures pertaining to its 13 Physical Goals, as well as their respective impacts for the University. The project used resources from FINEP, totaling approximately R$ 2,2 million, involving several units of the USP, both in the capital and in the countryside. Concluded actions include: Enhancing the system of management of energy (integrating action comprehending all others); Adding new distributed generation capacity at USP, installing 9 kWp of photovoltaic generation and 15 kW of biogas fired generation; Setting up of a policy of permanent incentive to the efficient and rational use of energy; Creation of norms of energy efficiency in buildings; Substitution of public and internal lighting systems, as well as air-conditioners; Installation of Systems of Solar Heating at Sao Carlos, Piracicaba and Sao Paulo in substitution to the electric showers; Installation of Systems for Solar Water Heating at the Central Restaurant of the CUASO Campus in Sao Paulo. The results show the importance of destining resources for energy saving in the public sector, the fast payback of corresponding investments and the potential for synergies and multiplying effects of such joint actions when applied to the University. (author)

  7. Uso de medicamentos por pessoas com deficiências em áreas do estado de São Paulo Uso de medicamentos por personas con deficiencias en áreas del Estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Use of medicines by persons with disabilities in São Paulo state areas, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamyr Sulyvan Castro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de medicamentos e os principais grupos terapêuticos consumidos por pessoas com deficiências físicas, auditivas ou visuais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em que foram analisados dados do Inquérito Multicêntrico de Saúde no Estado de São Paulo (ISA-SP em 2002 e do Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo (ISA-Capital, realizado em 2003. Os entrevistados que referiram deficiências foram estudados segundo as variáveis que compõem o banco de dados: área, sexo, renda, faixa etária, raça, consumo de medicamentos e tipos de medicamentos consumidos. RESULTADOS: A percentagem de consumo entre as pessoas com deficiência foi de: 62,8% entre os visuais; 60,2% entre os auditivos e 70,1% entre os físicos. As pessoas com deficiência física consumiram 20% mais medicamentos que os não-deficientes. Entre as pessoas com deficiência visual, os medicamentos mais consumidos foram os diuréticos, agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina e analgésicos. Pessoas com deficiência auditiva utilizaram mais analgésicos e agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre indivíduos com deficiência física, analgésicos, antitrombóticos e agentes do sistema renina-angiotensina foram os medicamentos mais consumidos. CONCLUSÕES: Houve maior consumo de medicamentos entre as pessoas com deficiências quando comparados com os não-deficientes, sendo os indivíduos com deficiência física os que mais consumiram fármacos, seguidos de deficientes visuais e auditivos.OBJETIVO: Analizar el consumo de medicamentos y los principales grupos terapéuticos consumidos por personas con deficiencias físicas, auditivas o visuales. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en que fueron analizados datos de la Pesquisa Multicentrica de Salud en el Estado de Sao Paulo (ISA-SP en 2002 y de la Pesquisa de Salud en el Municipio de Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital, realizado en 2003. Los entrevistados que refirieron deficiencias fueron estudiados según las variables

  8. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  9. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  10. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  11. Methodology of technical analysis to reduce cost in the planning of the works of 'Energy for All' program in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Metodologia de analise tecnica para reducao de custo no planejamento das obras do programa 'Luz para Todos' em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betiol Junior, Genesio; Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto; Carmo, Jose R. do; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Comissao de Eletrificacao Rural do Estado de Sao Paulo (CERESP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This article relates the development of a research about low cost for rural electrification projects, which have been used like a base to develop a technical analysis in whole projects of the program 'Luz para Todos'. This program was made in 2002 with the purpose to offer electricity for whole people in Brazilian rural area. This method was developed seeking in to achieve cost reduction in the planning made by electric companies in Sao Paulo state. At first, were analyzed the rural electric projects made by electricity companies in the program 'Luz da Terra', in front of to the commitment in achieving cost reduction in the rural electric projects. The program 'Luz da Terra' was made whit a social purpose and it was developed in the whole Sao Paulo state, during 1996 until 2004. One of the main demands to achieve reasonable costs and to allow the program's viability was the previous analyses of rural distribution projects, before them changing to work of electricity, checking out if they had well defined. social, technical and economics methods. For that, were chosen quantitative and non-quantitative indicators, agreement whit a comparative analysis of each company performance in the program 'Luz da Terra', in agreement whit historical series, based on the group of the final result of each distribution electricity project. In a second moment, the same methodology was adjusted to confront the plans data of each company's future works in the program 'Luz para Todos', using the results of the first program. The research allowed the identification of some planner's tendencies when developing from a more rigorous model of low cost, like was the program 'Luz da Terra', to the actual program 'Luz para Todos'. Applied to all companies in the Sao Paulo state, the study served as a support to renegotiate budgets, what provided savings of more than US$ 10,000.000 in a total of 42

  12. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  13. Compaixao em processos sociais e mudancas institucionais : o caso do vicariato episcopal do povo da rua em Sao Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Junior, Fernando Altemeyer

    2006-01-01

    A hipótese central desta tese é a de que a compaixão pode ser uma guia metodológica e interpretativa dos trabalhos sociais desenvolvidos pelo Vicariato Episcopal do Povo de Rua. A tese se divide em três partes: memórias, abordagem teórica e paradoxos. Na primeira parte, recolho as memórias de quatro personagens nos últimos treze anos (1993-2005). Traço o rosto e a moldura da cidade de São Paulo e situo a população de Rua nesse contexto. Assumo uma epistemologia da comp...

  14. Fibrilação atrial e demência: resultados do São Paulo ageing & health study Atrial fibrillation and dementia: results from the Sao Paulo ageing & health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Andrea Kawabata-Yoshihara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A fibrilação atrial é um fator de risco controverso para demência. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a associação entre fibrilação atrial e demência em participantes do São Paulo Ageing & Health. MÉTODOS: O São Paulo Ageing & Health é um estudo transversal, de base populacional, de idosos residentes em um uma região de baixa renda da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Diagnóstico de demência foi realizado de acordo com o protocolo do grupo 10/66, com base em critérios do Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais (DSM-IV. O diagnóstico de fibrilação atrial foi feito por eletrocardiograma de 12 derivações, avaliado por dois cardiologistas. Dados demográficos e de fatores de risco cardiovasculares também foram obtidos. RESULTADOS: A demência foi diagnosticada em 66 (4,3% e fibrilação atrial em 36 (2,4% de 1.524 participantes com um eletrocardiograma válido. A razão de chances bruta para demência em participantes com fibrilação atrial foi 2,8 (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,0-8,1; p = 0,06 em comparação com indivíduos sem fibrilação atrial. Relação positiva foi encontrada em mulheres (RC 4,2; IC 95%: 1,2-15,1; p = 0,03. Após ajuste para idade, no entanto, essa associação tornou-se não significativa (RC 2,2, IC 95%: 0,6-8,9; p = 0,26. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve associação independente entre a fibrilação atrial e demência nessa amostra. A prevalência da fibrilação atrial pode ser baixa nesta população em virtude da mortalidade cardiovascular prematura.BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a controversial risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between AF and dementia in the "Sao Paulo Ageing & Health" (SPAH study participants. METHODS: SPAH is a cross-sectional, population-based study of elderly people living in a deprived neighborhood in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dementia diagnosis was performed according to

  15. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  16. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  17. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  18. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  19. Point of zero salt effect: Relationships with clay mineralogy of representative soils of the S(a)o Paulo State, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. E. ALVES; A. LAVORENTI

    2005-01-01

    The point of zero salt effect (PZSE) is the soil pH value at which the magnitude of the variable surface charges is not changed due to variations in the ionic concentration of the soil solution. This property influences not only electrochemical phenomena occurring at the solid-solution interface but also the flocculation degree of the soil particles. In this study we investigated the relationships between the clay mineralogy and the PZSE values of representative soils of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The results confirmed the usefulness of the difference between the soil pH values measured in 1 mol L-1 KCl (pHKC1) and in water (pHH2O) (2 pHKC1 - pHH2O) for estimating the PZSE of tropical soils, except for the ones rich in exchangeable Al; furthermore, the △pH index (pHKCI - pHH2O) was highly correlated with the difference between the PZSE and pHH2O values, reiterating the △pH utility for estimating both the signal and the magnitude of the net surface charge of tropical soils. Finally, correlation and multiple regression analyses showed that the PZSE value of weathered non-allophanic tropical soils tends to increase and to equal the soil pH due to the weathering-induced kaolinite destabilization and concomitant Fe- and Al-oxide accumulation.

  20. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helen S.B. da; Marques, Leila S.; Kawauchi, Roberto K., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br, E-mail: keiji@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  1. Radon and progeny ({sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi) in urban water-supply systems of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Padron-Armada, Priscilla Cardoso [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Many water-supply systems in South America utilize the waters of the Guarani aquifer at least as part of their networks. However, there is little present knowledge in Brazil of the factors affecting Rn presence in the water supplied for end-users, despite the economic importance of Guarani aquifer. {sup 222}Rn analyzes of 162 water samples were performed at 8 municipalities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of investigating the major factors affecting its presence in solution. The {sup 222}Rn activity concentration ranged from 0.04 up to 204.9 Bq/L, with three samples exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq/L. Aeration was confirmed as the most important factor for Rn release, as expected due to its gaseous nature. Accumulation in pipes and stratification in the water column were other significant factors explaining the data obtained in some circumstances. The Rn daughters {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi were also determined in a set of selected samples and their presence was directly related to the occurrence of Rn dissolved in water.

  2. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Assessment. Mental illness was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Apgar scores of newborns were estimated and their weight measured. Results 21.9% of mothers reported lifetime violence (2% during pregnancy and 24.3% had a common mental disorder in the past 12 months. The exposures were correlated and each was associated with low education. Lifetime violence was strongly associated with Common Mental Disorders. Violence during pregnancy (PR = 2.59(1.05–6.40 and threat of physical violence (PR = 1.86(1.03–3.35 and any common mental disorders (PR = 2.09 (1.21–3.63 (as well as depression, anxiety and PTSD separately were independently associated with low birth weight. Conclusion Efforts to improve neonatal outcomes in low income countries may be neglecting two important independent, but correlated risk factors: maternal experience of violence and common mental disorder.

  3. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  4. [Professional trajectory of obstetric nurses from the University of Sao Paulo College of Nursing: a focus on social phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the experiences of students that were enrolled in the Obstetric Nursing Program offered by the University of São Paulo College of Nursing. Data were collected through interviews with the former students, who had different life histories after their graduation. The proposal of this research was based on Alfred Schutz' Social Phenomenology framework, considering that people express, in their actions socially experienced, the meaning of these experiences. Results showed two social types: the ones who continue in the area because they like what they do and the ones who do not work in the area as they were disappointed with the lack of professional autonomy. The reasons mentioned offer important guidelines that must be analyzed by the ones who are still working in the area, by the class associations and the ones who are responsible for the capacitation of these professionals.

  5. Estado nutricional, ferro, cobre e zinco em escolares de favelas da cidade de São Paulo Nutritional status, iron, copper, and zinc in school children of shantytowns of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete B. Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a antropometria, a composição corporal e o estado nutricional em ferro, cobre e zinco segundo o gênero, de crianças e adolescentes institucionalizados, moradores de duas favelas da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando medidas de peso, estatura, circunferência braquial, dobras cutâneas, bioimpedância elétrica, os escores Z da relação estatura para idade, índice de massa corporal, área do braço, área muscular do braço e área de gordura do braço. Os percentuais de gordura corporal e massa magra foram analisados segundo fórmulas de Siri e Slaughter. Foram determinados hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro, ferritina, cobre e zinco séricos. RESULTADOS: Foram maiores o peso corporal, circunferência do braço, dobras cutâneas do tríceps e subescapular, resistência elétrica, escores Z da área do braço, área muscular do braço e percentual de gordura corporal no sexo feminino em relação ao masculino. Baixa estatura foi encontrada em 8% das meninas e 5,6% dos meninos, sem diferença quanto ao gênero. Houve menor prevalência de desnutrição (2% das meninas e 5,6% nos meninos, do que de sobrepeso e obesidade (30% e 11,2%, respectivamente. Observou-se anemia em 24,4% e ferropenia em 10,5% dos escolares com ou sem anemia. Apresentaram valores abaixo do limite inferior do padrão de referência para cobre e zinco séricos, respectivamente três e sete indivíduos. CONCLUSÃO: Na população estudada, de baixo nível econômico e institucionalizada, ocorre o processo de transição nutricional e alta prevalência de anemia que não resulta da interação ferro, cobre e zinco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometry, body composition and iron, copper and zinc nutritional status, according to gender, of institutionalized children and adolescents living in two shantytowns in the city of Sao Paulo. METHODS: A cross sectional study using weight, height, arm circumference, skinfolds, electrical

  6. Consumo de alcool e risco para doenca coronariana na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo: uma analise do Projeto GENACIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pereira Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Examinar a associação entre consumo de álcool e risco para doença coronariana em amostra populacional. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, conduzido de janeiro/2006 a junho/2007, na região metropolitana de São Paulo, como parte do estudo internacional (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. Os sujeitos (1.501, sendo 609 homens e 892 mulheres eram residentes da região metropolitana de São Paulo, tinham 30 anos ou mais de idade e foram selecionados aleatoriamente, a partir de amostragem complexa por conglomerados. Todos os indivíduos consentiram em participar da pesquisa. A variável dependente foi risco cardíaco avaliado através do WHO Rose Angina Questionnaire. A análise multivariada consistiu em regressão logística, tendo sido realizado ajuste para uso de tabaco e índice de massa corpórea. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi 75%. Ser mulher, ter mais idade, ser negro, fumante e ter um índice de massa corpórea elevado, foram associados a maior risco para doença coronariana. Indivíduos que nunca beberam na vida (OR = 2,22 e ex-bebedores (OR = 2,42 tiveram maior risco de doença cardíaca do que aqueles que informaram beber até 19 g de álcool por dia, sem episódios de beber excessivo. Entre os que tiveram episódios de embriaguês observou-se uma tendência a maior risco (OR = 3,95, p = 0,09. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem um menor risco para doença coronariana entre os bebedores moderados. Destaca-se que os estudos que avaliam o impacto do álcool sobre doença cardíaca precisam identificar o padrão de uso de álcool dos sujeitos, visto que este aspecto pode modificar o risco. Políticas públicas são necessárias para reduzir o uso nocivo de álcool e a morbidade a ele relacionada no país.

  7. Primary cicatricial alopecias: a review of histopathologic findings in 38 patients from a clinical University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Rosyane Duarte Moure

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scarring alopecias are classified into primary and secondary types according to the initial site of inflammation. In primary scarring alopecias, the hair follicle is the main target of destruction; the term secondary cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular destruction is not the primary pathologic event. AIMS: To review the histopathologic diagnoses of cases of cicatricial alopecia in order to classify them according to the North American Hair Research Society. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy specimens diagnosed as cicatricial alopecia seen from 2000 to 2005 at the Dermatologic Department of Hospital das Clinicas, São Paulo University Medical School had hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stained slides reevaluated and sub-typed into different primary cicatricial alopecias. RESULTS: Thirty-eight cases of primary cicatricial alopecias were reclassified as: chronic cutaneous lupus (17, lichen planus pilaris (4, pseudopelade of Brocq (12, folliculitis decalvans (3, dissecting folliculitis (1, and non-specific scarring alopecia (1. In our cases, the methods employed allowed an accurate diagnosis in 12 of 13 cases (92.3% previously classified as non-specific cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSIONS: Even in the late, pauci or non-inflammatory phases, an approach with systematic evaluation of a constellation of criteria in routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stain allowed for a more accurate diagnosis of cicatricial alopecias.

  8. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  9. Análise quantitativa sobre a mortalidade precoce de micro e pequenas empresas da cidade de São Paulo A quantitative analysis of the premature mortality of small companies in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Filardi Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O vigor da economia de vários países tem origem no sucesso de pequenas empresas. No Brasil, o Estado de São Paulo concentra mais da metade das empresas brasileiras de pequeno porte. Assim sendo, estudos sobre o sucesso ou o insucesso de micro e pequenas empresas têm sua relevância enaltecida. Este estudo busca apresentar uma análise quantitativa e qualitativa sobre os fatores associados à mortalidade precoce das micro e pequenas empresas. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa com os gestores de micro e pequenas empresas da cidade de São Paulo que encerraram suas atividades. Para análise quantitativa da amostra, que apresenta representatividade estatística, utilizou-se de técnicas de análise multivariada. Como principal resultado, pode-se destacar que os fatores associados à mortalidade são preponderantemente de natureza estratégica, o que contraria o senso comum que professa a insuficiência de recursos como principal motivador da falência das pequenas empresas. Tal resultado tem importância para orientar as políticas públicas, os empreendedores e as agências de fomento para a formulação de suas estratégias no sentido do desenvolvimento de competências administrativas para o sucesso das micro e pequenas empresas brasileiras.The economic vigor of many countries is due to the success of small businesses. In Brazil, Sao Paulo state concentrates more than half of Brazilian small businesses. Therefore, studies dealing with high or low performance of micro and small businesses are of great relevance. This study aims at presenting a quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors associated to premature mortality of micro and small businesses in the city of Sao Paulo. For the quantitative analysis of the sample, which is statistically significant, multivariate analysis was used. The main result of this investigation is that factors associated with mortality are mainly of strategic nature, contrary to the common belief that

  10. Teor de ácido cianídrico em variedades de mandioca cultivadas em quintais do estado de São Paulo Cyanide contents in cassava cultivars used for "in natura" consumption in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, além das culturas comerciais que destinam sua produção às indústrias de transformação ou aos mercados hortifrutigranjeiros, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é muito difundida em culturas denominadas de "fundo de quintal". Nesse caso, muitas variedades são cultivadas e utilizadas precipuamente para consumo doméstico, tendo o presente trabalho por objetivo avaliar a amplitude de variação do seu teor de ácido cianídrico (HCN. Foram analisadas raízes de 206 variedades originárias de uma coleta sistemática realizada em 126 municípios paulistas, utilizando-se o método de Liebig, com maceração por 24 horas. Os resultados mostraram que a amplitude máxima de variação do ácido cianídrico foi de 16 a 482 mg.kg-1 na polpa crua das raízes. A maioria das variedades (67,0% apresentou até 100 mg.kg-1 de HCN, que, apesar de alto em relação aos citados na literatura, sugere que possa ser considerado o limite superior de segurança para variedades de mesa.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely cultivated in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, mostly as raw material for industrial purposes (production of cassava flour, starch, etc.. A small proportion of cassava production is destinated to "in natura" consumption, obtained essentially from backyard plantations. In this case, many varieties are used, with unknown cyanide contents, which can cause severe human intoxication. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the cyanide content range of these varieties. Roots of 206 varieties, collected at 126 sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed as to their cyanide contents, using the Liebig method, with maceration for a 24-hour period. Results showed a cyanide content variation from 16 to 482 mg.kg-1 of HCN in the tuber root fresh pulps. On the other hand, most of the varieties (67% under testing presented root cyanide contents below 100 mg.kg-1. So, this cyanide content may be considered as

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  12. Prevalence of Syphilis and associated factors in homeless people of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a Rapid Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Monteiro Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Homeless people are a vulnerable group to sexually transmitted diseases (STD with high prevalence of syphilis and hepatitis. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis infection and its association with risky behaviors for STDs in a sample of homeless people, and to assess the feasibility of the use of rapid syphilis test (RST in this population. Methods: Cross-sectional study, in a convenience sample of homeless people assisted in social support services of São Paulo, between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was applied and RST was performed. In addition, a blood sample for syphilis detection was also collected. The sensitivity and specificity of the RST was estimated using conventional laboratory diagnosis (VDRL + TPHA as reference. Results: 1,405 volunteers were included in the study. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 7.0%, and was associated with homosexual practices (ORadj 4.9; 95%CI 2.6 - 9.4, prior history of STD (ORadj 2.6; 95%CI 1.7 - 4.0 and with self-referred non-white race (ORadj 1.9; 95%CI 1.1 - 3.4. The sensitivity and specificity of the RST for syphilis were, respectively, 81.4 and 92.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of syphilis infection among homeless people shows the need for actions for its control and the utilization of RST that can be considered an efficient strategy due to its sensitivity and specificity. Public Health policymakers must strengthen actions for syphilis control, with screening tests for syphilis and early treatment, decreasing morbidity with the improvement of sexual and reproductive health of the population in general and especially the most vulnerable.

  13. Drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil: the role of neighborhood social deprivation and socioeconomic status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD, however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations. METHODS: A multi-stage area probability sample of adult household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area was assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (n = 5,037. Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of past-year alcohol disturbances [heavy drinking of lower frequency (HDLF, heavy drinking of higher frequency (HDHF, abuse, dependence, and DMS-5 AUD] among regular users (RU; odds ratio (OR were obtained. RESULTS: Higher NSD, measured as an area-level variable with individual level variables held constant, showed an excess odds for most alcohol disturbances analyzed. Prevalence estimates for HDLF and HDHF among RU were 9% and 20%, respectively, with excess odds in higher NSD areas; schooling (inverse association and low income were associated with male HDLF. The only individual-level association with female HDLF involved employment status. Prevalence estimates for abuse, dependence, and DSM-5 AUD among RU were 8%, 4%, and 8%, respectively, with excess odds of: dependence in higher NSD areas for males; abuse and AUD for females. Among RU, AUD was associated with unemployment, and low education with dependence and AUD. CONCLUSIONS: Regular alcohol users with alcohol-related disturbances are more likely to be found where area-level neighborhood characteristics reflect social disadvantage. Although we cannot draw inferences about causal influence, the associations are strong enough to warrant future longitudinal alcohol studies to

  14. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  15. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  16. The Cognitive and Functional Profile of the elderly that frequent the Community Center for the Elderly in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Barros de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing population must be accompanied by the promotion of healthy aging and maintain maximum functional capacity. Objective: To understand the cognitive and functional profile of the elderly who take part in the Community Center for the Elderly in Santos, Sao Paulo state. Method: Ninety elderly people were evaluated in this study. The following instruments were used: Social-demographic profile Questionnaire, Socialeconomic Questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire (SMC-Q, Independence in Activities of Daily Living Scale (Katz Scale, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (Lawton & Brody. Results: The average age of the elderly was 72.5 years old and the predominant gender was female (95.5%. There was a preponderance of participants from 1 to 4 years of education, and Class C was the predominant economic class. In the MMSE scores, 63.33% of the participants were below of the cutoff established for education, and in the SMC-Q, 71.11% of the elderly presented subjective dysfunction of memory. In the performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL, 84.44% of the participants are independent. As for the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, only 33.33% of the participants are independent. In the statistical analyses between cognitive profile and functional performance, associations were found between MMSE and SMC-Q, MMSE and Lawton & Brody Scale, and SMC-Q and Lawton & Brody Scale. Conclusions: A significant portion of the elderly patrons of the Community Center presents functional decline and cognitive decline.

  17. Drug-related disorders and the criminal and clinical background of the prison population of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Mendes dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between drug (DAD and alcohol (AAD abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD were combined into a single category. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women. Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17, to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85, and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18. Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18. Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39, a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24, a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09, another health problem (OR 3.04, and violent crime (OR 2.5. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for

  18. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  19. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo; Avaliacao do impacto da atividade agropecuaria na qualidade da agua em areas de captacao superficial nas bacias hidrograficas dos Rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-07-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  20. Perfil do consumidor de frutas em cidades do interior do estado de São Paulo - SP Fruit consumer profile in cities of the interior of the state of São Paulo - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matheus Yalenti Perosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos relacionados ao perfil do consumidor colocam-se como importante subsídio à participação competitiva dos diferentes segmentos nas cadeias agroalimentares e para a própria organização da mesma. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de identificar o perfil dos consumidores de frutas em cidades do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A amostra foi constituída de 404 consumidores em pontos de venda previamente selecionados nas cidades de Botucatu, Avaré, Jaboticabal, Ilha Solteira e Tupã. Os resultados sobre o perfil do consumidor de frutas nas cidades pesquisadas sinalizam uma preocupação com as características do produto (saudáveis e saborosos, com o preço e com facilidades de acesso na compra. Os resultados apontam também para a necessidade de maiores estudos sobre a importância da informação relacionada aos aspectos mais valorizados (características do produto e preço na estrutura de consumo.Scientific studies analyzing consumers profile and decision-making processes play an important role on companies' strategies and vertical coordination action to increase efficiency on food chains. This research mapped the profile of food consumers on medium size cities on the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sample considered 404 consumers in sale spots of 5 cities: Botucatu, Avaré, Jaboticabal, Ilha Solteira and Tupã. The results suggested that consumers of the 5 cities are concerned about fruit attributes like healthiness and flavor, but not neglecting price and access to market facilities. These results highlighted the importance of marketing actions to emphasize important characteristics valued by consumers, like price and product related attributes.

  1. O ensino profissionalizante na imperial cidade de são Paulo, Brasil (1823-1889 - Vocational education in the imperial city of São Paulo, Brazil (1823-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Etchebéhère-Júnior, Sandra Farto Botelho Trufem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitui objetivo deste trabalho a realização de um resgate histórico no  sentido  de demonstrar  que  o  Ensino  Profissionalizante,  hoje significativamente  valorizado e  discutido,  não  se configura como novidade  na história educacional de nossa província. Desde a  época da  Imperial Cidade de São  Paulo  existiram  varias  iniciativas no sentido de estabelecê-lo, de modo geral com história bem sucedida, de tal modo que alguns deles constituíram-se em embriões de afamadas escolas ou faculdades atuais. Palavras-chave: ensino profissionalizante; período     imperial; província de São Paulo.   VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN THE IMPERIAL CITY OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL (1823  - 1889 Abstract The objective of this work is the realization of a historical rescue of the Vocational Education, now significantly enhanced and discussed as a novelty in the educational history of our province. Since of the time of the Imperial City of São Paulo, there were several initiatives to  establish it,  in  general with successful history, so that  some of them  consisted  in  the  embryos of  many  renowned schools  and colleges today. Keywords: vocational education; the imperial period; the province of Sao Paulo.   EDUCACIÓN  PROFESIONAL  EN LA CIUDAD IMPERIAL DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL (1823  - 1889 Resumen Objetivo de este trabajo es la realización de un histórico en el sentido de mostrar  que la  enseñanza  profesional,  ahora  mucho  mayor  y discutido,  no  está  diseñado   como  una   novedad  en  la  historia educativa de nuestra provincia. Desde la época de la imperial ciudad de São Paulo había varias iniciativas para su creación, en general con la historia de éxito, por lo que algunos de ellos consistió en embriones de muchas escuelas e universidades de renombre hoy en día. Palabras -clave:  formación   profesional;  la   época   imperial;  la provincia de Sao Paulo.   L

  2. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  3. Plantas invasoras da cultura do arroz (Oryza sativa L. no Estado de São Paulo. 1. Dicotiledôneas Weeds occuring in rice crops (Oryza sativa L. in the State of Sao Paulo. 1. Dicotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aranha

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das plantas invasoras na cultura do arroz, concentrado nas regiões com maior área cultivada no Estado de São Paulo. Cada uma das espécies levantadas foi estudada em seu ciclo, porte, fenologia e modo ou modos de reprodução. O hábito de crescimento herbáceo, o ciclo anual, o florescimento e frutificação nos meses mais quentes do ano e a reprodução através de sementes foram evidentemente preponderantes. Cada gênero representado por mais de uma espécie mereceu a confecção de chave analítica auxiliar objetivando oferecer algum subsidio para a identificação da espécie em sua primeira fase de desenvolvimento. Foram levantadas as sinonímias científica e vulgar e, sempre que possível, localizada a etimologia do termo que se prestou à nomenclatura genérica ou especifica. De cada espécie é fornecida uma diagnose da plântula além da ilustração planificada, tornando, portanto, mais fá cil o re conhecimento da mesma. Das 15 famílias dicotiledôneas encontradas, num total de 31 espécies identificadas, quantitativamente merecem destaque as seguintes: Compositae, Malvaceae e Amaranthaceae.A survey of weeds growing in rice crops in the State of Sao Paulo was conducted. The life cycle, size, phenology and mode of reproduction of each of the collected species were studied. The herbaceous growth, annual life cycle, blooming and fructification during the warmest months of the year and dissemination by seeds were mainly predominant for the studied species. From the 15 dicotyledoneous families observed with a to tal of 31 identified species, three were quantitatively more important: Compositae, Malvaceae and Amaranthaceae. A toxonomical key was written for those genera with more than one species in an attempt to help identification in the first growth stage. All the scientific and common names and when possible, the etimology of the genera or species are included. In order to facilitate the keying and

  4. Planning projects for generation of electrical energy in the state of Sao Paulo, according to the degree of interference on air quality: an atmospheric qualification index using fuzzy sets; Ordenamento de projetos de geracao de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo, segundo o grau de interferencia na qualidade do ar: um indice de qualificacao atmosferica (IQA) utilizando fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Duarte, Pamella Santos [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental issues are of great importance when assessing the feasibility and priority installation of new developments in electric power generation. In this sense, fuzzy logic can help define the regions that have favorable characteristics for receiving certain forms of generation. This study sought to order for the State of Sao Paulo, four kinds of generation projects: those using municipal solid waste gasification, those which make use of landfill gas with a change in firing (to reduce emissions), thermoelectric plants (TEPs) to bagasse (with 15% straw) and Small Hydropower (SHP). Such an ordering considered not only the type of generation but also the allocation of projects in the four regions, defined by regional vocations as defined by the State Water Resources Plan (Annex III of the State Law No. 9.034/94): Agriculture, Conservation, In Industrialization and Industrial. As a result, the use of fuzzy sets allowed the creation of a ranking of the alternatives (which totaled 14 possibilities), based exclusively on the degree of interference in air quality resulting from the installation of every form of generation. Such information may help the decision-making governing bodies to establish priorities in order, thereby accelerating the process of installation and operation of projects for generating electricity. (author)

  5. Steps in the diagnosis of energy for the establishment of a rational use of energy in an agroprocessing of wood forest planting in the southwest of the state of Sao Paulo; Etapas do diagnostico energetico para a implantacao de um programa de uso racional de energia em um agroindustria de beneficiamento de madeira de florestas plantadas na regiao sudoeste do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima; Souza, Caroline Mazzini de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2010-07-01

    This work shows the steps for implementing a program of rational use of electricity in a pine sawmill processing through energy diagnosis and also provide an energy efficiency index, the reference consumption in Kw.h power and volume of timber in cubic meters. The study was conducted in a sawmill located at Itapeva, southwest of Sao Paulo. The region's economic potential is based on the processing of wood with the main export destination. Much of the lumber does not have advanced technology, because it may present with excessive spending power. The species used are Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda. We collected data on the electrical installation of the mill and the main parts of the installation as tables and distribution lines and equipment engines were studied. The diagnostic results show that while the industry had a good general appearance, electrical installations and equipment using electric power for its functioning need more care, both in maintenance and in use. An energy efficiency program, if effected, could reduce the cost of the process and provides environmental benefits by less need for electric power generation. (author)

  6. Estimativa do custo do tratamento de câncer de pele tipo melanoma no Estado de São Paulo - Brasil An estimate of the cost of treating mlanoma disease in the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo José Sant’Anna Pereira de Souza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O impacto econômico do diagnóstico e do tratamento do melanoma cutâneo não tem sido analisado no Brasil. Uma vez que crescem tanto a incidência do câncer de pele quanto a preocupação com ele, é importante que isto seja avaliado. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o custo direto de diagnosticar e tratar em seus diversos estádios o melanoma cutâneo em número de casos ocorridos no Estado de São Paulo, entre 2000 e 2007. MÉTODOS: Como modelo de procedimento, foi utilizado o projeto diretriz (Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, editado pelo National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN e adequado aos procedimentos da Fundação SobecCan - Hospital do Câncer de Ribeirão Preto - SP. Os custos estimados se baseiam nos valores do tratamento médico pagos pelo setor público (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS e pelo setor privado (convênios em 2007. Houve 2.740 casos diagnosticados e estadiados no Estado de São Paulo no período estudado. RESULTADOS: O custo total de tratamento dos melanomas malignos diagnosticados no estádio inicial, em valores de 2007, foi estimado em R$ 33.012.725,10 para o SUS e R$ 76.133.662,80 para os convênios.Os estádios iniciais 0, I e II da doença compreendem aproximadamente 4,2% (SUS e 1, 3% (convênios do custo total; os estádios III e IV consomem 95,8% e 98,7% do custo total, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apresentados reforçam o argumento de que o diagnóstico do melanoma cutâneo em seus estádios iniciais reduz os custos de tratamento, gerando considerável economia tanto para o sistema público de saúde (SUS quanto para o sistema privado (convênios.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the direct cost of diagnosing and treating melanoma disease in Sao Paulo (Brazil between the years 2000 and 2007. METHODS: The project Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology was used, adapted to the proceedings of SOBECCan Foundation. The estimated costs were

  7. São Paulo city health information system--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cláudio G A; Leão, Beatriz F; Moura, Lincoln A

    2007-01-01

    São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and one of the largest in the world. In 2004, São Paulo City Department of Health decided to implement a Healthcare Information System that would support managing healthcare services and provide an ambulatory health record. The system was designed to build on from national standards that identify healthcare workers, organizations and the relationships among them and reuse as much as possible existing concepts and software. At the same time, the system should reduce fragmentation, not only by integrating existing redundant or competing systems but also by providing a framework in which new modules would be naturally integrated to each other. Today, the web-based system, known as SIGA Saúde, runs in more than 370 healthcare units, processes some 8 thousand appointment scheduling daily and more than 10 thousand high-cost procedure authorizations monthly. This paper profiles the São Paulo City and its needs and describes the project, obstacles and results so far.

  8. Validation of self-reported diabetes in a representative sample of São Paulo city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanelli, Mariane de Mello; Teixeira, Juliana Araújo; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; de Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Goldbaum, Moisés; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the self-reported diabetes mellitus in adults and older adults living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS We have used data of 569 subjects (284 adults and 285 older adults), participants of the population-based cross-sectional study Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo (Health Survey of São Paulo). Fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) and/or use of drugs (oral hypoglycemic and/or insulin) defined the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. We have validated the self-reported diabetes mellitus by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. We have used Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the factors associated with the sensitivity of the self-reported datum. For all analyses, we have considered the sample design of the study. RESULTS The sensitivity of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 63.8% (95%CI 49.2–76.3), specificity was 99.7% (95%CI 99.1–99.9), positive predictive value was 95.5% (95%CI 84.4–98.8), and negative predictive value was 96.9% (95%CI 94.9–98.2). The correct reporting of diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among older adults (PR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.5) than among adults. CONCLUSIONS The use of the datum of self-reported diabetes mellitus is valid, especially among older adults living in the city of São Paulo. The results highlight the need to track diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic subjects who have one or more risk factors for it, mainly in the adult population of this city.

  9. Validação de dados termopluviométricos obtidos via sensoriamento remoto para o Estado de São Paulo Validation of temperature and rainfall data obtained by remote sensing for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila B. Camparotto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados termopluviométricos são utilizados em diversos estudos. Contudo, a escassez de dados resultante da baixa densidade de estações meteorológicas é um problema frequentemente encontrado. Com isto, a utilização de dados estimados por satélites tem-se mostrado importante para regiões nas quais eles são escassos. Neste trabalho foram realizadas comparações entre dados mensais de precipitação pluvial estimados pelo satélite TRMM e de temperatura, estimados pelo satélite Aqua/MODIS aos dados observados por estações de superfície, para diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, no período de 2003 a 2010. Os resultados demonstraram que para os dados de precipitação pluvial os menores erros foram observados nos meses de inverno e os maiores nos meses de verão. Em relação aos dados de temperatura observou-se que, com a inclusão de um fator de correção, os dados do satélite Aqua apresentaram boa exatidão em todos os meses. De maneira geral, os resultados obtidos indicam que os satélites TRMM e Aqua são alternativas eficientes na aquisição de informações em locais onde há falhas ou escassez dos mesmos podendo ser também utilizados na análise da consistência de dados coletados por meio de redes meteorológicas.Temperature and rainfall data are used in several scientific studies. However, the paucity of data resulting from the low density of weather stations is a problem frequently encountered in these studies. Thus, the use of estimated data from satellites has become an important tool in regions where they are scarce. In this study comparisons were made between monthly rainfall data estimated by TRMM satellite and temperature data estimated by the satellite Aqua/MODIS data observed by surface stations, for different locations in the State of Sao Paulo during the period 2003 to 2010. The results showed that for the rainfall data, smaller errors were observed during the winter and higher during the summer

  10. Anemia ferropriva em escolares de Campinas, São Paulo: prevalência, sensibilidade e especificidade de testes laboratoriais Iron deficiency anemia among schoolchildren from Campinas, Sao Paulo: prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina de Moura

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a prevalência de anemia ferropriva em escolares e identificar a sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes laboratoriais, especificamente hemoglobina e hematócrito, no diagnóstico desta deficiência, considerando a ferritina sérica como padrão. MÉTODOS: o estudo abrangeu 365 alunos no município de Campinas, São Paulo, entre 7 e 14 anos de idade. Foram considerados anêmicos os escolares com valores de hemoglobina abaixo de 11,5 g/dl na faixa etária de 5 £ 8 anos, 11,9g/dl na faixa etária de 8 £ 12 anos; e 12,5g/dl na faixa etária de 12 £ 15 anos para o sexo masculino e 11,8g/dl para o feminino. Quanto ao hematócrito, os cortes foram em 34,5%, 35,4%, 37,3% e 35,7%, respectivamente para as mesmas faixas etárias e sexo. Para a ferritina sérica,15mg/dl. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se anemia em 12,4%, 7,5% e 19,3% dos escolares, respectivamente para os valores de hemoglobina, hematócrito e ferritina. A prevalência de anemia ferropriva foi igual a 19,3%, conforme o padrão ferritina. O teste da hemoglobina apresentou sensibilidade de 12,9% e especificidade de 87,7% no diagnóstico da anemia ferropriva, enquanto que o do hematócrito apresentou sensibilidade de 8,6% e especificidade de 92,8%. CONCLUSÕES: estes valores apontam para o problema do diagnóstico da anemia ferropriva, muitas vezes baseado apenas nos indicadores laboratoriais de baixo custo. É necessário readequar os procedimentos diagnósticos em uso, principalmente na rede básica de saúde.OBJECTIVES: to identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of laboratory tests, specifically hemoglobin and hematocrit, to predict an iron deficiency, considering serum ferritin as the standard test. METHODS: the study involved 365 schoolchildren from Campinas, Sao Paulo,Brazil aged from 7 to 14 years old. The children were considered to have anemia when they presented hemoglobin concentration under 11,5 g

  11. Development and validation of methodology SPE-LC-MS/MS for pharmaceuticals and illicit drug determination in the waters of Guarapiranga Dam, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Desenvolvimento e validacao de metodologia SPE-LC-MS/MS para a determinacao de farmacos e droga de abuso nas aguas da represa Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihomatsu, Helena Miho

    2015-07-01

    This study presents the development of the methodology of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, SPE-LC-MS/MS, for the determination of 21 (twenty one) pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic groups, 1 (one) illicit drug and its major metabolite, in surface water samples. The chromatographic separation was optimized by studying the performance of different stationary and mobile phases. Quantitation of selected compounds was performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) and the mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The validation of the proposed methodology was performed using the parameters of selectivity, matrix effect, dynamic range, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The validation of methodology allowed to apply the methodology in the evaluation of the distribution of the 23 (twenty one) selected compounds, in Guarapiranga Dam waters, an of the major producer system of drinking water of the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP). The presence of these pollutants in aquatic environments is from the direct release of urban sewage from the homes of your surroundings, as a result of poor sanitation system. The waters of Guarapiranga dam were evaluated in 14 (fourteen) locations strategically chosen and sampled in 3 (three) campaigns of sample collection (August 2011, September 2012 and April 2013). In these samples were quantified acetaminophen (9.6 - 254 ng L{sup -1}), atenolol (8.5 - 177 ng L{sup -1}), benzoylecgonine (7.9 - 139 ng L{sup -1}), caffeine (27 - 27386 ng L{sup -1}) carbamazepine (12 - 358 ng L{sup -1}), chlorthalidone (9.4 - 35 ng L{sup -1}), cocaine (12.8 - 2560 ng L{sup -1}), diclofenac (8 - 36 ng L{sup -1}), enalapril (20 ng L{sup -1}), losartan (6.7 - 114 ng L{sup -1}) and valsartan (9.7 - 47 ng L{sup -1}). The sample siting GU103-12 (23°41'88.5”S 46°44'67.3”W) was the

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  13. Lipid profile and cardiovascular risk factors among first-year Brazilian university students in São Paulo Perfil lipídico y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios brasileños de primer año de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Costa Silva Zemdegs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims: The surveillance of cardiovascular risk factors has been recommended worldwide. The current study is aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first-year students from a public university in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 56 first-year students, of both genders, was performed. Information about demographic characteristics, family history of chronic diseases, smoking, and physical activity was obtained by means of a standardised questionnaire. Anthropometrical parameters (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage, metabolic parameters (glycaemia, serum lipid profile, and dietary data (total energy intake, percentage of total energy from macronutrients, cholesterol and dietary fiber were assessed. Results: The risk of cardiovascular diseases was characterised by family history of cardiovascular diseases (44.6%, smoking (10.7%, physical inactivity (35.7%, borderline high total cholesterol and LDL-c levels (16.1% and 5.4, respectively, decreased HDL-c levels (8.9%, increased triglyceride levels (8.9%, and overweight and obesity (17.8% and 7.1%, respectively. The diet of the students was inadequate: it was high in fat and protein, and low in carbohydrate and dietary fibre. Conclusions: The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young adults draws attention to the need to adopt preventive plans in the university setting.Antecendentes/objetivos: la vigilancia de los factores de riesgo se ha recomendado mundialmente. El presente estudio pretendía estimar la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes de primer año de una universidad pública de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de 56 estudiantes de primer año, de ambos sexos. Se obtuvo información acerca de las características demográficas, antecedentes familiares de enfermedades crónicas, hábito de fumar y actividad f

  14. Gestão dos Riscos Urbanos em São Paulo: as áreas contaminadas Urban Risk Management in Sao Paulo: contaminated sites Gestion des risques dans São Paulo: Les zones contaminées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Zilda dos Santos Ramires

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a problemática relacionada às áreas contaminadas. Esta questão ambiental passou a ser de conhecimento público a partir da década de 1980, por meio do processo de desconcentração industrial verificado na mais densa área urbana do Brasil. Na primeira parte, será analisado como este fenômeno, somado a mudança do uso do solo urbano resultou no surgimento das áreas de risco, uma vez que as áreas contaminadas estão sendo utilizadas ou receberam novos usos, como residenciais ou serviços, sem que fossem realizados estudos ambientais específicos com posterior recuperação e/ou remediação. Com o objetivo de auxiliar no entendimento, abrangência e magnitude da questão, será apresentado um mapeamento, por distrito, das indústrias existentes na mancha urbana paulista; o qual expressa à distribuição dos riscos e perigos construídos ao longo de décadas no território do município de São Paulo. Na segunda parte, aborda-se como o poder público trata o tema; suas dificuldades e acertos. Por fim, estão as conclusões, que indicam que a aplicação efetiva da legislação específica para a gestão de áreas contaminadas, com a exigência da realização dos estudos ambientais, além da disponibilização das informações à sociedade, com aumento da visibilidade do problema, pode ser o caminho para solucioná-los, ainda que hoje a participação popular, incipiente nesse caso, seja fundamental nesse processo.La problématique de ce travail s´inscrit autour des zones contaminées. La question de l´environnement est devenue publique à partir des années 1980 à cause du processus de déconcentration industrielle qui s´est opéré dans les aires urbaines les plus denses du Brésil. Dans la première partie on analyse comment ce phénomène a contribué à l´apparition de nouvelles zones de risque, suite au changement de l´usage du sol urbain. En effet, des habitations et des services ont

  15. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  16. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  17. [The crowdsourcing and cyberactivism agenda in São Paulo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Rosemary

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study that analyzed 144 Facebook profiles to identify how digital media are used in setting the agendas for discussions and in organizing and mobilizing people about social, political and cultural topics like ethnic, racial, gender, and citizens' rights issues in São Paulo city. This platform was chosen because of its growing appropriation for political actions. The study found that the incorporation of digital tools in political action is bringing about a number of changes in the discussion of social, political, and cultural topics, and redefining the ways that agendas and deliberations are organized, fostering innovative forms of participation by social actors.

  18. Políticas e leis sobre drogas ilícitas no Brasil e a perspectiva de familiares e pessoas próximas a usuários de drogas: estudo na Cidade de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil Políticas y leyes sobre drogas ilícitas en brasil y la perspectiva de familiares y personas cercanas al usuario de drogas - estudio en la Ciudad de Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brasil Laws and policies on illicit drugs in Brazil and the perspective of drug users' family members and acquaintances: a study in the City of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira sobre drogas evoluiu de um sistema proibicionista para um sistema menos repressor no que diz respeito aos usuários de drogas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar a percepção dos familiares e pessoas próximas a usuários de drogas da cidade de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, sobre as leis e políticas relacionadas às drogas no país. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário estruturado e a amostra foi constituída por 100 familiares ou pessoas próximas a usuários de drogas, recrutados em um serviço público de saúde. Quanto à relação dos respondentes com o usuário de drogas, 31% eram amigos, 23% irmãos, 15% filhos e 7% cônjuges. Setenta e oito por cento dos usuários eram homens, com idade média de 26 anos. Os resultados obtidos na pesquisa confirmam a influência direta das leis e políticas nacionais nas atitudes e comportamentos dos indivíduos. Indicam a falta de confiança na polícia e retratam a percepção de que, apesar das mudanças recentes, em benefício da reabilitação dos usuários, as leis sobre drogas não respeitam os seus direitos humanos.La legislación brasileña sobre drogas ha evolucionado de un sistema prohibicionista para un sistema menos represor, en lo que se relaciona a los usuarios de drogas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar la percepción de los familiares y personas cercanas a usuarios de drogas de la ciudad de Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brasil, sobre las leyes y políticas relacionadas a las drogas en el país. Los datos fueron recoleccionados a través de un cuestionario estructurado y la muestra fue constituida por 100 sujetos reclutados en un servicio de salud. En lo que se refiere al tipo de relación de los entrevistados con los usuarios de drogas, 31% eran amigos, 23% hermanos, 15% hijos y 7% cónyuges. 78% de los usuarios eran hombres, con edad promedio de 26 años. Los resultados obtenidos en la investigación confirman la

  19. Characterization of peat and humic acid in the margins of Mogi-Guacu river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao da turfa e dos acidos humicos das margens do rio Mogi-Guacu, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Alexandre G.S.; Rezende, Mara O. de O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Radioquimica e Quimica Ambiental

    1999-07-01

    The slow chemical and microbiological decomposition of flooded soils form a material with high proportion of organic matter known as peat. The presence of favorable areas for peat formation is a characteristic of the Brazilian territory; even so, the potential of this material is seldom used. Peat can be used as a fertilizer complement in agriculture, as source of energy, and as a pollutant extractor. The peat samples studied were collected in the margins of the Mogi Guacu river, in Sao Paulo state. The peat samples and the humic acids extracted from peat were characterized by several techniques. The results showed that the material can be applied in agriculture and presents a great potential for removal of environmental contaminants, besides being a good source of humic acids. (author)

  20. Pipeline maintenance, evaluation and inspection in water crossing: OSBRA case in Paranaiba River; Inspecao, avaliacao e manutencao de oleoduto em travessia: caso OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo-Brasilia) no Rio Paranaiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Newton Camelo de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Vieira Paulo de Tarso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Attempting to pipeline integrity proceeding of PETROBRAS, the OSBRA (Sao Paulo-Brasilia Pipeline) Management promoted field inspections by divers at Paranaiba River water crossing, located at your right-of-way pipeline. These services were composed by topography, visual inspections and local screened of the pipeline, determining the equipment layout at that water crossing. At Paranaiba River, the pipeline is seated above the river bed. The results indicated high spans in the pipeline structure. Considering this configuration, were made water speed and vibration measurements near the equipment. The activities were executed in order to assist the structural analysis of the pipeline. These studies had concluded to a temporary solution, which consisted in reducing loads and building additional supports. (author)

  1. City/invisibility and city/estrangement: São Paulo, before and after the "Clean City" law Cidade/invisibilidade e cidade/estranhamento: São Paulo antes e depois da lei "Cidade Limpa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ogécia Drigo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available City/invisibility and city/estrangement: São Paulo, before and after the "Clean City" law — This paper reflects on the relation between street advertising and the urban context in the city of São Paulo (SP/Brazil before and after the implementation of the "Clean City" law, and offers some suggestions about how these sign systems could dialogize. The methodological approach whereby the urban context and street advertising are seen as sign systems, according to the semiotics of Charles S. Peirce, involved the collection and analysis of data — photographic records of São Paulo (before and after the "Clean City" law, and the presentation of suggestions founded upon Lynch's ideas about urban context; on Legorreta's ideas about educating the eyes to see architecture; and on Baudrillard's ideas about advertising, notably his concept of functionality. The relevance of this approach lies in the fact that the suggestions are relevant to multiple urban and cultural contexts, and because they consider that urban landscape studies are pertinent for communication professionals. O propósito deste artigo é refletir sobre a relação entre a publicidade de rua e o contexto urbano na cidade de São Paulo antes e depois da lei "Cidade Limpa" e apresentar sugestões para que esses sistemas de signos estabeleçam diálogos. O percurso metodológico que tomou o contexto urbano e a publicidade de rua como sistemas de signos, segundo a semiótica de Charles S. Peirce, se deu com coleta de dados — registros fotográficos ou recortes de lugares da cidade —, análise e elaboração de sugestões fundamentando-se em ideias de Lynch, sobre contexto urbano; Legorreta, sobre a educação do olhar para a arquitetura e de Baudrillard sobre publicidade, notadamente o conceito de funcionalidade. A relevância do estudo se deve ao fato de que as sugestões são pertinentes para múltiplos contextos urbanos e culturais, bem como por considerar que

  2. Doenças respiratórias e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, 2008-2009 Enfermedades respiratorias y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2008-2009 Respiratory diseases and associated factors: population-based study in São Paulo, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2012-02-01

    adolescentes de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, de 2008 a 2009. Los participantes fueron seleccionados a partir de muestreo probabilístico, estratificado por sexo y edad y por conglomerados en dos fases. Para análisis ajustado fue realizada regresión múltiple de Poisson. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 7,3% narraron bronquitis aguda, 22,6% rinitis y 15,3% sinusitis. Posterior al análisis ajustado, se asociaron la bronquitis aguda auto-referida: edad de cero a cuatro años (RP=17,86; IC95%:3,65;90,91, cinco a nueve años (RP=37,04; IC95%:8,13;166,67, diez a 14 años (RP=20,83; IC95%: 4,93;90,91, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=3,12; IC95%: 1,70;5,73, color de la piel negra/parda (RP=2,29; IC95%: 1,21;4,35 y vivir en domicilio con uno a tres cuartos (RP=1,85; IC95%:1,17;2,94; a la rinitis auto-referida: edad de diez a 14 años (RP=2,77; IC95%:1,60;4,78, 15 a 19 años (RP=2,58; IC95%:1,52;4,39, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=4,32; IC95%: 2,79;6,70, relatar presencia de asma (RP= 2,30; IC95%:1,30;4,10 y vivir en apartamento (RP=1,70; IC95%:1,06;2,73; a la sinusitis auto-referida: edad de cinco a nueve años (RP=2,44; IC95%: 1,09;5,43, diez a 14 años (RP=2,99; IC95%: 1,36;6,58, 15 a 19 años (RP=3,62; IC95%: 1,68;7,81, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=2,23; IC95%: 1,41;3,52 y presentar obesidad (RP=4,42; IC95%: 1,56;12,50. CONCLUSIONES: Las enfermedades respiratorias prevalecieron mayormente en grupos poblacionales con características definidas, como grupo de edad, enfermedades auto-referidas, tipo de vivienda y obesidad.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of acute bronchitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis among children and adolescents and identify associated factors. METHODS: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study. A household survey was conducted with 1,185 children and adolescents from the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, from 2008 to 2009. The participants were selected by means of probability sampling, stratified by sex and age, and by two-stage cluster

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  5. Reflexões sobre homofobia e educação em escolas do interior paulista Reflections on homophobia and education in schools in the interior of Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silva Teixeira-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo do tipo survey realizado em 2009 junto a 2.282 estudantes de ambos os sexos cursando as três séries do ensino médio em três cidades do interior do Oeste Paulista (Assis, Presidente Prudente e Ourinhos. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi um questionário autoaplicável e anônimo com 131 questões. Neste artigo, reflete-se sobre o quanto @s participantes da pesquisa reproduzem e reforçam, no espaço escolar, os discursos hegemônicos de controle das sexualidades pautados na tentativa de fazer prevalecer a heterossexualidade como a única forma de inteligibilidade sexual, em detrimento de outras formas de manifestação da sexualidade. Discute-se como a homofobia e os dispositivos de controle social das sexualidades (reproduzem preconceitos e estereotipias, resultantes em vulnerabilidades que os adolescentes não-heterossexuais apresentam, tais como: vitimização homofóbica, isolamentos sociais e afetivos, e ideações e tentativas de suicídio. O estudo mostra que o invariante foram as discriminações, as violências homofóbicas e as injúrias que são perpetradas nos valores e discursos dos adolescentes em situação escolar e familiar, demonstrando a institucionalização da homofobia como prática regulatória da construção social e psicológica de gêneros e identidades sexuais. Destaca-se quão importante é, para a escola, apropriar-se de meios de desconstrução das normativas heterocentradas, visando preservar os direitos e a cidadania de pessoas que não se identificam aos modelos vigentes da heterossexualidade.This is a survey conducted in 2009 with 2,282 students of both sexes enrolled in the three grades of high school in three cities of the west of Sao Paulo state (Assis, Presidente Prudente and Ourinhos. The data collection instrument was a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire with 131 questions. In this article, we reflect on how in schools the research participants reproduce and

  6. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras em adultos da cidade de São Paulo Factores asociados al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en adultos de la ciudad de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iramaia Campos Ribeiro Figueiredo

    2008-10-01

    teléfono, totalizando 1.267 mujeres y 855 hombres. La frecuencia del consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue medida por medio de una guía con preguntas cortas y simples. En la evaluación de los factores asociados al consumo, se realizó análisis de regresión linear multivariada y jerarquizada, con variables sociodemográficas en el primer nivel jerárquico, de comportamiento en el segundo y relacionadas con el patrón de alimentación en el tercer nivel. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue mayor entre las mujeres. En los dos sexos se verificó que la frecuencia de consumo aumentaba con la edad y la escolaridad del individuo. Entre las mujeres que informaron haber realizado dieta el año anterior hubo mayor consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras. El consumo de alimentos que indican un patrón de consumo no saludable como azúcares y grasas se mostró inversamente asociado al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en los dos sexos. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras de la población adulta residente en Sao Paulo fue mayor entre las mujeres, estando influenciado por la edad, la escolaridad y la dieta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake by adults and to assess factors associated with this frequency. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, carried out between October and December 2003 in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Telephone interviews were conducted on a probabilistic sample of the adult population (>18 years living in the city of Sao Paulo and with access to land telephone lines, totaling 1,267 women and 855 men. Frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was obtained by means of a questionnaire containing short, simple questions. Association of different factors with fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by multivariate linear regression using a hierarchic model with sociodemographic variables in the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables in the

  7. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation (

  8. Cosmopolitanism Influence on Destination Image: An Analysis of São Paulo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nasrallah Bedran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out how cosmopolitanism influences the destination image building. To accomplish this objective we interviewed foreign people, who know São Paulo, a city with national and international importance, due to its structure, economy, size, population and by its intense cultural and business life. This work reviewed cosmopolitanism that is the desire to know other cultures, besides his native one. This leads to an intention to travel through different regions, countries, to deepen in other societies and try to blend into it. Thus, one has particular characteristics, which influence the way one lives and consume products. The destination image can be defined as the sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions that a person has about a destination. To understand how cosmopolitanism influences the destination image, two approaches were used. A qualitative approach used interviews with professionals from SPTuris, as well as personal interviews with foreign tourists at the airport., This data was analyzed using content analysis. The quantitative approach included a survey with 205 foreigners. Data was analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics, ANOVA and structural equation modeling. The result showed that cosmopolitanism and income influences the affective aspect in the destination image formation. It also showed that the stay purpose influenced the cognitive aspect, and that the length of stay influenced both aspects of the destination image. The research result showed that the cosmopolitanism influences mainly the affective aspect of São Paulo destination image. 

  9. Perícia contábil: análise das condições de ensino em cursos de ciências contábeis da região metropolitana de São Paulo Forensic accounting: analysis of teaching conditions in accountancy bachelor courses in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivam Ricardo Peleias

    2011-12-01

    accountants who choose to work as Forensic Accountants to prepare themselves for their future demands. In this context, the aim of this work is to identify and analyze the teaching conditions of Forensic Accounting in Accountancy Bachelor courses in Sao Paulo city. This is a descriptive research, with qualitative features, and it was necessary a field research with documental background. The course syllabus for the teaching of Forensic Accounting were obtained and analyzed in two course groups: in the first one, there were seven courses classified in Enade 2006; and in the second, ten, chosen due to availability. The documental analysis revealed the historical evolution in the teaching of Forensic Accounting in the Brazilian legislation, concerning the teaching of Accountancy in this country. It was verified that the content offer for similar subjects in North America is stimulated by the society and the job market. In contrast, in Brazil this is made through the law. The documental analysis of the course syllabus was carried out through the content analysis. In such a process, it was verified that the courses classified in Enade have the best teaching conditions, and this shows more concern and care about: group stratification of the offered content, more detailed course syllabus, variety in the strategies of teaching, focus on certain content groups and variety of criteria of evaluation.

  10. Modeling House Pricing in the Real Estate Market of São Paulo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Jucá Amrein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available edonic modeling has become a benchmark for pricing real assets with several intrinsic characteristics. This work tests also others dimensions for asset pricing: the quality of life in the housing neighborhood and macroeconomic variables. The data is about the real estate market in São Paulo city from January 2001 to March 2008. The main results were: the longer the maturity of mortgage financing, the larger the housing price, but decreasing interest rate spread stimulate the real estate market, and the interactions between the dummy for the boom period and either housing characteristics or bank interest rates spread show that the hedonic model loses its relative importance for pricing, while market risk variables become much more relevant. Thus, these new findings suggests that for modeling a house price index it is not sufficient to consider only average prices or a hedonic approach, but both the market and credit risks as well.

  11. Legal-accounting interfaces in law recovery procedures in São Paulo City District Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivam Ricardo Peleias

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Judicial reorganization, based on Brazilian Law 11.101/2005, has legal and accounting connections, and is responsible for studying the presence of Accountancy and accountants in six judicial processes, in two bankruptcy and judicial reorganization courts - Fórum João Mendes Jr. – São Paulo city, Brazil. It is a descriptive research, based on documental and content analysis, with the triangulation of interviews with judges, four legal administrators and the analysis of six processes by debtor companies. Accountancy appears in the analysed processes, through the financial statements joined by debtor companies. The accountants act as court appointed experts, helping judges and legal administrators. However, they do not act as managers. It was found the timid presence of Accountancy and accountants in the analyzed processes. Judicial reorganization is deferred without a deep accountant analysis of the joined financial statements, to help the debtor companies.

  12. Análise espacial e sazonal da leptospirose no município de São Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Análisis espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis en el municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Spatial and seasonal analysis on leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Spinelli Martins Soares

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial e sazonal da leptospirose, identificando possíveis componentes ecológicos e sociais para a sua transmissão. MÉTODOS: Foram georreferenciados 2.490 casos em cada distrito do município de São Paulo, SP, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Foram realizados mapas temáticos com as variáveis taxa de incidência, letalidade, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicilio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Para identificar o padrão espacial (disperso, em aglomerado ou randômico, foram analisadas pelo Índice de Moran global e local. Foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para testar associações entre as variáveis com padrão espacial em aglomerados. RESULTADOS: O padrão espacial em aglomerados foi observado nas variáveis taxa de incidência de leptospirose, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicílio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Foram notificados 773 casos no período seco e 1.717 no úmido. A incidência e a letalidade estão correlacionadas com as condições socioeconômicas da população, independentemente do período. CONCLUSÕES: A leptospirose está distribuída por todo o município de São Paulo e sua incidência aumenta no período das chuvas. No período seco, os locais de aparecimento dos casos coincidem com as áreas de piores condições de moradia e, durante o período úmido, também aumenta em outros distritos, provavelmente devido à proximidade de rios e córregos.OBJETIVO: Analizar la distribución espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis, identificando posibles componentes ecológicos y sociales para su transmisión. MÉTODOS: Fueron georeferenciados 2.490 casos en cada distrito del municipio de Sao Paulo, en sureste de Brasil, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Los datos fueron obtenidos del Sistema

  13. A influência francesa na estruturação da escola de educação física da Força Pública de São Paulo, Brasil (1906-1914 = The French Influence in the Structuring of the School of Physical Education of the Armed Forces of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1906-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barsottini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la influencia cultural francesa en el campo de la Educación Física en el contexto de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sao Paulo a principios de década de los años 20 del pasado siglo, al tiempo que analizar las demandas políticas del gobierno del estado en la organización de esta escuela. En cuanto a los procedimientos metodológicos, hubo una investigación documental, que se caracterizó por la recogida de datos para la investigación sobre la estructura de la Escuela de Educación Física de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sao Paulo (1906-1914, desarrollada a través de libros, folletos, cartas, diarios y resúmenes que se recogieron en el Museo de la Policía Militar de São Paulo. Llegando a la conclusión de que la formación de esta escuela, fue un objetivo secundario de una misión militar francesa, puesto que el objetivo principal fue la modernización de la policía en materia de capacitación y equipo, de las demandas políticas y económicas del contexto de la época. También se observa que esta influencia ha creado una tradición representada por una cultura en la gimnasia, artes marciales, esgrima y danza.-----------------------------------------------------------------O objetivo deste estudo reside na descrição da influência cultural francesa no campo da Educação Física no contexto da Força Pública de São Paulo no início do século XX, mas também analisa as demandas políticas do governo paulista na organização desta escola. Em relação aos procedimentos metodológicos, realizamos uma pesquisa documental sobre o tema, que se caracteriza pelo levantamento de fontes primárias sobre a estruturação da Escola de Educação Física da Força Pública de São Paulo (1906-1914. Tais documentos, compostos por livros, tratados, cartas, revistas e resumos foram coletados no Museu da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo. Concluímos que a formação desta escola dá-se como objetivo secund

  14. Uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão em rodovias do Estado de São Paulo: um risco à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito? Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Yonamine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é comum o uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão, o que pode culminar na ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência do uso de anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros. Motoristas (N = 134 foram abordados em duas rodovias do Estado de São Paulo e solicitados a responder um questionário, assim como a fornecer uma amostra de urina para realização de análises toxicológicas. Todos os dados foram analisados em Stata 8.0. Todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, de idade média de 40,8 anos e de baixa escolaridade. A presença de anfetaminas foi detectada em 10,8% das amostras de urina, cujo uso foi justificado para manter a vigília durante o trabalho. O uso de anfetaminas foi detectado entre caminhoneiros em rodovias de São Paulo. Cessado o efeito estimulante, a sonolência advinda de uma possível privação de sono diminui a atenção e o bom desempenho na direção, predispondo o condutor aos acidentes de trânsito e seus custos relacionados.The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134 were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to

  15. Sociabilidade juvenil e práticas culturais tradicionais na cidade de São Paulo Youth sociability and traditional cultural practices in São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Mira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é apresentar parte dos resultados da pesquisa coletiva realizada durante o ano de 2007 na PUC-SP. A investigação mapeou 18 grupos envolvidos com a recriação de culturas populares tradicionais brasileiras na cidade de São Paulo, buscando perceber as especificidades determinadas pela história da transplantação de expressões pernambucanas, maranhenses e sudestinas, bem como de quem as recriou na metrópole, muitos deles jovens e de classe média, e dos circuitos de sociabilidade, cultura e lazer pelos quais elas circulam. Tendo como base essas práticas, seus agentes e representações, o artigo desenvolve uma breve reflexão sobre os usos da "tradição" e o seu impacto na vida desses jovens.The aim of this text is to present part of the results of the collective research performed in 2007 in Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. The investigation studied eighteen groups involved with the "re-creation" of the Brazilian popular traditions in São Paulo city, trying to discern the specificities determined by the history of expressions spoken in Maranhão, Pernambuco and in Southeast as well as the people who recreated those expressions at the metropolis, many of them being middle class, young people, and of the circuit of sociability, culture and leisure they are associated with. Based on this pratices, their agents and their representations, the article develops a brief reflection about the uses of "tradition" and its impact in the life of these young people.

  16. An evaluation of the proposed ITS system for the city of São Paulo based on the 2015 tender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consulo Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Secretary of Transportation of the city of São Paulo recently released a public consultation for the city’s Urban Mobility plan. This consultation is quite broad in scope, addressing many different areas of the bus public transportation modal in the city, including the operation itself, control and bus terminal administration. The proposal contains guidelines to reorganize the actual services using the infrastructure already deployed. This article will bring to light the development stages of the ITS in the United States, Europe, and Japan while focusing on the technology portion of the São Paulo tender such as: (i planning and scheduling systems, (ii operational control center and its technologies to monitor and control the operation, (iii the on-board technologies, and (iv the integration to the existing track and location (T&L, control and reporting system called SIM – Sistema Integrado de Monitoramento (Integrated Monitoring System. The main goal of this article is to map the proposed ITS system for the city of São Paulo and compare it to the world class systems operating in the major cities in the world highlighting the areas of excellence and the ones with room for improvement.

  17. Degradation and formation of {sup 14} C-atrazine bound residues in soils of the Sao Paulo State; Degradacao e formacao de residuos ligados de {sup 14} C-atrazina em latossolo vermelho escuro e glei humico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Maria de Fatima da Silva Pinto [Bahia Univ., Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia. Dept. de Quimica; Lavorenti, Arquimedes [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: alavoren@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Regitano, Jussara Borges; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecotoxicologia

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation and formation of {sup 14} C-atrazine bound residues in two soils of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Hapludox and Umbraquults soils were incubated for 63 days in 500 cm{sup 3} glass vessels with {sup 1}'4 C-atrazine at 10.38 {mu}g a.i.g{sup -1} of soil. The {sup 14} CO{sub 2} evolution was mensured weekly. Acetonitrile and water (4:1 v/v) was used as extractor solution of the herbicide residues and the organic matter fractionation was based on the solubility of the humic fractions of acids and bases. The extracted residue were analyzed for radioactivity by using the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method. The mineralization process (0.1% at 63 days after incubation) was insignificant for the atrazine detoxification in the Umbraquults soil. Hidroxyatrazine was the main metabolite of atrazine found in both soils and bound residue formation was an important process in that molecule dissipation, especially in the Umbraquults soil. (author)

  18. Entrepreneurship's role in the development and industrialization of the city of são paulo: the loop forming of railway interior paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Petratti Teixeira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the São Paulo Railway company’s history becomes a very interesting theme, related to the economic and social changes which ocurred in São Paulo state since the 19 th centrury. To the coffee-railwaly bynomiun, one can add the urbanization and industrialization  processes, the end slaverism and the republic’s born too. This railroad, called also as “Santos a Jundiaí Railway” or “A inglesa” (The English, expressed the consolidation of capitalism in S. Paulo state, due to dramatic changes that its construction determined in the S. Paulo city urban aspects. 

  19. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  20. The coal carbon and the soil organic matter isotopes in the studies of vegetation and climate change in the Quaternary and the soil formation tax from the Sao Paulo State, Southeastern region, Brazil; Isotopos do carbono dos carvoes e da materia organica do solo em estudos de mudanca de vegetacao e clima no quaternario e da taxa de formacao de solos do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, S.E.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Boulet, R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. ORSTOM; Aravena, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Scheel-Ybert, R. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Inst. de Botanique

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes in the Jaguariuna and Botucatu regions (state of Sao Paulo, southeast of Brazil) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, based on {sigma}{sup 13} C values of soil organic matter (SOM), {sup 14} C dating and analysis of charcoal present in the soil profiles. Sampling sites were located under natural vegetation (cerradao), along the slopes of small hills. charcoal was found predominantly between 50 and 150 cm deep, indicating a period of greater frequency of fires in this area, between 3000 and 6000 years BP. The presence of charcoal on tops of the hills suggests that sedimentation could not be the major process responsible for burying the charcoal within the soil. Biological activity (termites, ants, earthworms) played an important role in this process. For Jaguariuna site, more enriched values of {sigma}{sup 13} C of SOM were observed from the late Pleistocene until mid Holocene, indicating drier climate when compared with present-day conditions. For Botucatu site, the {sigma}{sup 13} C profile suggests predominance of C{sub 3} vegetation during the entire Holocene. (author)

  1. Comparison of atmospheric instability indices derived from radiosonde observations and precipitation values measured with a weather radar and a rain gauge network in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Radio soundings are carried out daily in more than 800 stations throughout the world. The data collected in the soundings are used in many meteorological applications such as numerical weather prediction and climate models. Despite the relatively large number of sounding stations, they are unevenly distributed over the globe. It is generally assumed that the desired distance between stations is 300 km. In this study, we performed a comparison of 20 soundings of two stations located 85 km apart (State of São Paulo, Brazil; 23.511811° S, 46.637528° W, and 23.212578° S, 45.866581° W) to determine whether there is a concordance between atmospheric instability indices derived from the data collected by soundings at the these different locations. Additionally, precipitation data obtained by a meteorological radar and a rain gauge network during the same period as the soundings are compared to the stability indices to establish a correlation between precipitation values and these indices.

  2. Metagenomic analysis of a tropical composting operation at the sao paulo zoo park reveals diversity of biomass degradation functions and organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Farage Martins

    Full Text Available Composting operations are a rich source for prospection of biomass degradation enzymes. We have analyzed the microbiomes of two composting samples collected in a facility inside the São Paulo Zoo Park, in Brazil. All organic waste produced in the park is processed in this facility, at a rate of four tons/day. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced with Roche/454 technology, generating about 3 million reads per sample. To our knowledge this work is the first report of a composting whole-microbial community using high-throughput sequencing and analysis. The phylogenetic profiles of the two microbiomes analyzed are quite different, with a clear dominance of members of the Lactobacillus genus in one of them. We found a general agreement of the distribution of functional categories in the Zoo compost metagenomes compared with seven selected public metagenomes of biomass deconstruction environments, indicating the potential for different bacterial communities to provide alternative mechanisms for the same functional purposes. Our results indicate that biomass degradation in this composting process, including deconstruction of recalcitrant lignocellulose, is fully performed by bacterial enzymes, most likely by members of the Clostridiales and Actinomycetales orders.

  3. Sobre "guetos" e "rótulos": tensões no mercado GLS na cidade de São Paulo On "ghettos" and "labels": tensions in the gay market in Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Lins França

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, apoiado em observação etnográfica, fontes documentais e entrevistas, enfoca a constituição de um circuito GLS na cidade de São Paulo desde a década de 1990, bem como uma disposição de se passar ao largo de categorias relacionadas a sexualidade na definição de espaços de consumo e sociabilidade, abraçada por um público que poderia ser definido pela categoria "modernos". A abordagem desses processos está ancorada em perspectivas teóricas que observam o caráter contingencial e performativo da constituição de identidades, bem como consideram os processos relacionados ao consumo como sendo fundamentalmente um ato social.This article, cased on ethnographic research, documental sources and interviews, focuses on the formation of a gay and lesbian market in São Paulo since the 1990's. It analyses a disposition to escape to categories related to sexuality in the definition of spaces of sociability and consumption, which are supported by a public that could be called of "modern" people. The analysis of these processes is founded on theoretical perspectives that assume the contingent and performative character of identity construction, as well as considering the processes related to consumption as basically a social act.

  4. Spatial accessibility to vaccination sites in a campaign against rabies in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Gina; Acosta, Carlos Mera; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2013-08-01

    It is estimated that the city of São Paulo has over 2.5 million dogs and 560 thousand cats. These populations are irregularly distributed throughout the territory, making it difficult to appropriately allocate health services focused on these species. To reasonably allocate vaccination sites, it is necessary to identify social groups and their access to the referred service. Rabies in dogs and cats has been an important zoonotic health issue in São Paulo and the key component of rabies control is vaccination. The present study aims to introduce an approach to quantify the potential spatial accessibility to the vaccination sites of the 2009 campaign against rabies in the city of São Paulo and solve the overestimation associated with the classic methodology that applies buffer zones around vaccination sites based on Euclidean (straight-line) distance. To achieve this, a Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area method with a travel-friction coefficient was adapted in a geographic information system environment, using distances along a street network based on Dijkstra's algorithm (short path method). The choice of the distance calculation method affected the results in terms of the population covered. In general, areas with low accessibility for both dogs and cats were observed, especially in densely populated areas. The eastern zone of the city had higher accessibility values compared with peripheral and central zones. The Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment method with a travel-friction coefficient was used to assess the overestimation of the straight-line distance method, which is the most widely used method for coverage analysis. We conclude that this approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of resource use when planning rabies control programs in large urban environments such as São Paulo. The findings emphasize the need for surveillance and intervention in isolated areas.

  5. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  6. Variabilidade espacial de atributos de um solo sob videira em Vitória Brasil (SP Spatial variability of soil characteristics under grapevine in Vitoria Brasil (State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Carvalho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a variabilidade espacial de alguns atributos físicos e químicos de uma associação de solos cultivada sob videira (Vitis vinifera-L, do município de Vitória Brasil, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar a dependência espacial de tais atributos, assim como caracterizar as respectivas variabilidades, distribuições de freqüência e números mínimos de subamostras do solo para a cultura da videira. Para isso, coletaram-se dados do solo, dispostos segundo uma malha com 156 pontos amostrais, sendo analisados por meio da geoestatística. As maiores variabilidades foram verificadas para a macroporosidade (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB e CTC, ao passo que as menores foram para a densidade do solo (DS, pH e V. O número mínimo de subamostras, necessário para formar uma amostra composta e representativa, variou de 1 (pH e V a 241 (Mg, tendo seu valor médio de 64 subamostras. Quanto à dependência espacial, o P e o V apresentaram, respectivamente, forte e fraca dependência, enquanto o restante dos atributos apresentou moderada dependência. Desta forma, o alcance dos atributos físicos variou de 2,56 a 4,32 m, enquanto o dos químicos variou de 1,82 a 5,64 m.The spatial variability of some physical and chemical characteristics of a compound of soils under grapevine (Vitis vinifera-L cultivation was studied in the county Vitória Brasil, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Main objective was research into the spatial dependence of these soil characteristics and their variability, frequency distribution and minimum number of soil subsamples for grapevine crop. Soil data were collected in grid sampling at 156 points, using geoestatistics for the data analysis. Highest variability was found for macroporosity (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB, and CTC, and the smallest for bulk density (BD, pH, and V. The minimum number of soil subsamples to form a compound and representative sample varied between 1 (pH and V and 241 (Mg, with a mean of 64

  7. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  8. Aborto provocado em mulheres da periferia da cidade de São Paulo: vivência e aspectos socioeconômicos Abortion in women living in the outskirts of Sao Paulo: experience and socioeconomic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mendes Gigliotti Borsari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar e analisar aspectos socioeconômicos e emocionais na vivência do aborto provocado e espontâneo em mulheres da periferia da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e caso-controle realizado no período de julho de 2008 a março de 2010, envolvendo a realização de entrevistas semidirigidas, previamente elaboradas com mulheres que apresentavam diagnóstico médico de aborto internadas em dois hospitais públicos da periferia da cidade de São Paulo. Foram incluídas 100 mulheres com diagnóstico de aborto que foram internadas para a realização da curetagem uterina. Foram identificadas 11 mulheres que relataram ter provocado aborto (11% que constituíram o grupo de casos. O grupo controle (n=22 foi selecionado na proporção 2:1, seguindo-se o procedimento: para cada caso de aborto provocado, os próximos dois casos de aborto espontâneo, do mesmo hospital. Foi realizada entrevista semiestruturada com perguntas relativas aos aspectos emocionais, ao contexto familiar, social e econômico. RESULTADOS: As mulheres do grupo com aborto provocado, em relação ao grupo com aborto espontâneo, apresentaram menor escolaridade, sendo mais frequente o nível fundamental (82 versus 36%, p=0,04; menor renda familiar (mediana, R$ 1.000,00 versus R$ 1.400,00, p=0,04; menor renda pessoal (mediana, R$ 200,00 versus R$ 333,00, p=0,04, maior frequência de sentimentos negativos na suspeita (82 versus 22%, p=0,004 e na confirmação (72 versus 22%, p=0,03 da gravidez. CONCLUSÃO: O aborto provocado em mulheres que procuram atendimento em hospitais da periferia da cidade de São Paulo está relacionado a condições socioeconômicas desfavoráveis, o que prejudica a vivência na suspeita e confirmação da gravidez.PURPOSE: To compare and analyze socioeconomic aspects and the emotional experience of women with spontaneous or induced abortion and in women living in the outskirts of São Paulo. METHODS: A prospective case-control study

  9. Situacao dos municipios do estado de Sao Paulo com relacao a compra direta de produtos da agricultura familiar para o Programa Nacional de Alimentacao Escolar (PNAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betzabeth Slater Villar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCAO: Em 2009, foi aprovada a Lei 11.947, a qual dispõe sobre o atendimento da alimentação escolar e consolida a vinculação da agricultura familiar com o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE, ao estipular que no mínimo 30% do total dos recursos financeiros repassados pelo Governo Federal aos estados e municípios deverão ser utilizados na aquisição de gêneros alimentícios diretamente da agricultura familiar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a situação dos municípios do estado de São Paulo com relação à compra de produtos diretamente da agricultura familiar após a aprovação da Lei 11.947. METODO: O diagnostico foi realizado nos meses de junho a agosto de 2011 por instituições vinculadas à Comissão Estadual Intersetorial da Alimentação Escolar (CEIA. Para o levantamento foi utilizado questionário e realizada entrevista telefônica com os representantes dos 645 municípios. RESULTADOS: Em um total de 613 municípios foi possível obter as seguintes informações: 47% (288 já haviam realizado as compras locais pelo menos uma vez, em todas as suas etapas. Dos 325 municípios que não efetivaram o processo em todas as fases, 57% não haviam publicado a chamada pública; 37% publicaram, mas não assinaram o contrato de aquisição; 2% publicaram, assinaram o contrato, mas não haviam recebido os produtos; e 4% publicaram, receberam os produtos mas ainda não haviam pago os agricultores. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos revelam que aproximadamente 50% dos municípios avaliados estão em situação positiva com relação às compras locais para o PNAE. Entretanto, o número de municípios que não publicou a chamada ou que não assinou o contrato é ainda importante, merecendo atenção dos setores envolvidos.

  10. Assessment of the landslide and flood risks in São Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bianca; Listo, Fabrízio

    2010-05-01

    In Brazilian cities, especially during summer, the landslides and floods cause disaster and economic losses. Aricanduva basin is one of the most critical in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (RMSP), where many types of morphodynamic processes occur. This is the largest river basin in São Paulo City. The current situation is characterized by intense urbanization, soil sealing and consequent reduction of soil infiltration, increasing the frequency of flood events in this area. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to map risk areas of landslides and floods in the sub-basin Limoeiro, located in the head of the Aricanduva basin. For mapping the risk areas, we prepared a record field to floods and landslides, based on several studies. Initially, it were identified the natural indicators (vegetation, topography, surface cover and drainage) and anthropogenic (urban pattern, soil cover, building types, occupation density, road conditions, infrastructure, drainage systems, distance between houses and slope, at the top and base, and the drainage channel). On the second step of this research, we identified the evidences of mass movements (scars, cracks, subsidence, trees, poles and inclined walls). Thus, on the basis of this analysis it was possible to define the risk probability: R1 (low or no risk), R2 (moderate), R3 (high) and, R4 (very high). Subsequently, by means of oblique photographs (taken from helicopter flight) it was possible to define risk areas in the basin. In all the sectors identified, were recorded approximately 903 urban settlements. The results showed that from the 25 sectors of risk, 14 sectors (56%) presented landslide risk and 11 (44%), flood risk. Of the sectors that showed landslide risk areas, 21% have very high probability (R4), 21% high (R3), 29% moderate (R2) and 29% low (R1). The sectors at flood risk presented 45% of very high probability (R4), 10% high (R3), 18% moderate (R2) and 27% low (R1). There is large presence of sediments from

  11. PRODUCTION NETWORKS, AND DIGITAL LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE WOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN THE CITY OF BURI, SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Helena Sguizzardi Abascal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil municipalities and regions face nowadays plenty of challenges to achieve a sustainable development founded in logistic and productive relationship networks. These networks and respective operations require knowledge and domain of productive possibilities and business opportunities that can develop themselves in regional and endogenous territorial scales. These challenges derive of the fact that municipalities are part of many government and administrative regions in brazilian states to actuate in solidary and synergic way, potentializing relationships with respective congeners. Networks formation requests a rigorous knowledge of the socioeconomic conditions, the municipalities and the regions characters, and it requests TIC (Communication and Information Technologies instrumental use, being able to give ways to expand and to know the social actors that are related and their potential partners through digital networks. This type of networks enables a synchronic management of territorial and economic complexities, in real time (just in time. This article analyzes by critical way the causes of socioeconomic depression of Sao Paulo State southwest region, with the objective of identifying the responsible factors of its stagnation. It also analyzes specific characteristics of Buri Municipality that is situated in southwest Sao Paulo State region. Showing business networks formation based on the transformation wood industry. This natural product is available in the region, here we investigate the local development possibilities, productive and logistic networks (Material Networks and we suggest digital networks use. These actions not just only create regional advantages, but indeed releases Sao Paulo metropolis: either its spaces and its circulation highways, unduly congested due vehicle concentration that is responsible by transport, state and federal logistic.

  12. Gestão escolar e avaliação externa: Experiências de escolas da Rede Municipal de São Paulo. School management and external evaluation: Experiences of schools from Sao Paulo Municipal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Cristiane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The centrality acquired by external evaluation in recent decades did emerge questions about its implications for everyday school life, some of which are intended to be demonstrated in this paper, based on an ongoing master's degree research conducted in four public schools from São Paulo. The aim is to explore and analyze possible ways of appropriation of these assessments’ results by school management teams. Initially, we seek to indentify elements to conceptualize school management assignments and understand the trajectory of external assessment in basic education, and provide information on the methodology used. After that, we present data collected in field interviews and describe experiences, conceptions and reluctance from management teams over external evaluations. We then conclude that, inside the schools, from the management team’s perspective, there is concern and tension between the potentials and limits of external evaluations’ contribution on quality improvement of teaching. A centralidade adquirida pela avaliação externa nas últimas décadas fez emergir questionamentos sobre suas implicações para o cotidiano escolar, algumas das quais se pretende evidenciar neste trabalho que tem origem em pesquisa de mestrado em andamento realizada em quatro escolas Rede Municipal de Ensino de São Paulo. Objetiva-se explorar e analisar as possíveis formas de apropriação dos resultados gerados por essas avaliações pelas equipes gestoras nas escolas. Inicialmente, busca-se pontuar elementos para conceituar as atribuições da gestão escolar e compreender a trajetória da avaliação externa na educação básica e fornecer informações sobre a metodologia utilizada. Em seguida, apresenta os dados coletados nas entrevistas realizadas em campo e descreve experiências, concepções e resistências das equipes gestoras sobre avaliações externas. Conclui que, dentro das escolas, da perspectiva das equipes gestoras, há um

  13. Uso racional de medicamentos antineoplásicos e ações judiciais no Estado de São Paulo Uso racional de medicamentos antineoplásicos y acciones judiciales en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Rational use of anticancer drugs and patient lawsuits in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cruz Lopes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a racionalidade das ações judiciais e pedidos administrativos recebidos pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo segundo evidências científicas de eficácia e segurança. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, transversal, baseado em informações da Secretaria de Saúde sobre os medicamentos antineoplásicos solicitados por via judicial, com maior impacto financeiro para o Sistema Único de Saúde em 2006 e 2007. Os fármacos foram avaliados quanto às evidências clínicas de eficácia e segurança, com base na classificação do Micromedex®, em metanálises e revisões sistemáticas. As indicações foram confrontadas com aquelas aprovadas em agências reguladoras. RESULTADOS: Os medicamentos bevacizumabe, capecitabina, cetuximabe, erlotinibe, rituximabe, imatinibe e temozolomida geraram gastos superiores a R$ 40 milhões para atender 1.220 solicitações, com custo médio de R$ 33,5 mil por paciente. Os estudos selecionados não recomendam parte das indicações dos medicamentos prescritos. Cerca de 17% dos pedidos não tinham evidência para a indicação mencionada no pleito, o que equivale a um gasto inadequado de, no mínimo, R$ 6,8 milhões. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de qualificação técnica para tratar as demandas judiciais e exige capacitação dos profissionais no manejo da literatura científica, na seleção adequada dos fármacos e na escolha da melhor conduta terapêutica para cada condição clínica. Dessa forma será possível garantir o acesso a tecnologias eficazes e seguras, e assim aprimorar o modelo de assistência farmacêutica em oncologia.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la racionalidad de las acciones judiciales y pedidos administrativos recibidos por la Secretaria Estatal de Salud de Sao Paulo según evidencias científicas de eficacia y seguridad. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, transversal basado en informaciones de la Secretaria sobre los medicamentos antineoplásicos solicitados

  14. Public stigma and schizophrenia in São Paulo city Estigma público e esquizofrenia na cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Toledo Piza Peluso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess public stigma in relation to people with schizophrenia and possible factors associated with this phenomenon. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample of 500 individuals who live in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and are aged between 18 and 65 years. A structured questionnaire was used, and it was applied in person. Questionnaire began with the presentation of a vignette describing an individual with schizophrenia (according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. This was followed by questions that assessed perceived negative reactions and discrimination, perceived dangerousness and emotional reactions in relation to the case presented in the vignette. RESULTS: People with schizophrenia were perceived as potentially dangerous by 74.2% of interviewees. In addition, 59.0% of the sample perceived them as capable of arousing negative reactions, and 57.2% as capable of arousing discrimination in society. However, emotional reactions reported by the interviewees themselves were mainly pro-social in nature. The most important factors associated with these responses were: attribution of "biological" causes and perceived dangerousness. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that beliefs related to public stigma towards people with schizophrenia are commonly held in São Paulo city. An important focus for future studies is to investigate the scope and impact of public stigma on the everyday experiences of people with schizophrenia in the Brazilian context.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estigma público em relação a pessoas com esquizofrenia e possíveis fatores associados a este fenômeno. MÉTODO: Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar com uma amostra probabilística de 500 indivíduos residentes na cidade de São Paulo, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Utilizou-se um questionário estruturado que se iniciava com a apresentação de uma vinheta descrevendo um indivíduo com esquizofrenia (segundo o DSM-IV e a CID 10, seguido de

  15. Public stigma and schizophrenia in São Paulo city Estigma público e esquizofrenia na cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Toledo Piza Peluso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess public stigma in relation to people with schizophrenia and possible factors associated with this phenomenon. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample of 500 individuals who live in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and are aged between 18 and 65 years. A structured questionnaire was used, and it was applied in person. Questionnaire began with the presentation of a vignette describing an individual with schizophrenia (according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. This was followed by questions that assessed perceived negative reactions and discrimination, perceived dangerousness and emotional reactions in relation to the case presented in the vignette. RESULTS: People with schizophrenia were perceived as potentially dangerous by 74.2% of interviewees. In addition, 59.0% of the sample perceived them as capable of arousing negative reactions, and 57.2%, as capable of arousing discrimination in society. However, emotional reactions reported by the interviewees themselves were mainly pro-social in nature. The most important factors associated with these responses were: attribution of "biological" causes and perceived dangerousness. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that beliefs related to public stigma towards people with schizophrenia are commonly held in São Paulo city. An important focus for future studies is to investigate the scope and impact of public stigma on the everyday experiences of people with schizophrenia in the Brazilian context.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estigma público em relação a pessoas com esquizofrenia e possíveis fatores associados a este fenômeno. MÉTODO: Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar com uma amostra probabilística de 500 indivíduos residentes na cidade de São Paulo, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Utilizou-se um questionário estruturado que se iniciava com a apresentação de uma vinheta descrevendo um indivíduo com esquizofrenia (segundo o DSM-IV e a CID 10, seguido de

  16. Alergia ao látex em profissionais de saúde de São Paulo, Brasil Latex allergy in healthcare professionals in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Nunes Montalvão

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Alergia ao látex é comum em trabalhadores da saúde, resultando em absenteísmo e afastamento das atividades profissionais. Há no Brasil poucos estudos publicados sobre o assunto. Enquanto na população geral a prevalência de alergia ao látex é menor que 2%, nos profissionais de saúde pode chegar a 30%. OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência de alergia ao látex em profissionais de saúde do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado questionário aberto a profissionais que têm contato com luvas de borracha em todos os serviços do hospital. Foi colhido sangue daqueles que referiram sintomas e dosado anticorpo IgE específico por meio do ImmunoCAP. Para análise estatística utilizaram-se porcentagens, tabelas e teste qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Foram distribuídos 2.349 questionários, e respondidos 1.045, dos quais 129 referiram correlação entre uso de látex e sintomas sugestivos de alergia, e 54 permitiram a coleta de sangue para determinação de IgE específica. Neste grupo houve dois casos em que foi demonstrado anticorpo específico, estabelecendo-se prevalência de 3,7% de alergia ao látex. Fatores como gênero, profissão, freqüência de contato com luvas, setor de trabalho e antecedentes de atopia foram relacionados com maior prevalência de alergia ao látex. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de alergia ao látex encontrada foi de 3,7%.BACKGROUND: Latex allergy is common among healthcare workers and leads to absence from work and withdraw from professional activities. There are few studies published in Brazil on this subject. In the general population the prevalence of allergy to latex is less than 2%, whereas in healthcare workers it may reach 30%. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers at the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to healthcare professionals from any sector of the

  17. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 {+-} 205 to 5138 {+-} 507 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg and from 7.35{+-}0.57 to 29.06{+-}3.35 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  18. Study of mural paintings by Fulvio Pennacchi in São Paulo City by mineralogical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A. Del Lama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research deals with two mural paintings made in 1947 with the fresco technique by Fulvio Pennacchi in the Catholic Chapel of the Hospital das Clínicas (São Paulo City, Brazil, namely the Virgin Annunciation and the Supper at Emmaus. This study regards the materials and painting techniques used by the artist, based on historical research,on in situ observations and laboratory analytical techniques (stereomicroscopy,scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffractometry, electron microprobe, images obtained with UV-light, aiming to improve the methods of characterization of objects of our cultural heritage, and to enhance its preservation accordingly. The results lead to the identification of the plaster components and of distinct layers in the frescoes, besides further information on grain size, impurities and textures, composition of pigments, and features of deterioration, such as efflorescences. The degree of degradation of the murals painting was assessed by this way. Our data suggest that a single layer of plaster was used by Pennacchi, as a common mortar with fine- and medium-grained aggregates. Differences in texture were obtained by adding gypsum to the plaster.A presente pesquisa trata de duas pinturas murais feitas em 1947 por Fulvio Pennacchi com a técnica do afresco na Capela Católica do Hospital das Clínicas (São Paulo, Brasil, intituladas Anunciação da Virgem e Ceia de Emaús. Este estudo considera os materiais e as técnicas de pintura usadas pelo artista, baseado na pesquisa histórica, observações in situ e técnicas analíticas de laboratório (estereomicroscopia, microscopia eletrônica de varredura com detector de espectro de energia dispersiva, difração de raios X, microssonda eletrônica, imagens obtidas com luz ultravioleta, visando aperfeiçoar os métodos de caracterização de objetos do nosso patrimônio cultural, e otimizar sua preservação adequadamente. Os

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE URBAN AIR POLLUTION BENEFITS OF GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION: SANTIAGO, SAO PAULO, MEXICO CITY, AND NEW YORK CITY. (R827351)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Prevalência e vulnerabilidade à infecção pelo HIV de moradores de rua em São Paulo, SP Prevalencia y vulnerabilidad a la infección por VIH en personas que viven en la calle en Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalence and vulnerability of homeless people to HIV infection in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    2012-08-01

    prevenção.OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y el perfil de vulnerabilidad al VIH en personas que viven en la calle. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con muestra no probabilística de 1.405 personas que viven en la calle y que acuden a albergues de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, de 2006 a 2007. Se realizó prueba anti-VIH y se aplicó cuestionario estructurado. El perfil de vulnerabilidad fue analizado por la frecuencia de uso del preservativo, considerando más vulnerables a los que relataron no haberlo usado nunca o a veces. Se utilizaron regresiones logística y multinomial para estimar las medidas de efecto e intervalos de 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: Hubo predominancia del sexo masculino (85,6%, promedio de 40,9 años, haber cursado educación primaria (72,0% y no tener color blanco (71,5%. La práctica homo/bisexual fue relatada por 15,7% y la pareja ocasional por 62,0%. El número promedio de parejas en un año fue de 5,4 y más de la mitad (55,7% narraron uso de drogas en la vida, de los cuales 25,7% lo hicieron de forma frecuente. En total, 39,6% mencionaron haber tenido una enfermedad sexualmente transmisible y 38,3% contaron el uso de preservativo en todas las relaciones sexuales. La prevalencia de VIH fue de 4,9% (17,4% de los cuales presentaron también serología positiva para sífilis. Poco más de la mitad (55,4% tenía acceso a acciones de prevención. La mayor prevalencia del VIH estuvo asociada a ser más joven (OR 18 a 29 años = 4,0 [IC95% 1,54;10,46], historia de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible (OR = 3,3 [IC95% 1,87;5,73]; práctica homosexual (OR = 3,0 [IC95% 1,28;6,92] y a la presencia de sífilis (OR = 2,4 [IC95% 1,13;4,93]. El grupo de mayor vulnerabilidad fue caracterizado por ser mujer, joven, tener práctica homosexual, número reducido de parejas, pareja fija, uso de drogas y alcohol y no tener acceso a acciones de prevención y apoyo social. CONCLUSIONES: El impacto de la epidemia entre las personas que viven en la calle es elevado

  1. [Art, mental health, and public healthcare: profile of a care culture in the history of São Paulo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanese, Ana Tereza Costa; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Lima, Elizabeth Maria Freire de Araújo; Pereira, Lygia Maria de França; Nascimento, Ana Paula; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    By studying the inclusion of artistic and cultural activities in the care provided throughout the history of public mental healthcare in greater São Paulo, Brazil, we can better understand and characterize the practices adopted in the Psychosocial Care Centers in the city today. Experiments carried out between the 1920s and 1990s are investigated, based on bibliographic research. The contemporary data were obtained from research undertaken at 126 workshops at 21 Psychosocial Care Centers in the same city between April 2007 and April 2008. The findings indicate that the current trend in mental healthcare, whose clinical perspective spans the realms of art and mental health and has territorial ramifications, has maintained some of the features encountered in earlier mental healthcare experiments.

  2. Avaliação de citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata como porta-enxertos para citros em São Paulo Performance of citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blumer

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata foram plantadas em 1988, em Itirapina (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura arenosa e conduzidas sem irrigação. O citrandarin Sunki x English (1.628, sem diferir estatisticamente de Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleópatra x English (710, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e do trangpur Cravo x Carrizo (717, induziu a maior produção de frutos nas cinco primeiras colheitas do experimento (1991-1995, sendo que os três primeiros foram os mais produtivos nas três últimas colheitas. Os citranges Troyer e Carrizo foram significativamente inferiores aos citrandarins Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660 e Cleópatra x English (710 em todos os anos, exceto 1994. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintomas de suscetibilidade à tristeza ou ao declínio. Os seedlings dos porta-enxertos diferiram quanto à área lesionada pela inoculação com Phytophthora parasitica. Os citrandarins Cleópatra x Swingle (1.587, Cleópatra x Trifoliata (1.574, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.600, Clementina x Trifoliata (1.615 e o limão Cravo x citrange Carrizo (717 foram significativamente mais resistentes que Cleópatra x Christian (712, Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e Cleópatra x English (710.Valencia sweet orange trees budded onto citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks from the USDA Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, were planted in 1988 on a sandy textured Oxisol in São Paulo State, Brazil, and managed without irrigation. Tristeza and blight diseases are endemic in this area. Trees of Sunki x English (1.628, Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleopatra x English (710, Cleopatra x Swingle (715 and Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange (717, produced the highest cumulative yields in the first five crops (1991-1995. The first three rootstocks induced the highest crops in the last three years. Carrizo and Troyer citranges had the lowest

  3. Prevalência de Achados eletrocardiográficos no paciente idoso: estudo envelhecimento e saúde de São Paulo Prevalencia de hallazgos electrocardiográficos en el paciente añoso: estudio envejecimiento y salud de São Paulo Prevalence of electrocardiographic findings in elderly individuals: the Sao Paulo aging & health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz A. Kawabata-Yoshihara

    2009-12-01

    .1-1.2 y bloqueo de rama izquierda. MÉTODOS: en estudio de base poblacional, 1.524 participantes (921 mujeres y 603 hombres con edad superior a 65 años habitantes de São Paulo, Brasil fueron sometidos a examen electrocardiográfico en reposo, a medidas antropométricas y de presión arterial, además de la extracción de sangre en ayunas para dosaje de glucemia, colesterol total y fracciones. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia ajustada por edad para ondas alargadas Q/QS fue el 12,1% (hombres, el 17,2%; mujeres, el 9,6%, para fibrilación auricular fue del 2,4% (hombres el 3,9%; mujeres, el 2,0%, y, para bloqueo de rama izquierda fue del 3,1% (hombres, el 3,1%; mujeres, el 3,8%. Para fibrilación auricular (ambos sexos, ondas alargadas Q/QS (hombres y bloqueo de rama izquierda (mujeres se observó un aumento de frecuencia de acuerdo a la franja etaria. Tras los ajustes para edad, sexo, diabetes y dislipidemia, la razón de chances entre las frecuencias de ondas alargadas Q/QS e hipertensión arterial fue 2,4 (intervalo de confianza 95% [IC 95%CI] 1,4 -3,9 siendo de 5,1 (IC 95% 1,8 -14,4 para mujeres y de 1,7 (95%CI, 0,95-3,1] para hombres. CONCLUSIÓN: la comparación de esos datos con otros estudios reveló prevalencia elevada de prolongación de ondas Q/QS en esa población con asociación directa con la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial.BACKGROUND: The determination of the prevalence of electrocardiographic alterations in the older age strata of the Brazilian population represents important information with clinical and epidemiological purpose. OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence rates of atrial fibrillation, enlarged Q/QS waves (Minnesota code 1.1-1.2 and left bundle branch block. METHODS: In a population-based study, 1,524 participants (921 women and 603 men aged > 65 years and living in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to electrocardiographic assessment at rest as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, in addition to fasting blood collection for the

  4. O encontro transformador em moradores de rua na cidade de São Paulo The transforming encounter in homeless people in São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Magali de Souza Alvarez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca a caracterização do encontro transformador entre seis moradores de rua e duas professoras na cidade de São Paulo. Este encontro possibilitaria a transformação psíquica dos envolvidos, no sentido de promover o despertar das potencialidades de self, do sentido de suas vidas, contribuindo para a promoção da resiliência. À resiliência, compreendida como "a capacidade humana de fazer frente às adversidades da vida, superá-las e sair delas fortalecido ou inclusive transformado", foi associada a noção do ágape, amor ao próximo, articulado com conceitos de self e falso self . Neste estudo longitudinal, o morar na rua surgiu como situação existencial excludente, favorecendo envolvimentos com droga e criminalidade. Revelou-se nova configuração nas psiques dos moradores de rua - em movimento transformador - junto às pessoas que foram seus pontos de apoio positivos. No entanto, tiveram dificuldades na permanência nesse processo sem o apoio mais amplo da Sociedade Civil e Estado.This work aims to characterize the transforming encounter between six homeless people and two teachers in the city of São Paulo. This encounter would enable the psychic transformation of the people involved, promoting the awakening of the potentialities of the self, of the meaning of their lives, and contributing to the promotion of resilience. Resilience is understood as "the human capacity to cope with life's adversities, to overcome them and to become stronger or even be transformed because of them". This was associated with the notion of agape, love for one's fellow humans, articulated with the concepts of self and false self. In this longitudinal study, dwelling in the street emerged as an excluding existential situation, favoring involvements with drugs and criminality. A new configuration in the psyches of the homeless was revealed - in a transforming movement -, in contact with people who were their positive supporting points

  5. Anemia ferropriva em crianças do município de São Paulo Iron deficiency anaemia in children from the City of S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce M. Sigulem

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Em uma amostra de crianças do município de São Paulo, com idade variando de 6 a 60 meses foi estudada a prevalência de anemia, suas relações com a renda familiar em salários mínimos per capita, com a idade da criança e com a escolaridade materna. Foi também estudada a dieta dessas crianças no que tange sua adequação em ferro de origem animal e vegetal, complementando o estudo com prova terapêutica em uma pequena amostra. Concluiu-se que a anemia observada foi do tipo ferropriva, ocorrendo mais freqüentemente entre crianças menores de 2 anos e em crianças pertencentes a famílias de baixa renda. Em função dos achados os autores recomendam, particularmente, o uso profilático de sulfato ferroso durante o primeiro ano de vida no sentido de suplementar ferro uma vez que a dieta própria para a idade, pobre neste nutriente, é o fator básico para o aparecimento da anemia. Chamam também a atenção para a utilização de técnicas simplificadas para o diagnóstico precoce da anemia ferropriva, como rotina de serviço principalmente em crianças menores de 2 anos.In children from the City of S. Paulo, with ages between 6 and 60 months, anaemia related, to age, family income and mother schooling background were studied. Also, iron adequacy in the diet was compared with recommended dietary allowances for this nutrient and, finnaly, a small group received iron sulfate as a therapeutic test. The authors concluded that anaemia was of the iron deficiency type, mainly, more prevalent in children below 2 years old coming from low income families. To conclude, they recommend the profilatic use of iron sulfate for children during the first years of life and call attention to simplified technical methods for early diagnosis of anaemia to be used, as routine, in medical care of children under 2 years of age.

  6. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  7. The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo, Santos and Campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Amélia Luzio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo (capital, Santos and Campinas, in order to understand their material, social and political impacts, the progress in the process of breaking away from the psychiatric ward model, and the establishment of creative and productive groups, required to build up the psychosocial treatment in regard to mental health, as well as to evaluate the contribution that the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System had on the psychiatric reform in the mentioned cities. The research, which is the basis of this paper, is part of a thesis regarding mental health care, whereby the innovative projects implemented in those cities served as framework and basis for comparison to analyze mental health policy in small and medium-sized cities and towns in the state of São Paulo.

  8. COMPARATIVE PROFILE OF THE PUBLIC POLITICS OF DECENTRALIZATION AND POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SÃO PAULO CITY (1989 – 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the decentralization policies and public participation developed in the city of São Paulo, between the years of 1989 and 2009. It aims to disclose and evaluate the connections and discontinuities found on the processes and implementations of those policies.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Eveline Wilma Coutinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important contaminants of water, causing waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To monitor and understand the public health significance of this pathogen in environmental samples, several methods have been developed to isolate and detect Cryptosporidium oocysts. The purpose of this study was to perform the first investigation on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The oocysts were concentrated by flocculation and membrane filtration. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in all wastewater samples analyzed, indicating a possible risk for dissemination of these pathogens in aquatic environment and in the community.

  10. [Induced abortion: a comparison between married and single women residing in the city of São Paulo in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza e Silva, Rebeca; Andreoni, Solange

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between having had an induced abortion and marital status (being single or legally married) in women residing in the city of São Paulo. This analysis is derived from a broader population survey on abortion conducted in 2008. In this study we focus on the subset of 389 single and legally married women between 15 and 49 years of age. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between induced abortion and being single or married, monitoring age, education, income, number of live births, contraceptive use and acceptance of the practice of abortion. Being single was the only characteristic associated with having had an induced abortion, in other words, when faced with a pregnancy single women were four times more likely to have an abortion than married women (OR=3.9; p=0.009).

  11. Sleep habits and complaints of adults in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1987 and 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.N. Pires

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the prevalence of complaints of insomnia, excessive diurnal sleepiness, parasomnias, and sleep habits of the adult population in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, estimated in surveys carried out in 1987 and 1995. Representative samples of 1000 adult residents per survey were interviewed using a validated structured sleep questionnaire, the "UNIFESP Sleep Questionnaire". Difficulty maintaining sleep, difficulty initiating sleep and early morning awakening, occurring at least three times a week, were reported in 1987 and 1995, by 15.8/27.6, 13.9/19.1, and 10.6/14.2% of the interviewees, respectively, significantly increasing throughout time. These sleep problems were more often found among women. Frequencies of excessive diurnal sleepiness and sleep attacks were unchanged comparing 1987 with 1995 (4.5 vs 3.8 and 3.1 vs 3.0%, respectively. Parasomnia complaints remained unchanged, with the exception of leg cramps, which doubled in prevalence from 1987 to 1995 (2.6 to 5.8%. Snoring was the most common parasomnia (21.5% in 1995, reported more often by men than by women, and somnambulism was the least common (approximately 1%. Besides sleeping slightly less, interviewees went to bed and woke up later in 1995. Approximately 12% of the subjects in both surveys had consulted a physician due to sleep problems and 3.0% reported habitual use of sleep-promoting substances in 1995. Overall, there was a significant increase in insomnia complaints from 1987 to 1995 in the general population of the city of São Paulo. This major change over a little under a decade should be considered as an important public health issue.

  12. The spectrum of myopathies in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Levy

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of all myopathic patients treated at the Neurologic Clinic of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo during the past 15 years is reported. A total of 466 cases were examined and distributed as follows: 56% of progressive muscular dystrophy; 31% of myasthenia gravis; 6% of polymyositis; 4% of myotonic dystrophy; and the remainder of several different diseases (central core disease, Kearns-syndrome, myotonia congenita, adynamia episodica hereditaria, diabetic myopathy and Eaton-Lambert syndrome. Enzymatic dosages, electromyography, muscle biopsy, electrocardiography and genetic counselling are also reported.

  13. Facial trauma in the largest city in Latin America, São Paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarley Eloy Pessoa de Barros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian authorities have benefited the population 15 years after the enactment of the law of compulsory seat belts in the city of São Paulo

  14. The 226Ra isotope activities in ground water samples drawn of two wells from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State; Atividades do 226Ra em aguas subterraneas extraidas de dois pocos localizados no pluton meridional, granitoides de Morungaba, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Mario Goncalves da; Bertolla, Luciana; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: brenha@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The 226Ra activities, both in solution and associated with suspended solids, were measured in ground water samples drawn from two wells drilled in a fractured granitic aquifer from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State. The 226Ra isotope activities were measured in a sequence of samples collected about one month apart between March, 2003 and April 2004. The 226Ra activities were measured by radon gas emanometry. The mean dissolved 226Ra activity concentration activities observed in the two wells were (44.9 {+-} 7.1) mBq/L and (51.6 {+-} 8.8) mBq/L. The 226Ra activity of the suspend solids in a liter of these waters varied between (0,6 {+-} 0,1) mBq and (13 {+-} 1) mBq, respectively. (author)

  15. [The climate change policy of the city of São Paulo, Brazil: reflexivity and permeability of the health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Rubens; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2014-10-01

    São Paulo is today an unsustainable city in which social and environmental vulnerabilities are obliged to tackle the uncertainties of climate change. To face up to this situation, in 2009 the city unveiled its Climate Change Policy. The scope of this paper is to analyze how the health sector is preparing to contribute to the implementation of this policy by 2012. Content analysis was the method adopted by examining official documents and conducting semi-structured interviews. In a context of social transformation affected by environmental degradation and socio-environmental consequences there is a need for the cessation of inertia and a demand for new knowledge systems. The outcomes of the study showed a positive intersectorial dialectic relationship, since the research hypothesis was that the health sector would be called upon to back actions on air quality monitoring. Its verification showed a broad scope introducing health promotion and preventive actions as the determinant focus, especially influencing other public policies. Thus, the process under scrutiny acquired reflexivity when evolving with interactive measures breaking with the traditional sectorial and reductionist policy model. It shows an intersectorial perspective based on the importance of issues related to local public health.

  16. Forensic autopsy costs in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Mardiros Herbella

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Modern medical practice involves cost analysis of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. There are no papers dealing with this theme in relation to forensic autopsies in our country. OBJECTIVE: Analysis of direct costs of forensic autopsies. TYPE OF STUDY: Cost analysis. SETTING: São Paulo Medical Examiner's Central Office. SAMPLE: Year 2001 activity. PROCEDURES: Routine forensic autopsies. MEAN MEASUREMENTS: Analysis of direct costs of personnel and material. RESULTS: Cost of personnel represents 90.38% or US$ 93.46. Material expenses comprised 9.62% or US$ 9.95. Total costs were calculated to be US$ 103.41. CONCLUSIONS: Forensic autopsies have a high cost. Cases to be autopsied should be judiciously selected. Our results are similar to international studies if data are rearranged based on the number of annual necropsies.

  17. Downward solar global irradiance at the surface in São Paulo city - The climatological effects of aerosol and clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasoe, M. A.; Rosário, N. M. E.; Barros, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the variability of downward solar irradiance reaching the surface at São Paulo city, Brazil, and estimated the climatological aerosol and cloud radiative effects. Eleven years of irradiance were analyzed, from 2005 to 2015. To distinguish the aerosol from the cloud effect, the radiative transfer code LibRadtran was used to calculate downward solar irradiance. Two runs were performed, one considering only ozone and water vapor daily variability, with AOD set to zero and the second allowing the three variables to change, according to mean climatological values. The difference of the 24 h mean irradiance calculated with and without aerosol resulted in the shortwave aerosol direct radiative effect, while the difference between the measured and calculated, including the aerosol, represented the cloud effect. Results showed that, climatologically, clouds can be 4 times more effective than aerosols. The cloud shortwave radiative effect presented a maximum reduction of about -170 W m-2 in January and a minimum in July, of -37 W m-2. The aerosol direct radiative effect was maximum in spring, when the transport of smoke from the Amazon and central parts of South America is frequent toward São Paulo. Around mid-September, the 24 h radiative effect due to aerosol only was estimated to be -50 W m-2. Throughout the rest of the year, the mean aerosol effect was around -20 W m-2 and was attributed to local urban sources. The effect of the cloud fraction on the cloud modification factor, defined as the ratio of all-sky irradiation to cloudless sky irradiation, showed dependence on the cloud height. Low clouds presented the highest impact while the presence of high clouds only almost did not affect solar transmittance, even in overcast conditions.

  18. Fall in homicides in the city of São Paulo: an exploratory analysis of possible determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2011-12-01

    Throughout the first decade of the 2000s the homicide mortality rate (HMR) showed a significant reduction in the state and the city of São Paulo (MSP). The aim of this study is to describe the trend of HMR, socio-demographic indicators, and the investment in social and public security, and to analyze the correlation between HMR and independent variables in the MSP between 1996 and 2008. An exploratory time series ecological study was conducted. The following variables were included: HMR per 100,000 inhabitants, socio-demographic indicators, and investments in social and public security. The moving-averages for all variables were calculated and trends were analyzed through Simple Linear Regression models. Annual percentage changes, the average annual change and periodic percentage changes were calculated for all variables, and the associations between annual percentage changes were tested by Spearman's correlation analysis. Correlations were found for the proportion of youth in the population (r = 0.69), unemployment rate (r = 0.60), State budget for education and culture (r = 0.87) and health and sanitation (r = 0.56), municipal (r = 0.68) and State (r = 0.53) budget for Public Security, firearms seized (r = 0.69) and the incarceration rate (r = 0.71). The results allow us to support the hypothesis that demographic changes, acceleration of the economy, in particular the fall in unemployment, investment in social policies and changes in public security policies act synergistically to reduce HMR in São Paulo. Complex models of analysis, incorporating the joint action of different potential explanatory variables, should be developed.

  19. Perfil de pacientes que evoluem para óbito por tuberculose no município de São Paulo, 2002 Perfil de pacientes que evolucionan a óbito por tuberculosis en el municipio de São Paulo, 2002 Profile of tuberculosis patients progressing to death, city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angélica Bulcão Portela Lindoso

    2008-10-01

    -notificação.OBJETIVO: Describir el perfil de pacientes adultos residentes en el municipio de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil que evolucionaron a óbito asociado con tuberculosis, según factores biológicos, ambientales e institucionales. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio descriptivo, abarcando todos los óbitos por tuberculosis (N=416 ocurridos en 2002, entre mayores de 15 años. Los datos analizados fueron obtenidos del Sistema Municipal de Informaciones de Mortalidad, prontuarios hospitalares, Servicio de Verificación de Óbitos y Sistema de Vigilancia de Tuberculosis. Los cálculos de riesgos relativos e intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC 95% tuvieron como referencia el sexo femenino, grupo de 15 a 29 años, y los naturales del Estado de Sao Paulo. El análisis comparativo uso la prueba de Chi-cuadrado de Pearson y el exacto de Fisher para variables categóricas y la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis para variables continuas. RESULTADOS: Del total de óbitos, 78% presentaron la forma pulmonar; el diagnóstico fue efectuado posterior a la muerte en 30% y en unidades de atención primaria en 14% de los casos; 44% no iniciaron tratamiento; 49% no fueron notificados; 76% eran hombres y la edad mediana fue de 51 años; 52% tenían cuatro años de estudio, 4% probablemente vivían en las calles. Las tasas de mortalidad aumentaban con la edad, con un valor de 5,0/100.000 en el municipio, variando de cero a 35, dependiendo del distrito. Para 82 de 232 pacientes con registro de tratamiento, había registro de tratamiento anterior, y de esos, 41 lo habían abandonado. Se comprobó presencia de diabetes (16%, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (19%, HIV (11%, tabaquismo (71% y alcoholismo (64% en los pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: Los hombres por encima de los 50 años, migrantes y residentes en distritos con bajo Índice de Desarrollo Humano presentaron mayores riesgos de óbito. La baja escolaridad y presentar co-morbilidad son características importantes. Se observo baja participación de las unidades b

  20. Frugivoria por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e reflorestamento misto em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil Frugivory by birds in a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Athiê

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recuperação florestal com base nas interações animal-planta, foram avaliadas as espécies ornitocóricas e o consumo de frutos por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e um reflorestamento misto, em Rio Claro, São Paulo. Através do monitoramento da frutificação e avaliação dos eventos de frugivoria em sessões focais e ad libitum, foram registradas 31 espécies ornitocóricas fornecendo frutos para 38 espécies de aves consumidoras. No reflorestamento misto foram observadas 90,3% (n=28 das espécies ornitocóricas frutificando ao longo de todo ano, enquanto no fragmento florestal, somente 51,6% (n=16 delas foram registradas, com maiores variações temporais na oferta de frutos; 65,2% (n=1027 dos frutos foram consumidos no reflorestamento misto e 34,8% (n=547 no fragmento florestal. Tais resultados podem estar relacionados ao menor tamanho do fragmento de vegetação nativa, o que, proporcionalmente, poderia determinar uma menor riqueza de espécies vegetais no mesmo e/ou ao fato de a dispersão abiótica tender a predominar nos locais fragmentados e perturbados. O reflorestamento misto, embora apresente algumas espécies vegetais exóticas, está sendo ecologicamente mais funcional para a avifauna e, devido à proximidade com o fragmento, parece estar contribuindo para a manutenção das comunidades de aves residentes e visitantes deste último através dos recursos alimentares oferecidos.To support future forest recovery projects based on plant-animal interactions, this work aimed to evaluate the ornithochoric species and fruit consumption by birds in both a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. By monitoring and evaluating fruiting and frugivory events in focal and ad libitum sessions, 31 ornithochoric species were found that provide fruits to 38 species of frugivorous birds. In the mixed reforested area, 90.3% (n

  1. Incidência de insuficiência renal aguda na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital paulista Incidencia de insuficiencia renal crónica aguda en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal de un hospital de Sao Paulo Incidence of acute renal failure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a incidência de insuficiência renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admissão de pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN de um hospital paulista, e o uso da classificação de RIFLE na alocação destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: Levantamento de prontuários no período de 04 a 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: Das 19 admissões de neonatos por diagnósticos diversos, 10% foram geradas por IRA (RIFLE, sendo os pacientes encaminhados à programas de diálise. CONCLUSÃO: Este levantamento realizado, com um número reduzido de indivíduos, demonstrou que a IRA representou 10% das causas de internação primária em UTIN. Maior tempo de observação seria importante para avaliar a progressão para IRA dos outros diagnósticos. Trabalhos com maior número de indivíduos e maior tempo de observação seriam importantes para se obter a real incidência desta complicação como causa de internação em UTIN.OBJETIVOS: Verificar la incidencia de insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admisión de pacientes en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN de un hospital de Sao Paulo, y el uso de la clasificación de RIFLE en la asignación de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un levantamiento de historias clínicas en el período comprendido ente el 04 al 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: De las 19 admisiones de neonatos por diversos diagnósticos, el 10% fueron generadas por IRA (RIFLE, siendo los pacientes encaminados a los programas de diálisis. CONCLUSIÓN: Este levantamiento realizado, con un número reducido de individuos, demostró que la IRA representó el 10% de las causas de internamiento primario en la UCIN. Sería importante un mayor tiempo de observación para evaluar el progreso de los otros diagnósticos hacia la IRA. Trabajos con mayor número de individuos así como de mayor tiempo de observación serían importantes para obtenerse la incidencia real de esta complicación como causa de internamiento en la UCIN

  2. Coinfection by Strongyloides stercoralis in blood donors infected with human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Chieffi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis and human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTML-1 was determined in 91 blood donors examined at the blood bank of a large hospital in São Paulo city, Brazil. As control group 61 individuals, not infected by HTLV-1, were submitted to the same techniques for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. In HTLV-1 infected patients the frequency of S. stercoralis infection was 12.1%; on the other hand, the control group showed a frequency significantly lower of S. stercoralis infection (1.6%, suggesting that HTLV-1 patients shoud be considered as a high risk group for strongyloidiasis in São Paulo city.

  3. The spectrum of myopathies in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Levy

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of all myopathic patients treated at the Neurologic Clinic of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo during the past 15 years is reported. A total of 466 cases were examined and distributed as follows: 56% of progressive muscular dystrophy; 31% of myasthenia gravis; 6% of polymyositis; 4% of myotonic dystrophy; and the remainder of several different diseases (central core disease, Kearns-syndrome, myotonia congenita, adynamia episodica hereditaria, diabetic myopathy and Eaton-Lambert syndrome. Enzymatic dosages, electromyography, muscle biopsy, electrocardiography and genetic counselling are also reported.Os autores fazem uma revisão de todos os casos de miopatias tratados na Clínica Neurológica da F.M.U.S.P. durante os últimos 15 anos. Foram examinados 466 casos, assim distribuídos: 56% de distrofia muscular progressiva; 31% de miastenia grave; 6% de polimiosite; 4% de distrofia miotônica e, o restante, de várias outras moléstias (Central core disease, síndrome de Kearns, miotonia congênita, adinamia episódica hereditária, miopatia diabética e síndrome de Eaton-Lambert. São relatadas também as dosagens enzimáticas, eletromiografia, biópsia muscular, eletrocardiografia e aconselhamento genético.

  4. Depression prevalence in Intensive Care Unit nursing workers: a study at hospitals in a northwestern city of São Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    de Vargas, Divane; Dias,Ana Paula Vieira

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression in nursing staff working in Intensive Care Units of hospitals from a city in Northwestern São Paulo State - Brazil, examining its association with participants' socio-demographic characteristics. The Beck Depression Inventory was applied to a sample of 67 nursing workers from three general hospitals, showing an 28.4% prevalence of depression. The analysis based on the multiple model showed a significant association between depressi...

  5. [Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of cats in Andradina City, São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; de Soutello, Ricardo Velludo Gomes; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from cats of the Andradina city, SP. This work was carried out from March to November of 2007, and used 51 cats delivered to the Center of Zoonoses Control of that city. Techniques of Willis and Faust were used in the fecal examination and resulted in detection of Ancylostoma spp. in 96.1% of the animals; Toxocara spp. in 43.1%; Cystoisospora spp. in 43.1%; Dipylidium caninum in 21.6% and Giardia spp. in 5.9% samples. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 3.9% fecal samples by the use of malachite green negative stain. There was no significant association between the occurrence of endoparasites and consistency of fecal samples. The results confirm that these cats represent important hosts of parasites, some of those with high zoonotic potential.

  6. Graves violações de direitos humanos e desigualdade no município de São Paulo Graves violaciones de derechos humanos y desigualdad en el município de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren Ruotti

    2009-06-01

    socioeconómicos y demográficos. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico, de corte transversal, teniendo como unidad de análisis los 96 distritos censarios del municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, para el año de 2000. Fue utilizado el banco de datos sobre graves violaciones de derechos humanos, del Núcleo de Estudos da Violência de la Universidade de São Paulo, que contiene informaciones sobre todos los casos de ejecuciones sumarias, linchamiento y violencia policial notificados en la prensa escrita. Datos socioeconómicos y demográficos fueron obtenidos del Censo 2000 de la Fundação Instituto Brasilero de Geografía e Estatística. Fue evaluada la asociación entre la variables dependiente-graves violaciones de derechos humanos (compuesta por el número de víctimas de violencia policial, linchamientos y ejecuciones sumarias- y variables socioeconómicas y demográficas por medio de la prueba de correlación de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Las correlaciones entre las violaciones de derechos y los indicadores socioeconómicos y demográficos fueron estadísticamente significativos, excepto con relación a la tasa de urbanización y relación de lecho hospitalario por 1000 habitantes. Las correlaciones más fuertes fueron encontradas entre graves violaciones de derechos y tamaño de la población residente (r= 0,693, proporción de jóvenes de 15 a 24 años en la población (r= 0,621 y proporción de jefes de familia sin instrucción o con hasta tres años de escolaridad (r= 0,590. CONCLUSIONES: Graves violaciones de derechos humanos afectan más incisivamente a la población que presenta peores condiciones de vida. De este modo, se perpetúa un cuadro en el que la desigualdad en la efectividad de los derechos sociales y económicos se sobrepone directamente a la violación de los derechos civiles, intensificando un ciclo de violencia.OBJECTIVE:To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators

  7. Prevalência de oclusopatia na dentição decídua e permanente de crianças na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, 1996 Malocclusion prevalence in the deciduous and permanent dentition of schoolchildren in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de oclusopatia na dentição decídua e permanente de crianças de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, em 1996. A condição oclusal foi classificada em três categorias: normal, leve e moderada/severa conforme os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados referem-se a 985 exames em crianças de 5 e 12 anos de idade. A prevalência das oclusopatias foi alta, aumentando de 48,97 ± 4,53% na dentição decídua a 71,31 ± 3,95% na dentição permanente, sendo que a proporção de oclusopatia moderada/severa foi quase duas vezes maior na dentição permanente (OR = 1,87; IC95% = 1,43-2,45; p The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion in deciduous and permanent dentition of schoolchildren enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1996. Occlusal conditions were classified as normal, mild, and moderate/severe according to World Health Organization criteria. The results refer to 985 schoolchildren ages five and 12 years. Prevalence of malocclusion was high, increasing from 48.97 ± 4.53% in the deciduous dentition to 71.31 ± 3.95% in the permanent dentition. The proportion of moderate/severe malocclusion was nearly twice as great in the second dentition (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.43-2.45; p < 0.001. No significant difference was observed according to gender or public vs. private school. Statistically significant differences were associated with ethnicity, indicating the complexity and diversity of occlusion in the population and suggesting the need for longitudinal studies.

  8. FINAL DISPOSAL OF SOLID URBAN WASTE: ALTERNATIVES FOR THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO BY MEANS OF SUCCESS CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karolina Tanaka Seara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article studies public sanitation services - in as much as solid domestic waste is concerned - within the municipality of São Paulo and employs as base year, that of 2010. Highlights include issues related to the current waste management model in the region and solutions are proposed to those deemed most critical, utilizing as benchmarks, adequate treatments conducted at other globalized cities. The bibliographical review seeks to elucidate concepts that are most aligned with the theme under study. Information concerning the management of solid domestic waste and reverse logistics in the private sector was gathered, whilst findings as to impairments observed in the municipality are listed. Local and international success cases concerning waste disposal were studied with views to encountering sources of potential improvements. It is understood that the adequate destination of residues, by means of recycling, composting or generation of fuels, calls for the population´s commitment in terms of developing separation and waste disposal habits, municipal administration involvement - in as much as supplying the required resources is concerned to ensure progress of alternatives - and finally, cannot do without reverse logistics actions undertaken by producing companies, in full compliance with existing federal rulings. In the quest to expand discussions concerning solid waste, the article attempts to include this matter - in a more effective manner - within strategic and investment decisions taken by both the public and private sectors.

  9. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Correia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  10. Microscopic analysis of "prato", "mussarela" and "mineiro" cheese sold in street markets of the City of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Marlene

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cheese should be produced from ingredients of good quality and processed under hygienic conditions. Further, cheese should be transported, stored and sold in an appropriate manner in order to avoid, among other things, the incorporation of extraneous materials (filth of biological origin or otherwise, in contravention of the relevant food legislation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions of "prato", "mussarela", and "mineiro" cheeses sold at the street food markets in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Forty-seven samples of each of the three types of cheese were collected during the period from March, 1993 to February, 1994. The Latin square was used as a statistical model for sampling and random selection of the street markets from which to collect the cheese samples. The samples were analysed for the presence of extraneous matters outside for which purpose the samples were washed and filtered and inside, for which the methodology of enzymathic digestion of the sample with pancreatine, followed by filtering,was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 141 samples analysed, 75.9% exhibited at least one sort of extraneous matters. For the "prato" and "mussarela" cheeses, the high number of contaminated samples was due mainly to extraneous matters present inside the cheese, whereas in the "mineiro" cheese, besides the internal filth, 100% of the samples had external filth.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of winter PM10 aerosol impacted by sugarcane burning from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, Sofia E. S.; Claeys, Magda; Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Behrouzi, Shabnam; Safi Shalamzari, Mohammad; Vasconcellos, Pérola C.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter samples (PM10) were collected at an urban site in São Paulo (SPA) city in winter episodes of 2012 and 2013. Several organic compounds were determined in the samples to characterize the composition of the particulate matter with emphasis on marker compounds for biomass burning. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), monosaccharide anhydrides, monosaccharides, nitroaromatic compounds, isoprene secondary organic aerosol markers, and polyols were measured. The PM10, OC and EC median concentrations were higher for samples collected in 2013 than in 2012, with the contribution of OC to the PM10 mass being 17% and 11% in 2012 and 2013. The three anhydrosugars, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan together, accounted, on average, for 2.0 and 2.2% of the OC mass in 2012 and 2013, whereas the nitro-aromatic compounds, including 4-nitrophenol, 4-nitrocatechol, isomeric methyl nitrocatechols and dimethyl catechols, showed the same trend, contributing, on average, for 0.28% and 0.35% to the OC mass in 2012 and 2013, and thus indicating a higher contribution from biomass burning in 2013 compared to 2012. The methyl nitrocatechols were substantially correlated with levoglucosan, consistent with their proposed origin from biomass burning. The results demonstrate that biomass burning compounds are important contributors to the OC mass, especially in winter. Furthermore, it is suggested that a levoglucosan/galactosan ratio smaller than about 30 may be indicative for regional sugarcane burning and not for advected air from sites that are impacted by tropical forest fires.

  12. [Epidemiological features of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a reference service in São Paulo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Fernando Augusto Fiuza; Afiune, Jorge Barros; Ide Neto, Jorge; de Almeida, Elisabete Aparecida; Spada, Delurce Tadeu Araujo; Antelmo, Augusta Nunes Lemos; Cruz, Maria Luiza

    2003-01-01

    In order to study certain epidemiological features of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) carriers and their influence on the control and treatment, a group of patients was evaluated over a four-year period, selected by: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation from sputum; resistance to Rifampin, Isoniazid and one more drug, or, failure of reserve regimen, all cases were from a tuberculosis reference unit in the City of S o Paulo. A total of 182 patients were reviewed, with a mean age of 35.7 +/- 6.8 years and 112 (61.5%) were male. These patients was classified according to therapeutic history, as: primary MDR-TB (with initial sensitivity test) 11 (6%); post primary MDR-TB (after irregular use previous treatment) 134 (74%), and indeterminate MDR-TB (failure after regular use of initial and reserve regimens) 37 (20%). Contagion was identified in 41/170 patients, acquired through domiciliary rather than institutional transmission. There were four familial outbreaks and none were institutional. The most frequent condition associated with these cases was abandonment of therapy (45%) followed by alcoholism (27%), sequential failure in the treatment regimens (23%), MDR contagion (15%), drug reaction (6%), HIV positive (4%) and diabetes (3%). There was resistance to Rifampin+Isoniazid in 100%, Streptomycin in 83% and Ethambutol in 47%. Conventional X-ray revealed cavities in all, though only 35 (19%) were unilateral. These cases are discussed and some suggestions presented.

  13. [Determinant factors for healthy aging among senior citizens in a large city: the Epidoso Project in São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Population aging leads to an increase in the prevalence of chronic and disabling diseases, as well as a change in the public health paradigm. Diseases diagnosed in the elderly are generally not curable; if not properly treated and monitored over time, they tend to generate complications and sequelae that impair patients' independence and autonomy. Health is no longer measured by the presence or absence of disease, but by the degree of preservation of functional capacity. Factors for healthy aging with good functional capacity and those which increase the risk of death and disability need to be identified by longitudinal surveys that include the elderly population living in the community. This article presents data from the first follow-up survey of senior citizens in Brasil, called the Epidoso Project (from "epi" as in "epidemiologic" and "idoso" or "elderly" in Portuguese) implemented since 1991 in the city of São Paulo. The socio-demographic, clinical, and functional characteristics of a cohort of elderly are discussed, with a risk analysis for death and disability, and the implications for health planning are considered.

  14. Three new species of Mesabolivar (Aranea, Pholcidae from leaf litter in urban environments in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Três espécies novas de Mesabolivar (Araneae, Pholcidae da serapilheira de ambiente urbano da cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éwerton O. Machado

    Full Text Available In this study we describe three new litter inhabiting species of Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1998 from nine urban forest remnants in the metropolitan region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil: M. forceps, M. mairyara and M. cavicelatus. In three of these remnants, we conduced a three year sampling using pitfall traps. Mesabolivar forceps sp. nov. was the most abundant pholcid (n=273 adults, always present in the samples, but with highest numbers in spring and summer. Mesabolivar mairyara sp. nov. was the second most abundant species (n=32, but the majority of individuals were collected in March 2001. Only three individuals of M. cavicelatus sp. nov. were collected.Neste trabalho são descritas três espécies novas de Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1998 coletadas na serapilheira de nove remanescentes florestais urbanos da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo: M. forceps, M. mairyara e M. cavicelatus. Foram realizadas amostragens com armadilhas de solo, durante três anos, em três remanescentes urbanos da cidade de São Paulo, onde M. forceps sp. nov. foi a espécie mais abundante (n=273, apresentando maior abundância na primavera e verão, mas sempre presente nas coletas. Mesabolivar mairyara sp. nov. foi a segunda espécie mais abundante (n=32, com a maioria dos indivíduos coletados em março/2001. Foram coletados somente três indivíduos de M. cavicelatus sp. nov.

  15. BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES DETECTIONS IN SHEEP FROM ARAÇATUBA REGION –SAO PAULO, BRAZIL DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS CONTRA O VÍRUS DA LÍNGUA AZUL EM OVINOS NA REGIÃO DE ARAÇATUBA – SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Bluetongue (BT is an infectious, insect-born viral disease of ruminants. The causative agent of BT is bluetongue virus (BTV that belongs to the family Reoviridae genus Orbivirus. Insect vectors in the genus Culicoides transmit this virus. BT affects domestic and wild ruminants, however small ruminants are considered the most affected specie. The aim of the study was to detect antibodies against BTV in commercial sheep farms, of the Northeastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 1002 sera samples collected from adult sheep (above 1 year-old, comprising a total of 31 farms, were screened for the presence of BTV antibodies, by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID and ELISA-CFS (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay – competitive solid phase, both produced by Pan American Center of FMDV. From a total of 1002 samples, 651 (65% were positive by AGID and 742 (74.1%, were positive by ELISA-CFS. These results suggest that the BTV is widespread among farms, probably causing subclinical infections.

    KEY WORDS: AGID, bluetongue virus, ELISA-CFS, seroepidemiological survey.

    A língua azul é uma doença viral, cujo agente etiológico pertence à família Reoviridae, gênero Orbivirus, transmitida por um vetor (artrópode hematófago, do gênero Culicoides. Os animais acometidos são ruminantes domésticos e selvagens, porém os pequenos ruminantes são os mais afetados. O estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de anticorpos para língua azul em ovinos da região de Araçatuba, por possuir um rebanho expressivo e condições climáticas favoráveis à multiplicação de insetos. Foram analisadas 1.002 amostras de soros ovinos, provenientes de 31 cabanhas, pelas provas de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar (AGID e ELISA (Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay de competição da fase sólida (ELISA CFS, provenientes do Centro Panamericano de Febre Aftosa. Desses soros, 651 (65% foram

  16. As marcas da cidade: a dinâmica da pixação em São Paulo The city's marks: the taggers dynamics in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como foco os pixadores na cidade de São Paulo. Trata-se de jovens que percorrem as ruas da cidade deixando inscrita em muros, prédios e viadutos a sua marca. Tal prática, porém, não é vista com bons olhos pela população paulistana, que vê na pixação uma forma de degradação da paisagem urbana. Aborda também o modo particular com que estes jovens se apropriam do espaço urbano pelo estabelecimento de pontos de encontro, os seus points. Os pixadores têm uma maneira de conceber o centro e a periferia de São Paulo que dialoga com a dinâmica da metrópole. Embora se identifiquem com a periferia de onde são oriundos, eles têm o centro como importante local de atuação. A pesquisa revelou como eles estabelecem relações de troca, aliança e conflito entre si na cidade.The article has as focus the taggers in the city of São Paulo, who covers the streets of the city to leave written in walls, buildings and viaducts their marks. Such practice, however, is not seen with good eyes by the paulistana population who sees in this writing a degradation of the urban landscape. The article also approaches the particular way by which these young appropriate themselves of the urban space through the establishment of meeting points. The taggers have a way to conceive the center and the periphery of São Paulo that dialogues with the dynamics of the metropolis. Although they are identified with the periphery where they are from, they have the center as an important performance place. The research disclosed how they establish exchange relations, alliances and conflicts between them in the city.

  17. Consumo de leite de vaca e anemia na infância no Município de São Paulo Cow's milk consumption and childhood anemia in the city of São Paulo, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy-Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de consumo de leite de vaca sobre o risco de anemia em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se amostra domiciliar de menores de cinco anos do Município de São Paulo (n=584 em 1995 e 1996. O diagnóstico de anemia (hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the consumption of cow's milk on the risk of anemia during childhood in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: We have studied a probabilistic sample (n=584 of underfive children living in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 1996. Anemia (hemoglobin <11g/dl was diagnosed using capillary blood obtained by fingertip puncture. The cow's milk content and the density of heme and nonheme iron in the child's diet were obtained using 24-hour recall questionnaires. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to study the association between cow's milk content in the diet and hemoglobin concentration or risk of anemia, and included statistical control for potential confounders (age, sex, birthweight, presence of intestinal parasites, family income, and mother's schooling. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 45.2% and the mean contribution of milk to the total caloric content of the children's diets was 22.0%. The association between milk consumption and risk of anemia remained significant, even after considering the dilutive effect of milk consumption on the density of iron in the diet, thus indicating a possible inhibitor effect of milk on the absorption of the iron present in the other foods ingested by the child. CONCLUSIONS: The relative participation of cow's milk in the child's diet showed a significant positive association with risk of anemia in children between ages six and 60 months, regardless of the density of iron in the diet.

  18. Evaluation of renal function and immune system cells in elderly individuals from São Paulo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Both renal function and immune system function decline with age. Although controversial, a significant number of studies have shown that the decline in kidney function is associated with the worsening of the immune system. These findings are reinforced by the increased susceptibility to infections and deficient immunization coverage after vaccination both in patients with chronic renal disease and in elderly individuals. Our objective was to evaluate a non-institutionalized elderly population from São Paulo City and correlate the estimated glomerular filtration rate with the percentage of lymphocytes in circulation. METHODS: A random population of 237 individuals (107 men and 130 women, ranging in age from 60 to 101 years, who were enrolled in the Health, Well-Being and Aging Study was evaluated for renal function (Modification on Diet in Renal Disease formula and lymphocyte percentage (flow cytometry. RESULTS: Aging was associated with a decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate in both male and female individuals. We did not identify a significant correlation between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and either the percentage of CD4, CD8, and B cells or CD4/CD8 ratio. The median percentage of CD8+ T cells was significantly lower in individuals with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m². CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no statistical correlation was found between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and either the lymphocyte phenotype (CD4+,CD8+, and CD19+ cells or the CD4/CD8 ratio in blood.

  19. A cor da morte: causas de óbito segundo características de raça no Estado de São Paulo, 1999 a 2001 The color of death: causes of death according to race in the State of Sao Paulo, 1999 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Batista

    2004-10-01

    represent vulnerability to sickness, this study attempts to verify whether race or ethnic origin have an effect on mortality patterns. METHODS: The Sao Paulo State death register was examined from 1999 to 2001 in a contingence table of causes according to the 10th ICD and race or skin-color categories (White, Black, Mulatto and others. Chi-square test was used to check the association between skin-color and cause of death; residual analysis was used to elicit statistically significant excessive occurrences when each category of cause of death and skin color was combined; and correspondence analysis was used to examine overall relations among all categories considered. RESULTS: A total of 647,321 valid death registers were analyzed, among which 77.7% were of Whites, 5.4% of Blacks, 14.3% of Mulattoes and 2.6% of others. A significant association between skin color or race and cause of death was found. It may be observed that, although Blacks and Mulattoes present a similar death profile, on the contrary of Whites and others, which could be aggregated into a single category, the former appear in distinct positions on the multidimensional map presented. Except for mal defined causes, which characterize only the deaths of Blacks, the other causes of death within this group are common to both Blacks and Mulattoes, varying however, in intensity and as to the order in which they appear death. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of mortality according to race or color revealed that death has a color. There is a White death, which has, among its causes, sicknesses, which, although variable, are nothing more than sicknesses. There's a Black death, which is not caused by sicknesses but by external causes, complications in labor and delivery, mental disorders and ill- defined causes.

  20. Regiões homogêneas e tamanho de amostra para atributos do clima no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Homogeneous regions and sample size for attributes of the climate in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram demarcar regiões homogêneas e estimar o número de anos de avaliações para as variáveis insolação, radiação solar global e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para o Estado de São Paulo. Utilizaram-se dados da média mensal de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa de 18 locais do Estado de São Paulo. A homogeneidade das variâncias entre os meses do ano para os 18 locais (variabilidade temporal e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os locais em cada mês (variabilidade espacial foram testadas pelo teste de homogeneidade de Bartlett. Estimou-se o tamanho de amostra para cada local durante o ano. Como resultados há variabilidade temporal e espacial para as estimativas de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para os 18 municípios avaliados. Além disso, a variabilidade do tamanho de amostra para a insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa depende do local e da época do ano no Estado de São Paulo.The purpose of this study was to separate homogeneous regions and to estimate the numbers of years necessary to evaluate the variables: sunshine, global solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation in Sao Paulo State. Monthly data of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for 18 places in Sao Paulo State were used in the analysis. The homogeneity of the variances among the months for the 18 places (seasonal variability and the homogeneity of variances among places in each month (spatial variability were tested by the test of homogeneity of Bartlett. In addition, the sample size for each place was calculated during the year. The results show the existence of seasonal and spatial variability in the estimates of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for the 18 cities evaluated in Sao Paulo State. Moreover, the variability of the sample size for sunshine

  1. Percepção dos enfermeiros sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos em um hospital de São Paulo Percepción de los enfermeros sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje en los programas de capacitación de un hospital de Sao Paulo Perception of nurses on the learning evaluation process in training programs in a São Paulo hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina de Castro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os enfermeiros de um hospital universitário da cidade de São Paulo, objetivando conhecer sua percepção sobre o processo de valiação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos junto a eles. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se um instrumento contendo a questão norteadora: Qual a sua percepção sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos programas de treinamento? Os discursos foram analisados, segundo o referencial de Bardin, na modalidade análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostraram as posições dos enfermeiros em três categorias distintas: 1 dificuldades percebidas no processo de avaliação da aprendizagem em que a disponibilidade de tempo, sentimentos negativos quanto à avaliação e despreocupação com os resultados dos treinamentos são os desafios a serem trabalhados no dia-a-dia; 2 metodologia desenvolvida no processo de avaliação da aprendizagem devendo considerar diferentes ritmos de aprendizado, sua experiência e história de vida e conhecimentos anteriores e 3 a avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem como um indicador preciso das ações passadas e controle da qualidade do ensino adotado no treinamento.Este estudio fue realizado con los enfermeros de un hospital universitario de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, teniendo como objetivo conocer su percepción sobre el proceso de evaluación del aprendizaje en la capacitación desarrollada con ellos. Para la recolección de los datos se utilizó un instrumento que contenía la pregunta norteadora: Cuál es su percepción sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje en los programas de capacitación? Los discursos fueron analizados, según el referencial de Bardin, en la modalidad análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron las posiciones de los enfermeros en tres categorías distintas: 1 dificultades percibidas en el proceso de evaluación del aprendizaje en el que la disponibilidad de tiempo, sentimientos negativos en cuanto a la evaluación y

  2. Detection of Culex flavivirus and Aedes flavivirus nucleotide sequences in mosquitoes from parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Licia Natal; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Araújo, Alessandra Bergamo; Gonçalves, Elisabeth Fernandes Bertoletti; Romano, Camila Malta; Natal, Delsio; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Levi, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The dengue viruses are widespread in Brazil and are a major public health concern. Other flaviviruses also cause diseases in humans, although on a smaller scale. The city of São Paulo is in a highly urbanized area with few green spaces apart from its parks, which are used for recreation and where potential vertebrate hosts and mosquito vectors of pathogenic Flavivirus species can be found. Although this scenario can contribute to the transmission of Flavivirus to humans, little is known about the circulation of members of this genus in these areas. In light of this, the present study sought to identify Flavivirus infection in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in parks in the city of São Paulo. Seven parks in different sectors of the city were selected. Monthly mosquito collections were carried out in each park from March 2011 to February 2012 using aspiration and traps (Shannon and CD C-CO2). Nucleic acids were extracted from the mosquitoes collected and used for reverse-transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reactions with genus-specific primers targeting a 200-nucleotide region in the Flavivirus NS5 gene. Positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Culex and Aedes were the most frequent genera of Culicidae collected. Culex flavivirus (CxFV)-related and Aedes flavivirus (AEFV)- related nucleotide sequences were detected in 17 pools of Culex and two pools of Aedes mosquitoes, respectively, among the 818 pools of non-engorged females analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CxFV and AEFV in the city of São Paulo and Latin America, respectively. Both viruses are insect- specific flaviviruses, a group known to replicate only in mosquito cells and induce a cytopathic effect in some situations. Hence, our data suggests that CxFV and AEFV are present in Culex and Aedes mosquitoes, respectively, in parks in the city of São Paulo. Even though Flavivirus species of medical importance were not

  3. Optimization of the daily operation of the plants of Medio Sao Francisco; Otimizacao da operacao diaria das usinas do Medio Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jessica Pillon Torralba; Colnago, Glauber Renato; Correia, Paulo de Barros; Ohishi, Takaaki [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: pillon@fem.unicamp.br, colnago@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br, taka@densis.fee.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for daily operation of Sao Francisco hydroelectric power plants. The study considers eight power plants - Sobradinho (USB), Luiz Gonzaga (ULG), Apolonio Sales (UAS), Paulo Afonso I, II, III, (UPA), Paulo Afonso IV (USQ) e Xingo (UXG)- belongs to Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (CHESF). Its objective is to maximize the power plant efficiency and to minimize the number of startup and shutdowns of generating units (GU), simultaneously. Considering those GU are equal, is determined the number of units to be dispatched and their charge. The optimal dispatch, linear and non-linear programming techniques and genetic algorithms (GA) support this article. (author)

  4. Mortalidade materna na cidade de São Paulo de 1993 a 1995 Maternal mortality in São Paulo City from 1993 to 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krikor Boyaciyan

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: determinar o coeficiente de mortalidade materna para o município de São Paulo, as patologias mais freqüentes que determinaram o óbito e a distribuição por faixas etárias. Foram revisados neste estudo retrospectivo 179.872 atestados de óbito de mulheres entre 10 e 49 anos de idade abrangendo no período de abril de 1993 a dezembro de 1995.Foram selecionados 761 atestados de óbito nos quais o estado gravídico era declarado ou presumido. A gravidez foi confirmada em 291 dos 761 casos e 53 destes estão ainda sob investigação. Os dados foram tabulados, agrupados e analisados considerando a idade e a causa da morte, de acordo com a 9ª Revisão do CID - Classificação Internacional de Doenças. Dos 291 casos positivos para associação com gravidez, 82 (28,17% não apresentaram nenhuma referência a este fato no atestado de óbito (subnotificação. Dos 291 óbitos, 183 (62,9% se deveram a causas diretas, sendo a hemorragia (47/183, a pré-eclâmpsia/eclâmpsia (46/183 e as complicações do aborto (43/183 as principais patologias. Em 79 casos a causa foi indireta, sendo a cardiopatia (33/79 a principal patologia determinante do óbito. A síndrome hipertensiva (pré-eclâmpsia/eclâmpsia e/ou hipertensão arterial crônica foi responsável por 19,93% das mortes. Este estudo possibilitou calcular o Coeficiente de Mortalidade Materna para o município de São Paulo: 50,24 por 100.000 nascidos vivos.The parpose of the present report was to determine the maternal mortality rate in São Paulo, the most frequent pathologies which caused death and the distribution of cases paccording to age. In thepresent retrospective study 179,872 death certificates from April 1993 to December 1995 of women from 10 to 49 years old. Were reviewed 761 death certificates were selected, in which the pregnancy state was either declared or presumed; pregnancy was confirmed in 291/761 cases and 53/761 cases are still under

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIATIVE BALANCE IN QUEIROZ FILHO AVENUE – SAO PAULO, BRAZIL UNDER CLEAR SKY CONDITION DURING THE DRY SEASON ANÁLISE DO BALANÇO RADIATIVO NA AVENIDA QUEIROZ FILHO – SÃO PAULO/SP SOB CONDIÇÃO DE CÉU CLARO NA ESTAÇÃO SECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jaschke Machado

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The radiative balance and the wall temperatures of an urban canyon in the city of São Paulo is remotely observed through the use of radiometers and precision infrared thermometers (IRTs. These instruments are set up on a mobile platform, which moves through the bottom of the canyon. The radiative and thermal patterns are verified, along a traverse, through the different kinds of soil coverage and occupation, during the early hours of a diurnal period and also during a nocturnal period in the dry season. Air temperature measurements are also taken as well as estimates of the spatial temperature distribution, between the atmosphere and urban buildings. The presence of an atmospheric urban temperature gradient is well identified around the area without vegetation coverage, with a maximum magnitude between 6°C and 12ºC. Under the vegetated area it appears that this phenomenon is not pronounced, although a negative net long-wave radiation flux of around 60 Wm-2 between the bottom analyzed surface and the atmosphere is identified. Key-words: mobile transect, wall temperature, urban climate.O balanço radiativo e a temperatura das paredes de um canyon urbano na cidade de São Paulo são observados remotamente com a utilização de radiômetros e termômetros infravermelhos de precisão. Estes instrumentos são posicionados sobre uma plataforma móvel, a qual desloca-se na base do canyon. Os padrões radiativo e térmico são verificados, ao longo da trajetória, através de diferentes tipos de cobertura e ocupação do solo, durante as primeiras horas de um período diurno e também durante um período noturno na estação seca. Também foram realizadas medições da temperatura do ar, bem como, estimativas da distribuição espacial da temperatura, entre a atmosfera e as edificações urbanas. A presença de um gradiente de temperatura atmosférico urbano é bem definida através da área desprovida de vegetação arbórea, com uma magnitude m

  6. Concepções de gênero entre homens e mulheres de baixa renda e escolaridade acerca da violência contra a mulher, São Paulo, Brasil Gender conceptions related to violence against women among men and women of low income and low educational level, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Thereza Couto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda como homens e mulheres de baixa renda e escolaridade, da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, pensam suas relações afetivo-familiares e os diferentes contextos de violência que vivenciam. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, utilizando grupos focais, com vistas a subsidiar estudo mais global acerca de violência contra a mulher e saúde. Foram realizados quatro grupos focais (dois com mulheres e dois com homens, na faixa etária de 25 a 35 anos, abordando as representações, livres e instigadas por ditos populares, de: homem e mulher ideais; as relações afetivo- sexuais e familiares; os concretamente vividos; e a violência doméstica. Usa-se a análise temática. Os resultados apontam para cisões entre atributos físicos e condutas morais na mulher ideal referida pelos homens, já aquela referida pelas mulheres define uma autonomia controlada. Os homens tiveram dificuldades em definir o homem ideal, já para as mulheres o ideal é o homem-família. Quanto à violência, é em princípio sempre condenável. É tolerável e instintiva para homens; e fatalidade ou destino, pela natureza masculina, para mulheres, tornando-se evento natural e trivial dos cotidianos de ambos. O referencial de gênero permite compreensão da violência como ocorrência comum, mas de sentidos diferentes entre gêneros.This article discusses how men and women of low income and educational level, living in São Paulo City, think their affective and familiar relationships and the different violent contexts they live in. It consists of a qualitative study, based on focus groups and subsiding a more global study on violence against women and health. It has been conducted four groups (two with men and two with women, aging 25 to 35 years broaching, free and instigated by popular sayings, conceptions on: the ideal man and woman, concretely experienced sexual affective and familiar relationships and on domestic violence. Thematic analysis was used. The results

  7. Estado nutricional, clínico e padrão alimentar de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids em assistência ambulatorial no município de São Paulo Nutritional and clinical status, and dietary patterns of people living with HIV/AIDS in ambulatory care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ferrari Rafael Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Atualmente, a abordagem nutricional desempenha papel essencial no tratamento de pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids, particularmente no caso de alterações metabólicas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral (TARV que podem estar associadas ao maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o estado nutricional, clínico e a qualidade da dieta de pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo transversal envolvendo pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids em atendimento na rede de serviços especializados no município de São Paulo. Os usuários desta rede, em uso ou não de TARV, foram recrutados no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2006, durante consultas de rotina. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos, antropométricos e dietéticos. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada segundo escores de padrão de consumo predominantemente "não protetor" e "protetor" para DCV. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi constituída por 238 pacientes em TARV e 76 sem TARV. A média dos níveis de colesterol total, triglicérides e glicemia foram maiores no grupo TARV (p INTRODUCTION: Nutrition currently plays a key role in the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA, especially in the case of metabolic alterations due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, which could be related to cardiovascular diseases (CD. OBJECTIVE: to describe the nutritional and clinical status, and the quality of diet of PLHA. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study involving a network of ambulatory care facilities for PLHA in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients, in use of HAART or not, were selected from December 2004 to may 2006, through routine clinic visits. We collected: socio-demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric measures and dietary data. Diet quality was evaluated according to a "protecting" or "non-protecting" pattern of consumption scores for CD. RESULTS: The sample had 238 patients on

  8. Difteria: situação imunitária de uma população infantil urbana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil Diphtheria: immunity in an infant population in the city of S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyo Iizuka

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A verificação do teor de anticorpos antidiftéricos provenientes de 130 crianças de 7 a 10 anos de idade, do município de São Paulo, Brasil, revelou 31, 14 e 5% de indivíduos susceptíveis nas idades de 7, 8 e 9 anos, respectivamente. Todas as crianças de 10 anos de idade apresentaram proteção contra a difteria, revelando teor de antitoxina circulante em níveis superiores a 0,01 UI/ml. O teor médio de antitoxina diftérica encontrada variou de 0,0385 a 0,1315 UI/ml de soro, na população examinada.An ascertainment of the level diphtheria antibodies in 130 children, 7 to 10 years old, in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil, revealed susceptibility in 31% of the 7-year-olds, 14% in the eight-year-olds, and 5% in the nine-year-olds. All ten-year-olds had protective circulating antitoxin at levels superior to 0.01 IU/ml. Analysis of the results thus showed that susceptibility varies inversely to age. In the population examined, the mean diphtheric antitoxin content oscillated between 0.0385 and 0.1315 IU/ml of serum.

  9. Study of seasonal variation of {sup 222}Rn concentrations to estimate SGD in seawater samples in embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Estudo da variacao sazonal das concentracoes de {sup 222}Rn em amostras de agua do mar nas enseadas de Ubatuba, para a estimativa da descarga de aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joselene de; Lopes, Patricia da Costa [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br; Braga, Elisabete de Santis; Chiozzini, Vitor Gonzalez [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico]. E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    We describe here an application of excess {sup 222}Rn to estimate SGD in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S and longitudes between 45 deg 02'W e 45 deg 11'W. Excess {sup 222}Rn inventories obtained in 11 vertical profiles varied from 3,300 {+-} 1,100 to 18,700 {+-} 4,900 dpm/m2. The estimated total fluxes required to support inventories measured varied from 597 {+-} 199 to 3,385 {+-} 887 dpm/m{sup 2} d. Considering these results, the SGD advective rates necessary to balance the sub-pycnocline fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.6x10{sup -1} to 1.9 cm/d. During the period of this investigation (from March/03 to May/2004), the highest {sup 222}Rn in excess inventories were observed late in the summer season (March). Taking into account all vertical profiles established, the percentual variability was 67%. Although, if we consider only the fluxes determined in both Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, the percentual variation was 21%.(author)

  10. Factors associated with the development of renal complications of diabetes mellitus in São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.G. Ferreira

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetic end-stage renal failure (ESRF varies worldwide and risk factors have been demonstrated in several populations. The objective of the present study was to identify possible factors associated with the risk of development of ESRF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Two groups of diabetic subjects were included in a case-control study: 1 one group was submitted to renal replacement therapies, attending dialysis centers in São Paulo city and 2 the same number of controls without clinical nephropathy (two negative dipstick tests for urine protein, matched for duration of DM, were obtained from an outpatient clinic. A standardized questionnaire was used by a single investigator and additional data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. A total of 290 diabetic patients from 33 dialysis centers were identified, and 266 questionnaires were considered to contain reliable information. Male/female ratios were 1.13 for ESRF and 0.49 for the control group. A higher frequency of men was observed in the ESRF group when compared with controls (53 vs 33%, P<0.00001, although logistic regression analysis did not confirm an association of gender and diabetic nephropathy (DN. Similar proportions of non-white individuals were found for both groups. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM were less common than patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, particularly in the control group (3.4 vs 26.3%, P<0.00001, for controls and ESRF patients, respectively; this type of DM was associated with a higher risk of ESRF than NIDDM, as determined by univariate analysis or logistic regression (OR = 4.1. Hypertension by the time of the DM diagnosis conferred a 1.4-fold higher risk of ESRF (P = 0.04, but no difference was observed concerning the presence of a family history. Association between smoking and alcohol habits and increased risk was observed (OR = 4.5 and 5.9, respectively, P<0.001. A 2

  11. Geoprocessing applied to the assessment of environmental noise: a case study in the city of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samuel Barsanelli; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Noise mapping has been used as an instrument for assessment of environmental noise, helping to support decision making on urban planning. In Brazil, urban noise is not yet recognized as a major environmental problem by the government. Besides, cities that have databases to drive acoustic simulations, making use of advanced noise mapping systems, are rare. This study sought an alternative method of noise mapping through the use of geoprocessing, which is feasible for the Brazilian reality and for other developing countries. The area chosen for the study was the central zone of the city of Sorocaba, located in São Paulo State, Brazil. The proposed method was effective in the spatial evaluation of equivalent sound pressure level. The results showed an urban area with high noise levels that exceed the legal standard, posing a threat to the welfare of the population.

  12. Ant Community Structure (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Two Neighborhoods with Different Urban Profiles in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Piva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species are highly abundant in cities, may form huge unicolonial populations with thousands of individuals able to displace native fauna, and impoverish ecological relationships in urban environments. In this work, we study the ant community in two neighborhoods with different urban profiles, one recently populated and another from the 1900s in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Two hundred and ninety houses were sampled with baits for ant collections. Results show that the recent urbanized neighborhood with greater disturbance favors opportunistic and dominant species to colonize it, like Tapinoma melanocephalum. We also made a temporal analysis in the ancient neighborhood, collecting ants after ten years from a first survey. T. melanocephalum has a broader range than ten years ago, displaced other ant species, but confronts with Pheidole megacephala that was not found in the recent urbanized neighborhood.

  13. Coronary heart disease clinical manifestation and risk factors in Japanese immigrants and their descendents in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Reynaldo Vicente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a difference exists in coronary heart disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors between Japanese immigrants and their descendents in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of coronary artery disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors, comparing 128 Japanese immigrants (Japanese group with 304 Japanese descendents (Nisei group. RESULTS: The initial manifestation of the disease was earlier in the Nisei group (mean = 53 years, a difference of 12 years when compared with that in the Japanese group (mean = 65 years (P<0.001. Myocardial infarction was the first manifestation in both groups (P = 0.83. The following parameters were independently associated with early coronary events: smoking (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.35-3.77; P<0.002; Nisei group (OR = 10.22; 95% CI = 5.64-18.5; P<0.001; and female sex (OR = 5.04; 95% CI = 2.66-9.52; P<0.001. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of coronary heart disease in the Japanese and their descendents in the city of São Paulo was similar, but coronary heart disease onset occurred approximately 12 years earlier in the Nisei group than in the Japanese group.

  14. Quality of cocaine seized in 1997 in the street-drug market of São Paulo city, Brazil Qualidade da cocaína traficada em 1997 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Gonçalves de Carvalho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Street drugs when in great demand in an illicit market become not only more expensive but are also subject to extensive adulteration and dilution. These fraudulent practices may also contribute to the amplification of toxic effects observed in the abuse of certain drugs including cocaine hydrochloride. The number of seizures reflects the increase of illicit use of cocaine powder in the city of S.Paulo, where the identity of the suspected drug is its hydrochloride form. Routine analytical procedures in enforcement laboratories in Brazil now comprise techniques involving thin layer chromatography for presumptive identification of the drug and eventually gas chromatography for its confirmation or quantification whenever required. The determination of cocaine content, adulterants and diluents in street samples is not only of clinical value but also important for enforcement activities, recognition of its geographical distribution and allocation. So, the aim of this study was to continue examining the quality of cocaine hydrochloride in the illicit market of the city of S.Paulo. Cocaine and adulterant contents were determined as well as the identification of several diluents in 389 out of 1958 samples of "white powder" seized in the city of São Paulo. Thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography (FID and GC-MS were used for the determination of cocaine and adulterant contents. Spot-tests and thin-layer chromatography were the techniques applied for the identification of diluents. The results were as follows: neither cocaine nor adulterants were detected in 17 samples (4.4%; of all positive samples (95.6 % for cocaine, 14% consisted of no more than 200 mg/g; in 70% cocaine purity ranged from 201 to 550 mg/g and in 16% it was not greater than 700 mg/g. The local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine were detected in 19 samples (4,9% in a range from 10 to 602 mg/g. Caffeine was present in only two samples (179 and 356 mg/g. The main diluents detected were

  15. Desigualdades sociais e homicídios na cidade de São Paulo, 1998 Homicide and social inequalities in the city of São Paulo, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar os padrões de ocorrência dos homicídios quanto a características dos agressores, das vítimas e das circunstâncias que motivaram a agressão, segundo estratos de condições de vida. As condições de vida foram avaliadas pela escolaridade, renda e condições de habitação. Os distritos administrativos da cidade foram agrupados através de análise de cluster formando cinco estratos. Amostras casuais simples de 100 óbitos por homicídios foram obtidas para cada estrato. Atestado de óbito, boletim de ocorrência e inquérito policial foram utilizados como fontes de dados. No estrato A foram mais comuns os homicídios associados a assaltos, enquanto nos estratos B, C e D predominaram os homicídios relacionados ao tráfico de drogas e a outras atividades ilegais. No estrato E, a maioria dos casos estudados estava relacionada com brigas e desavenças entre indivíduos. Vítimas e os agressores foram predominantemente indivíduos do sexo masculino, jovens, brancos ou pardos, com baixa escolaridade, nascidos em São Paulo ou em Estados do Nordeste, com ocupação no setor terciário ou desempregados. Há maior freqüência relativa de homicídios de mulheres no estrato A. Neste estrato, a maioria das vítimas não conhece os agressores, enquanto nos outros estratos, predomina o conhecimento entre vítima e agressor envolvendo parentes, amigos ou conhecidos.This study aimed to identify patterns in the occurrence of homicides considering the characteristics of aggressors, victims and the circumstances that motivated the aggression, according to life condition strata. Life conditions were evaluated according to schooling, income and housing conditions. We used a simple random sample of the deaths by homicides in each stratum of life conditions assessed by cluster analysis. Date sources: death certificates, police reports and police investigations. In stratum A, homicides were more commonly associated

  16. Censo coprológico no município de Peruibe (litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo: registro de casos autóctones de esquistossomose mansoni Coprologic census of Peruibe (Southern town in the coast of the State of São Paulo: record of autochthonous cases of manson's schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Toledo Artigas

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram apresentados os resultados dos exames coprológicos, para levantamento das parasitoses intestinais na população da zona urbana do município de Peruibe (litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram constatados 29 casos de esquistossomose mansoni, sendo 7 considerados autóctones de Peruibe e 5 do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo.The results of feces examinations, in order to know the degree and variation of intestinal parasitoses among the inhabitants of Peruibe, a littorean city in the south of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are presented. Among 475 persons, children and adults, living in 20% of the houses of the town, 95.3% proved to be parasited. The percentual results of helminths and protozoa infestations are related in tables. Seven autochthonous cases of manson's schistomiasis have been discovered, i.e., a percentage of 5.89%.

  17. Observational Characterization of the Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation at the Surface in the City of São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Ferreira, M.J.; Mlakar, P.; Boznar, M.Z.; Escobedo, J.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the seasonal and diurnal variations of downward longwave atmospheric irradiance (LW) at the surface in São Paulo, Brazil, using 5-min-averaged values of LW, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation observed continuously and simultaneously from 1997 to 2006 on a mic

  18. Maternal mortality due to arterial hypertension in São Paulo City (1995-1999 A mortalidade materna devido a hipertensão arterial na cidade de São Paulo (1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pereira Vega

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe the case profile of maternal death resulting from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and to propose measures for its reduction. METHODS: The Committee on Maternal Mortality of São Paulo City has identified 609 cases of obstetric maternal death between 1995 and 1999 with an underreporting rate of 52.2% and a maternal mortality rate of 56.7/100,000 live births. Arterial hypertension was the main cause of maternal death, corresponding to 142 (23.3% cases. RESULTS: Ninety-five (66.9% of the deaths occurred during the puerperal period and 34 (23.9% occurred during pregnancy. The time of death was not reported in 13 (9.2% cases. Seizures were observed in 41 cases and magnesium sulfate was used in four of them. The causes of death were ruled to be cerebrovascular accident (44.4%, acute pulmonary edema (24.6%, and coagulopathies (14.1%. Cesarean section was performed in 85 (59.9% cases and vaginal delivery in 15 (16.0%. CONCLUSION: Complications of arterial hypertension are responsible for the high rates of pregnancy-related maternal death in São Paulo City. Quality prenatal care and appropriate monitoring of the hypertensive pregnant patient during and after delivery are important measures for better control of this condition and are essential to reduce disorders in pregnancy.OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil dos casos de morte materna decorrente de complicações da hipertensão arterial e propor medidas para sua redução. MÉTODOS: De 1995 a 1999 o Comitê de Mortalidade Materna da Cidade de São Paulo identificou 609 casos de morte materna obstétrica, com uma subnotificação de 52,2% e um CMM=56,7/100.000 Nascidos Vivos. A hipertensão arterial foi a principal causa de óbito materno, correspondendo a 142 (23,3% casos. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 95 (66,9% de óbitos no puerpério e 34 (23,9% durante a gestação. Em 13 (9,2% casos não se teve referência ao momento do óbito. Houve relato de crises convulsivas em 41 casos com a utiliza

  19. Alguns grupos de microrganismos em manteigas vendidas no município de São Paulo Microorganism groups found in butter sold in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelito Assis dos Reis Filho

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de manteiga de 5 marcas diferentes vendidas em supermercados da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil com a finalidade de verificar as condições microbiológicas de manteigas e compará-las com os padrões recomendados. Semanalmente foi colhida uma amostra de cada marca, durante 21 semanas. A partir da parte aquosa de cada amostra, foram realizadas as contagens de bactérias mesófilas e psicrófilas (em ágar padrão e ágar gelisato, coliformes, proteolíticas e de bolores e leveduras e os resultados comparados com alguns parâmetros propostos por vários pesquisadores. Os valores obtidos nas contagens dos vários grupos de microrganismos estudados, em muitos casos podem ser considerados altos, os quais podem ser resultado do processamento e/ou conservação, realizados em condições não satisfatórias.One hundred and five samples of five different brands of butter in the supermarkets of the City of S. Paulo, Brazil were brought in for testing every week for 21 weeks. From the aqueous phase, counts were made for mesophilic and psichrophilic (using the standard plate count, agar and gelysate agar, coliform, proteolytic, and lipolytic bacteria, as well as for yeasts and molds. Results were compared with parameters proposed by several researchers. In many cases, the count values can be considered high, but these high counts may be due to inadequate processing and/or inadequate storage.

  20. Consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e renda familiar na cidade de São Paulo Association of children's consumption of processed foods and family income in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Aquino

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e a relação com a renda familiar per capita, com base em inquérito domiciliar. MÉTODOS: O consumo alimentar de uma amostra probabilística da população infantil residente na cidade de São Paulo, entre zero e 59 meses de idade (n=718, foi estudado em 1995/1996 por meio de inquérito recordatório de 24h. Analisou-se a relação entre o consumo de 24 alimentos industrializados e a renda familiar per capita, distribuída em quartis. RESULTADOS: O consumo de açúcar foi maior entre as crianças de menor renda, enquanto achocolatados, chocolates, iogurte, leite em pó modificado e refrigerantes foram mais consumidos por crianças de maior renda familiar per capita (pOBJECTIVE: To describe children's consumption of processed foods and its relationship with per capita family income based on a household survey. METHODS: Food consumption was studied in a statistical sample of 718 children living in the city of São Paulo in the period 1995-1996. A 24-hour dietary recall was used. Data regarding the association of children's consumption of 24 processed foods and per capita family income (arranged in quartiles was analyzed. RESULTS: Consumption of sugar was higher among children of low income families whereas the consumption of chocolate powder, chocolate, yogurt, infant formula and soft drinks was higher among children of high income families (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that per capita family income affects the consumption of some processed foods.

  1. Estudo da Mortalidade Materna no Município de São Paulo durante o Ano de 1996 Maternal Mortality in São Paulo City in 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pazero

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estabelecer uma lista das doenças que provocaram óbito materno por ordem de freqüência. Métodos: no ano de 1996 foram registrados 65.406 óbitos no Município de São Paulo, sendo que 26.778 foram mulheres. Destas, 4.591 se encontravam na faixa entre 10 e 49 anos. Realizamos uma análise deste último grupo, tendo por crivo o campo "Causa da Morte" da Declaração de Óbito, onde tentamos estabelecer alguma correlação entre a patologia ali descrita e o ciclo gravídico-puerperal. Separamos para um estudo mais aprofundado 293 Declarações de Óbito, das quais selecionamos, após pesquisa hospitalar e/ou visita domiciliar, um total de 119 casos positivos para morte materna. Os casos positivos para morte materna foram então tabulados, agrupados e analisados por idade e patologia, utilizando-se os grandes grupos de assistência. Resultados: dos 119 casos positivos para morte materna não havia referência ao estado gravídico-puerperal em 53 deles, ou seja, 40,54% de subnotificação. Os casos foram agrupados por patologia, sendo que encontramos um predomínio de casos de eclâmpsia/pré-eclâmpsia (18,02%, seguidos pelos casos decorrentes de complicações hemorrágicas de terceiro trimestre e puerpério (12,61%, complicações de aborto (12,61%, infecção puerperal (9,91% e cardiopatias (9,91%. Conclusões: pela primeira vez estamos divulgando o Coeficiente de Mortalidade Materna Tardio para o Município de São Paulo, que foi de 51,33/100.000 nascidos vivos. Utilizamos para divulgação oficial, porém, o Coeficiente de Mortalidade Materna para óbitos até 42 dias de puerpério, que para o Município de São Paulo foi de 48,03/100.000 nascidos vivos. Lembramos que a este valor não se deve aplicar nenhum fator de correção, tendo em vista termos feito uma busca ativa de casos.Purpose: to establish a list of diseases promoting maternal death according to frequency. Methods: In 1996, 65,406 deaths were recorded in the City of

  2. Smoke-free São Paulo: a campaign evaluation and the case for sustained mass media investment Sao Paulo libre de humo de tabaco: evaluación de una campaña y el caso para una inversión sostenida en medios masivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alday

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence from high-income countries suggests that mass media campaigns can increase knowledge of tobacco harms and encourage smoking cessation, there is little evidence of this from developing countries, particularly related to campaigns that seek to increase support for smoke-free places and laws. Two campaigns that ran in São Paulo, Brazil during implementation of a smoke-free law in São Paulo were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in changing attitudes and creating support for the law. The campaigns were evaluated through street-intercept surveys conducted in early July and late August in São Paulo (Ns= 603; 615. Findings reveal that mass communications can generate support for smoke-free laws and underscore the importance of running campaigns that are both well-funded and that use harder-hitting, more graphic messages.Aunque la evidencia de los países de altos ingresos sugiere que las campañas de los medios masivos de comunicación pueden elevar el conocimiento de los daños del tabaco y alentar a dejar de fumar, hay poca evidencia de esto en los países en desarrollo, particularmente en relación con las campañas que tratan de dar más apoyo a los lugares libres de humo de tabaco y a las leyes. Dos campañas que se transmitieron en São Paulo, Brasil durante la ejecución de la ley libre de humo en São Paulo fueron evaluadas para determinar su eficacia en el cambio de actitudes y su contribución al aumento de apoyo a esta la ley. Las campañas fueron evaluadas a través de encuestas realizadas en la calle a principios de julio y finales de agosto en São Paulo (N= 603 615. Los hallazgos revelan que la comunicación masiva puede generar apoyo a las leyes antitabaco y subrayan la importancia de la realización de campañas que estén bien financiadas, así como el uso de mensajes gráficos más fuertes.

  3. A spatial approach for the epidemiology of antibiotic use and resistance in community-based studies: the emergence of urban clusters of Escherichia coli quinolone resistance in Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Trevor C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population antimicrobial use may influence resistance emergence. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon due to potential transmissibility. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of ciprofloxacin (CIP population consumption related to E. coli resistance emergence and dissemination in a major Brazilian city. A total of 4,372 urinary tract infection E. coli cases, with 723 CIP resistant, were identified in 2002 from two outpatient centres. Cases were address geocoded in a digital map. Raw CIP consumption data was transformed into usage density in DDDs by CIP selling points influence zones determination. A stochastic model coupled with a Geographical Information System was applied for relating resistance and usage density and for detecting city areas of high/low resistance risk. Results E. coli CIP resistant cluster emergence was detected and significantly related to usage density at a level of 5 to 9 CIP DDDs. There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. Conclusions There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. The usage density of 5-9 CIP DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants within the same influence zone was the resistance triggering level. This level led to E. coli resistance clustering, proving that individual resistance emergence and dissemination was affected by antimicrobial population consumption.

  4. Depression prevalence in Intensive Care Unit nursing workers: a study at hospitals in a northwestern city of São Paulo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vargas, Divane; Dias, Ana Paula Vieira

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression in nursing staff working in Intensive Care Units of hospitals from a city in Northwestern São Paulo State - Brazil, examining its association with participants' socio-demographic characteristics. The Beck Depression Inventory was applied to a sample of 67 nursing workers from three general hospitals, showing an 28.4% prevalence of depression. The analysis based on the multiple model showed a significant association between depression and marital status (OR=1.52), night work (OR=1.46) and double shifts (OR=2.11). Also, there were significant percentages of workers who reported discouragement, sadness and hopelessness. In conclusion, the prevalence of depression is significant and more attention should be paid to this problem workers at these units face. Further studies are needed in the attempt to broaden knowledge on the subject, which can support strategies to guarantee attention to ICU nursing workers' physical and mental health needs.

  5. Twinning and Multiple Birth Rates According to Maternal Age in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otta, Emma; Fernandes, Eloisa de S; Acquaviva, Tiziana G; Lucci, Tania K; Kiehl, Leda C; Varella, Marco A C; Segal, Nancy L; Valentova, Jaroslava V

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigates the twinning rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years 2003-2014. The data were drawn from the Brazilian Health Department database of Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos de São Paulo-SINASC (Live Births Information System of São Paulo). In general, more information is available on the incidence of twinning in developed countries than in developing ones. A total of 24,589 twin deliveries and 736 multiple deliveries were registered in 140 hospitals of São Paulo out of a total of 2,056,016 deliveries during the studied time period. The overall average rates of singleton, twin, and multiple births per 1,000 maternities (‰) were 987.43, 11.96 (dizygotic (DZ) rate was 7.15 and monozygotic (MZ) 4.42), and 0.36, respectively. We further regressed maternal age and historical time period on percentage of singleton, twin, and multiple birth rates. Our results indicated that maternal age strongly positively predicted twin and multiple birth rates, and negatively predicted singleton birth rates. The historical time period also positively, although weakly, predicted twin birth rates, and had no effect on singleton or multiple birth rates. Further, after applying Weinberg's differential method, we computed regressions separately for the estimated frequencies of DZ and MZ twin rates. DZ twinning was strongly positively predicted by maternal age and, to a smaller degree, by time period, while MZ twinning increased marginally only with higher maternal age. Factors such as increasing body mass index or air pollution can lead to the slight historical increase in DZ twinning rates. Importantly, consistent with previous cross-cultural and historical research, our results support the existence of an age-dependent physiological mechanism that leads to a strong increase in twinning and multiple births, but not singleton births, among mothers of higher age categories. From the ultimate perspective, twinning and multiple births in

  6. japonês na cidade de Registro, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rog\\u00E9rio Bessa Gon\\u00E7alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the methods of construction employed by Japanese immigrants, who settled the city of Registro, in the region of the Ribeira valley of Iguape, located in the State of Sao Paulo, in the year of 1918. This settlement received incentives from the State Government of Sao Paulo, in order to promote the colonization of the Ribeira valley of Iguape, as well as to boost local economical development, by means of expanding the agricultural production of coffee to this region. The characteristics of this group of immigrants were notably different from others, due to fact that they arrived in Brazil already as landholders, sponsored financially and logistically by a Japanese private company, which was responsible for the management of this enterprise. These immigrants could count on a complex infrastructure, which aided them in their mission to advance the development of this region. Even though the particularities of this group of immigrants gave them a certain amount of freedom to recreate their own culture in Brazilian land, the reality of this new environment, its new physical, economical and social contingencies forced them to reinterpret their cultural traditions and customs. In order to understand this adaptation process, a study of the construction methods employed by this group of immigrants in their buildings was undertaken, based on their knowledge of traditional Japanese architecture. This study rendered possible the analysis of a long process of cultural syncretism between oriental culture and the vernacular architecture of the inhabitants of the Ribeira valley of Iguape.

  7. Professional profile of dentists who are members of the Family Health Strategy city of Marília, São Paulo: the challenge of interprofessional work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Gonçalves Caldeira Padula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The inclusion of oral health professionals within the Family Health Strategy was legislated in December, 2000, by the Ministery of Health. These professionals are included in a new context which challenges the traditional education of fragmented knowledge and presents the challenge of interprofessional work. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile and the interprofessional practice of dentists working in the FHS in the city of Marília, São Paulo. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In 2012, a structured questionnaire and an adaptation of the Readiness Interprofissional Learning Scale (RIPLS, given to 34 dentists working in the FHS in the city of Marília, São Paulo, were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with SNK multiple comparisons post-test, at a significance level of p < 0.05, were used for data analysis. RESULT: The dentists are in the 31 to 40 year age range (70.6%, are mostly women (82.4% and 79.41% hold a specialization in Public and Family Health. Comparisons of the differences of the mean scores of the responses among professionals, with and without graduate study in this area, were statistically significant in the statements regarding the amount of human resources and interprofessional work. CONCLUSION: Graduate study in Public and Family Health provides dentists with background on the integration of teamwork, the understanding about the process of interprofessional work, the enhancement of common and collaborative professional skills and thus minimizes the effects of an incomplete health team. It is considered that professionals without graduate study are restricted to their traditional and reductionist preparation.

  8. Mapping geological at risk areas in the city of São Paulo: issues and results from the largest risk survey in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarelli, Luciana; Macedo, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    In the City of São Paulo, the first reports of accidents resulting from landslides are directly related to urban expansion that has been recorded since the 30s. Areas of major environmental fragility, such as slopes and stream-banks, have also ended up being occupied without proper planning. The increased number of deaths due to landslides in the 80s already indicated the need for intervention at these sites by the public authorities. It was important to act to prevent these disasters, not only emergency assistance to victimized families. Therefore, in 1989 the first systematic and official survey on the City's at-risk areas was made. At the time, the at-risk sites had been still unknown, except for the occurrence records and press reports. While some areas were evaluated by experts, others appeared or expanded without any control. The surveys pace could not definitely follow the growth and the density of favelas, and some communities started to trigger the first records of accidents in areas hitherto stable. Considering the universe to be studied and the detail level of the work, it was necessary to use specific methodology to enable evaluation of the entire City in a relatively short period of time. For that purpose,mapping activities were carried out in five phases and involved about 80 professionals in the fields of geology, engineering, architecture, geography, civil defense, and housing, who participated directly or indirectly in all stages of work. Thus, the mapping that has recently been completed by the Municipality of São Paulo and by the Institute for Technological Research of São Paulo State is today the largest geological-risk database in the country. Besides technical information, the survey also shows the types of intervention to be implemented according to the degree of risk and the type of verified occupation, vital data to prioritizing the public-authorities actions. Currently, among the 1,602 favelas and informal settlements in the city, 407

  9. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Expedito Ja; Furucho, Celia R; Silva, Rubens A; Wanderley, Dalva M; Carvalho, Noemia B; Satolo, Camila G; Leite, Ruth M; Silveira, Cassio; Silva, Lia Mb; Aith, Fernando M; Carneiro, Nivaldo; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria A

    2017-01-01

    With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil. Infection was detected by two different ELISA assays with epimastigote antigens, followed by an immunoblot with trypomastigote antigens as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of the infection was 4.4%. Risk factors independently associated with the infection were: a history of rural jobs in Bolivia, knowledge of the vector involved in transmission, and having relatives with Chagas disease. Brazil has successfully eliminated household vector transmission of T. cruzi, as well as its transmission by blood transfusion. The arrival of infected immigrants represents an additional challenge to primary care clinics to manage chronic Chagas disease, its vertical transmission, and the blood derivatives and organ transplant programs.

  10. ACTUAL DYNAMICS OF THE LOWER CIRCUIT IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO: EXPANSION AND RENOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Regitz Montenegro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A intensificação da participação do Brasil na divisão internacional do trabalho vem implicando a presença cada vez maior dos agentes da economia globalizada e de suas atividades modernas nas grandes metrópoles do país, sobretudo em São Paulo que se destaca no cenário internacional como uma das ditas cidades “globais”. Não obstante, as metrópoles abrigam também uma enorme gama de atividades realizadas pela população pobre. Deste modo, contêm diferentes divisões do trabalho que coexistem e que, por sua vez, podem ser analisadas como circuitos da economia urbana (SANTOS, 1978. A partir da seleção de determinadas áreas da cidade de São Paulo que aparecem como verdadeiros “focos de concentração” do circuito inferior, procuramos compreender como se caracteriza este circuito hoje e, também, como este se relaciona com as variáveis centrais do período atual, entendidas aqui como a técnica, a informação, o consumo, a publicidade e as finanças.

  11. Estudo normativo do sistema compreensivo do Rorschach para a cidade de São Paulo A normative research on the Rorschach comprehensive system in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Sonia Gattas F. do Nascimento

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O método de Rorschach tem se mostrado bastante eficiente como instrumento na área de investigação e diagnóstico da personalidade. O sistema compreensivo de Exner tem garantido ao Rorschach status de instrumento de grande confiabilidade, por sua objetividade e precisão nos resultados. Entretanto, para que isso ocorra, é necessário trabalhar com normas apropriadas para a população. Por isso, realizamos uma pesquisa de normatização a fim de encontrar resultados para melhor utilização do sistema compreensivo em nosso meio. Aplicamos o Rorschach individualmente, em 200 sujeitos não-pacientes, de ambos os sexos, residentes na cidade de São Paulo, com idade variando entre 17 e 65 anos, de todos os graus de escolaridade e níveis socioeconômicos. Os resultados apresentam várias diferenças, quando comparados às normas apresentadas por Exner, mas algumas semelhanças com os estudos apresentados por especialistas de outros países, especialmente, os de origem latina. Estes resultados indicam influências culturais em diversas variáveis do Rorschach.The Rorschach method has proven quite efficient as an instrument for personality investigation and diagnosis. Comprehensive system has guaranteed the Rorschach the status of an instrument of great reliability because of its objectivity and the precision of its results. However, for this to occur, it is necessary to work with appropriate norms for a population. So, we carried out a normalization study in order to find results for the better utilization of the comprehensive system in our milieu. The Rorschach was applied individually in 200 non-patient subjects of both sexes, residents of the City of São Paulo, ages ranging from 17 to 65, of all levels of education and socio-economic classes. The results show differences when compared to Exner’s norms, but similarities to studies presented by specialists in other countries, especially those of a Latin origin. These results indicate the

  12. Vulnerabilidades sociais e juvenil nos mananciais da zona sul da cidade de São Paulo Social vulnerabilities and youth in the water catchment areas of the southern zone of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Borelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um produto parcial da pesquisa "Reflexos da Vulnerabilidade Socioambiental nas Manifestações Musicais dos Jovens Paulistanos da Periferia", identificando como recorte geográfico a periferia da Zona Sul da cidade de São Paulo. Trata-se de uma região que começou a se formar devido à ocupação populacional desordenada em áreas de manancial, onde a vulnerabilidade social é agravada por situações de risco e degradação ambiental, dado o adensamento das áreas de favelas, configurando um processo de exclusão ambiental e urbana. Temporalmente, a pesquisa parte da década de 1980, quando se expande o padrão de extensão da periferia e surgem as manifestações culturais nas periferias dos grandes centros urbanos. Nesta reflexão, a relação entre política e cultura é apresentada através da análise dos mecanismos de sociabilidade que articulam os jovens afrodescendentes das periferias em torno de intervenções culturais coletivas, como formas de criação e reprodução da sua realidade social.This article is a partial product of the study "Reflexes of the Socio-environmental Vulnerability in the Musical Manifestations of Paulista Youth from the Periphery," which focuses on the Southern Zone of the city of São Paulo. This is a region that took shape through the unordered occupation of water catchment areas, where social vulnerability is aggravated by situations of risk and environmental degradation, given the increased density of favela regions, establishing a process of environmental and urban exclusion. The study begins in the 1980s, when the pattern of extension of the periphery expanded and cultural manifestations arose in the peripheries of the large urban centers. In this reflection, the relationship between politics and culture is presented through the analysis of the mechanisms of sociability that articulate Afro-descendent youth from the periphery around collective cultural interventions, as forms of creation

  13. The contribution of financial statements in the granting credit process: a case study of São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roberto da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The granting credit analysis process is important to the development of any country. This research aims to describe the use of financial statement analysis within the context of the financial institutions credit granting process. We propose to identify the relevance of accounting information for credit analysis and how this information influences a final decision. We tried to establish a conclusion of this importance, performing case studies by applying interview with credit professionals from different financial institutions headquartered in São Paulo. The research technique was the semi-structured interview tied to a research protocol. Research reveals that the financial statements represent 70% of the opinion of the credit granting. In addition to the statements the banks are used other tools to grant or not the credit. It follows that the principles of realization of the financial statements must be followed in order to not harm the organizations in any credit application with financial institutions.

  14. Analysis of marine bivalve shellfish from the fish market in Santos city, São Paulo state, Brazil, for Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerini, Patrícia O; Gennari, Solange M; Pena, Hilda F J

    2010-05-28

    The aim of this study was to determine if Toxoplasma gondii are present in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and mussels (Mytella guyanensis) under natural conditions using a bioassay in mice and molecular detection methods. We first compared two standard protocols for DNA extraction, phenol-chloroform (PC) and guanidine-thiocyanate (GT), for both molluscs. A total of 300 oysters and 300 mussels were then acquired from the fish market in Santos city, São Paulo state, Brazil, between March and August of 2008 and divided into 60 groups of 5 oysters and 20 groups of 15 mussels. To isolate the parasite, five mice were orally inoculated with sieved tissue homogenates from each group of oysters or mussels. For molecular detection of T. gondii, DNA from mussels was extracted using the PC method and DNA from oysters was extracted using the GT method. A nested-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) based on the amplification of a 155 bp fragment from the B1 gene of T. gondii was then performed. Eleven PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, CS3 and Apico, were used to genotype positive samples. There was no isolation of the parasite by bioassay in mice. T. gondii was not detected in any of the groups of mussels by nested-PCR. DNA of T. gondii was apparently detected by nested-PCR in 2 groups of oysters (3.3%). Genotyping of these two positive samples was not successful. The results suggest that oysters of the species C. rhizophorae, the most common species from the coast of São Paulo, can filter and retain T. gondii oocysts from the marine environment. Ingestion of raw oysters as a potential transmission source of T. gondii to humans and marine mammals should be further investigated.

  15. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  16. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A.; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1 % (95 % confidence interval 4.7, 7.6 %) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6 % (6.2, 11.1 %) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  17. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  18. Desigualdades no acesso e utilização dos serviços de saúde na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Health care services utilization and access inequalities in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Catarino Pessoto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata achados dos estudos de casos realizados em cinco municípios da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP: São Paulo, Guarulhos, Santo André, Osasco e Franco da Rocha. As desigualdades no acesso aos serviços e sua utilização foram descritas a partir de tabulações avançadas da Pesquisa de Condições de Vida-PCV de 1998 do Seade. Analisamos informações a partir das variáveis posse ou não de planos de saúde, quintil de renda e faixa etária. Os atributos estudados foram: utilização dos serviços, tipo de cobertura do plano, procura pelos serviços e tempo médio de espera no atendimento. A comparação com estudos de outras regiões metropolitanas do Brasil, a partir da PNAD 98 do IBGE, permite afirmar que existem disparidades intra-regionais somente detectadas em estudos de menor escala espacial - os municípios. Apesar da RMSP possuir a maior cobertura de planos de saúde no Brasil, nota-se grande heterogeneidade interna. As desigualdades na posse de planos, no acesso, tempo de espera, tipo de cobertura se manifestam claramente na análise segundo quintil de renda e faixa etária. Conforme os resultados, sugerimos o aumento da capacidade de regulação do Estado, permitindo que os princípios da universalidade e eqüidade se estabeleçam no SUS, efetivando o direito à saúde.This paper presents case study findings in five municipalities in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Inequalities in access to health care services and their utilization were described through advanced tabulation data from the 1998 SEADE Life Conditions Survey. The variables analyzed were: owning or not owning private health care insurance, income and age brackets. The health care service attributes studied were: health care services coverage by a health insurance plan, health services demands and average waiting time to receive health care. Compared with other studies, using the 1998 IBGE PNAD, the results allowed us to confirm

  19. Pesquisa de compra de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes em duas cidades do Estado de São Paulo Alcohol purchase survey by adolescents in two cities of State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Romano

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O consumo de álcool é um problema de saúde pública. A disponibilidade comercial é um importante fator no estímulo ao consumo de álcool por adolescentes. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar com que freqüência menores de 18 anos conseguem comprar bebidas alcoólicas em estabelecimentos comerciais. MÉTODOS: Adolescentes com idades entre 13 e 17 anos tentaram comprar bebidas alcoólicas em uma amostra aleatória de estabelecimentos comerciais em Paulínia (N=108 e Diadema (N=426, no Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado em novembro e dezembro de 2003 em Paulínia e de julho de 2004 a agosto de 2005 em Diadema. Eles foram orientados a não mentir sobre sua idade quando questionados e a dizer que a bebida era para consumo próprio. Os testes estatísticos realizados foram bi-caudais e o nível de significância considerado foi de pOBJECTIVE: Alcohol use is a public health problem. Commercial availability is an important factor that encourages the use of alcohol by young people. The aim of the study was to assess how often young people under 18 could buy alcohol in shops METHODS: Adolescents from 13 to 17 attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages at a random sample of shops in the cities of Paulinia (n=108 and Diadema (n=426, Southeastern Brazil. The study was conducted from November to December 2003 in Paulínia, and July 2004 to August 2005 in Diadema. They were told not to lie about their ages when asked and to say that the beverage was for themselves. Statistical tests performed were two-tailed and the significance level considered was p<0.05. RESULTS: Adolescents, under the minimum legal age, were successful in purchasing alcoholic beverages in the first attempt in 85.2% of the surveyed outlets in Paulinia, and 82.4% in Diadema. The adolescents bought alcoholic beverages just as easy in all shops researched. CONCLUSIONS: The data showed almost unanimous easiness of teenagers to obtain alcoholic beverages, suggesting the

  20. Osteoporotic fractures of proximal femur: clinical and epidemiological features in a population of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Ramalho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It is believed that about 25% of menopausal women in the USA will exhibit some kind of fracture as a consequence of osteoporosis. Fractures of the proximal femur are associated with a greater number of deaths and disabilities and higher medical expenses than all the other osteoporotic fractures together. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with proximal femur fracture in hospitals in São Paulo. DESIGN: Transversal and retrospective study. LOCAL: Hospital São Paulo and Hospital Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato Oliveira". PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged sixty-five years or more hospitalized because of proximal femur fracture, from March to November 1996 (N = 73. This group was compared to patients of the same age without fracture of the proximal femur. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of weight, height, body mass index; lifestyle habits (physical activity at home, ingestion of dairy calcium, drinking of coffee, smoking habit, gynecological history (ages at menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies and lactations, previous morbidity, use of medications, history of previous fractures, family history of osteoporosis. MEASUREMENT: The comparison of the different data regarding lifestyle habits between the two groups was made using the chi-squared test. Other data were analyzed using the Mann -- Whitney test. P £ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We noted a predominance of proximal femur fracture among females in relation to males (a female/male ratio of 3.3:1 with a progressive increase in the frequency of proximal femur fracture with age in both sexes. The group with proximal femur fracture, in comparison with the control group, showed a lower body mass index, less physical activity, and a greater number of pregnancies and lactations. Other data were not different. CONCLUSION: In accordance with the literature, we found a predomination of proximal femur fracture in women in relation to men

  1. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  2. Contribuição ao estudo da organização agroindustrial: o caso da indústria de frango de corte no Estado de São Paulo Contribution to the study of agroindustrial organization: the case of chicken meat industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Marques

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se indicadores de concentração no mercado de abate de frango de corte inspecionado no Estado de São Paulo desde 1978 até 1989. Os índices de concentração de Hirschman-Herfíndahl (H e os índices de concentração de Gini (G mostraram tendência estatística de se elevarem com o passar do tempo. O índice de concentração dos quatro maiores frigoríficos (C4 não apresentou tendência estatística para se elevar, enquanto que o índice de concentração das oito e das dezesseis maiores empresas (C8 e C16, respectivamente mostraram tendência para se elevar a partir de 1980. Concluiu-se que a concentração do mercado de abate e processamento de frangos manteve-se mais ou menos estável com leve tendência a aumentar dos oito menores frigoríficos para baixo. Para todo o período analisado, o preço relativo no varejo e os ganhos do produtor diminuíram.Indexes of market concentration were calculated using data from inspected slaughterhouses in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1978 to 1989. The Hirschman-Herfíndahl (H and the Gini (G indexes showed statistical tendency to increase. The four firms concentration index of the four greatest slaughterhouses (C4 showed no statistical tendency to increase while the concentration indexes of the eight greatest (C8 and of the sixteen greatest (C16 showed statistical tendency to increase from 1980 on. It can be concluded that the market concentration among the chicken slaughterhouses was more or less stable with small tendency to increase from the eigth smallest slaughterhouses below. For the analyzed time period, the retail's relative price and the producer's gain decreased.

  3. Megabacteriosis Occurrence in Budgerigars, Canaries and Lovebirds in Ribeirao Preto region - Sao Paulo State - Brazil Ocorrência de Megabacteriose em Periquitos Autralianos, Canários e Agapornis na Região de Ribeirão Preto- Estado de São Paulo - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Werther

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of an megabacterium-like organism at small birds from the Northeast area of São Paulo State - Brazil. The results presented herein were obtained from 64 necropsy along four years (1994-1997. Sixty four birds (4 budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, 12 lovebirds Agapornis spp and 48 canaries Serinus canaria were studied. At 56% of the examined birds showed at the proventricular mucus smear a presence of rod-shaped (similar to a toothpick organisms, Gram positive and acidophilic in Giemsa staining, called megabacteria. Different kind of culture media was testes to replicated these organism in vitro. Also the dimension (large and width of the fresh microorganism from the proventricular mucus and from the first culture was compared. The macroscopic alterations observed at the necropsies was also listed.Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de um agente etiológico, denominado na Europa, Australia e EUA como "megabactéria", observado em estômago de pequenas aves (canários belgas, agapornis e periquitos australianos, provenientes da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo/SP. As necropsias de 64 aves silvestres (4 periquitos australianos, 12 agapornis e 48 canários, realizadas no perído de 1994 a 1997, foram analisadas, constatando-se em 56% dos casos a presença de estruturas filiformes, acidofílicas sob coloração Giemsa, gram positivas, existentes no muco do proventrículo, descritas na literatura como "megabactérias". Foram testados diversos tipos de meios de cultura para reprodução in vitro deste microrganismo. Foram ainda comparadas as dimensões (comprimento e largura dessa bactéria obtida apartir do esfregaço fresco de muco proventricular e da "megabactéria" proveniente de cultivo in vitro. Também foram listados os principais achados macroscópicos do animais portadores desta bactéria.

  4. A rede de serviços de atenção à saúde do idoso na cidade de Barcelona (Espanha e na cidade de São Paulo (Brasil The net of services aiming the aged's health in Barcelona (Spain and São Paulo (Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro da Silva Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo quantitativo com o objetivo de descrever e analisar o tipo de organiZação e estruturação da rede de serviços públicos de saúde voltados ao idoso nas cidades de São Paulo (Brasil e Barcelona (Espanha. O envelhecimento em Barcelona é mais antigo, e sua rede de serviços está em uma dinâmica muito mais biologicista. Já em São Paulo, observa-se uma melhor estruturação na atenção primária à saúde, mas ao mesmo tempo reduzida oferta de serviços voltados ao idoso. Os resultados apontam a possibilidade de troca de experiências sociossanitárias, apesar das distintas realidades.This is a quantitative study to describe and to analyse the type of organization and structure of the net of public health services aiming the aged in the cities of São Paulo (Brazil and Barcelona (Spain. The aging in Barcelona is an older phenomenon than it is in São Paulo, and the net of services in that Spanish city has a much more biology-related dynamics. On the other hand, São Paulo has a better structure as to the primary attention to health, but at the same time its availability of services for the aged is reduced. The results point to the possibility of exchange of sanitary experiences through partnership, in spite of the distinct realities.

  5. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    around the outpatients clinic, as well as the establishment of a fitness room in the basic unit of health; and Sorocaba, a city of 600,000 inhabitants, that after 4 years of the program of building walk and bike pathways, and parks, found a decrease in hospitalization of 50% by stroke, and 57% of diabetes type 2. A recent paper has shown that sedendarism has declined relatively about 70% from 2002 to 2008 in the State of Sao Paulo, and World Bank has reported that Agita represents a saving of 310 million US dollars per year in the health sector of Sao Paulo. All this scenario strongly suggests that the social issue in the developing countries facilitates the success of strategic partnerships.

  6. Epidemiological analysis of mandibular fractures treated in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Marinho

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of mandibular fractures should be aimed at restoring the occlusion and mastication function, with surgery being the most indicated treatment, using reduction and internal fixation with the use of a plates and screws system based on the experience of the authors. Knowledge of surgical techniques and methods of reduction and fixation of fractures, and periodic monitoring allow these patients to receive the appropriate treatment.

  7. Atenção pré-natal por enfermeiros na Zona Leste da cidade de São Paulo - Brasil Atención prenatal por enfermeros en la zona este de la ciudad de São Paulo - Brasil Prenatal care by nurses in the East Zone of the city of São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Zanon Narchi

    2010-06-01

    dirección.The objective of this study was to analyze the exercise of competences in prenatal care performed by nurses in the East Zone of the city of São Paulo through the identification of the activities performed by them and their frequency as well as possible difficulties found. This quantitative, descriptive-exploratory study was carried out in 59 health centers, from October 2006 to December 2007, with a sample of 131 nurses. The results showed that nurses did not perform essential competences necessary to obtain a qualified prenatal care due to personal and institutional barriers found in their job. It was concluded that there is a need to review the policies of public health structures in São Paulo to guarantee the implementation of the Unique Health System guidelines regarding the improvement of prenatal care and to provide human and financial resources to reach this purpose.

  8. Prevalência de asma e fatores de risco em escolares da cidade de São Paulo Asthma prevalence and risk factors in schoolchildren of the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane R D Casagrande

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de asma e possíveis fatores de risco associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, integrante do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Participaram 561 escolares de seis a sete anos de idade, provenientes de 35 escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo, escolhidas por sorteio, em 2002. A amostra incluiu 168 asmáticos e 393 não asmáticos, que responderam questionário constituído por 33 questões referentes a dados pessoais, familiares e ambientais. A associação entre asma e fatores de risco foi avaliada pela análise de regressão logística, considerando-se nível de significância estatística de 5%. RESULTADOS: Entre os escolares, 31,2% referiam sibilos nos 12 meses anteriores à entrevista. Os fatores de risco significativamente associados à asma foram: sexo masculino (OR=2,4;IC 95%: 1,4;4,2, mãe fumante no primeiro ano de vida (OR=2,0; IC 95%: 1,1;3,8, presença de eczema em locais característicos (OR=3,0; IC 95%:1,2; 7,6 e rinoconjuntivite (OR=2,4;IC 95%: 1,2; 4,8. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de asma na região estudada foi elevada e os fatores de risco relacionados foram: sexo masculino, sintomas de rinoconjuntivite no último ano, mãe fumante no primeiro ano de vida e presença de eczema em locais característicos.OBJECTIVE: To assess asthma prevalence and potential risk factors associated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A total of 561 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 35 public schools in the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil were drawn to participate in the study, in 2002. The sample consisted of 168 asthmatic and 393 non-asthmatic children who answered a questionnaire comprising 33 questions on personal, family and environmental information. The association between asthma and the risk factors studied was assessed by logistic regression analysis at a 5% statistical significance. RESULTS: Among the

  9. Exposure to violence in incarcerated youth from the city of São Paulo Exposição à violência entre jovens da cidade de São Paulo em privação de liberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Huculak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of exposure to community violence among delinquent Brazilian youth in the 12-month period prior to their incarceration and to identify factors associated with this exposure. METHOD: With an oversampling of girls, a cross-section of youth under 18 years of age from juvenile detention units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil completed a structured interview. Key items related to exposure to violence (witnessed and experienced were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment questionnaire to cover the 12-month period prior to incarceration. RESULTS: Participants (n = 325, 89% boys reported high rates of exposure to violence with largely similar levels for boys and girls. Being threatened with physical harm, being beaten or mugged and/ or shot at were the most common forms of violence experienced. After controlling for demographic and family variables, the fact of having peers involved in risk behavior, easy access to guns and previous involvement with the justice system were associated with witnessed violence; whereas having slept on the street was the only variable associated with experienced violence. CONCLUSION: This group of youth was exposed to high levels of violence and other adverse experiences. Future research should examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at reducing the exposure to violence of high-risk youth.OBJETIVO: Esse estudo procurou determinar a extensão da exposição à violência na comunidade entre jovens brasileiros delinquentes nos 12 meses que antecederam sua privação de liberdade e identificar fatores associados a essa exposição. MÉTODO: Um corte transversal de menores de 18 anos internados em unidades da Fundação Casa/ex-FEBEM na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil (com meninas superamostradas participou de entrevista estruturada. Itens-chave sobre exposição à violência (testemunhada e vivenciada foram retirados do questionário Social and Health Assessment

  10. Risk-factors for antepartum fetal deaths in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Fatores de risco para mortes fetais anteparto no Município de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for antepartum fetal deaths. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out in the city of São Paulo from August 2000 to January 2001. Subjects were selected from a birth cohort from a linked birth and death certificate database. Cases were 164 antepartum fetal deaths and controls were drawn from a random sample of 313 births surviving at least 28 days. Information was collected from birth and death certificates, hospital records and home interviews. A hierarchical conceptual framework guided the logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Statistically significant factors associated with antepartum fetal death were: mother without or recent marital union; mother's education under four years; mothers with previous low birth weight infant; mothers with hypertension, diabetes, bleeding during pregnancy; no or inadequate prenatal care; congenital malformation and intrauterine growth restriction. The highest population attributable fractions were for inadequacy of prenatal care (40%, hypertension (27%, intrauterine growth restriction (30% and absence of a long-standing union (26%. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal biological risk factors are most important in antepartum fetal deaths. However, distal factors - mother's low education and marital status - are also significant. Improving access to and quality of prenatal care could have a large impact on fetal mortality.OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco para óbitos fetais anteparto. METODOS: Estudo de caso-controle de base populacional realizado no Município de São Paulo, SP, de agosto de 2000 a janeiro de 2001. Os indivíduos foram selecionados a partir de uma coorte de nascimentos, obtida por meio de vinculação de declarações de nascimento e óbito. Os casos foram 164 óbitos fetais anteparto e os controles, uma amostra aleatória de 313 de sobreviventes até 28 dias. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares com as mães e aplicado protocolo hospitalar

  11. Hábitos e práticas alimentares em três localidades da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil Eating habits and practices in three localities within the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pedroso de Oliveira

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal o estudo do consumo alimentar em três localidades na cidade de São Paulo. Um inquérito alimentar foi realizado, nos meses de julho e agosto de 1993, junto a trinta e duas mulheres, apresentando características socioeconômicas distintas: 11 na Favela de São Remo (baixa renda, 11 na Vila Madalena (renda média e 10 no Parque Continental (renda alta. Utilizou-se o método recordatório de 24 horas e o de freqüência alimentar, além de questões abertas sobre hábitos, práticas e estratégias alimentares. Observou-se semelhanças entre os grupos estudados, como por exemplo, o aumento do consumo de alimentos industrializados, o supermercado como principal local de compra de alimentos, a importância dada à carne, às frutas e aos legumes, a preferência por alimentos frescos em relação aos industrializados, as substituições ligadas à evolução dos preços dos alimentos e/ou preocupações com a saúde. Por outro lado, prevaleceu a diferenciação do consumo em função das condições socioeconômicas das famílias, verificada pela maior diversificação alimentar com a elevação da renda, com diferenças significativas (pThe principal objective of this study was an assessment of food consumption in three localities within the city of São Paulo. A food inquiry was undertaken in the months of July and August, 1993, involving thirty-two women who presented distinct socio-economic characteristics: eleven from São Remo shanty-town (low income, eleven from Vila Madalena (medium income and ten from Parque Continental (high income.The 24-hour recall and the eating frequency methods were used, as well as open questions about eating habits, practices and strategies. Similarities were observed among the groups studied: for example, the increase in the consumption of industrialized food-stuffs, the supermarket as the principal shopping place, the importance given to meat, fruits and vegetables in the

  12. [Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Lenise; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Médici; Venâncio, Sonia Isoyama; de Azevedo Aguiar, Jeanice; Stefanini, Maria Lúcia Rosa

    2007-08-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3.54; CI: 2.16-5.80), high consumption of junk food (PR = 2.12; CI: 1.30-3.45), more than 4 hours a day watching TV (PR = 2.08; CI: 1.03-4.20), and daily household per capita availability of vegetal oil (around 3 tablespoons) (PR = 1.52; CI: 1.01-2.31). The family environment has a strong influence on overweight in children entering first grade in public schools. Prevention of childhood overweight should preferably target the parents and other caregivers.

  13. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  14. Controller: a view about the textile industry of the Brás region in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Augusto Orsi Araujo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive environment with internal and external competition, the Brazilian textile sector faces difficulties to maintain its activities and has the growth prospects affected. This scenario is strengthened when evaluating the small and medium enterprises. In this way, the company that has some concern with the structure of its management, through concepts presented by the comptroller, achieves some prominence in the industry and remain competitive. Thus, the present study sought to identify the perceptions of industry managers about the Controllership and verify if this area is part of the business, albeit informally, in the companies surveyed. There were 41 managers interviewed from clothing companies established in the Brás region, in São Paulo city. The questionnaire was closed and the responses were collected manually, on-site, from April 28 to May 6, 2014. The main findings of the study shows that there is awareness about the importance of Controllership in the organization, the companies use some type of control, even though by paper or spreadsheets, but there is concern in develop and implement software to improve the management. 

  15. Establishment of the serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esper Georges Kallas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Several strategies aim at characterizing the AIDS epidemic in different parts of the world. Among these, the identification of recent HIV-1 infections using the recently described serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy was employed in four testing sites of the City of São Paulo Public Health Department (CSPPHD. Those identified as recently infected were invited to participate in a prospective clinical and laboratory evaluation study. We describe the establishment of the patient identification network and the success in enrolling the participants, as well as their clinical and laboratory characteristics. From May to December 2002, 6,443 persons were tested for HIV in the four participating sites, of whom 384 (5.96% tested HIV-1 positive; 43 (11.2% of them were identified as recently infected. Twenty-two were successfully enrolled in the follow-up study, but three of them did not meet clinical and/or laboratory criteria for recent HIV-1 infection. After these exclusions, the laboratory findings revealed a median CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 585 cells/muL (inter-quartile range 25-75% [IQR], 372-754, a CD8+ T lymphocyte count of 886 cells/muL (IQR, 553-1098, a viral load of 11,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (IQR, 3,650-78,150, log10 of 4.04 (IQR 3.56-4.88. The identification of recent HIV infections is an extremely valuable way to evaluate the spread of the virus in a given population, especially when cohort studies, considered the gold standard method to evaluate incidence, are not available. This work demonstrated that establishing a network to identify such patients is a feasible task, even considering the difficulties in a large, resource-limited country or city.

  16. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Apolinário, Juliana de Carvalho; Coelho, Natalia Marinho Dourado; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33) dogs and 94.2% (49/52) cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33) and 30.3% (10/33) of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52) were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52) by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52) by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42); squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23) positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19). No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05). Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  17. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33 dogs and 94.2% (49/52 cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33 and 30.3% (10/33 of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52 were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52 by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52 by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42; squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23 positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19. No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05. Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  18. Hipertensão arterial na cidade de São Paulo: prevalência referida por contato telefônico Hipertensión arterial en la ciudad de São Paulo: prevalencia referida por contacto telefónico Hypertension in the city of São Paulo: self-reported prevalence assessed by telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Mion Jr

    2010-07-01

    ,8% presentan historia de accidente cerebro vascular, 27,8% cardiopatía y 38,7% hipercolesterolemia; 71,2% recibieron orientación de disminuir la sal, 64,6% de realizar actividad física, 60,0% para perder peso y 26,2% de controlar el stress; y 78,9% medían la presión regularmente. Hubo relación estadísticamente significativa (p BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of hypertension in São Paulo, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: There were 613 telephone interviews using directories of household landlines. The sample was calculated with an estimated prevalence of hypertension in 20.0%. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 23.0% and 9.0% of respondents reported that the value of their last pressure measurement was greater than 140/90 mmHg, but they were unaware that they were hypertensive, with a total prevalence 32.0%. Hypertensive patients reported that: 89.0% were under treatment and 35.2% were controlled; 27.0% miss medical appointments; 16.2% stop taking drugs; 14.8% have a history of stroke; 27.8% had heart disease and 38.7% had hypercholesterolemia; 71.2% received advice to reduce salt, 64.6% to perform physical activity, 60.0% to lose weight loss and 26.2% to control stress; and 78.9% measured pressure regularly. There was a statistically significant relation (p < 0.05 for: 1 missing medical appointments with longer treatment and irregular health monitoring; 2 stop taking the drugs with smoking, alcohol and failure to monitore health; 3 carry out treatment for hypertension with dyslipidemia, higher age and longer use of contraceptives for women; and 4 body mass index changed with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, uncontrolled systolic blood pressure and use of more than one anti-hypertension drug. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension in the city of São Paulo resembles the prevalence found in other studies.

  19. Demanda referida e auxílio recebido por idosos com declínio cognitivo no município de São Paulo Demands reported and help received among elderly people with cognitive decline at Sao Paulo municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Freitas Duarte Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil vem acompanhado pelo aumento das doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, dentre elas as demências, que produzem grande impacto entre os indivíduos acometidos e seus familiares. Este estudo é parte do Estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. A amostra foi composta pelos idosos que obtiveram 12 ou menos pontos no MEEM (Mini Exame do Estado Mental e 6 ou mais no Questionário de Pfeffer para Atividades Funcionais (QPAF. A combinação desses instrumentos indica maior especificidade para a medida de declínio cognitivo mais grave, sugerindo a presença de demência ou outros transtornos associados. Os objetivos deste estudo são apresentar os resultados do SABE no que se refere ao desempenho de atividades de vida diária e aos arranjos domiciliares dos idosos com declínio cognitivo no Município de São Paulo e verificar de que forma esses arranjos contribuem para suprir as demandas assistenciais desses idosos com dependência. A limitação funcional ocorre principalmente em relação às atividades instrumentais de vida diária (AIVD. A maioria reside em arranjos domiciliares com presença de filhos, mas há uma parcela considerável que mora só. A ajuda oferecida pela maioria dos arranjos domiciliares chega muitas vezes a 100% em AIVD, porém nas atividades básicas de vida diária (ABVD só entre os casais esse índice é alcançado mostrando que a demanda assistencial tem sido atendida em sua maioria, permitindo a análise de que no idoso com declínio cognitivo, a evidência mais acentuada da limitação apresentada é um fator que desencadeia maior oferta de ajuda.The aging of the Brazilian population is concomitant along with increases in chronic non-transmittable diseases. Among these diseases are dementias, which have a great impact on individuals affected by cognitive decline and their families. This study forms part of the "SABE Study" (Health, Wellbeing

  20. Consumo de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar entre adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo Consumption of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages among adolescents from public schools in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bueno do Carmo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as práticas alimentares de adolescentes quanto à ingestão energética, distribuição de macronutrientes na dieta e porções consumidas de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar. METODOLOGIA: Foi avaliada uma amostra de adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por um Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar. Para a comparação do consumo com a recomendação de ingestão de energia e de macronutrientes, utilizaram-se as Dietary Reference Intakes. A análise do consumo de doces baseou-se nas recomendações do guia alimentar norte-americano. Dados de consumo de refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar foram avaliados em comparação com outros estudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 390 adolescentes. Apenas 6,2% destes apresentaram consumo energético em conformidade com o intervalo preconizado e 83,8% revelaram ingestão energética acima dos valores propostos. Expressiva parcela apresentou consumo de carboidratos e proteínas de acordo com o recomendado, mas foi verificado consumo alto de lipídios em 36,7% da amostra. Comprovou-se um consumo médio de 3,8 porções diárias de doces, sendo que 78,2% dos entrevistados ultrapassaram a recomendação máxima. O consumo médio diário alcançou aproximadamente 230ml e 550ml de refrigerante e bebidas com adição de açúcar, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Devido à alarmante inadequação das práticas alimentares observadas entre os adolescentes, devem ser adotadas estratégias educativas que enfatizem a redução do consumo de açúcares e os benefícios da adoção de uma dieta equilibrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary patterns of adolescents in relation to energy intake, distribution of macronutrients in diet and consumption of portions of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages. METHODOLOGY: A sample of adolescents enrolled in public schools in Piracicaba

  1. Use of passive diffusion sampling method for defining NO2 concentrations gradient in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliefste Kees

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in São Paulo is constantly being measured by the State of Sao Paulo Environmental Agency, however there is no information on the variation between places with different traffic densities. This study was intended to identify a gradient of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within different areas in São Paulo to provide information for future epidemiological studies. Methods We measured NO2 using Palmes' diffusion tubes in 36 sites on streets chosen to be representative of different road types and traffic densities in São Paulo in two one-week periods (July and August 2000. In each study period, two tubes were installed in each site, and two additional tubes were installed in 10 control sites. Results Average NO2 concentrations were related to traffic density, observed on the spot, to number of vehicles counted, and to traffic density strata defined by the city Traffic Engineering Company (CET. Average NO2concentrations were 63μg/m3 and 49μg/m3 in the first and second periods, respectively. Dividing the sites by the observed traffic density, we found: heavy traffic (n = 17: 64μg/m3 (95% CI: 59μg/m3 – 68μg/m3; local traffic (n = 16: 48μg/m3 (95% CI: 44μg/m3 – 52μg/m3 (p Conclusion The differences in NO2 levels between heavy and local traffic sites are large enough to suggest the use of a more refined classification of exposure in epidemiological studies in the city. Number of vehicles counted, traffic density observed on the spot and traffic density strata defined by the CET might be used as a proxy for traffic exposure in São Paulo when more accurate measurements are not available.

  2. Centro Cultural Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Eurico Pra do Lopes, Luiz Benedito Castro Telles Arquitectos, 1982

    OpenAIRE

    Serapiao,Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A 30 años de su inauguración, la relación entre edificio, paisaje y ciudad que plantea la arquitectura del ccsp sigue poniendo en crisis la idea moderna de objeto arquitectónico, con una propuesta que opta, prácticamente, por su desaparición.

  3. Prevalência do beber e dirigir em Diadema, estado de São Paulo Prevalence of drinking and driving in a city of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Duailibi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas decorrentes do consumo de álcool em motoristas têm sido amplamente estudados no mundo e indicam elevadas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade relacionadas à bebida e direção. Existem poucos estudos nacionais a respeito. Assim, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de estimar a prevalência do uso de álcool por motoristas conduzindo veículos e testar a aceitabilidade dos bafômetros ativos e passivos. Foram avaliados 908 motoristas nas principais vias de trânsito de Diadema, estado de São Paulo, de fevereiro de 2005 a março de 2006. A metodologia adotada foi do tipo pontos de fiscalização de sobriedade. Em 23,7% dos motoristas foi encontrado algum traço de álcool no ar expirado; 19,4% estavam com níveis de álcool iguais ou acima dos limites permitidos pela legislação. O bafômetro passivo mostrou-se confiável e com resultados comparáveis aos do ativo. Esses achados foram seis vezes superiores aos encontrados internacionalmente, sugerindo a relevância desse problema. São necessárias políticas específicas para combater esse problema, além de outras pesquisas em âmbito nacional.Problems due to alcohol use among drivers have been assessed worldwide and studies indicate high morbidity and mortality rates related to drinking and driving. There are few national studies about this subject. Thus, this study was conducted aiming at estimating the prevalence of drinking and driving and testing the acceptability of passive and active breathalyzers. A total of 908 drivers were tested in the main streets of a city in the state of São Paulo, from February 2005 to March 2006. The methodology adopted was sobriety checkpoints. In 23.7% of the drivers some level of alcohol was found in the exhaled air; in 19.4% alcohol level was equal to or higher than the legal limit. The passive breathalyzer was reliable and presented results comparable to the active one. These findings were six times higher than those found in similar surveys

  4. A study of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in risk groups in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Andréa Gobetti Vieira; Zamarioli, Liliana Aparecida; Telles, Maria Alice; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring the extent of and trends in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a priority of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The current study aimed to estimate the incidence of MDR-TB, describe the profile of TB drug resistance in risk groups and examine whether screening for MDR-TB adhered to the recommended guidelines. A descriptive study that examined diagn